WorldWideScience

Sample records for babouin irradie globalement

  1. Food irradiation: a global scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the foods that will be consumed in the 21st century have not yet been invented. New methods of production need new methods of conservation. Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beam is a new technology. The intensive production methods of today lead to several potential dangers. For example - if just one chicken is diseased this bird can contaminate all of one days' production at the slaughter house - on average 300,000 birds per day. One has to have conservation methods that can decontaminate the poultry meat. Irradiation is a method that achieves this. The consumer is becoming more and more sophisticated and demanding with regard to the quality of food products, rejecting chemical additives for example, irradiation is a physical method of conservation, this means that there is no residue left in the product, and that there are no changes in the physical characteristics of the food. This paper examines the use of irradiation technology as a food conservation method in today's industry. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Downscaling of global solar irradiation in R

    CERN Document Server

    Antonanzas-Torres, F; Antonanzas, J; Perpiñán, O

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for downscaling solar irradiation from satellite-derived databases is described using R software. Different packages such as raster, parallel, solaR, gstat, sp and rasterVis are considered in this study for improving solar resource estimation in areas with complex topography, in which downscaling is a very useful tool for reducing inherent deviations in satellite-derived irradiation databases, which lack of high global spatial resolution. A topographical analysis of horizon blocking and sky-view is developed with a digital elevation model to determine what fraction of hourly solar irradiation reaches the Earth's surface. Eventually, kriging with external drift is applied for a better estimation of solar irradiation throughout the region analyzed. This methodology has been implemented as an example within the region of La Rioja in northern Spain, and the mean absolute error found is a striking 25.5% lower than with the original database.

  3. Global irradiance calibration of multifilter UV radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedehierro, A. A.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; Antón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the amount of ultraviolet solar radiation (UV) reaching the Earth's surface is governed by stratospheric ozone, which has exhibited notable variations since the late 1970s. A thorough monitoring of UV radiation requires long-term series of accurate measurements worldwide, and to keep track of its evolution, it is essential to use high-quality instrumentation with an excellent long-term performance capable of detecting low UV signal. There are several UV monitoring networks worldwide based on multifilter UV radiometers; however, there is no general agreement about the most suitable methodology for the global irradiance calibration of these instruments. This paper aims to compare several calibration methods and to analyze their behavior for different ranges of solar zenith angle (SZA). Four methods are studied: the two currently most frequently used methods referred to in the literature and two new methods that reduce systematic errors in calibrated data at large solar zenith angles. The results evidence that proposed new methods show a clear improvement compared to the classic approaches at high SZA, especially for channels 305 and 320 nm. These two channels are of great interest for calculating the total ozone column and other products such as dose rates of biological interest in the UV range (e.g., the erythemal dose).

  4. Food irradiation; Global aspects and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akira (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Institute)

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs.

  5. Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

  6. Interannual variability and global irradiance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ineichen, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Ten to fourteen years ouf ground data acquired at 19 different sites are used to analyze the interannual variability of the solar irradiance and to compare it to average and/or interpolated data, software generated typical years and satellite derived data.

  7. Comparison of Methodologies to Estimate Direct Normal Irradiation From Daily Values of Global Horizontal Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sara, Moreno; Manuel, Silva; Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos M.; Pagola, Íñigo

    2009-01-01

    Daily global horizontal and direct normal irradiation (DNI) measured from the database of the Group of Thermodynamics and Renewable Energies (GTER) of the Seville Engineering School are used to compare three different methodologies to obtain daily DNI values from daily global horizontal irradiation measurements. Methodologies are based on combinations of models to generate hourly radiation series as the one developed by Collares Pereira and Rabl [4] or the Time-dependent Autoregressive Gaussi...

  8. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  9. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  10. Regression Model to Predict Global Solar Irradiance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairuniza Ahmed Kutty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel regression model is developed to estimate the monthly global solar irradiance in Malaysia. The model is developed based on different available meteorological parameters, including temperature, cloud cover, rain precipitate, relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, and gust speed, by implementing regression analysis. This paper reports on the details of the analysis of the effect of each prediction parameter to identify the parameters that are relevant to estimating global solar irradiance. In addition, the proposed model is compared in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE, mean bias error (MBE, and the coefficient of determination (R2 with other models available from literature studies. Seven models based on single parameters (PM1 to PM7 and five multiple-parameter models (PM7 to PM12 are proposed. The new models perform well, with RMSE ranging from 0.429% to 1.774%, R2 ranging from 0.942 to 0.992, and MBE ranging from −0.1571% to 0.6025%. In general, cloud cover significantly affects the estimation of global solar irradiance. However, cloud cover in Malaysia lacks sufficient influence when included into multiple-parameter models although it performs fairly well in single-parameter prediction models.

  11. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  12. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization; Aliments irradies: Atome, malbouffe et mondialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Genevieve; Berlan, Jean-Pierre; Desbordes, Roland; Dufour, Francois; Fievet, Yann; Folliard, Thierry; Gallais, Veronique; Hauter, Wenonah; Jacquiau, Christian; Kastler, Guy; Lannoye, Paul; Le Goff, Lylian; Le Rohellec, Catherine; Louchard, Olivier; Marechal, Gilles; Nicolas, Yveline; Remesy, Christian; Trouve, Aurelie; Veillerette, Francois

    2008-07-01

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  13. Intercomparison of 51 radiometers for determining global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Accurate solar radiation measurements require properly installed and maintained radiometers with calibrations traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. This study analyzes the performance of 51 commercially available and prototype radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances or direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with an internal shading mask deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012), and their measurements were compared under clear-sky, partly cloudy, and mostly cloudy conditions to reference values of low estimated measurement uncertainties. The intent of this paper is to present a general overview of each radiometer's performance based on the instrumentation and environmental conditions available at NREL.

  14. Techniques for the estimation of global irradiation from sunshine duration and global irradiation estimation for Italian locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angstrom equation H=H0(a+bS/S0) has been fitted using the least-square method to the global irradiation and the sunshine duration data of 31 Italian locations for the duration 1965-1974. Three more linear equations: i) the equation H'=H0(a+bS/S0), obtained by incorporating the effect of the multiple reflections between the earth's surface and the atmosphere, ii) the equation H=H0(a+bS/S'0), obtained by incorporating the effect of not burning of the sunshine recorder chart when the elevation of the sun is less than 5 deg., and iii) the equation H'=H0(a+bS/S'0), obtained by incorporating both the above effects simultaneously, have also each been fitted to the same data. Good correlation with correlation coefficients around 0.9 or more are obtained for most of the locations with all the four equations. Substantial spatial scatter is obtained in the values of the regression parameters. The use of any of the three latter equations does not result in any advantage over that of the simpler Angstrom equation; it neither results in a decrease in the spatial scatter in the values of the regression parameters nor does it yield better correlation. The computed values of the regression parameters in the Angstrom equation yield estimates of the global irradiation that are on the average within +- 4% of the measured values for most of the locations. (author)

  15. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  16. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada/UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including ''mean solar altitude anti {alpha}'' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain). (author)

  17. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including 'mean solar altitude α-bar' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain)

  18. Dependence of global temperatures on atmospheric CO2 and solar irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Thomson

    1997-01-01

    Changes in global average temperatures and of the seasonal cycle are strongly coupled to the concentration of atmospheric CO2. I estimate transfer functions from changes in atmospheric CO2 and from changes in solar irradiance to hemispheric temperatures that have been corrected for the effects of precession. They show that changes from CO2 over the last century are about three times larger than those from changes in solar irradiance. The increase in global average ...

  19. Global solar irradiation in function of the insolation reason; Irradiacao solar global em funcao da razao de insolacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    The present work shows the reason (K{sub t}=R{sub G}/R{sub o}) of global solar irradiation for the irradiation in the top of the atmosphere in the horizontal incidence in function of the insolation reason (n/N), objectifying itself to find an equation esteem the daily global solar irradiation in the region of Cascavel/PR. The experimental data had been gotten in Station Agrometeorological of the IAPAR (Agronomic Institute of the Parana) mounted in the Coodetec/Cascavel-PR (Latitude 24,89 deg S, Longitude 53,40 deg O and altitude of 682m). The component of global the solar irradiation was monitored by an actinograph and the hour of solar brightness (n) through a heliograph (R. FUESS Berlin-stegutz) in a period of 17 years, of which four had been used in the validation of the model. The distribution of the daily values (K{sub t} x n/N), related through simple linear regression, supplied an equation of R{sub G}/R{sub o}=0,16+0,40n/N estimate with raised determination coefficient (R{sup 2} = 88.89%), in the validation of the model got a -9,76% shunting line varying 11,44% with average error in the 0,84% order, these statistical values shows that global the solar irradiation, in the region of Rattlesnake, can be esteem with good precision. (author)

  20. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  1. Comparison Between Measurements and WRF Numerical Simulation of Global Solar Irradiation in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvoranu, Dragos; Badescu, Viorel

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative analysis between the surface global irradiation measured for Romania and the predicted irradiation obtained by numerical simulation. The measured data came from the Romanian National meteorological Administration. Based on a preliminary analysis that took into account several criteria among which, performance, cost, popularity and meteorological and satellite data accessibility we concluded that a combination GFS-WRF(NMM) or GFS-WRF(ARW) is most suitable for short term global solar irradiation forecasting in order to assess the performance of the photovoltaic power stations (Badescu and Dumitrescu, 2012, [1], Martin et al., 2011, [2]).

  2. Improved Synthesis of Global Irradiance with One-Minute Resolution for PV System Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution global irradiance time series are needed for accurate simulations of photovoltaic (PV systems, since the typical volatile PV power output induced by fast irradiance changes cannot be simulated properly with commonly available hourly averages of global irradiance. We present a two-step algorithm that is capable of synthesizing one-minute global irradiance time series based on hourly averaged datasets. The algorithm is initialized by deriving characteristic transition probability matrices (TPM for different weather conditions (cloudless, broken clouds and overcast from a large number of high resolution measurements. Once initialized, the algorithm is location-independent and capable of synthesizing one-minute values based on hourly averaged global irradiance of any desired location. The one-minute time series are derived by discrete-time Markov chains based on a TPM that matches the weather condition of the input dataset. One-minute time series generated with the presented algorithm are compared with measured high resolution data and show a better agreement compared to two existing synthesizing algorithms in terms of temporal variability and characteristic frequency distributions of global irradiance and clearness index values. A comparison based on measurements performed in Lindenberg, Germany, and Carpentras, France, shows a reduction of the frequency distribution root mean square errors of more than 60% compared to the two existing synthesizing algorithms.

  3. Global irradiance: typical year and year to year annual variability

    OpenAIRE

    Ineichen, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Models converting satellite images into the different radiation components become increasingly performing and give often better estimation of the solar irradiation availability than ground measurements if the station is not situated in the near vicinity of the application. Two different kinds of models are used to circumvent the lack of ground measurements: «average» models based on 10 to 20 years of ground measurements and interpolation between stations, and satellite based models that give ...

  4. Comparison and fitting of several Global-to_beam irradiance models in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pagola, Íñigo; Gastón, Martín; Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos M.; Torres, Jose Luis; Silva, Manuel; Ramírez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of different global to beam irradiance models has been performed. In a first step, five global-to-beam irradiance models are compared against ground measurements from three sites in Spain. Four of these existing models have also been fitted in the selected sites, and the results are presented as well. Finally, one new model (fully described in paper 11693) is also compared with the same ground measurements. The model comparison has been made by means of first and s...

  5. Comparison of techniques for the estimation of daily global irradiation and a new technique for the estimation of hourly global irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global irradiation and sunshine duration data recorded at Trieste (CNR, Istituto Talassografico di Trieste) during the 11 year period 1972-1982 are analyzed using the classical Angstrom equation H=H0(a+bS/S0) and the equation H'=H0(a+bS/S0') for incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart for small elevation of the sun. The values of the regression constants and the correlation coefficients are calculated using each yearly data set separately. Correlation coefficients of 0.89 or more are obtained for the 11 years. Substantial unsystematic scatter is obtained in the values of a as well as b for different years. The use of the equation H'=H0(a+bS/S0') is not found either to decrease this scatter or to give better values of the correlation coefficients. Hourly global irradiation data are also analyzed. 11 year mean values of the ratio hourly/daily are plotted against the solar time for each of the 12 months of the year. The normal distribution curve is found to fit the data closely. The mean of the normal distribution is taken at the solar noon and the σ values are obtained for each month by matching the experimental and the theoretical values at the solar noon. The σ values so obtained are found to bear an excellent linear correlation (r=0.996) with S0, viz. σ=0.461+0.192S0. This provides a simple and elegant technique for estimating hourly irradiation from the daily values and may be of universal applicability. The technique enables the estimation of global irradiation for any smaller interval of time as well

  6. A New Point of View on the Relationship Between Global Solar Irradiation and Sunshine Quantifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Badescu, V.; Dumitrescu, A.; Paulescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, March (2016), s. 252-263. ISSN 0038-092X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : global solar irradiation * sunshine quantifiers * sunshine number * Angstrom equation * statistical modeling * regression analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014

  7. Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar global irradiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on global irradiance measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward irradiance measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high irradiation values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving global irradiance are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar global irradiance was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar global downward irradiance measured at ground and the solar downward irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions

  8. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  9. Estimation of hourly global solar irradiation on tilted planes from horizontal one using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculating global solar irradiation from global horizontal irradiation only is a difficult task, especially when the time step is small and the data are not averaged. We used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to realize this conversion. The ANN is optimized and tested on the basis of five years of solar data; the accuracy of the optimal configuration is around 6% for the RRMSE (relative root mean square error) and around 3.5% for the RMAE (relative mean absolute value) i.e. a better performance than the empirical correlations available in the literature. -- Highlights: ► ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methodology applied to hourly global solar irradiation in order to estimate tilted irradiations. ► Model validation with more than 23,000 data. ► Comparison with “conventional” models. ► The precision in the results is better than with empirical correlations. ► 6% for the RMSE (root means square error) and around 3.5% for the RMAE (Relative Mean Absolute Value).

  10. Preliminary Wrf-Arw Model Analysis of Global Solar Irradiation Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvoranu Dragos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is focused on the evaluation of short term global solar irradiation forecasting performance in order to assess the outcome of photovoltaic power stations. The paper presents a comparative analysis between the predicted irradiation obtained by numerical simulation and measurements. The simulation data is obtained from WRF-ARW model (Weather Research Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF, whose initial and boundary conditions are provided by the global forecasting model GFS. Taking into account the complexity of options for the physics models provided with WRF, we embarked upon a parametric analysis of the simulated solar irradiance. This complex task provides a better insight among the coupling of various physics options and enables us to find the best fit with the measured data for a specified site and time period. The present preliminary analysis shows that the accuracy of the computed global solar irradiance can be improved by choosing the appropriate built-in physics models. A combination of physics models providing the best results has been identified.

  11. The generation of hourly diffuse irradiation: A model from the analysis of the fluctuation of global irradiance series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    An analysis of models for the estimation of hourly diffuse irradiation based on the interrelations between the hourly diffuse fraction k{sub d} and the hourly clearness index k{sub t}, has concluded that k{sub t} is not a sufficient variable for parametrizing the effect of clouds on diffuse irradiation. A detailed study of the dispersion recorded by this diffuse component for a specific clearness index under partly cloudy sky conditions has led to analyzing how the variability in the instantaneous clearness index influences this dispersion. The data sets correspond to 10 years of hourly and instantaneous value records of global and diffuse radiation collected in Cordoba, Spain. In addition to the inclusion of the sine of solar elevation as a variable into the k{sub d}-k{sub t} correlations, this model propose the inclusion of others parameters related to the variability in the normalized clearness index within an hour and with the fluctuations presented by the time series of the instantaneous values of that index. Also presented is the implementation of an algorithm permitting both the determination of the hourly diffuse irradiation and the discrimination between the different sky conditions in those situations known by the designation partly cloudy sky. (author)

  12. The generation of hourly diffuse irradiation: A model from the analysis of the fluctuation of global irradiance series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of models for the estimation of hourly diffuse irradiation based on the interrelations between the hourly diffuse fraction kd and the hourly clearness index kt, has concluded that kt is not a sufficient variable for parametrizing the effect of clouds on diffuse irradiation. A detailed study of the dispersion recorded by this diffuse component for a specific clearness index under partly cloudy sky conditions has led to analyzing how the variability in the instantaneous clearness index influences this dispersion. The data sets correspond to 10 years of hourly and instantaneous value records of global and diffuse radiation collected in Cordoba, Spain. In addition to the inclusion of the sine of solar elevation as a variable into the kd-kt correlations, this model propose the inclusion of others parameters related to the variability in the normalized clearness index within an hour and with the fluctuations presented by the time series of the instantaneous values of that index. Also presented is the implementation of an algorithm permitting both the determination of the hourly diffuse irradiation and the discrimination between the different sky conditions in those situations known by the designation partly cloudy sky.

  13. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author)

  14. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, τ. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been produced

  15. On the influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using statistical analysis, correlation between the variations of the total solar irradiance and of the annual-mean land temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth’s climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data until 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show substantially higher influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperatures until 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. Key words: total solar irradiance, solar variations, solar forcing, climate change

  16. Generation of daily global solar irradiation with support vector machines for regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New methodology for estimation of daily solar irradiation with SVR. • Automatic procedure for training models and selecting meteorological features. • This methodology outperforms other well-known parametric and numeric techniques. - Abstract: Solar global irradiation is barely recorded in isolated rural areas around the world. Traditionally, solar resource estimation has been performed using parametric-empirical models based on the relationship of solar irradiation with other atmospheric and commonly measured variables, such as temperatures, rainfall, and sunshine duration, achieving a relatively high level of certainty. Considerable improvement in soft-computing techniques, which have been applied extensively in many research fields, has lead to improvements in solar global irradiation modeling, although most of these techniques lack spatial generalization. This new methodology proposes support vector machines for regression with optimized variable selection via genetic algorithms to generate non-locally dependent and accurate models. A case of study in Spain has demonstrated the value of this methodology. It achieved a striking reduction in the mean absolute error (MAE) – 41.4% and 19.9% – as compared to classic parametric models; Bristow & Campbell and Antonanzas-Torres et al., respectively

  17. UV and global irradiance measurements and analysis during the Marsaxlokk (Malta) campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, J.; Román, R.; Yousif, C.; Mateos, D.; de Miguel, A.

    2015-07-01

    A solar radiation measurement campaign was performed in the south-eastern village of Marsaxlokk (35°50' N; 14°33' E; 10 m a.s.l), Malta, between 15 May and 15 October 2012. Erythemal solar radiation data (from a UVB-1 pyranometer), and total horizontal solar radiation (global and diffuse components) from two CM21 pyranometer were recorded. A comparison of atmospheric compounds from ground measurements and satellites shows that TOC (total ozone column) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMI, TOMS and DOAS algorithms correlate well with ground-based recorded data. The water vapour column and the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm show a significant correlation at the confidence level of 99 %. Parametric models for evaluating the solar UV erythemal (UVER), global (G) and diffuse (D) horizontal irradiances are calibrated, from which aerosol effects on solar irradiance are evaluated using the Aerosol Modification Factor (AMF). The AMFUVER values are lower than AMFG, indicating a greater aerosol effect on UVER than on global solar irradiance. In this campaign, several dust event trajectories are identified by means of the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and by synoptic conditions for characterizing desert dust events. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosols are described.

  18. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Daily global solar irradiation (R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  19. Therapeutic approaches of hematopoietic syndrome after serious accidental global irradiation. Ex vivo expansion interest of hematopoietic cells; Approches therapeutiques du syndrome hematopoietique apres irradiation globale accidentelle grave. Interet de l`expansion ex vivo des cellules hematopoietiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry, D.

    1994-12-31

    Aplasia is one of the main syndrome, appearing after one global accidental irradiation by one ionizing radiation source. The hematopoietic syndrome is characterized by a peripheric blood cell number fall; the cell marrow is reduced too.

  20. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  1. Therapeutic approaches of hematopoietic syndrome after serious accidental global irradiation. Ex vivo expansion interest of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplasia is one of the main syndrome, appearing after one global accidental irradiation by one ionizing radiation source. The hematopoietic syndrome is characterized by a peripheric blood cell number fall; the cell marrow is reduced too

  2. Global irradiation effects, stem cell genes and rare transcripts in the planarian transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloni, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are the closest relatives of the totipotent primordial cell, which is able to spawn millions of daughter cells and hundreds of cell types in multicellular organisms. Stem cells are involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and may play a major role in cancer development. Among animals, planarians host a model stem cell type, called the neoblast, which essentially confers immortality. Gaining insights into the global transcriptional landscape of these exceptional cells takes an unprecedented turn with the advent of Next Generation Sequencing methods. Two Digital Gene Expression transcriptomes of Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, with or without neoblasts lost through irradiation, were produced and analyzed. Twenty one bp NlaIII tags were mapped to transcripts in the Schmidtea and Dugesia taxids. Differential representation of tags in normal versus irradiated animals reflects differential gene expression. Canonical and non-canonical tags were included in the analysis, and comparative studies with human orthologs were conducted. Transcripts fell into 3 categories: invariant (including housekeeping genes), absent in irradiated animals (potential neoblast-specific genes, IRDOWN) and induced in irradiated animals (potential cellular stress response, IRUP). Different mRNA variants and gene family members were recovered. In the IR-DOWN class, almost all of the neoblast-specific genes previously described were found. In irradiated animals, a larger number of genes were induced rather than lost. A significant fraction of IRUP genes behaved as if transcript versions of different lengths were produced. Several novel potential neoblast-specific genes have been identified that varied in relative abundance, including highly conserved as well as novel proteins without predicted orthologs. Evidence for a large body of antisense transcripts, for example regulated antisense for the Smed-piwil1 gene, and evidence for RNA shortening in irradiated animals is presented

  3. Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

  4. Modeling of global horizontal irradiance in the United Arab Emirates with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs ANN (Artificial Neural Network) models to estimate GHI (global horizontal irradiance) for three major cities in the UAE (United Arab Emirates), namely Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Al-Ain. City data are then used to develop a comprehensive global GHI model for other nearby locations in the UAE. The ANN models use MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) and RBF (Radial Basis Function) techniques with comprehensive training algorithms, architectures, and different combinations of inputs. The UAE models are tested and validated against individual city models and data available from the UAE Solar Atlas with good agreement as attested by the computed statistical error parameters. The optimal ANN model is MLP-based and requires four mean daily weather parameters; namely, maximum temperature, wind speed, sunshine hours, and relative humidity. The computed statistical error parameters for the optimal MLP-ANN model in relation to the measured three-cities mean data (referred to as UAE data) are MBE (mean bias error) = −0.0003 kWh/m2, RMSE = 0.179 kWh/m2, R2 = 99%, NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe model Efficiency coefficient) = 99%, and t-statistic = 0.005 at 5% significance level. Results prove the suitability of the ANN models for estimating the monthly mean daily GHI in different locations of the UAE. - Highlights: • ANN prediction models for the GHI (global horizontal irradiance) in the UAE. • Models used to estimate the potential of global solar radiation for UAE cities. • Data from the UAE Solar Atlas are used to validate developed ANN models. • ANN models are more efficient than regression models in predicting GHI

  5. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F.; Polo, J. [Dpto. de Energia, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). (author)

  6. Correlation between total solar irradiance and global land temperatures for the last 120 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varonov, A.; Shopov, Y. Y.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the solar impact on one of the main Earth climate system components—the land-near-surface air temperature—during the past 120 years. Using statistical analysis, a correlation between the variations of the total solar irradiance and of the annual-mean land-near-surface air temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth's climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data before 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show the substantially higher influence of the total solar irradiance on the global land temperatures before 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Approach to drawing new global solar irradiation contour maps for Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righini, R.; Gallegos, H.G.; Raichijk, C. [Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). GERSolar

    2005-07-01

    Given the shortage of solar irradiation measured data accurate enough to fulfill statistical conditions to be considered representative in time and space, there appeared alternatives for estimating them on the basis of the existing meteorological information, and one of the values used was the number of hours of bright sunshine. In this paper a limited number of stations is considered where the daily hours of bright sunshine and of global irradiation were measured simultaneously, thus making it possible to find the constants of the Angstrom-Prescott equation for each month. The spatial distribution curves of those constants for the whole country were drawn using the kriging method. From them, and taking into account the data from bright sunshine hours measured in a great number of stations, charts with the distribution of hours relative to bright sunshine were drawn using the above-mentioned interpolation method and the Angstrom-Prescott linear equation was applied; mean values for the whole territory were thus found. Using once again the geostatistical interpolation the charts with the space-time distribution of the resource were drawn; the error evaluated is in the order of 10%. The results obtained for the months of January and July are shown for illustration purposes. (Author)

  8. Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and global solar irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave irradiance (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (α) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (global, diffuse and direct) irradiance were quantified using irradiance values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) irradiance correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. Global SW irradiance varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The irradiance variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on global UVER is stronger than on global SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a global SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.

  9. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  10. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  11. Semi-empirical models for the estimation of clear sky solar global and direct normal irradiances in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → New semi-empirical models for predicting clear sky irradiance were developed. → The proposed models compare favorably with other empirical models. → Performance of proposed models is comparable with that of widely used physical models. → The proposed models have advantage over the physical models in terms of simplicity. -- Abstract: This paper presents semi-empirical models for estimating global and direct normal solar irradiances under clear sky conditions in the tropics. The models are based on a one-year period of clear sky global and direct normal irradiances data collected at three solar radiation monitoring stations in Thailand: Chiang Mai (18.78oN, 98.98oE) located in the North of the country, Nakhon Pathom (13.82oN, 100.04oE) in the Centre and Songkhla (7.20oN, 100.60oE) in the South. The models describe global and direct normal irradiances as functions of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient, the Angstrom wavelength exponent, precipitable water and total column ozone. The data of Angstrom turbidity coefficient, wavelength exponent and precipitable water were obtained from AERONET sunphotometers, and column ozone was retrieved from the OMI/AURA satellite. Model validation was accomplished using data from these three stations for the data periods which were not included in the model formulation. The models were also validated against an independent data set collected at Ubon Ratchathani (15.25oN, 104.87oE) in the Northeast. The global and direct normal irradiances calculated from the models and those obtained from measurements are in good agreement, with the root mean square difference (RMSD) of 7.5% for both global and direct normal irradiances. The performance of the models was also compared with that of other models. The performance of the models compared favorably with that of empirical models. Additionally, the accuracy of irradiances predicted from the proposed model are comparable with that obtained from some rigorous physical

  12. Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour Global Horizontal Irradiance Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102

  13. Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour Global Horizontal Irradiance Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico-Vladimir Gutierrez-Corea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images. The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations.

  14. Estimation of confidence intervals of global horizontal irradiance obtained from a weather prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence

  15. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jilong; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal ...

  16. Fast calculations of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios for approximating spectral irradiance at the street canyon level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Hernandez, Roberto; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.

    2016-05-01

    Two radiative transfer models are presented that simplify calculations of street canyon spectral irradiances with minimum data input requirements, allowing better assessment of urban exposures than can be provided by standard unobstructed radiation measurements alone. Fast calculations improve the computational performance of radiation models, when numerous repetitions are required in time and location. The core of the models is the calculation of the spectral diffuse-to-global ratios (DGR) from an unobstructed global spectral measurement. The models are based on, and have been tested against, outcomes of the SMARTS2 algorithm (i.e. Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine). The modelled DGRs can then be used to partition global spectral irradiance values into their direct and diffuse components for different solar zenith angles. Finally, the effects of canyon obstructions can be evaluated independently on the direct and diffuse components, which are then recombined to give the total canyon irradiance. The first model allows ozone and aerosol inputs, while the second provides a further simplification, restricted to average ozone and aerosol contents but specifically designed for faster calculations. To assess the effect of obstructions and validate the calculations, a set of experiments with simulated obstructions (simulated canyons) were performed. The greatest source of uncertainty in the simplified calculations is in the treatment of diffuse radiation. The measurement-model agreement is therefore dependent on the region of the sky obscured and ranges from <5 % at all wavelengths to 20-40 % (wavelength dependent) when diffuse sky only is visible from the canyon.

  17. CMSAF products Cloud Fraction Coverage and Cloud Type used for solar global irradiance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2016-08-01

    Two products provided by the climate monitoring satellite application facility (CMSAF) are the instantaneous Cloud Fractional Coverage (iCFC) and the instantaneous Cloud Type (iCTY) products. Previous studies based on the iCFC product show that the simple solar radiation models belonging to the cloudiness index class n CFC = 0.1-1.0 have rRMSE values ranging between 68 and 71 %. The products iCFC and iCTY are used here to develop simple models providing hourly estimates for solar global irradiance. Measurements performed at five weather stations of Romania (South-Eastern Europe) are used. Two three-class characterizations of the state-of-the-sky, based on the iCTY product, are defined. In case of the first new sky state classification, which is roughly related with cloud altitude, the solar radiation models proposed here perform worst for the iCTY class 4-15, with rRMSE values ranging between 46 and 57 %. The spreading error of the simple models is lower than that of the MAGIC model for the iCTY classes 1-4 and 15-19, but larger for iCTY classes 4-15. In case of the second new sky state classification, which takes into account in a weighted manner the chance for the sun to be covered by different types of clouds, the solar radiation models proposed here perform worst for the cloudiness index class n CTY = 0.7-0.1, with rRMSE values ranging between 51 and 66 %. Therefore, the two new sky state classifications based on the iCTY product are useful in increasing the accuracy of solar radiation models.

  18. Estimation of 5-min time-step data of tilted solar global irradiation using ANN (Artificial Neural Network) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converting measured horizontal global solar irradiance in tilted ones is a difficult task, particularly for a small time-step and for not-averaged data. Conventional methods (statistical, correlation, …) are not always efficient with time-step less than one hour; thus, we want to know if an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) is able to realize this conversion with a good accuracy when applied to 5-min solar radiation data of Bouzareah, Algeria. The ANN is developed and optimized using two years of solar data; the nRMSE (relative root means square error) is around 8% for the optimal configuration, which corresponds to a very good accuracy for such a short time-step. - Highlights: • ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methodology applied to 5-min global solar irradiation in order to estimate tilted irradiations. • Model validation with more than 75,000 data. • 8.81% for the RMSE (root means square error) and around 6.63% for the nMAE (normalized mean absolute error). • Solar radiation models with such a fine time step are rare

  19. Comparison of global irradiance measurements of the official Spanish radiometric network for 2006 with satellite estimated data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sancho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly average values of daily global irradiance measured in broadband at 40 stations of the National Radiometric Network of the Spanish Meteorological Agency have been compared with the monthly values of SIS (Surface Incoming Shortwave radiation of the Climate Monitoring-Satellite Application Facility for 2006. It is calculated by the data from the instrument Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager of the Meteosat Second Generation satellite and of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer of the NOAA polar satellites. The results show a great similarity between the data from both sources of information, and the discrepancies found are around 5%. The aim of such a comparison is to evaluate the suitability of the use of the SIS data for the elaboration of an atlas of solar irradiance available in Spain.

  20. Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

  1. A comparison of the Angstrom-type correlations and the estimation of monthly average daily global irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear regression analysis of the monthly average daily global irradiation and the sunshine duration data of 8 Zambian locations has been performed using the least square technique. Good correlation (r>0.95) is obtained in all the cases showing that the Angstrom equation is valid for Zambian locations. The values of the correlation parameters thus obtained show substantial unsystematic scatter. The analysis was repeated after incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections of radiation between the ground and the atmosphere, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart, into the Angstrom equation. The surface albedo measurements at Lusaka were used. The scatter in the correlation parameters was investigated by graphical representation, by regression analysis of the data of the individual stations as well as the combined data of the 8 stations. The results show that the incorporation of none of the two effects reduces the scatter significantly. A single linear equation obtained from the regression analysis of the combined data of the 8 stations is found to be appropriate for estimating the global irradiation over Zambian locations with reasonable accuracy from the sunshine duration data. (author)

  2. A New High Frequency Global-to-direct Irradiance Conversion Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos M.; Bernardos, Ana; Monreal, Ana; Guisado, Maria V; Gastón, Martín; Pagola, Íñigo

    2012-01-01

    In order to accurately simulate the behavior of a solar thermal power plant, it is necessary to carry out an adequate evaluation of the available solar resource. To that end, it is important to know the cumulative Direct Normal solar Irradiation (DNI) values and their dynamic behavior. Only by knowing this information with accuracy, it will be possible to predict the solar thermal power plant behavior and to establish an adequate operation strategy. Sites with high cumulative DNI values are n...

  3. On modeling global solar irradiation using air temperature for Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assesses the performance of nine empirical models: the models of Bristow and Campbell and Hargreaves and Samani (together with their modified versions) in estimating the daily and monthly solar irradiation using just extraterrestrial solar irradiation and air temperature extremes (maximum and minimum) as input data. Two schemes to calculate the air temperature amplitudes (ΔT1 and ΔT2) were used. The data used in this study cover the period from 2007 to 2009 and were collected at eight solarimetric stations in Alagoas State (Northeastern Brazil); three are located in the interior, two in the hinterlands and three in the humid/coastal zones. Statistical parameters were used to evaluate the model performance. The estimates obtained with the ΔT1 scheme are better than those using the ΔT2 scheme for the interior (1.10%) and hinterlands (2.50%). The daily (0.160–0.201) and monthly (0.158–0.199) values of the coefficients of the original Hargreaves and Samani model did not show significant differences among them; this was not the case of Bristow and Campbell model. Have a special from the coastline (thermal amplitude, humidity and cloudiness) and altitude (bulk thermal capacity and optical depth of the atmosphere). On the daily basis, the original model of Hargreaves and Samani yields better estimates than those obtained with the Bristow and Campbell model: 2.30% (interior) and 5.20% (hinterlands). The latter had a better performance mainly for the sites along the humid/coastal zone (10.20%). - Highlights: • Calibration of solar irradiation models that use air temperature. • Estimates of the solar irradiation in Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. • Hargreaves and Samani model performed best for the interior and hinterland. • The Bristow and Campbell model was more suitable for coastal and humid zones

  4. Long term HelioClim-3 global, beam and diffuse irradiance validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ineichen, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Satellite derived solar radiation is nowadays a good alternative to ground measurements for renewable energy applications. It has the advantage to provide data with a good accuracy, the best time and space granularity, in term of real time series and average year such as TMY. This report presents results of a long term validation in the European and Mediteranean regions of the irradiance evaluated by the HelioClim-3 scheme in hourly, daily and monthly values, and seven average products on an ...

  5. A comparison of methods to estimate daily global solar irradiation from other climatic variables on the Canadian prairies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historic estimates of daily global solar irradiation are often required for climatic impact studies. Regression equations with daily global solar irradiation, H, as the dependent variable and other climatic variables as the independent variables provide a practical way to estimate H at locations where it is not measured. They may also have potential to estimate H before 1953, the year of the first routine H measurements in Canada. This study compares several regression equations for calculating H on the Canadian prairies. Simple linear regression with daily bright sunshine duration as the dependent variable accounted for 90% of the variation of H in summer and 75% of the variation of H in winter. Linear regression with the daily air temperature range as the dependent variable accounted for 45% of the variation of H in summer and only 6% of the variation of H in winter. Linear regression with precipitation status (wet or dry) as the dependent variable accounted for only 35% of the summer-time variation in H, but stratifying other regression analyses into wet and dry days reduced their root-mean-squared errors. For periods with sufficiently dense bright sunshine observations (i.e. after 1960), however, H was more accurately estimated from spatially interpolated bright sunshine duration than from locally observed air temperature range or precipitation status. The daily air temperature range and precipitation status may have utility for estimating H for periods before 1953, when they are the only widely available climatic data on the Canadian prairies. Between 1953 and 1989, a period of large climatic variation, the regression coefficients did not vary significantly between contrasting years with cool-wet, intermediate and warm-dry summers. They should apply equally well earlier in the century. (author)

  6. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  7. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

  8. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  9. A New method for identifying possible causal relationships between CO2, total solar irradiance and global temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut L.; Grøn, Øyvind

    2015-11-01

    We apply a novel method based upon "before" and "after" relationships to investigate and quantify interconnections between global temperature anomaly (GTA), as response variable, and greenhouse gases (CO2) and total solar irradiance (TSI) as candidate causal variables for the period 1880 to 2010. The most likely interpretations of our results for the 6 to 8 years cyclic components of the variables are that during the period 1929 to 1936, CO2 significantly leads GTA. However, during the period 1960-2003, GTA apparently leads CO2, that is, the peaks (and troughs) in GTA are in front of, and close to, the peaks (and troughs) in CO2. For time windows outside these periods, we did not find significant before or after-relations. An alternative interpretation is that there is a shift between short (≈1.5 year) and long (≈5 years) durations between cause and effect. Relationships between GTA and TSI suggest that "inertia" of the global sea, land, and atmosphere system leads to delays longer than half their common cycle length of about 10 years. Based on the interaction patterns between the variables GTA, CO2, and TSI, we suggest the possibility that a new regime for how the variables interact started around 1960. From trend forms, and not considering physical mechanisms, we found that the trend in CO2 contributes ≈ 90 %, and the trend in TSI ≈ 10 %, to the trend in GTA during the last 130 years.

  10. Global and direct UV irradiance variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.

    2014-05-01

    On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35‧25″S 72°07‧02″W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in global irradiance in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct irradiance and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. Global irradiance has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and global irradiance, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and global irradiance and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. Global irradiance, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct irradiance, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than global irradiance. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.

  11. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  12. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  14. Irradiação global, direta e difusa, para a região de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Global, direct and diffuse irradiation in the region of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aparecida de Oliveira Drechmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os níveis das irradiações global, direta e difusa incidentes na superfície terrestre, a irradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera e a insolação relativa mensal, para a cidade de Cascavel-PR. As componentes da radiação solar foram monitoradas entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2003 na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Na medição da radiação global foi utilizado um piranômetro KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 e para medir a componente direta foiutilizado um pireliômetro EPPLEY-NIP acoplado a um rastreador solar. A radiação difusa foi calculada pela diferença entre as radiações global e direta. Os níveis médios mensais das irradiações global, direta e difusa, foram respectivamente, 51,8%, 31,7% e 20,17% dairradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera. O índice de insolação relativa apresentou valor máximo em agosto (61,43% e mínimo em fevereiro (34,35%, períodos caracterizados respectivamente por dias de céu limpo e nublados no hemisfério sul.This paper reports a study about the diffuse, direct and global radiation levels on surface of earth, the irradiation over the top of atmosphere and the monthly relative sunstroke in the city of Cascavel, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The solar radiation components were monitored from January, 2001 to February, 2003 at Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica of Unioeste, Cascavel, Parana State. Global radiation was monitored by a pyranometer KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 and direct radiation was monitored by a pyrheliometer EPPLEY-NIP coupled to a solar tracer. The diffuse radiation wasmonitored through the difference between global and direct radiation. Monthly average levels of global, direct and diffuse irradiations were 51.8%, 31.7% and 20.17% of the irradiation in the top of atmosphere. The relative isolation index showed the maximum value in August (61.43% and the minimum in February (34.35%. These

  15. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  16. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

  17. Analysis of the total solar irradiance composite and their contribution to global mean air surface temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, N.

    2008-12-01

    Herein I discuss and propose updated satellite composites of the total solar irradiance covering the period 1978-2008. The composites are compiled from measurements made with the three ACRIM experiments. Measurements from the NIMBUS7/ERB, the ERBS/ERBE satellite experiments and a total solar irradiance proxy reconstruction are used to fill the gap from June 1989 to October 1991 between ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 experiments. The result of the analysis does suggests that the total solar irradiance did increase from 1980 to 2002. The climate implications of the alternative satellite composites are discussed by using a phenomenological climate model which depends on two characteristics time response at tau1 =0.4 year and tau2=8-12 years, as determined phenomenologically [Scafetta, JGR 2008]. Reconstructions of total solar irradiance signature on climate during the last four centuries are discussed. The solar variability appears to have significantly contributed to climate change during the last four centuries, including the last century. Indirectly, the model suggests that the preindustrial climate experienced a large variability which is incompatible with an Hockey Stick temperature graph.

  18. Global Increase in UV Irradiance during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Zonal average ultraviolet irradiance (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted irradiances. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted irradiances. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV irradiance levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.

  19. Attenuation of global ultraviolet and visible irradiance over Greece during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazantzidis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The variability of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 was examined in this study. The measurements from NILU-UV multichannel radiometers at 7 stations of the Greek UV Network were used, where the maximum eclipse percentage ranged from 73.1% to 94.8%. In addition, an extra instrument was established at a remote Greek island, Kastelorizo, which was within the Moon's umbral shadow. The reduction of irradiance at 305 and 312 nm relative to non-eclipse conditions at all sites was almost 1.5 times more than the corresponding decrease in the UVA and visible part of the spectrum and reached 98% for eclipse percentage equal to 94%. The availability of several instruments in close proximity to the path of the umbral shadow provided a challenging test for the models. The measured changes in UV and visible irradiance were compared with 1-D model calculations accounting for the limb darkening effect. The agreement between measurements and modeled values at all sites is within 3% for eclipse percentages of less than 30% and becomes worse as the eclipse progresses. The 1-D model reproduced the spectral effect of the eclipse in UVA and PAR wavelength regions within 3% for eclipse percentages up to 50%, but only the half of the observed change was captured as the eclipse progressed. At three sites, where the eclipse maximum was more than 94%, the measured irradiance at 305 nm for eclipse percentages of more than 85% decreased with slower rates than for longer wavelengths. As a result, the total ozone values, derived from the 305/320 nm ratios, apparently decreased significantly for high eclipse percentages. The effect is similar at all three sites, but the interpretation of this observation remains a challenge. Comparison results with 3-D model calculations shortly before, during and shortly after totality were performed for the first time and revealed an agreement with measurements

  20. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9...

  1. Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-05-01

    Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

  2. A new Adaptive methodology of Global-to-Direct irradiance based on clustering and kernel machines techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón, Martín; Pagola, Íñigo; Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos M.; Ramírez, Lourdes; Mallor, Fermin

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing need of data related to beam solar radiation. The market situation of the solar technologies as well as the premium prices in countries like Spain drives to the necessity to characterize the expected DNI in a specific location with short measurement campaign. Due to it is impossible to wait ten or more years for measure the DNI in a specific location, methodologies for deriving DNI representative series are needed. To estimate beam radiation from global radiation,...

  3. Regulatory aspect of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the process of food irradiation is reviewed once again internationally. Although food irradiation has been thoroughly investigated, global acceptance is still lacking. Factors which impede the progress of the technology are discussed here. (author)

  4. Estimation of monthly global solar irradiation using the Hargreaves-Samani model and an artificial neural network for the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Gustavo Bastos; Zanetti, Sidney Sára; Santos, Anderson Amorim Rocha; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Lyra, Guilherme Bastos; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lemes, Marco Antônio Maringolo

    2016-08-01

    The monthly global solar irradiation ( H g) was estimated using the Hargreaves-Samani model (HS) with three different approaches for determining the k r coefficient and using an artificial neural network (ANN). The data consisted of long-term climate series measured at eight conventional meteorological stations in the state of Alagoas and its borders in northeastern Brazil. The approaches to determine the k r coefficient of the HS model included (i) the method proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (0.190 and 0.162 for coastal and interior regions, respectively), (ii) a method analogous to the previous except with altitude correction, and (iii) k r fitted with local climatic data. A new spatial interpolation method is also proposed to determine k r as a function of geographical coordinates and altitude. The fitted local values of k r (0.168-0.179 and 0.189-0.231 for interior and coastal stations, respectively) exhibited a strong dependence ( r 2 = 0.81) on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The estimates of H g obtained with the HS model using fitted local values of k r and those using the ANN were similar (determination coefficient - r 2 = 0.75 and Willmontt agreement coefficient - d = 0.93) and better than those from the HS model using an altitude-corrected k r ( r 2 = 0.68 and d = 0.90) or the values proposed by Hargreaves (1994) ( r 2 = 0.57 and d = 0.85). The estimates of H g were less accurate and precise for the coastal stations, where cloudiness and humidity are high and the thermal amplitude is small.

  5. Estimation of monthly global solar irradiation using the Hargreaves-Samani model and an artificial neural network for the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Gustavo Bastos; Zanetti, Sidney Sára; Santos, Anderson Amorim Rocha; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Lyra, Guilherme Bastos; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lemes, Marco Antônio Maringolo

    2015-07-01

    The monthly global solar irradiation (H g) was estimated using the Hargreaves-Samani model (HS) with three different approaches for determining the k r coefficient and using an artificial neural network (ANN). The data consisted of long-term climate series measured at eight conventional meteorological stations in the state of Alagoas and its borders in northeastern Brazil. The approaches to determine the k r coefficient of the HS model included (i) the method proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (0.190 and 0.162 for coastal and interior regions, respectively), (ii) a method analogous to the previous except with altitude correction, and (iii) k r fitted with local climatic data. A new spatial interpolation method is also proposed to determine k r as a function of geographical coordinates and altitude. The fitted local values of k r (0.168-0.179 and 0.189-0.231 for interior and coastal stations, respectively) exhibited a strong dependence (r 2 = 0.81) on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The estimates of H g obtained with the HS model using fitted local values of k r and those using the ANN were similar (determination coefficient - r 2 = 0.75 and Willmontt agreement coefficient - d = 0.93) and better than those from the HS model using an altitude-corrected k r (r 2 = 0.68 and d = 0.90) or the values proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (r 2 = 0.57 and d = 0.85). The estimates of H g were less accurate and precise for the coastal stations, where cloudiness and humidity are high and the thermal amplitude is small.

  6. Chromosome instability and global gene expression patterns in proliferating human T-lymphocytes after low dose rate γ-irradiation, and genetic instability in cells from in vivo radiation-exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    relevant stress response pathway(s), we have initiated studies of global gene expression using oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetrix). The results of microarray hybridization analysis showed that the complexity and the number of genes exhibiting a change of expression, increased with time of culturing. There were more genes with increased or decreased expression in the comparison between the time points of culture, than between irradiated or non-irradiated cultures at the same time point. These results provide a basis for further evaluation of the biological significance of changes in gene expression in CI. (author)

  7. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  8. Sensitivity of erythemal UV/global irradiance ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist

    2014-11-01

    Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) irradiance were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV irradiance. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV irradiance at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.

  9. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro–National Institute for Cancer Research and University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Han, Eunyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Matulewicz, Lukasz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Schubert, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Chityala, Ravishankar [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Minnesota Super Computer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Tournel, Koen [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Penagaricano, Jose A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Florian, Sterzing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Mahe, Marc-Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integrated Center of Oncology–René Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain Cédex (France); Verneris, Michael R. [Divisions of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  10. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  12. Optimization of the irradiations global, direct and diffuse in function of slop angle of the surface; Otimizacao das irradiacoes global, direta e difusa em funcao do angulo de inclinacao da superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adilson P.; Escobedo, Joao F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: pachecopgid@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the monthly and annual total radiation global, direct and diffuse on horizontal surfaces and tilted surfaces to 12.85 deg (|L|-10 deg), 22.85 deg (|L|) and 32.85 deg (|L|+10 deg), with the north face, in Botucatu, SP. The measures occurred in the following dates: 04/1998 to 07/2001 at 22.85 deg; 08/2001 to 02/2003 at 12.85 deg, and 03/2003 to 12/2007 in 32.85. In all periods occurred concurrent measures in the horizontal plane (reference). The total annual global radiation equal to 6500.87; 7044.21; 7193.24 and 6854.99 MJ m{sup -2}, for horizontal surfaces, 12.85 deg, 22.85 deg e 32.85 deg. The change of the angles of inclination throughout the year enabled gains of 324.92 MJ m{sup -2} (4.74%) in global radiation in relation to 22,85 deg, distributed as follows: I) horizontal: December, January and February; II) of 12.85: March and October; III) of 22.85: April, May, September and November, IV) of 32.85: June-August. In 22.85 were recorded the annual radiation directly (4367.40 MJ m{sup -2}), exceeding 12.85 deg, 32.85 deg and horizontal, 72.40, 284.67 and 718.03 MJ m{sup -2}, however, were achieved gains 16.82% compared to 22.85 deg. For diffuse radiation, annual earnings totaled 226.57 MJ m{sup -2} (compared with 22.85 deg), with differences of less than 103.00 MJ m{sup -2} between 12.85 deg, 22.85 deg and 32.85 deg. (author)

  13. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  14. Irradiated planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present models for the spectra emitted by irradiated planets and discuss the numerical methods used in the modeling. In addition, we show results of simple 3D calculations that are designed as a first step toward detailed multi-dimensional models of irradiated planets

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  17. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  19. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  20. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  2. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  5. Global trends in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global leader in radioisotope technology with three business units: - Nuclear Medicine supplies about two-thirds of the world requirements for molybdenum-99 and other isotopes used to diagnose disease - Radiation Therapy business unit supplied more than over 2,300 cobalt cancer treatment machines and is a leader in treatment planning - Ion Technologies is the world's leading supplier of cobalt 60 and innovative gamma irradiation systems About Ion Technologies · Supply over 70% of world's cobalt-60 sources · Custom-designed and built irradiation systems · Comprehensive engineering, physics, logistics, installation and marketing services · Canadian Irradiation Center for unique 'hands on' training, R and D product irradiation

  6. Commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial irradiation, the treatment of products with gamma radiation principally using a Cobalt-60 source, had its beginnings in Europe and Australia 25 years ago. To date the most successful application of the process is the sterilization of medical products and, for a variety of reasons, gamma sterilization is now becoming dominant in this important field. Many other applications have been evaluated over the years and the most exciting is undoubtedly food irradiation for which there is a vast potential. The commercial feasibility of setting up and irradiation facility is a complex subject and the selection of Cobalt-60 gamma plant depends on a number of technical and economic considerations. The parameters which determine the design and capacity of the optimum plant include throughput, product size and dose requirements; a balance has to be struck between plant flexibility and overall economy. The Ansell irradiators are designed primarily for the sterilization of medical products although some experimental food irradiation has been done, particularly in Australia. (author)

  7. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloquium has been held on the occasion of the commissioning of a new linear electron accelerator. The 17 papers presented by the experts give a survey of the present status of food irradiation and related aspects. Every paper has been analysed and prepared for retrieval from the database. (orig.)

  9. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  10. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  11. Global Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the technology and classification of global monitoring, shows the relationship between the global monitoring and geographic information monitoring, presents the cause-and-effect diagram of global monitoring. The paper discloses the value of the time series for global monitoring, offers a functional diagram of the global monitoring system, gives the main characteristics of global monitoring.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

  14. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  16. Prediction of daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance using the Ktuv and Kt clearness index; Prediccion de valores diarios de radiacion solar UV-A (295-385 nm) utilizando los indices de transparencia K{sub t}uv y K{sub t} y tecnicas de resdes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In this work we compare two methodologies in order to estimate daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance measurements. The first one is based on standard statistical procedures for relating the daily clearness indices Ktuv and Kt and the relative air mass, whereas the second methodology is based on the novel techniques of artificial neuronal networks. In both cases, we employed data recorded at the radiometric station located at the University of Almeria between 1993 and 1996. Both models are checked against data for years not previously used. (Author)

  17. Globalization Nationalized

    OpenAIRE

    Mazlish Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests that this competition is overdrawn, and that nationalist agendas in particular have found their way into global studies.

  18. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  19. Against globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders; Philipsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts. Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  20. Estimativa da irradiação solar global com partição mensal e sazonal para a região de Cascavel - PR Evaluation of global solar irradiation with sazonal and monthly partition for the area of Cascavel - PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania I. Valiati

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, mostram-se equações de estimativa da irradiação solar global (R G, por meio do modelo de Angstrom, com partições sazonal e mensal para a região de Cascavel - PR. Os dados experimentais foram cedidos pelo IAPAR, coletados na sua estação meteorológica localizada na COODETEC/Cascavel - PR, no período de 1983 a 1998. Dos 16 anos de dados, 12 anos foram utilizados para cálculo dos coeficientes (a e b e quatro anos para a validação das equações. Os coeficientes de determinação encontrados foram superiores a 80% para as duas partições. O mínimo da R G é superestimado e o máximo é subestimado quando comparados com o mínimo e o máximo para dados reais, sendo esses encontrados no solstício de inverno e equinócio de primavera, respectivamente. A variação sazonal e mensal do coeficiente "a" foi menor (0,16 a 0,19 e 0,14 a 0,21 e do coeficiente "b" maior (0,34 a 0,43 e 0,32 a 0,44. As maiores variações dos erros médios diários ocorreram no equinócio de primavera (-19,45% a 27,28% e as menores no equinócio de outono (-11,32% a 10,61%. O ajuste mais eficaz das equações foi encontrado para a partição mensal.This research shows equations of evaluation of global solar irradiation (GR through Angstrom's model with seasonal monthly partitions for the region of Cascavel -PR, Brazil. The experimental data were given by IAPAR and collected in its meteorological station located in COODETEC/Cascavel - PR, Brazil, from 1983 to 1998. Twelve of the sixteen years of data were used for calculation of the coefficients (a and b and four years for the validation of the equations. The determination coefficients found were superior to 80% for both partitions. The minimum (GR is overestimated and the maximum is underestimated when compared to the minimum and maximum for real data, been these found in the winter solstice and spring equinox, respectively. The seasonal and monthly variation of the coefficient "a" was lower

  1. Analysis of solar irradiation measurements at Beer Sheva, Israel from 1985 through 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In depth analysis of long-term solar irradiation at Beer Sheva, Israel. • Construction of a typical meteorological year for global and beam irradiation. • Statistical analysis of the global and beam irradiation. • Analysis of long-term trends regarding global and beam irradiation. - Abstract: An in-depth analysis of the solar horizontal global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation monitored at Beer Sheva from 1985 through 2013 has been performed. The horizontal beam irradiation, daily clearness index, daily beam index and beam fraction of the horizontal global irradiation were determined from the measured parameters. A statistical analysis, which included average, median, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values and the coefficient of variation, was performed on the parameters under investigation. The monthly frequency distribution types were determined for the solar global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation based upon their corresponding skewness and kurtosis values. In addition, typical meteorological years were developed for the solar horizontal global and normal incidence beam irradiation. Beer Sheva is characterized as a site with a high incidence of clear days with global irradiation consisting of a relatively high beam fraction. A relatively steep minimum in the annual average daily normal incidence beam irradiation is observed from 1991 to 1993 and has been attributed to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines during June 1991. A time series analysis of the both individual monthly and annual average daily global and normal incidence irradiation indicated a slight trend of solar brightening for this region during the time interval 1985 through 2013, but in most cases they were not statistically significant based upon their p values

  2. Periodizing Globalization: Histories of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Nederveen Pieterse Jan

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the analytics and criteria that inform periodizing globalization. It criticizes presentist and Eurocentric views on globalization, the contemporary view, the modernity view (1800 plus) or the capitalism view (1500 plus). It discusses approaches to world history and how globalization fits in. Understandings of globalization, such as multicentric and centrist perspectives, and units of analysis affect how timelines of globalization are established. Taking into account globa...

  3. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced by...... rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  4. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  5. Is food irradiation harmful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on a seminar on 'The irradiation of food', held in London, 1987, and organised by the Royal Society and the Association of British Science Writers. A description is given of the food irradiation techniques. Problems with food irradiation are discussed with respect to the nutritional value of food, killing of microorganisms, survival of fungi following treatment, mutation of irradiated bacteria, and chemical changes produced in the food. Monitoring and controls of food that has been irradiated is discussed. A personal opinion of irradiated food by the author is given, including a verdict on irradiated food. (UK)

  6. Detection of irradiated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl∼1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation. (author)

  7. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

  8. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  9. Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  10. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  11. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  12. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  13. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary dose and the dosage limits to be observed depend on the kind of product and the purpose of irradiation. Product density and density distribution, product dimensions, but also packaging, transport and storage conditions are specific parameters influencing the conditions of irradiation. The kind of irradiation plant - electron accelerator or gamma plant - , its capacity, transport system and geometric arrangement of the radiation field are factors influencing the irradiation conditions as well. This is exemplified by the irradiation of 3 different products, onions, deep-frozen chicken and high-protein feed. Feasibilities and limits of the irradiation technology are demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Immunosuppression by whole-body irradiation and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of global immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-irradiation on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occulustion in the rat. Irradiation produced a significant leucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-irradiated control animals. (au)

  15. Immunosuppression by whole-body irradiation and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, R.D.; Kane, P.J.; Mendelow, A.D. (Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery, University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Cook, S.; Chambers, I.R.; Clayton, C.B. (Department of Medical Physics, University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of global immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-irradiation on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occulustion in the rat. Irradiation produced a significant leucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-irradiated control animals. (au).

  16. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  17. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  18. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects of food irradiation and direct economic benefits accruing from the application of food irradiation are discussed. A formula is presented to estimate the net economic benefit due to radiation processing of food. (M.G.B .)

  19. Global Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Thien Nguyen; Lukas Schmid; Mariano Croce

    2014-01-01

    The recent fiscal crisis in the EU and the slow-down of the BRICS countries have raised world-wide concerns about future global growth prospects. We examine the role of doubts about both local and foreign economic shocks by constructing an international endogenous growth model with technology diffusion across countries. In this setting, endogenous technology spillovers generate global growth shocks. When agents have concerns for robustness, country-specific shocks (1) alter global entropy, an...

  20. Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Stančíková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is to examine the Global Sourcing purchasing strategy as an instrument of reducing the acquisition costs of the company. Globalization has brought increased competition and pressure on reduction of purchase prices in all sectors of the world economy. The use of international trade market is currently an integral part of almost every business strategy. The concept of Global Sourcing consists not only in the use of international markets and the acquisition of...

  1. Global panopticon

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary panopticon infrastructure and technologies are deployed to secure citizens using video surveillance, biometrics, labelling technologies, satellites and the global fibre network. This is an expanding business sector.

  2. JMTR irradiation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting irradiation and post-irradiation experiments using those facilities is provided. The Handbook is primarily designed to aid the experimenter and to serve as a reference for communications between the experimenter and the Division of JMTR Project. (author)

  3. JMTR irradiation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW (JMTR) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting irradiation and post-irradiation experiments using those facilities is provided. The Handbook is primarily designed to aid the experimenter and to serve as a reference for communications between the experimenter and the Department of JMTR Project. (author)

  4. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation

  5. Canadian Food Irradiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began work on the irradiation of potatoes in 1956, using spent fuel rods as the radiation source. In 1958 the first Gammacell 220, a self-contained irradiator, was designed and manufactured by AECL, and cobalt-60 was then used exclusively in the food irradiation programme. In 1960 the first food and drug clearance was obtained for potatoes. The next stage was to demonstrate to the potato industry that cobalt-60 was a safe, simple and reliable tool, and that irradiation would inhibit sprouting under field conditions. A mobile irradiator was designed and produced by AECL in 1961 to carry out this pilot-plant programme. The irradiator was mounted on a fully-equipped road trailer and spent the 1961/1962 season irradiating one million pounds of potatoes at various points in Eastern Canada. In 1965 the first commercial food irradiator was designed and built by AECL for Newfield Products, Ltd. Whilst the potato programme was under way, AECL initiated co-operative programmes with Canadian food research laboratories, using additional Gammacells. In 1960, AECL constructed an irradiation facility in a shielded room at its own plant in Ottawa for the irradiation of larger objects, such as sides of pork and stems of bananas. During 1963 the mobile irradiator, already a most useful tool, was made more versatile when its source strength was increased and it was equipped with a product cooling system and van air conditioning. Following these modifications, the unit was employed in California for the irradiation of a wide spectrum of fruits at the United States Department of Agriculture Station in Fresno. The Gammacell, mobile irradiator, shielded-room facility, the commercial food irradiator and some of the main food programmes are described in detail. There is an increasing amount of interest in irradiation by the food industry, and prospects are encouraging for future installations. (author)

  6. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  7. Born globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid......Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid...

  8. Global fordeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2015-01-01

    Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst......Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst...

  9. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  10. Global NATO or global partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Koschut, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...

  11. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  12. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the...

  13. The availability of irradiation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Solar radiation at ground level is a necessary input for performances modeling and sizing of PV systems. This document reports on the needs for data and discusses the problems faced by users when accessing data. It then presents some technological solutions. Users generally need values of global daily or hourly irradiation with a spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Relative errors (RMSE) of daily irradiation should be less than 20 %. Spatial coverage (continent) and temporal coverage are of importance. The data must be available conveniently at low cost. Several regional solar atlases have been made by interpolation of ground measurements, taking into account the local variation of climate. Satellite data produce irradiation maps offering a regular sampling in space and a wide geographical coverage. Time-series are also obtained by weather forecast models. Digital atlases have been created as integrated information system. These comprise a database and software to exploit it. The co-operative systems are connected with other servers that provide necessary weather data to compute solar radiation quantities. This survey of solar databases showed that in a general case, there is a discrepancy between users needs and available databases. This conclusion supports the efforts made in integrating information systems and co-operative systems to overcome the technical limits of measurements by using the information and communication technologies. (au)

  14. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials

  15. Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the SATIRE models employing SUSIM data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and conti...

  16. Global warming and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Dragoljub S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

  17. Global warming and greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Belić Dragoljub S.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

  18. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  19. Swelling and irradiation creep of neutron irradiated 316Ti and 15-15Ti steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global behavior, the swelling and irradiation creep resistances of cold worked 316Ti and 15-15Ti, two variants of austenitic steels in use as core component materials of the French fast reactors, are compared. The 15-15Ti leads to a significant improvement due to an increase in the incubation dose swelling. The same phenomena observed on 316Ti are found on 15-15Ti. All species without fuel like samples, wrappers or empty clad swell and creep less than fuel pin cladding irradiated in the same conditions. To explain the swelling difference, as for 316Ti, thermal gradient is also invoked but the irradiation creep difference is not yet clearly understood. To predict the behavior of clads it is indispensable to study the species themselves and to use specific rules. All results confirm the good behavior of 15-15Ti, the best behavior being obtained with the 1% Si doped version irradiated up to 115 dpa

  20. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  1. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  2. Irradiation effects on polycaprolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and some physical properties of γ-irradiated polycaprolactone (PCL), a semi-crystalline linear saturated polyester, were studied as function of the irradiation dose level. The critical dose level for gel formation is 26 Mrad and above this irradiation dose the number of scission events is similar to the number of crosslinking events. G.p.c. results show that the initial rather narrow molecular weight distribution gradually widens with increasing dose in the pre-gelation region. A significant difference between first and second d.s.c. scans of irradiated PCL is shown and explained. Scission and crosslinking reactions associated with the irradiation process occur preferentially in the non-ordered regions. Small irradiation doses, 2 to 5 Mrad, are shown to have a dramatic effect on the tensile elongation at break by converting ductile PCL samples into brittle materials. (author)

  3. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  4. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60Co and 137Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  5. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  6. Food irradiation. An alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to start a food irradiation program, one needs to perform some tests, such as: local handling problems, consumer acceptance and government licenses. At this point the cost of a special food irradiator can be considered a too high investment. It is proposed that for the irradiation of a few tons of several food items, a commercial irradiator for medical products sterilization be employed. With the use of an ''experimental loop'' and some special positions inside the irradiation chamber, it is possible to irradiate even potatoes and onions, at doses ranging from 100 Gy to 200 Gy. The quantities, depending on the source activity, can be around 300 kg per hour. For doses near 10 kGy, the normal procedure used for sterilization of medical products can be employed, while changing the cycle on the machine. In the case of an experimental loop within a JS-7400 (AECC) irradiator at a dose rate of 20 Gy per minute, around 200 kg of potatoes per hour can be irradiated. The experimental positions inside the chamber have a dose rate of 60 Gy per hour, and the batch capacity is 250 kg, so that 250 kg can be irradiated each 1,5 hour

  7. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  8. Mobile irradiation robot - computer modelling of the irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For irradiation of cultural objects, which are damaged by wood-destroying insects or fungi, with the automatized irradiation robot, the computer code MOBROB1 for irradiation planning was developed and is presented. (author)

  9. Global safety

    OpenAIRE

    DeTombe, Dorien J.

    2010-01-01

    Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy relat...

  10. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels....... The boundaries of firms and countries are increasingly porous and imprecise, because firms use alliances and outsourcing, and countries are rarely technologically self-sufficient. On the other hand, locations remain distinct and idiosyncratic, with innovation systems remaining largely nationally bound...... makers and managers on industrial policy as well as the organisation of research and development by firms....

  11. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  12. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    OpenAIRE

    L. Egli; Gröbner, J.; Hülsen, G.; Bachmann, L; M. Blumthaler; Dubard, J.; M. Khazova; R. Kift; K. Hoogendijk; A. Serrano; Smedley, A. R. D.; J.-M. Vilaplana

    2015-01-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost effective instruments and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP-ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines, a...

  13. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  14. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nanotechnology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  15. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  16. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  17. Food Irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, “kamaboko” (fish-paste products), “Vienna” sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given “unconditional acceptance” for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  18. Phase stability under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidences of radiation induced instability are described then it is shown what theoretical approaches are relevant. Radiation induced segregation and precipitation in alloys irradiated at constant chemical composition, precipitate re-solution, order-disorder transition under irradiation and amorphization are examined

  19. Global Sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mol; R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); P.R. Beije (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s international - or even global - outsourcing of intermediate products from suppliers has been propagated as a key means to improve the performance of firms. It is argued that becoming more lean and internationally focused is beneficial for the buyer as we

  20. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure to...

  1. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  2. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries.......This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably and...

  3. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  4. Globalizing America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Thomas L.; Boyd, Gavin

    An argument that globalization is an ungoverned integration process in which US firms are agents of structural change. It describes the benefits and costs (for example, generating pressure for protection of US home markets), and reviews the expansion of interdependencies between the US and others....

  5. Global militarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  6. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  7. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  8. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 900 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  10. Onion irradiation - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onion irradiation prevents sprouting associated with long term storage. Under the climatic conditions of Central Europe, only that part of onions should be irradiated which is needed to supply the domestic market during the months of May to July. Two types of irradiation plants, a bulk-irradiation and a multipurpose large-scale irradiation plant are used for onion irradiation. Technical data, throughput, cost-related parameters of onion irradiation are discussed. Onion irradiation for long term storage is beneficial to the national economy as well as to the business management. (author) 13 refs.; 11 tabs

  11. Irradiation of fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with the EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement), SCK-CEN irradiates several materials in the BR2 reactor at different temperatures and up to different doses to study their mechanical and physical properties during and after the irradiation. These materials are candidates for the construction of different parts of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) fusion reactor and of the long-term DEMO (DEMOnstration) reactor. The objectives of research at SCK-CEN in this area are: (1) to irradiate RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic Martensitic) steel joints and RAFM ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthening) at 300 degrees Celsius up to 2 dpa; (2) to irradiate RAFM steel and different FeCr alloys at 300 degrees C above 1.5 dpa; (3) to irradiate Beryllium and Tungsten specimen at 300 degress C up to 0.75 dpa; (4) to irradiate copper/stainless steel joints at 150 degrees C up to 0.1 dpa; (5) to perform in-situ creep-fatigue tests with CuCrZr specimens under neutron irradiation

  12. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  13. Economics of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews and evaluates current developments relating to the prospects for commercial food irradiation within the United States. The study, recognizes that one cannot generalize about the prospects for food irradiation either by process or product. Both technical and economic potentials vary widely for different food products subjected to the same or different types of treatment. Food irradiation processes and products are evaluated. Recent studies concerned with the economics of food irradiation are briefly reviewed and evaluated and findings and conclusions relating to economic potentials summarized. Industry reactions to a proposed pilot plant meat irradiator, sponsored by the U.S. Army and U.S. AEC and coordinated by the Department of Commerce, are discussed and factors which will determine the future direction, extent and commercial success of food preservation by ionizing irradiation are analysed. Developments in all these categories are essential for success, and if not achieved would be limiting factors. Nevertheless, the successful and profitable marketing of irradiated foods must finally be dependent upon customer acceptance and favourable cost versus benefit relations. Benefits will include lower costs and higher profits through spoilage reductions, extensions of shelf-life and shipping distances, market expansions, and quality Improvements. Ultimately, the economic success of this new technology must depend upon the clear demonstration that these benefits will exceed the additional processing costs by a margin sufficient to induce the necessary private investments and willingness to accept related risks in this new field. (author)

  14. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  15. Global Kamasan

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Campbell

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe painting tradition of Kamasan is often cited as an example of theresilience of traditional Balinese culture in the face of globalisation andthe emergence of new forms of art and material culture. This articleexplores the painting tradition of Kamasan village in East Bali and it’srelationship to the collecting of Balinese art. While Kamasan paintingretains important social and religious functions in local culture, thevillage has a history of interactions between global and local pl...

  16. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  17. Validation of the surface downwelling solar irradiance estimates of the HelioClim-3 database in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia Eissa; Mohamed Korany; Youva Aoun; Mohamed Boraiy; Magdy M. Abdel Wahab; Alfaro, Stephane C.; Philippe Blanc; Mossad El-Metwally; Hosni Ghedira; Katja Hungershoefer; Lucien Wald

    2015-01-01

    International audience HelioClim-3 (HC3) is a database providing time series of the surface downwelling solar irradiance that are computed from images of the Meteosat satellites. This paper presents the validation results of the hourly global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI), i.e., beam irradiance at normal incidence, of versions four and five of HC3 at seven Egyptian sites. The validation is performed for all-sky conditions, as well as cloud-free conditions. ...

  18. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  19. Irradiation in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which food irradiation takes place and the regulations governing the process in America, Brazil, Chile, and European countries is reported. The development and operation of a pilot plant built in Holland to test the application of the process to the sterilization of medical supplies and certain foods and the setting up and operation, by Gammester, of a special food irradiation plant in 1982, is described. In this plant 36 foods, mainly dry ingredients such as spices, dried vegetables, egg powder and blood proteins are irradiated. Research looks promising for the future. The implementation of international legal acceptance and more public information is stressed. (U.K.)

  20. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs

  1. Global solar irradiation in Italy during 1994 : monthly average daily values for 1614 sites estimated from Meteosat images; Radiazione solare globale al suolo in Italia nel 1994 : valori medi mensili per 1.614 localita` italiane stimate a partire dalle immagini fornite dal satellite Meteosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliani, E.; Mancini, M.; Petrarca, S.; Spinelli, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-10-01

    The global solar radiation over Italy is estimated from Meteosat secondary images in the visible band. The stimation method relies on the fact that the cloud cover on a given area of the Earth`s surface statistically determines the amount of solar radiation falling on that area. Estimated values of the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface for the 1994 have been compared with values computed from data measured by the stations of the two Italian radiation networks: the Meteorological Service of the Italian Air Force and the National Agrometeorological Network (a total of 36 stations have been considered). The mean percentage difference between estimated and computed values over the year is 6 per cent. In the present report, the monthly maps of radiation over Italy and the estimated monthly average daily values for over 1600 sites (having more than 10,000 inhabitants) are given. In the yearly reports to be issued in the years to come, maps and mean values over the period starting with 1994 will be given as well.

  2. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiated foods and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have shown no reluctance to buy irradiated food products. 4 refs

  3. Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60Co and 137Cs γ-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

  4. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  5. Food irradiation : ACA inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The executive summary of the report on food irradiation by the Australian Consumers' Association is presented. The key issues which emerged during the inquiry are summarised including safety controls, wholesomeness, the environment, consumer rights and economic considerations

  6. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  7. Economics of food irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, J

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed. PMID:6759046

  8. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  9. Food irradiation in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  10. Innovations in irradiator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years industry has demanded certain changes in irradiator design to meet the needs of the medical manufacturers, and as well service the requirements of new applications for irradiation. The medical manufacturers have, in certain cases, been tending toward larger capacity machines with higher efficiencies to take advantage of economies of scale. Other parts of the industry have been demanding a truly ''Multipurpose'' facility which can process many varied types of products. Coupled with these machine changes there has been an increase in demand for more comprehensive logging of the irradiation process. This has spawned development of several styles of computer monitoring, control and logging systems. This paper will discuss these topics in more detail in order to give some insight into the ''state of the art'' within the irradiator design industry. (author)

  11. Global Noise and Global Englishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Pennycook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, alluding to Tricia Rose’s US rap-music book, Black Noise, aims to do much more than merely extend the reach of the study of rap and hip-hop beyond the USA, as its subtitle might suggest. While acknowledging the importance of the work of both Rose and Potter, this collection’s editor, Tony Mitchell, contests their respective views that rap and hip-hop are essentially expressions of African-American culture, and that all forms of rap and hip-hop derive from these origins. He argues that these forms have become ‘a vehicle for global youth affiliations and a tool for reworking local iden- tity all over the world’.

  12. Dosimetry for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry

  13. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  14. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  15. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  16. Proton irradiation of EMCCDs

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, DR; Ingley, R.; Holland, AD

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the irradiation of 95 electron multiplication charge coupled devices (EMCCDs) at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland, to investigate the effects of proton irradiation on the operational characteristics of CCDs featuring electron multiplication technology for space use. This work was carried out in support of the CCD development for the radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) instrument of the European Space Agency's cornerstone Gaia mission. Previous proton irradia...

  17. Are natural climate forcings able to counteract the projected anthropogenic global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, C; van Ypersele, J.P.; Berger, A.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional global climate model is used to assess the climatic changes associated with the new IPCC SRES emissions scenarios and to determine which kind of changes in total solar irradiance and volcanic perturbations could mask the projected anthropogenic global warming associated to the SRES scenarios. Our results suggest that only extremely unlikely changes in total solar irradiance and/or volcanic eruptions would be able to overcome the simulated anthropogenic global warming over th...

  18. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  19. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  20. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Beenstock, M; Y. Reingewertz; N. Paldor

    2012-01-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcing...

  1. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    M. Beenstock; Y. Reingewertz; N. Paldor

    2012-01-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are st...

  2. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  3. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  4. Consumer response to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods, consumer acceptance would be a major factor in the successful commercialization of irradiation technology. One way to remove the misconceptions about irradiated foods is to serve the food items prepared from irradiated foods to consumers and gauge their response. To evaluate the public perception on irradiated foods, a survey was conducted in various scientific symposia and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre canteens covering a wide spectrum of consumers

  5. Performance validation of an irradiance redistribution guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Allan; Bingham, Carl; Shatz, Narkis E.; Bortz, John C.

    1997-10-01

    Science Applications International Corporation has used a unique nonimaging-optical global optimization computer code, NICOS, to design an innovative secondary concentrator for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). NICOS allows for the optimal design of such devices to achieve a variety of irradiance distributions on a desired target. The case of interest to NREL called for a uniform irradiance of concentrated sunlight over a relatively large area and at a reasonable working distance from the exit of the device. Because the irradiance at the nominal focal point of NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) was reshaped from a near- Gaussian distribution to a nearly uniform one, the designs generated have been called irradiance redistribution guides (IRG). A design featuring reentrant optics was selected for fabrication and testing. This IRG has been fabricated and tested at the HFSF to compare predicted and measured performance. The IRG's performance is close to the theoretical predictions. Much of the performance difference can be explained by discrepancies between the actual HFSF performance relative to that assumed in the NICOS predictions. This IRG will be useful for applications in which uniform solar concentration at moderate flux is required. In general, the design methodology and resulting devices can provide a new way to satisfy diverse flux tailoring needs.

  6. Stochastic daily solar irradiance for biological modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic daily weather generators commonly used for biological modeling applications do not adequately reproduce empirical distributions of global solar irradiance. The daily clearness index, the ratio of daily global-to-extraterrestrial irradiance, captures the stochastic component of solar irradiance due to atmospheric conditions. Three alternative models of daily solar irradiance (truncated Gaussian distributions, a proposed modification based on logit-transformed relative clearness, and a family of empirically derived distributions) conditioned on the occurrence of rain are described and evaluated using data from 10 U.S. locations. These models are presented in terms of monthly cumulative distributions and density functions of clearness. Strong non-normality of distributions of clearness, and improved fits obtained with a logit transformation, are demonstrated. The proposed model, based on a logit transformation of relative clearness, was superior to the other two in terms of Akaike's information criterion, and generally superior to the standard model based on truncated Gaussian distributions in terms of goodness of fit between observed and generated irradiances. Based on this evidence, the proposed model is recommended for stochastic generation of daily irradiance conditioned on daily rainfall occurrence and temperature extremes. (author)

  7. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  9. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  10. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  11. Global Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Asal, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Alors que la littérature sur le sujet demeure lacunaire en France, les ouvrages en anglais portant sur l’islamophobie se sont multipliés de manière significative ces dernières années. De qualités inégales, ces publications montrent, si ce n’est l’intérêt du public, du moins celui du monde de l’édition pour ce sujet. L’ouvrage collectif Global Islamophobia, Muslims and Moral Panic in the West, dirigé par George Morgan and Scott Poynting, paru aux éditions Ashgate en 2012, se démarque par son a...

  12. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

  13. Going Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    asset-holding trust from a tool of medieval English landowners into a mainstay of contemporary international finance. Drawing on interviews with 61 wealth management professionals in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, this article uses their accounts of the diffusion and deployment of trusts to......This study links theories of relationality and institutional change to deepen understanding of professionals’ role in globalization. In previous institutional research, it has been conventional to treat professionals as agents of firms or transnational organizations, and institutional change as the...... result of planned, strategic ‘professional projects’. By bringing a relational analysis to bear on the problem of institutional change, this study reasserts the theoretical significance of individual agency and everyday interactions between professionals and their clients, peers, and organizational...

  14. Spatially Resolved Images and Solar Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Kariyappa

    2008-03-01

    The Sun is the primary source of energy that governs both the terrestrial climate and near-earth space environment. Variations in UV irradiances seen at earth are the sum of global (solar dynamo) to regional (active region, plage, network, bright points and background) solar magnetic activities that can be identified through spatially resolved photospheric, chromospheric and coronal features. In this research, the images of CaII K-line (NSO/Sac Peak) have been analysed to segregate the various chromospheric features.We derived the different indices and estimated their contribution from the time series data to total CaII K emission flux and UV irradiance variability. A part of the important results from this research is discussed in this paper.

  15. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163

  16. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  17. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  18. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements

  19. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  20. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  1. CONCEPTUAL PAPER : Utilization of GPS Satellites for Precise Irradiation Measurement and Monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Vijayan

    2008-03-01

    Precise measurement of irradiance over the earth under various circumstances like solar flares, coronal mass ejections, over an 11-year solar cycle, etc. leads to better understanding of Sun–earth relationship. To continuously monitor the irradiance over earth-space regions several satellites at several positions are required. For that continuous and multiple satellite monitoring we can use GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites (like GLONASS, GALILEO, future satellites) installed with irradiance measuring and monitoring instruments. GPS satellite system consists of 24 constellations of satellites. Therefore usage of all the satellites leads to 24 measurements of irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (or 12 measurements of those satellites which are pointing towards the Sun) at an instant. Therefore in one day, numerous irradiance observations can be obtained for the whole globe, which will be very helpful for several applications like Albedo calculation, Earth Radiation Budget calculation, monitoring of near earth-space atmosphere, etc. Moreover, measuring irradiance both in ground (using ground instruments) and in space at the same instant of time over a same place, leads to numerous advantages. That is, for a single position we obtain irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, irradiance at ground and the difference in irradiance from over top of the atmosphere to the ground. Measurement of irradiance over the atmosphere and in ground at a precise location gives more fine details about the solar irradiance influence over the earth, path loss and interaction of irradiance with the atmosphere.

  2. Can chemical transport models improve global horizontal irradiance forecasts?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Konár, Ondřej; Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Pelikán, Emil; Eben, Kryštof

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-404. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : renewable energy * mathematical modeling Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  3. Irradiation of grains and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of food irradiation to extend the storage life and improve the hygienic quality of rice, mungbean and spices was tested by direct involvement with related food industries. The test consisted of storage trials of irradiated rice under commercial conditions, market testing of irradiated food, and a trial irradiation of commercial products. A consumer acceptance test was conducted using a group of educated people from 3 universities. To prove the safety of food irradiation conducted under appropriately controlled conditions, additional data on vitamin B content and the physico-chemical properties of irradiated rice, as well as free radical activity in irradiated rice, mungbean and spices were collected during this study. The results indicated that rice packaged in polyethylene pouch and irradiated up to 1 kGy could be stored for more than 1 year without insect damage. The colour of irradiated rice was slightly darker than that of unirradiated control, but was still acceptable. The vitamin B content of rice irradiated with such a dose was not significantly changed. Many food companies have recognized the ability of food irradiation, but this technology is not well understood by the general public. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy can be recommended as maximum dose to decontaminate rice of certain bacteria. Free radicals produced in irradiated rice, mungbean and spice will disappear within 1 month following irradiation. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 10 tabs

  4. Dosimetry of neutron irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry of neutron irradiation appears to be of great difficulty due to the multiparametric aspect of the relative biological effectiveness and the heterogeneity of the neutron dose distribution. Dosimetry by sodium 24 activation which can be performed by means of portable radiameters appears to be very useful for early triage within the 3 h following neutron irradiation, whereas hematological dosimetry by slope and level analysis of the lymphocyte drop cannot be used in this case. Chromosomic aberration analysis allows to evaluate the neutron dose heterogeneity by the frequency measurement of acentric fragments not originating from the formation of dicentrics or rings. Finally, recent experimental data on large primate models (baboons) have shown that some plasma hemostasia factors appear to be reliable biological indicators and noticeable markers of the prognosis of neutron irradiation

  5. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors

  6. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  8. Irradiation induced kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-one patients with Wilms tumor treated by irradiation and chemotherapy were studied. Despite the fact that multiple portals for irradiation were used, each crossing the midline, the amount of irradiation delivered to different parts of the vertebral body varied and it was this variation in delivered dose which produced axial skeletal deformities in 70% of the patients. Of the 57 patients with these deformities, 32 had scoliosis, 22 kyphoscoliosis and 3 patients pure kyphosis; 12 patients had a kyphotic deformity of over 25 degrees, 7 patients requiring surgical correction. A high incidence of pseudarthrosis following posterior fusion has led to the preference of a 2-stage procedure, anterior interbody fusion followed by a posterior fusion with Harrington rods after 2 weeks of correction in halo femoral traction

  9. Irradiation induced kyphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riseborough, E.J.

    1977-10-01

    Eighty-one patients with Wilms tumor treated by irradiation and chemotherapy were studied. Despite the fact that multiple portals for irradiation were used, each crossing the midline, the amount of irradiation delivered to different parts of the vertebral body varied and it was this variation in delivered dose which produced axial skeletal deformities in 70% of the patients. Of the 57 patients with these deformities, 32 had scoliosis, 22 kyphoscoliosis and 3 patients pure kyphosis; 12 patients had a kyphotic deformity of over 25 degrees, 7 patients requiring surgical correction. A high incidence of pseudarthrosis following posterior fusion has led to the preference of a 2-stage procedure, anterior interbody fusion followed by a posterior fusion with Harrington rods after 2 weeks of correction in halo femoral traction.

  10. Food irradiation - general aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes research and development experience in food irradiation followed by commercial utilisation of multi-purpose plants. The main design objectives should be high efficiency and uniform dose. Particular care must be given to dosimetry and the use of plastic dosimeters is described. Capital outlay for a 1 MCi Cobalt 60 irradiator is estimated to be 2.5 million dollars giving a unit processing cost of 0.566 dollars/ft3 of throughput for 8000 hour/year use at a dose of 25 kGy. (2.5 Mrad). The sale of irradiated food for human consumption in Britain is not yet permitted but it is expected that enabling legislation will be introduced towards the end of 1985

  11. Food irradiation and the chemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food Irradiation and the Chemist reviews the chemical challenges facing the food industry regarding food irradiation, especially in the key area of detection methodology. The book looks at the most promising techniques currently available for the detection of irradiated foods and discusses their suitability to different food groups. It also covers the latest work on the effect of irradiation on polymer additives, potential taint from irradiated food contact plastics, the effects of irradiation on micro-organisms and their biochemistry, and much more... (author)

  12. Effects of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The midday depression of CO2 assimilation in leaves of two cultivars of hazelnut. Effect of UV-B radiation on decay kinetics of long-term delayed luminiscence of green algae Scenedesmus quadricuda. Effects of irradiance on biomass allocation and needle photosynthetic capacity in silver fir seedlings originating from different localities. Chlorophyll fluorescence of UV-B irradiated bean leaves subjected to chilling in light. Preliminary studies on susceptibility of selected varieties of oats to high UV-B radiation dose. Influence of light conditions on oxidative stress in maize callus

  13. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  14. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F0 animals and growth and development of the F1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  15. Materials response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of metals, e.g. due to the embrittlement necessitate irradiation experiments with HTR-specific neutron spectra. These experiments help to determine materials behaviour and establish basic data for design and safety testing, especially with a view to the high fluence and temperature loads on absorber cans. The experiments are carried out up to maximum operational fluence (>= 1022nsub(th)/cm2). Results so far have shown the importance of the materials structure for assurance of sufficient residual ductility after irradiation. Secondary experiments, e.g. on He implantation and radiation response of the absorber material B4C, are mentioned. (orig.)

  16. Food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on food irradiation processing dealing with issues which affect the commercial introduction of the food irradiation process was held in Vienna in 1985. The symposium, which attracted close to 300 participants, was planned to interest not only scientists and food technologists, but also representatives of government agencies, the food industry, trade associations and consumer organizations. The symposium included a discussion of the technological and economic feasibility of applying ionizing energy for the preservation of food, and focused on the specific needs of developing countries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  17. Serum magnesium and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum magnesium determinations were obtained on 10 dogs and 11 patients undergoing fractionated irradiation to the pelvis and lower abdomen. Five of the dogs received oral prednisone during irradiation. There was no significant change in magnesium concentration in either the control dogs or the patients, but there was a significant increase in stool frequency in both the dogs and patients. A significant increase in magnesium concentration was noted in the dogs receiving prednisone. It is concluded that radiation-induced diarrhea is not caused by reduced serum magnesium concentration

  18. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  19. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs

  20. Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF. For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is −4 W m−2 (−1 % with a standard deviation of 101 W m−2 (20 %. The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than −12 W m−2 (−2 % for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m−2 (12 %. The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

  1. Globalization Measurement: Notes on Common Globalization Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    SAMIMI, Parisa; Guan Choo LIM; Abdul Aziz BUANG

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a broad concept casually used to describe a variety of phenomena that reflect increased economic, social and political interdependence of countries. Despite the increasing awareness on globalization, it is interesting to note that there is no any universally accepted definition and there is no standard measurement for globalization. Along with the growing number of countries participating in globalized world, there have been increasing concerns related to the globalization an...

  2. cambio global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un avance significativo dentro del área de la ecología sólo se podrá lograr con la adopción generalizada de un sistema basado en el uso compartido de los datos entre científicos. Esta práctica, apoyada por el desarrollo de metadatos precisos que acompañen a los propios datos, conseguirá aumentar la escala temporal y espacial de los objetos de estudio, ventajas evidentes en un área en la que cuestiones de carácter global como el estudio de los efectos del cambio climático van adquiriendo cada vez mayor importancia. En la actualidad existen numerosos grupos de científicos que trabajan voluntariamente en el desarrollo de herramientas que faciliten a los científicos la documentación y el almacenaje de sus datos. Asimismo, Internet está demostrando ser un potente instrumento para compartirlos. Aprovechar estos recursos es decisión nuestra.

  3. Consumer opinions in Argentina on food irradiation: irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two surveys were carried out in Buenos Aires of consumer attitudes towards irradiated onions [no data given]. The first investigated the general level of consumer knowledge concerning food irradiation, whilst the second (which covered consumers who had actually bought irradiated onions) examined reasons for purchase and consumer satisfaction. Results reveal that more than 90% of consumers surveyed had a very limited knowledge of food irradiation

  4. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  5. Food irradiation and consumer values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mail survey technique was used to determine if value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters could distinguish between subjects expressing different levels of concern and willingness to buy irradiated food. Concern toward irradiated food was lower than concern for other food safety issues, probably because many expressed uncertainty regarding irradiation. Those ranking the value “an ecologically balanced world” expressed the greatest irradiation concern. Factors which could predict high irradiation concern were being highly concerned about the use of chemical sprays on food, completing more formal education and being female; those believing that life was controlled by luck were less concerned. Irradiation concern was a principal factor determining willingness to buy irradiated foods. Innovative consumers were more likely to try irradiated foods than noninnovative. Implications for consumer education are presented

  6. Phytosanitary Applications of Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so that the commodities can be shipped out of quarantined areas. Ionizing irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is increasing in use worldwide. Almost 19 000 metric tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits plus a small amount of curry leaf are irradiated each year in 6 countries, including the United States, to control a number of plant quarantine pests. Advantages over other treatments include tolerance by most fresh commodities, ability to treat in the final packaging and in pallet loads, and absence of pesticide residues. Disadvantages include lack of acceptance by the organic food industries and logistical bottlenecks resulting from current limited availability of the technology. A regulatory disadvantage is lack of an independent verification of treatment efficacy because pests may be found alive during commodity inspection, although they will not complete development or reproduce. For phytosanitary treatments besides irradiation, the pests die shortly after the treatment is concluded. This disadvantage does not hamper its use by industry, but rather makes the treatment more difficult to develop and regulate. Challenges to increase the use of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) are cost, because commercial use has not yet reached an optimum economy of scale, lack of facilities, because of their cost and current inability to feasibly locate them in packing facilities, lack of approved treatments for some quarantine pests, and concern about the process by key decision makers, such as packers, shippers, and retailers. Methods for overcoming these challenges are discussed. (author)

  7. Irradiation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem faced by spice producing countries and by the food industry using these spices as ingredients are facing the problem of their high contamination with pathogenic and non pathogenic microorganisms, which create public health and product-deterioration problems. After discussing the conventional methods of decontamination, which result either in organoleptic losses (heat and extracts) or in toxic residues (fumigants), the advantages of the irradiation treatment are presented. This procedure is direct, simple to administer and control, and highly efficient. Doses of 3-7 kGy have been proven to reduce the microbial load to satisfactory levels, without affecting the organoleptic characteristics, whereas the surviving microflora is more sensitive to the subsequent food processing treatments. Irradiation can be administered in the commercial packages, which leads to considerable energy and personnel savings, while preventing subsequent recontamination. The increasing demand for high microbial quality in spices makes it easier for the food industry to afford the irradiation treatment costs. The wholesomeness of irradiated spices has been demonstrated by a group of experts of WHO, FAO and IAEA, and the treatment has been promulgated by Codex Alimentarius and been cleared by a number of national health authorities, including the U.S. F.D.A. The number of clearances is steadily increasing and so is the commercial use

  8. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  9. Irradiation effects on zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a water cooled reactor, the neutron effect on zirconium base alloys which are used in the core, is a twofold one: - indirect effect, by means of modifications to the alloy environment; - direct effect occurence of irradiation defects in the material. The indirect effect results in an increase of the water corrosion, as a consequence of the water radiolysis and in stress-corrosion, due to fission products such as iodine, cesium, cadmium... The paper will describe the consequence of these phenomena and the means used to remedy their harmfull effects. The occurence of irradiation defects has three consequence: - Material strenghening: the yield and ultimate stresses are increased by 45 and 35% respectively for the cold worked and stress-relieved zircaloy while the uniform elongation, rather low before irradiation, practically does not decrease (fluence 5.1021 n/cm2). Yield and ultimate stresses of annealed zircaloy are increased by about 150% while uniform elongation decreases from 8 to 1% in the same conditions. - Material growing it is a change in dimensions in the absence of any applied stress. It depends on the cristallography texture, metallurgical state of the material and irradiation temperature. - Material creeping: in the normal working conditions of a reactor, it is the main source of deformation. It depends on temperature, stress, neutron flux and metallurgical state of the material

  10. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  11. Photochromism in irradiated diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photochromism exhibited at low temperatures in the absorption line at 1.521 eV in electron-irradiated type IIb diamond is described and understood in terms of a simple model. Energy and temperature dependences of the photoconversion process are discussed briefly. (author)

  12. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  13. Update on meat irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at ∼2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry

  14. Radiation irradiation test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a method of irradiating radiation (rays) to a test piece by using an actual powder of nuclear fuel material. Namely, the test piece is sealed in an inner and outer double-walled bag of a radiation-permeable polymer film to form an irradiation specimen. The irradiation specimen is placed at a predetermined position of a glove box for a predetermined period of time, and necessary irradiation is performed. The outer bag is cut out, and the test piece in the inner bag not deposited with radioactive material is obtained. This is transported out of the glove box by using a bag-out method. The test piece sealed in the inner bag can be taken out by cutting out the inner bag in an operation hood capable of preventing scattering of radioactive materials. The bag-out method mentioned herein is a method of taking out radioactive materials or materials contaminated by the radioactive materials in the glove box after sealing them in a vinyl chloride bag by welding. (I.S.)

  15. Pituitary irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha particle pituitary irradiation program continues to be a major research project at Donner Pavilion. A study to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia in a large series of acromegalic subjects was undertaken. The relationships between plasma levels of growth hormone and prolactin, sellar volume, duration of acromegaly, and age at time of evaluation were investigated

  16. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  17. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  18. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  19. Process for irradiation of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of polyethylene affects its processabiltiy in the fabrication of products and affects the properties of products already fabricated. The present invention relates to a process for the irradiation of polyethylene, and especially to a process for the irradiation of homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher α-olefins, in the form of granules, with low levels of electron or gamma irradiation in the presence of an atomsphere of steam

  20. Economics of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To-day very reliable irradiation equipment is available, and for an industrialist it is largely an economic consideration whether he should go in for an otherwise acceptable irradiation processing. In Denmark an industrial concern has now found it economically justifiable to establish a multi-purpose industrial plant, equipped with an American linac, and this facility will be able to process food.l To date, few plants in the world have recorded actual cost experiences for industrial food processing, but cost figures from other fields may serve as a guide. In practical calculations it is convenient to divide the work into certain typical groups, e.g. facilities for ''bulk'', ''medium'', ''thin'', and ''multi-purpose'', but food products may come under any of these headings. Costs of irradiation depend on product properties, type of plant, annual and monthly quantities, doses, control standards, special requirements for re-packing or other additional handling, etc. Definite figures for a particular case must be based on an exact calculation, but for a preliminary judgement many general price-range indications are available to the industrialist, and for a variety of purposes it is already evident that irradiation processing is economically sound. Apart from plant economy it is advisable for the industrialist to study some general commercial problems also, such as consumer preference and marketing structure, for the commodity in question. This can often best be done by marketing a pilot production of some quantity, before final decisions are taken regarding major investments in highly-specialized equipment. For some products market testing has already been done with good results by existing research or production facilities, and indeed actual commercial marketing has been reported. In conclusion, many food irradiation processes seem to be promising from an economic point of view. (author)

  1. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  2. Onion irradiation - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of onions (Allium cepa L.) serves to prevent sprouting associated with long-term storage or transport and storage of onions in climatic conditions which stimulate sprouting. JECFI the Joint Expert Committee for Food Irradiation of FAO/IAEA/WHO, recommended the application of an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy for sprout inhibition with onions. (author)

  3. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  4. Post-irradiation effects in polyethylenes irradiated under various atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a large amount of polymer free radicals remain trapped after irradiation of polymers, the post-irradiation effects may result in a significant alteration of physical properties during long-term shelf storage and use. In the case of polyethylenes (PEs) some failures are attributed to the post-irradiation oxidative degradation initiated by the reaction of residual free radicals (mainly trapped in crystal phase) with oxygen. Oxidation products such as carbonyl groups act as deep traps and introduce changes in carrier mobility and significant deterioration in the PEs electrical insulating properties. The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied; previously, the post-irradiation behaviour of the PEs was investigated after the irradiation in air (Suljovrujic, 2010). In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of different irradiation media on the post-irradiation behaviour, the samples were irradiated in air and nitrogen gas, to an absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The annealing treatment of irradiated PEs, which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals, is used in this study, too. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to the difference in the initial structure of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity etc.), to the changes induced by irradiation in different media and to the post-irradiation changes induced by storage of the samples in air. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in the free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively. - Highlights: • The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE, was studied. • In order to investigate influence of different irradiation media on post-irradiation behaviour, samples

  5. Food irradiation as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of multiplicity of invertebrate pests of fresh and durable agricultural products which are treaded internationally there are frequent instances were products are unacceptable without an approved prior disinfestation treatment. The majority of these pests are regulated by quarantine inspections at the ports of exit and entry. Where there is risk of rejection of products if quarantine pests are found at inspection it is frequently prudent to apply a disinfestation treatment. Control of these pests in agriculture produce by fumigation is no longer desirable from the points of human health and global environment. Irradiation could be feasible and practical alternative with a broad applicability to commodities and pests. Quarantine disinfestation of most agricultural products seems to be achievable at the recommended generic dose of 300 Gy. Because irradiation applied at doses ranging about 300 Gy does not cause immediate mortality of all insects, mites or nematodes, live pests could be present after treatment of agricultural produce intended for international trade. In such case a marker of irradiation that is easily applied may be very useful in allaying concerns of some quarantine inspectors that inevitably occur when a living insect of quarantine importance is found in a shipment. (author)

  6. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  7. Storage of pork by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the study of storage of pork, irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays, is recommended. The changes of the appearance and the main qualitative indexes of pork, irradiated with 1.5 M rad radiation and after two month's storage, were analysed. The evaluation of storage, transportation and nutritional acceptability of the two kinds of irradiated pork products was made. Systematic toxicological tests of rats and dogs, fed with irradiated pork, were given. The comparison of the economic facilitation of refrigerated pork and irradiated pork was made. (author)

  8. Safety aspects of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological and microbiological safety of irradiated foods has been established after extensive research over a period of 30 years. No radioactivity can be induced in foods with the radioisotopes used to irradiate produce. The lethal effects of gamma irradiation on spoilage and pathogenic bacteria as well as insects and parasites, ensure a product of superior quality with regard to maintaining quality and hygiene. Feeding studies of unprecedented scope in the history of food research also proved the toxicological safety of irradiated foods. These findings are supported by recent short-term studies on toxicity and mutagenicity. The production and marketing of irradiated foods are therefore warranted and have indeed started worldwide

  9. Industrial application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past three years the author has been irradiating foodstuffs with the Gammaster facility which was originally designed for the sterilization of medical equipment. A great diversity of products have been irradiated. In spite of some limitations of the facility, the process has proved to be very satisfactory. The technology for medical sterilization is directly applicable. At present, besides the sterilization of medical equipment, an average of twenty tonnes of foodstuffs, mainly spices, grains, herbs and fish products, are being irradiated every week. The Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation handles a similar quantity. The construction of the JS 7200, the JS 8500, and the JS 9000 irradiator is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  11. Temperature and upwelling / downwelling irradiance data from drifting buoy in the Southern Oceans as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study/Southern Ocean (JGOFS/Southern Ocean) project, from 1994-12-25 to 1998-06-28 (NODC Accession 9900183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and upwelling / downwelling irradiance data were collected using drifting buoy in the Southern Oceans from December 25, 1994 to June 28, 1998. Data were...

  12. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, M.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperat...

  13. An assessment of the solar irradiance record for climate studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp Greg

    2014-01-01

    Total solar irradiance, the spatially and spectrally integrated radiant output from the Sun at a mean Sun-Earth distance of 1 astronomical unit, provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system. Variations in this energy, particularly over long time scales, contribute to changes in Earth’s climate and have been linked to historical glaciation and inter-glacial periods as well as having a small effect on more recent global warming. Accurate measurements of solar irradiances re...

  14. Market Trials of Irradiated Spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objectives of the experiment were to disseminate irradiated retail foods to the domestic publics and to test consumer acceptance on irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper. Market trials of irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper were carried out at 2 local markets and 4 in Bangkok and Nontaburi in 2005-2007. Before the start of the experiment, processing room, gamma irradiation room and labels of the products were approved by Food and Drug Administration, Thailand. 50 grams of irradiated products were packaged in plastic bags for the market trials. 688 and 738 bags of ground chilli and ground pepper were sold, respectively. Questionnaires distributed with the products were commented by 59 consumers and statistically analyzed by experimental data pass program. 88.1 and 91.4 percents of the consumers were satisfied with the quality and the price, respectively. 79.7% of the consumers chose to buy irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper because they believed that the quality of irradiated products were better than that of non-irradiated ones. 91.5% of the consumers would certainly buy irradiated chilli and pepper again. Through these market trials, it was found that all of the products were sold out and the majority of the consumers who returned the questionnaires was satisfied with the irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper and also had good attitude toward irradiated foods

  15. Biological Effects of Irradiated Fats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed with a diet containing 20% of irradiated oils. If the oils were irradiated with 2.5 Mrad, there was no indication of detrimental effects during the course of 80 weeks. Oils irradiated with 10 Mrad, however, caused an increase in lethality after a lag period of 9 to 12 months. Irradiation with 50 Mrad caused weight losses after 24 weeks, disturbed liver function, and hypoproteinaemia, with a relative increase in gamma globulins. No animal of this group exceeded a life-span of 75 weeks. Irradiation with 100 Mrad caused immediate toxic symptoms and a high lethality. There is no indication that peroxides are responsible for the toxicity of the irradiated oils. Because of the high content of dimeric products in the irradiated oils, it is assumed that dimerization of fatty acids is the cause of damage. (author)

  16. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 00C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -800C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature. (orig.)

  17. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 00C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -800C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperture. (orig.)

  18. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  19. Thermoluminescence of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes developments and applications of the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of mineral contaminants in foods. Procedures are presented to obtain minerals from most different products such as pepper, mangos, shrimps and mussels. The effect of light exposure during the storage of foods on the TL intensity of minerals is examined and corresponding conclusions for routine control are drawn. It is also shown that the normalization of TL intensities - the essential step to identify irradiated samples - can not only be achieved by γ, X or β rays but also by UV radiation. The results allow the conclusion that a clear identification of any food which has been irradiated with more than 1 kGy is possible if enough minerals can be isolated. (orig.)

  20. Identification of irradiated seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the use of ionising radiation for the treatment and preservation of food is increasing throughout the world. Foods are treated with ionising radiation to decrease microbial and insect infestations, inhibit maturation and extend shelf-life. Ionising radiation can be used in place of, or in conjunction with, chemical treatment and other processes currently used to preserve foods. The treatment of food by ionising radiation is accepted for specific purposes in several countries, although in other countries the sale of irradiated food for human consumption is prohibited. It would be advantageous if a method was available to determine whether a commercial food has been treated with ionising radiation and is within regulatory limitations for permissible food types and maximum allowable absorbed dose. Because of differences in the composition of the food commodities that potentially could be treated by irradiation, several analytical procedures will probably have to be developed. (author)

  1. Safety of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Shigeo (Foods Medicines Safety Center (Japan)); Kobayashi, Kazuo

    1983-01-01

    The safety of 7 irradiated foods (potato, onion, rice, wheat, vienna sausage, fish paste and mandarine orange), in terms of 2-year long-term toxic effect, reproductive physiology and possible teratogenesis, was studied using 3 generations of rats, mice and monkeys. The genetic toxicity was studied by means of various mutagenicity tests. The details of the studies conducted by the authors to date and some overseas data were reported. The available data showed no toxic effect.

  2. Safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of 7 irradiated foods (potato, onion, rice, wheat, vienna sausage, fish paste and mandarine orange), in terms of 2-year long-term toxic effect, reproductive physiology and possible teratogenesis, was studied using 3 generations of rats, mice and monkeys. The genetic toxicity was studied by means of various mutagenicity tests. The details of the studies conducted by the authors to date and some overseas data were reported. The available data showed no toxic effect. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  4. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  5. GLOBALIZATION IN WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative

  6. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has disintegrat

  7. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...

  8. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so that the commodities can be shipped out of quarantined areas. Ionizing irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is in- creasing in use worldwide. Almost 19000 metric tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits plus a small amount of curry leaf are irradiated each year in 6 countries, including the United States, to control a number of plant quarantine pests. Advantages over other treatments include tolerance by most fresh commodities, ability to treat in the final packaging and in pallet loads, and absence of pesticide residues. A regulatory disadvantage is lack of an independent verification of treatment efficacy because pests may be found alive during commodity inspection, although they will not complete development or reproduce. High-energy X-rays generated by electron beam are ideal for sterilizing large packages and pallet loads of food. The directional concentration and high penetration capability as well as excellent dose uniformity of X-rays allows disinfest efficiently. Application of irradiation phytosanitary in China still in its infancy. (authors)

  9. Genomic instability following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)

  10. Genomic instability following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)

  11. Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol

  12. The Evidence on Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is blamed for many socio-economic shortcomings. I discuss the consequences of globalization by surveying the empirical globalization literature. My focus is on the KOF indices of globalization (Dreher 2006a and Dreher et al. 2008a), that have been used in more than 100 studies. Early studies using the KOF index reported correlations between globalization and several outcome variables. Studies published more recently identify causal effects. The evidence shows that globalization ...

  13. Security Components of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Iftode

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contrib...

  14. Estimating PV Module Performance over Large Geographical Regions: The Role of Irradiance, Air Temperature, Wind Speed and Solar Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Huld; Ana M. Gracia Amillo

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of how photovoltaic (PV) module performance varies on continental scale. Mathematical models have been used to take into account shallow-angle reflectivity, spectral sensitivity, dependence of module efficiency on irradiance and module temperature as well as how the module temperature depends on irradiance, ambient temperature and wind speed. Spectrally resolved irradiance data retrieved from satellite images are combined with temperature and wind speed data from global com...

  15. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, I; Prokert, F; Scholz, A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments.

  16. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments. (orig.)

  17. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  18. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  19. Food irradiation - the retailer's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During October-November 1978 consignments of irradiated and non-irradiated strawberries were offered for sale in three branches of OK Bazaars. Samples were also subjected to simulated store conditions and the shelf life of both irradiated and non-irradiated packs determined. Irradiated packs were unaffected by decay until the 15th day of storage while the non-irradiated packs started to show signs of decay on the 7th day and were totally contaminated with fungus by the 14th day. In general, the response from the public was one of extreme interest and was to a large extent reflected in the encouraging sales. In March 1979, storage trials were carried out on green and ripe Keitt mangoes. The results of the trials show a marked increase in the shelf life of irradiated mangoes. The problems which exist with regard to the quality of fresh mangoes, namely anthracnose, soft brown rot and mango weevil, were all effectively controlled by irradiation. It must be realised that irradiation is no panacea and is not a substitute for other methods of food preservation. Any future marketing trials must be carried out using exclusively irradiated fruit. The customer must have the opportunity of 'seeing' the better fruit and not comparing it with other fruit which may be so near over-ripening on display that the price may have been reduced. The trials are to be continued on a much larger scale

  20. The wholesomeness of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is apparent that there is a need for protection of the consumer and a need for governmental authorities to insure a safe and wholesome food supply for the population. Based on objective and scientific evidence regarding the safety of food irradiation, national and international health authorities are able to determine whether irradiated food is acceptable for human consumption. Following a thorough review of all available data, the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee unconditionally approved wheat and ground wheat products and papaya irradiated for disingestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad, potatoes irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose not exceeding 15 krad, and chicken irradiated at a maximum dose of 700 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage. Lastly, it unconditionally approved strawberries irradiated at a maximum dose of 300 krad to prolong storage. Onions at irradiated for sprout control at a maximum dose of 15 krad were temporarily approved, subject to preparation of further data on multigeneration reproduction studies on rats. Codfish and redfish eviscerated after irradiation at a maximum dose of 220 krad to reduce microbiological spoilage were also approved, based on the results of various studies in progress. Temporary, conditional approval of rice irradiated for insect disinfestation at a maximum dose of 100 krad was based on results of long-term studies on rats and monkies, available in the next review. Due to insufficient data, no decision regarding irradiated mushrooms was made. (Bell, E.)

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  2. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  3. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  4. Food Irradiation Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology-Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected, to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  5. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  6. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  7. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  8. General description of irradiation and post irradiation examination in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was designed to provide suitable facilities for conducting nuclear irradiation experiments necessary for the research and development of power reactor in Japan. The JMTR consists of a 50 MW high flux reactor, irradiation facilities and a multi-cell hot laboratory. The available irradiation facilities are various kinds of capsules, hydraulic rabbit facilities, high temperature and high pressure water loop, and high temperature and high pressure gas loop. The aim of this publication is a representation of the information concerned with the irradiation facilities. (author)

  9. Irradiation probe and laboratory for irradiated material evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey and assessment are given of the tasks carried out in the years 1971 to 1975 within the development of methods for structural materials irradiation and of a probe for the irradiation thereof in the A-1 reactor. The programme and implementation of laboratory tests of the irradiation probe are described. In the actual reactor irradiation, the pulse tube length between the pressure governor and the irradiation probe is approximately 20 m, the diameter is 2.2 mm. Temperature reaches 800 degC while the pressure control system operates at 20 degC. The laboratory tests (carried out at 20 degC) showed that the response time of the pressure control system to a stepwise pressure change in the irradiation probe from 0 to 22 at. is 0.5 s. Pressure changes were also studied in the irradiation probe and in the entire system resulting from temperature changes in the irradiation probe. Temperature distribution in the body of the irradiation probe heating furnace was determined. (B.S.)

  10. Short-term solar irradiation forecasting based on Dynamic Harmonic Regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar power generation is a crucial research area for countries that have high dependency on fossil energy sources and is gaining prominence with the current shift to renewable sources of energy. In order to integrate the electricity generated by solar energy into the grid, solar irradiation must be reasonably well forecasted, where deviations of the forecasted value from the actual measured value involve significant costs. The present paper proposes a univariate Dynamic Harmonic Regression model set up in a State Space framework for short-term (1–24 h) solar irradiation forecasting. Time series hourly aggregated as the Global Horizontal Irradiation and the Direct Normal Irradiation will be used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method provides a fast automatic identification and estimation procedure based on the frequency domain. Furthermore, the recursive algorithms applied offer adaptive predictions. The good forecasting performance is illustrated with solar irradiance measurements collected from ground-based weather stations located in Spain. The results show that the Dynamic Harmonic Regression achieves the lowest relative Root Mean Squared Error; about 30% and 47% for the Global and Direct irradiation components, respectively, for a forecast horizon of 24 h ahead. - Highlights: • Solar irradiation forecasts at short-term are required to operate solar power plants. • This paper assesses the Dynamic Harmonic Regression to forecast solar irradiation. • Models are evaluated using hourly GHI and DNI data collected in Spain. • The results show that forecasting accuracy is improved by using the model proposed

  11. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  12. Food irradiation scenario in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 3 decades of research and developmental effort in India have established the commercial potential for food irradiation to reduce post-harvest losses and to ensure food safety. Current regulations permit irradiation of onions, potatoes and spices for domestic consumption and operation of commercial irradiators for treatment of food. In May 1997 draft rules have been notified permitting irradiation of several additional food items including rice, wheat products, dry fruits, mango, meat and poultry. Consumers and food industry have shown a positive attitude to irradiated foods. A prototype commercial irradiator for spices set up by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is scheduled to commence operation in early 1998. A commercial demonstration plant for treatment of onions is expected to be operational in the next 2 years in Lasalgaon, Nashik district. (author)

  13. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  14. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  15. CEFR Irradiation Test and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) has completed physics start-up tests in 2010 and connected the grid on 40%FP in 2011. During start-up tests, the special irradiation test subassembly has been developed for measurement of distribution of reaction rate, spectrum index and neutron spectrum by using activation method in lower power. Characteristic of neutron field for irradiation in CEFR has been researched by calculation and experiments. In future, CEFR will been operated as an irradiation test facility for fuel, material and other application, and some irradiation projects, such as irradiation of cladding material, MOX fuel and (U, Np)O2 pellet have been planned. Now some irradiation rigs have been developed. (author)

  16. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  17. Food irradiation: chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is one of the most extensively and thoroughly studied methods of food preservation. Despite voluminous data on safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods, food irradiation is still a “process in waiting.” Although some countries are allowing the use of irradiation technology on certain foods, its full potential is not recognized. Only 37 countries worldwide permit the use of this technology. If used to its full potential, food irradiation can save millions of human lives being lost annually due to food‐borne diseases or starvation and can add billions of dollars to the world economy. This paper briefly reviews the history and chemistry of food irradiation along with its main applications, impediments to its adoption, and its role in improving food availability and health situation, particularly in developing countries of the world

  18. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  19. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave? The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields

  20. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Arye L. Hillman

    2008-01-01

    Globalization enhances efficiency and economic growth and expands the domain of personal contact and communication. Nonetheless, globalization has also evoked discontent because of claimed social injustice. The relation between globalization and social justice therefore merits attention, in order to identify whether justifications for discontent are present and, if there are reasons for discontent, to establish whether globalization should be blamed.

  1. Globalization and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlica Slobodan I.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses main characteristics of integration and globalization as economic phenomena. Basic characteristics of the contemporary wave of globalization were compared with the characteristics of the first wave of globalization (1870-1913). Two waves of globalization have important similarities. Ignoring of data from economic history became a source of myths about processes in modern world economy.

  2. GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  3. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  4. Cosmic global strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.

  5. Detection of irradiated chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation treatment of food is growing acceptance and application to ever increasing variety of products. The method has indeed proved efficient in reducing food losses and in improving safety of products. Among vegetable products of interest for radiation treatment, chestnuts have recently been considered. Irradiation treatment of chestnuts has been authorized in countries such as Korea as a valid and safe alternative to the widespread use of fumigants. At the Italian level, Montella chestnut is a typical variety recognized as a PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) product and widely used in confectionery industry. In view of an extension of radiation treatment to this kind of product, to permit legal controls and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed and validated. The task of finding detection methods for irradiated chestnuts can be in principle afforded with different methods. The cellulose and sugar contained in the skin and pulp, respectively, might suggest the use of the protocol EN 1787 and EN 13708, relative to ESR spectroscopy. In particular, the protocol EN 1787, based on ESR technique, is applied to detect cellulose radicals radio-induced in outer shell part of the sample as well as in the seed present in the inner part of the fruit. It is known that ionizing radiation may induce two different ESR signals: cellulose signal and a single line signal centered at g = 2. The protocol EN 1787 uses the low intensity cellulose signal for identification. In the present study, in case of low cellulose content, even the g = 2 is analyzed for setting up an alternative identification procedure. Protocol EN 13708, used to identify food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy, is applied to the pulp of fruit. As for luminescence measurements, mineral isolation of silicates and TL measurements is done according to European Standard EN 1788. Preliminary test showed that the

  6. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  7. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of several years, a small, fully portable blood irradiator has been developed for ultimate use in suppressing early rejection of organ transplants in humans. It could also be useful for other medical problems, e.g., treating some forms of leukemia or arthritis. The units have been successfully evaluated in several animal species, resulting in sharply reduced lymphocyte levels and prolonged skin-graft retention. Work during the past year was directed toward development of hardware in anticipation of kidney transplant studies, to be performed in dogs in FY 1982, and identifying whether dose fractionation significantly changed lymphocyte response

  8. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  9. Microvascular anastomes in irradiated vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the healing of microvascular anastomoses in rat common femoral arteries and veins eight to nine months after the vessels had received irradiation. Patency rates in non irradiated arteries and veins were 92% and 100% respectively. The rate in irradiated arteries and veins (all groups together) was 96% and 69% respectively. The venous patency rate in the 5000, 7000 and 9000 rads groups taken together (13 rats) fell to 55%. (Auth.)

  10. Irradiation stability of welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of investigations into the neutron irradiation stability of welded joints in two types of steel used for reactor pressure vessels. Details are given of the materials used, method of welding and tests applied. The effect of irradiation on the notch toughness transition curve is shown. The results of the studies into irradiation embrittlement of all the welded joints and parent materials of the steels for the pressure vessels are summarized. (U.K.)

  11. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains abstracts of papers delivered at the National symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The abstracts have been grouped into the following sections: General background, meat, agricultural products, marketing and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each abstract has been submutted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given as well as a table listing those irradiated food items that have been cleared in South Africa

  12. Food irradiation facilities at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process parameters for radiation preservation of foods including grain, fruits, vegetables and seafoods are being evaluated with the experimental cobalt-60 and caesium-137 irradiators. The design features of three irradiators that are being used were considered mainly on the basis of obtaining variable throughputs and variable dose rates, making these facilities flexible for operation for a variety of purposes and the products. The paper highlights certain aspects of these irradiators, modifications carried out, dosimetry and maintenance requirements. (auth.)

  13. Desinfestation of soybeans by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on desinfestation of soy beans and on important chemical compounds of this product was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy beans during its storage and total proteins, fat and moisture and also the identity and quality characteristics of oil extrated from irradiated product which were not change by irradiation

  14. Global cities in the global corporate network

    OpenAIRE

    William K. Carroll

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s two separate literatures—one focused on global cities, the other on transnational corporate interlocking—have explored issues of hierarchy and networking within the global political economy. I present an analysis of how major cities and interlocking corporate directorates are articulated together into a global network. Findings indicate that the network is concentrated in the main world cities in a way that reinforces the northern transatlantic economic system. However, the st...

  15. JRR-4 medical irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Hori, N.; Kumada, H.; Horiguchi, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    JAERI started Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at JRR-2 in 1990. JRR-2 was performed 33 BNCT until 1996 when JRR-2 operation was terminated for decommissioning the reactor. JRR-4 was constructed to research the reactor shielding of the first Japanese nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1965. JRR-4 was modified for reducing fuel enrichment and constructing a new medical irradiation facility at 1997 when after the terminating operation of JRR-2. The medical irradiation facility is especially using for BNCT of brain cancer. JRR-4 medical irradiation facility was designed for both using of thermal neutron beam and epi-thermal neutron. Thermal neutron is using for conventional Japanese BNCT as inter operative irradiation therapy. Epi-thermal neutron beam will be using advanced BNCT for deep cancer and without craniotomy operation for irradiation at the facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT of JRR-4 was carried out on October 25, 1999. Since then, seven times of irradiation was performed by the end of June 2000. In BNCT irradiation, boron concentration and thermal flux measurements were performed by JAERI. Boron concentration of patient brood was measured using prompt gamma ray analysis technique. Thermal neutron flux was measured by gold wire activation method using beta - gamma coincidence counting system. There data were furnished to medical doctor for determination the irradiation time of BNCT. (author)

  16. Hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes two cases of hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin at doses and volumes of irradiation ordinarily considered within the tolerance of hepatic function. In one case, fatal hepatopathy followed 2400 rad/17 fractions/28 days to the entire liver with preceding and concurrent adriamycin. In the second case moderate clinical changes occurred after treatment in which much of the right lobe of the liver was shielded following 2500 rad/23 fractions/32 days with adriamycin administered before, during, and after irradiation. The locally enhancing effects of adriamycin on hepatic tolerance to irradiation are discussed

  17. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  18. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  19. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er.Kirtesh Jailia,; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  20. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 800C (bacon to 530C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-400C to -200C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  3. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of food with ionizing radiation is a method suitable to enhance shelf-life and hygienic quality. Up to a dose of 10 kGy the method is considered wholesome. In many countries the practical use of food irradiation is increasing, however, in the Federal Republic of Germany the process is strictly forbidden. Applications and methods for radiation processing of food are compiled, limits and prospects are explained, and advantages and disadvantages are compared with traditional methods. Identification of irradiated foods and dosimetry and process control for radiation processing of food are areas where further research is needed. Continuous processing of particulate foods in bulk is an application where electron accelerators might be profitable. Beam parameters and velocity distribution of food particles in the treatment area can be matched for an effective result. Thus, dose distribution can be adjusted for homogeneous treatment and at the same time radiation energy is absorbed almost completely. An example of an experimental plant for radiation processing of grain and spices is shown. Decontamination of spices by radiation processing is an alternative to chemical fumigation, which now is widely forbidden. (orig.)

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  5. Facts about food irradiation: Packaging of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the effects on packaging materials of food irradiation. Extensive research has shown that almost all commonly used food packaging materials toted are suitable for use. Furthermore, many packaging materials are themselves routinely sterilized by irradiation before being used. 2 refs

  6. Intercomparison Of Spectroradiometers For Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements. Preliminary Results.

    OpenAIRE

    Galleano, Roberto; ZAAIMAN Willem; MORABITO Paolo; Minuto, Alessandro; Spena, Angelo; Bartocci, Simona; Fucci, Raffaele; Leanza, Gianni; PAVANELLO Diego; VIRTUANI Alessandro; FASANARO Daniela; CATENA Mario; NORTON Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of an intercomparison of spectroradiometers for direct (DNI) and global normal incidence (GNI) irradiance in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) region. Seven institutions and six spectroradiometers, representing different technologies and manufacturers were involved. All instruments were able to measure GNI; a restricted sub-group of four instruments had the possibility to also measure DNI when equipped with proper collimators. P...

  7. Storage tests with irradiated and non-irradiated onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of several test series on the storage of irradiated and non-irradiated German grown onion are reported. Investigated was the influence of the irradiation conditions such as time and dose and of the storage conditions on sprouting, spoilage, browning of the vegetation centres, composition of the onions, strength and sensorial properties of seven different onion varieties. If the onions were irradiated during the dormancy period following harvest, a dose of 50 Gy (krad) was sufficient to prevent sprouting. Regarding the irradiated onions, it was not possible by variation of the storage conditions within the limits set by practical requirements to extend the dormancy period or to prevent browning of the vegetation centres, however. (orig.) 891 MG 892 RSW

  8. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  9. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test. PMID:7479506

  10. Food irradiation development: Malaysian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia recognised the potential of food irradiation as a technology that can contribute to solving some preservation problems associated with local agricultural produce. Research studies in this technology were initiated in late 1970s and since 1985, all activities pertaining to R and D applications, adoption and technology transfer of food irradiation were coordinated by The National Working Committee on Food Irradiation which comprises of members from research institutes, universities, regulatory agencies and consumer association. To date, technical feasibility studies conducted on 7 food items / agricultural commodities of economic importance demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation in extending shelf-life, improving hygienic quality and overcoming quarantine barriers in trade. Presently, 1 multipurpose Co-60 irradiator (I MCi), 2 gammacells and an electron beam machine (3 MeV) are available at MINT for research and commercial runs. The Malaysian Standards on Guidelines for Irradiation of Food was formulated in 1992 to facilitate application by local food industries. However, Malaysia has not yet commercially adopt the technology. Among many factors contributing to the situation is the apparent lack of interest by food industries and consumers. Consumer attitude study indicated majority of consumers are still unaware of the benefits of the technology and expressed concern for the safety of process and irradiated products due to limited knowledge and adverse publicity by established consumer groups. Although the food processors indicate positive attitude towards food irradiation, there remain many factors delaying its commercial application such as limited knowledge, cost-benefit, logistics and consumer acceptance. On the regulatory aspect, approval is required from the Director-General of Ministry of Health prior to application of irradiation on food and sale of irradiated food but efforts are being geared towards approving irradiation of certain food

  11. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    including fresh fruits and vegetables for consumption. It is anticipated that the USDA will soon allow irradiation to be used as a quarantine treatment against major species of fruit flies regardless of commodities on a routine basis. The interest in using irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fresh and stored food products has increased recently because methyl bromide (MB), the most widely used fumigant to control insects in food and agricultural commodities, is being phased-out globally under the international treaty for the regulation of ozone depleting substances (Montreal Protocol). Thus, the potential application of ionizing irradiation as a quarantine treatment appears to be very promising. (Author)

  12. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    including fresh fruits and vegetables for consumption. It is anticipated that the USDA will soon allow irradiation to be used as a quarantine treatment against major species of fruit flies regardless of commodities on a routine basis. The interest in using irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fresh and stored food products has increased recently because methyl bromide (MB), the most widely used fumigant to control insects in food and agricultural commodities, is being phased-out globally under the international treaty for the regulation of ozone depleting substances (Montreal Protocol). Thus, the potential application of ionizing irradiation as a quarantine treatment appears to be very promising. (Author)

  13. Detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Food irradiation has, in certain circumstances, an important role to play both in promoting food safety and in reducing food losses. The safety and availability of nutritious food are essential components of primary health care. WHO actively encourages the proper use of food irradiation in the fight against foodborne diseases and food losses. To this end, it collaborates closely with FAO and IAEA. Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including delay of ripening and prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, helminths, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods. The 1990s witnessed a significant advancement in food irradiation processing. As a result, progress has been made in commercialization of the technology, culminating in greater international trade in irradiated foods and the implementation of differing regulations relating to its use in many countries. Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foodstuffs and Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods regulate food irradiation at international level. At European Union level there are in power Directive 1999/2/EC and Directive1999/3/EC. Every particular country has also its own regulations regarding food irradiation. In Romania, since 2002 the Norms Regarding Foodstuffs and Food Ingredients Treated by Ionizing Radiation are in power. These Norms are in fact the Romanian equivalent law of the European Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC. The greater international trade in irradiated foods has led to the demand by consumers that irradiated food should be clearly labeled as such and that methods capable of differentiating between irradiated and nonirradiated products should be available. Thus a practical basis was sought to allow consumers to exercise a free choice as to which food they purchase. If a

  14. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  15. Status of FeCrAl ODS Irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-08-19

    FeCrAl oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are an attractive sub-set alloy class of the more global FeCrAl material class for nuclear applications due to their high temperature steam oxidation resistance and hypothesized enhanced radiation tolerance. A need currently exists to determine the radiation tolerance of these newly developed alloys. To address this need, a preliminary study was conducted using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate an early generation FeCrAl ODS alloy, 125YF. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on these irradiated specimens have shown good radiation tolerance at elevated temperatures (≥330°C) but possible radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C to a damage level of 1.9 displacement per atom (dpa). Building on this experience, a new series of irradiations are currently being conceptualized. This irradiation series called the FCAD irradiation program will irradiate the latest generation FeCrAl ODS and FeCr ODS alloys to significantly higher doses. These experiments will provide the necessary information to determine the mechanical performance of irradiated FeCrAl ODS alloys at light water reactor and fast reactor conditions.

  16. National symposium on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains proceedings of papers delivered at the national symposium on food irradiation held in Pretoria. The proceedings have been grouped into the following sections: general background; meat; agricultural products; marketing; and radiation facilities - cost and plant design. Each paper has been submitted separately to INIS. Tables listing irradiated food products cleared for human consumption in different countries are given

  17. Neutron irradiation effect of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several kinds of silicon wafers were irradiated at four neutron fields with different energy spectra. Electrical resistivity and deep level defect concentrations after the neutron irradiation, and their changes against number of displacement atoms (DPA's) for different neutron fields were compared. The number of DPA's was calculated by N. Yamano's data. (author)

  18. Craniospinal irradiation using Rapid Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Marino, A.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Losada, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cranio-Spinal Irradiation is technically very challenging, historically field edge matching is needed because of the mechanical limitations of standard linear accelerators. The purpose of this study is to assess the Volumetric Arc Therapy as a competitive technique for Cranio-Spinal Irradiation compared to the conventional 3D Conformal Radiotherapy technique. (Author)

  19. The safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This state of the art outline review written for 'Food Manufacture' looks at the wholesomeness of irradiated foods, and makes a comparison with conventionally treated products. Topics mentioned are doses, radioresistance of microorganisms especially clostudium botulinum and the problem of bacterial toxins, storage conditions, nutrition, especially vitamin loss, and detection of irradiation. (U.K.)

  20. Food irradiation: a Queensland perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Farmers Federation is satisfied that all safety issues associated with food irradiation have been adequately addressed. It recommends that the Codex Alimentarius standard of 120 kilogray treatment be adopted in Australia. Economic arguments are advanced for the irradiation of horticultural products, fish, seafoods, red meat and chicken meat

  1. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  2. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  3. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods. (author)

  4. Irradiation damage in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation response of two candidate tritium-breeding materials, LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3, was investigated using electron irradiation to produce atomic displacements, and EPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect damage responses. In a first set of experiments, single crystals and sintered polycrystals of γ-LiAlO2 were irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 20 K. EPR measurements made at 4 K on samples kept at 77 K after electron irradiation confirm that paramagnetic defects are created during irradiation, and that most of these defects disappear at about 100 K. TEM observations at room temperature indicate, however, that annealing of these defects does not result in visible defect aggregates. In a second set of experiments, sintered polycrystalline LiAlO2 and Li2ZrO3 samples were thinned to electron transparency and heavily irradiated in situ with 200 keV electrons. In LiAlO2, laths of LiAl5O8 grew intragranularly under irradiation. Li2ZrO3 showed little or no aggregate damage after extensive irradiation near room temperature. (orig.)

  5. Economic aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is a movement towards commercial use of food irradiation. As with other commercial operations, the objective of commercial food irradiation is to process foods to obtain a particular beneficial effect and to market such foods to obtain a profit. Using economic analysis, business management evaluates benefits and risks in order to estimate the profitability of a contemplated venture employing food irradiation. If an economic analysis indicates that an adequate return on the required investment can be obtained, management has a proper basis on which to proceed with the venture. A procedure for obtaining an appropriate economic analysis for commercial use of food irradiation is considered herewith in detail. It covers the use of either a contract service, free standing type of irradiation facility or an integrated in-plant irradiator. The kinds of information needed for the economic analysis are indicated, including those for estimating capital and operating costs. It is emphasized that specific information relevant to the venture under consideration is required. Since commercial use of food irradiation requires that it be profitable, and since profitability is the incentive for a business to undertake it, a number of uses of food irradiation are identified and listed as those that have the potential for yielding cost-benefits. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Modelling the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations using an ANN-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at verifying that in sunny inland locations artificial intelligence techniques may provide an estimation of the spectral irradiance with adequate accuracy for photovoltaic applications. An ANN (artificial neural network) based method was developed, trained and tested to model the spectral distributions between wavelengths ranging from 350 to 1050 nm. Only commonly available input data such as geographical information regarding location, specific date and time together with horizontal global irradiance and ambient temperature are required. Historical information from a 24-month experimental campaign carried out in Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data to train and test the ANN tool. A Kohonen self-organized map was used as innovative technique to classify the whole input dataset and build a small and representative training dataset. The shape of the spectral irradiance distribution, the in-plane global irradiance (GT) and irradiation (HT) and the APE (average photon energy) values obtained through the ANN method were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In terms of shape distribution fitting, the mean relative deformation error stays below 4.81%. The root mean square percentage error is around 6.89% and 0.45% when estimating GT and APE, respectively. Regarding HT, errors lie below 3.18% in all cases. - Highlights: • ANN-based model to estimate the spectral irradiance distribution in sunny inland locations. • MRDE value stay below 4.81% in spectral irradiance distribution shape fitting. • RMSPE is about 6.89% for the in-plane global irradiance and 0.45% for the average photon energy. • Errors stay below 3.18% for all the months of the year in incident irradiation terms. • Improvement of assessment of the impact of the solar spectrum in the performance of a PV module

  7. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  8. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  9. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  10. Eatability of the irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A food is eatable and innocuous when it has an acceptable nutritional quality, it is toxicological and microbiologically safe for the human consumption. Not one preservation treatment allows to assure this in absolute form. As it happens with other conservation methods, the irradiation produce biological, chemical and physical changes in the treated food. For to check if such changes could cause damages to the health of the consumer, its have been carried out extensive studies to evaluate the inoculate of the irradiated foods. Analyzing diverse toxicity studies to prove the eatability of the irradiated foods, in this work those are presented but important in chronological order. In summary, until today it exists a great heap of tests that they demonstrate without place to doubts that the foods irradiated with a dose up to 10 KGy its are capable for the human consumption, for what can to be concluded that a safety margin exists to consume foods irradiated. (Author)

  11. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  12. Indication method of irradiated meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injury of Chromosome DNA of irradiated meat was indicated by mitochondria DNA (mt DNA) method. Sample was irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 6 kGy/h of dose rate at 0degC. Mitochondria DNA was obtained by the mitochondria partition method and analyzed by an electrophoresis method. mt DNA of irradiated ox liver can be indicated by PCR method, restriction enzyme method and supercoil/ring opening comparative method. However, the other meat such as chicken and other parts of meat could not be indicated depends on large fat content. About 4 kGy irradiation on liver can indicate whether it was irradiated or not. (S.Y.)

  13. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  14. Irradiation environment and materials behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation environment is unique for materials used in a nuclear energy system. Material itself as well as irradiation and environmental conditions determine the material behaviour. In this review, general directions of research and development of materials in an irradiation environment together with the role of materials science are discussed first, and then recent materials problems are described for energy systems which are already existing (LWR), under development (FBR) and to be realized in the future (CTR). Topics selected are (1) irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels for LWRs, (2) high fluence performance of cladding and wrapper materials for fuel subassemblies of FBRs and (3) high fluence irradiation effects in the first wall and blanket structural materials of a fusion reactor. Several common topics in those materials issues are selected and discussed. Suggestions are made on some elements of radiation effects which might be purposely utilized in the process of preparing innovative materials. (J.P.N.) 69 refs

  15. Irradiated mandibular autografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cosmetic and functional disability associated with mandibular resection has been a major problem to the patient with direct invasion of the mandible by oral cancer. Marginal resections with combined postoperative radiation therapy have frequently been substituted for the more preferred segmental resections and resultant deformities. Presented are 15 cases of oral cavity cancer involving resection of the mandible, immediate radiation to 10,000 rad, and primary reconstruction as irradiated mandibular autografts. The longest following is 4 years and 3 months, with a success rate of 66%. Morbidity is minimal as compared to autogenous bone grafting. Tumor size, previous radiation, or use of regional flaps have not been a factor in the success of this method in reconstruction of the mandible primarily

  16. Irradiation effects in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of irradiation energy can alter the physical properties of glasses through bond-breaking (energetic photons; fast particles) and atomic displacements (Coulombic and collisional: n0, e, ions). These processes can alter UV-visible optical properties via electron-hole trapping and IR-spectra as a result of network damage. The movement of network atoms results in volume dilatation which change the hardness, refractive index, and dissolution rates. All of these changes can be realized with ion implantation and, in addition, implantation of chemically active species can lead to compound formation in the implanted regions. For this reason, emphasis will be placed on the implantation-induced surface modifications of glasses (mostly silicates). The paper includes crystallization, surface stress, refractive index changes and optoelectronic application and chemical reactivity

  17. Forecasting solar extreme and far ultraviolet irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, C. J.; Hock, R. A.; Schooley, A. K.; Toussaint, W. A.; White, S. M.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    A new method is presented to forecast the solar irradiance of selected wavelength ranges within the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet (FUV) bands. The technique is similar to a method recently published by Henney et al. (2012) to predict solar 10.7 cm (2.8 GHz) radio flux, abbreviated F10.7, utilizing advanced predictions of the global solar magnetic field generated by a flux transport model. In this and the previous study, we find good correlation between the absolute value of the observed photospheric magnetic field and selected EUV/FUV spectral bands. By evolving solar magnetic maps forward 1 to 7 days with a flux transport model, estimations of the Earth side solar magnetic field distribution are generated and used to forecast irradiance. For example, Pearson correlation coefficient values of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98 are found for 1 day, 3 day, and 7 day predictions, respectively, of the EUV band from 29 to 32 nm. In the FUV, for example, the 160 to 165 nm spectral band, correlation values of 0.98, 0.97, and 0.96 are found for 1 day, 3 day, and 7 day predictions, respectively. In the previous study, the observed F10.7 signal is found to correlate well with strong magnetic field (i.e., sunspot) regions. Here we find that solar EUV and FUV signals are significantly correlated with the weaker magnetic fields associated with plage regions, suggesting that solar magnetic indices may provide an improved indicator (relative to the widely used F10.7 signal) of EUV and FUV nonflaring irradiance variability as input to ionospheric and thermospheric models.

  18. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  19. Modeling daylight from solar irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil crises in the seventies, the environmental impact by the extensive use of energy in the nineties and the recent economic recession in Asia have led to the rediscovery of the use of daylight in energy-conscious design in buildings, the economic implication of the excessive use of artificial lighting in potential of daylight. No daylight data is currently available in Malaysia and therefore there is a need to model the daylight availability based on other climatic parameters measured at meteorological stations. A study has been carried out to produce daylight data from measured climatic parameters, specifically solar irradiation and could cover. The Model Year Climate (MYC) data for the location of Subang (3 deg. 7', N 101 deg. 33' E), model to estimate daily diffuse irradiation was produced the average values of global (KG) and diffuse (KD) luminous efficacious were calculated and found to be 112 lm/W and 120 lm/W respectively. The value of 104 lm/W for the beam luminous efficacy (KB) was selected. Using cloud data cover data as input parameters, the nebulosity index was calculated to determine the sky condition in Subang, Malaysia, which was then classified as average or intermediate sky type, the hourly illuminance on horizontal and inclined surfaces at locations with similar sky conditions in Malaysia were then produced. (author)

  20. Irradiation from a phytosanitary treatment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing that with the advent of globalisation and initiatives towards liberalization of trade through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, the challenge towards gaining international market access will hinge primarily on quality of agricultural commodities. Besides aiming for efficiency in production it is crucial to emphasise on quality so that it not only provide a competitive edge but also enables them to penetrate markets that have stringent phytosanitary requirements. The need for an alternative quarantine treatment against agricultural pests has been pressing as according to the Montreal Protocol, fumigation with methyl bromide, the most widely used fumigant, will be globally phased out due to environment reasons. Irradiation is a relatively new technology and lately it has been accepted as one of the phytosanitary measures by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). It provides one of the alternative technologies available to the food industries to control organisms that cause food borne diseases, to reduce food losses due to spoilage and deterioration, and to overcome barriers in food trade. Taking cognizance that irradiation has potential as a treatment technology for the disinfestation of pests of agricultural commodities, efforts have been stepped up to ensure the pre-requisites are in place for its implementation. (Author)

  1. Toxicity Test on Malondialdehyde Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Irradiation Sterilization Rendang : In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of irradiated ethnic ready to eat food at high doses raises many questions, and recognized as one of great obstacles in the development of commercialization of food irradiation globally. People are still worried that food treated with irradiation would have induced radioactivity because free radical and its complex derivatives are formed in the irradiation process. Therefore, this study is needed to help understanding the effect of irradiated food on biological system in order to understand the possible effect to human body. The aimed of this research work was to secure the safety of irradiated food at high dose by conducting a toxicity assay using lymphocytes and erythrocytes human blood, and to determine antioxidant capacity of gamma - sterilized rendang at 45 kGy.The methods used were extraction and preparation of rending samples, culture medium preparation, lymphocytes isolation, the assays on lymphocytes proliferation, erythrocytes hemolysis,, antioxidant capacity, and malonaldehyde, respectively. The tested samples were irradiated at PATIR BATAN on 11th November 2006 (sample A), on 14thJune 2007 (sample B), and “No Label” on 14th June 2007 (sample C), respectively and non irradiated rending as control was also prepared. The results of proliferation assay showed that irradiated samples did neither inhibit nor induce proliferation significantly. Obviously, hemolysis rate of all samples showed increasing rate with increasing concentration or inversely correlated with dilution neither caused an increase in erythrocytes hemolysis rate nor inhibition in erythrocytes hemolysis significantly. Antioxidant capacity assay in irradiated samples showed higher value than in non-irradiated sample while irradiation treatment did not influence malonaldehyde content in rendang. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced epigenetic alterations after low and high LET irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aypar, Umut, E-mail: uaypa001@umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Morgan, William F. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Baulch, Janet E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-02-10

    Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation are different than those induced by high LET irradiations. GM10115 cells were irradiated with low LET X-rays and high LET iron (Fe) ions and evaluated for DNA damage, cell survival and chromosomal instability. The cells were also evaluated for specific locus methylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B), tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) and cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene promoter regions, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu repeat element methylation, CpG and non-CpG global methylation and miRNA expression levels. Irradiated cells showed increased micronucleus induction and cell killing immediately following exposure, but were chromosomally stable at delayed times post-irradiation. At this same delayed time, alterations in repeat element and global DNA methylation and miRNA expression were observed. Analyses of DNA methylation predominantly showed hypomethylation, however hypermethylation was also observed. We demonstrate that miRNA expression levels can be altered after X-ray irradiation and that these miRNA are involved in chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. A higher incidence of epigenetic changes was observed after exposure to X-rays than Fe ions even though Fe ions elicited more chromosomal damage and cell killing. This distinction is apparent at miRNA analyses at which only three miRNA involved in two major pathways were altered after high LET irradiations while six miRNA involved in five major pathways were altered after low LET irradiations. This study also shows that the irradiated cells acquire epigenetic changes suggesting that epigenetic aberrations may arise

  3. Radiation-induced epigenetic alterations after low and high LET irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation are different than those induced by high LET irradiations. GM10115 cells were irradiated with low LET X-rays and high LET iron (Fe) ions and evaluated for DNA damage, cell survival and chromosomal instability. The cells were also evaluated for specific locus methylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) and cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene promoter regions, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu repeat element methylation, CpG and non-CpG global methylation and miRNA expression levels. Irradiated cells showed increased micronucleus induction and cell killing immediately following exposure, but were chromosomally stable at delayed times post-irradiation. At this same delayed time, alterations in repeat element and global DNA methylation and miRNA expression were observed. Analyses of DNA methylation predominantly showed hypomethylation, however hypermethylation was also observed. We demonstrate that miRNA expression levels can be altered after X-ray irradiation and that these miRNA are involved in chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. A higher incidence of epigenetic changes was observed after exposure to X-rays than Fe ions even though Fe ions elicited more chromosomal damage and cell killing. This distinction is apparent at miRNA analyses at which only three miRNA involved in two major pathways were altered after high LET irradiations while six miRNA involved in five major pathways were altered after low LET irradiations. This study also shows that the irradiated cells acquire epigenetic changes suggesting that epigenetic aberrations may arise in the

  4. Sustainable Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Global trading has been a way of life for hundreds, if not thousands of years, but it is only recently that the environmental and social implications of global sourcing decisions are being taken more seriously.

  5. Global Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 12 16 18 20 22 25 4 Global Health and Aging Preface The world is facing ... stages of economic development and with varying resources. Global efforts are required to understand and find cures ...

  6. Global Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues From the NIH Director: A Global Health System Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... officials the issues of world health and NIH's global outreach. He spoke with MedlinePlus ' Christopher Klose on ...

  7. The Global Earthquake History

    OpenAIRE

    Albini, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Musson, R. M. W.; BGS, Edinburgh; Rovida, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Locati, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Gomez Capera, A. A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Viganò, D.; Global Earthquake Model-GEM

    2014-01-01

    The study of earthquakes from historical sources, or historical seismology, was considered an early priority for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project, which commissioned a study of historical seismicity at a global scale. This was “The Global Earthquake History” (GEH) project, led jointly by INGV (Milano, Italy) and BGS (UK). GEH was structured around three complementary deliverables: archive, catalogue, and the web infrastructure designed to store both archive and catalogue. The Global ...

  8. Globalization and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy ...

  9. Nurturing global talent

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Sarah; Howe-walsh, Liza

    2013-01-01

    The development of global talent is seen by many organisations to be central to their success in today’s global marketplace. Organisations realise that to remain competitive they need people that are able to operate effectively in complex global environments. Individuals need to work within multiple cultures and in different geographical and cultural settings. Global talent need to be able to manage and lead under conditions of uncertainty, be willing to embrace new challenges and be cultural...

  10. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  11. Globalization and International Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Minas Pediaditakis; Kleanthis Thomaidis

    2006-01-01

    Despite its specific destabilizing effects, the real dimensions of globalization do not justify a general alarm. Although technology revolution, "knowledge society", and deregulation trend bring uncertainty and risks, there is not a real global market yet, abolishing the national policy field and exposing firms, social groups and states to the threat of the global speculative capital. Objective difficulties restrict the irrepressible development of globalization while, concerning firms, the d...

  12. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  13. Globalization of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatova, Y. I.; Gutareva, Nadezhda Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    You can not ignore the relevance of cultural globalization, and the more globalization in general. These phenomena occur at the moment, and they are directly related to the future of the countries and nations. The purpose of this research is to consider issues relating to the impact of globalization on modern culture. Theoretical methods have been used to achieve this goal. The result of this research is to confirm the facts concerning cultural globalization. The conclusions of the article ca...

  14. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  15. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  16. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  17. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  18. Mapping Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  19. The Psychology of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  20. Globalization, Religion and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Beyza

    2003-01-01

    he article firstly studies The concept of the globalization and religion and later the relationship between globalization-lacolization, globaiization-education-religious education. The article was ended, with the conclusion. The main purpose of the article is to determine how was influenced generally education, specially religious education from the globalization

  1. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new techn...

  2. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...

  3. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  4. Irradiation preservation of Korean shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific oyster, hard clam and mussel were irradiated at doses up to 0.5 Mrad, the optimum dose rather than the maximum permissible was sought for in each species and post-irradiation storage characteristics studied at 00 and 50C. No shellfish meat irradiated at doses as high as 0.5 Mrad produced any adverse odor. However the organoleptic quality of each sample irradiated at lower doses was superior to those irradiated at the higher during the early storage period. The optimum dose was determined to be 0.2 Mrad for Pacific oyster and mussel and 0.1 Mrad for hard clam. By irradiating at the optimum dose, the storage life of Pacific oyster could be extended from less than 14 days to 35 days at 00C and from only 3 days to 21 days at 50C. A similar storage extension was observed from 7 days to 14 days at 00C and from 3 days to 12 days at 50C. The hard clam meats were particularly susceptible to tissue softening by irradiation; an earlier onset and more extensive softening were observed with increasing dose. (author)

  5. Gamma Irradiation of Polyesters Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations on the effects of gamma irradiation in air of aromatic polyesters are carried out, in order to evaluate the influence of aromatic density and the role of oxygen on the radiation resistance. The thermoplastic polyesters PolyEthyleneTerephthalate (PET), PolyButylene Terephthalate (PBT), PolyEthyleneNaphthalate (PEN), Poly1,4-cyclohexanedimethylen terephthalate-co-ethyleneterephthalate (PCT-co-ET) are moulded in thin films of 50 micron and irradiated at different absorbed doses, ranging from 0 to 1000 kGy, using a Co-60 gamma source. The structural changes in the polymers are studied by means of several physical-chemical and nuclear techniques. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analyses are carried out to detect the radicals induced by irradiation and to follow their decay by oxygen permeation. Viscometric measurements show a similar trend for the different irradiated polyesters: in particular, chain scission induced by irradiation depends on the aromatic density contained in the polymer and shows a saturation effect at the highest doses. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy points out a decrease of the ortho-positronium signal caused by the production of oxidized species inhibiting the positronium formation. Finally, the experimental results obtained on the irradiated films are compared with previous studies carried out on the same polyesters moulded in sheets of 1-2 mm of thickness and γ-irradiated at the same adsorbed doses

  6. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  7. Method of detecting irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices represented by pepper are generally contaminated by microorganisms, and for using them as foodstuffs, some sterilizing treatment is indispensable. However, heating is not suitable to spices, accordingly ethylene oxide gas sterilization has been inevitably carried out, but its carcinogenic property is a problem. Food irradiation is the technology for killing microorganisms and noxious insects which cause the rotting and spoiling of foods and preventing the germination, which is an energy-conserving method without the fear of residual chemicals, therefore, it is most suitable to the sterilization of spices. In the irradiation of lower than 10 kGy, the toxicity test is not required for any food, and the irradiation of spices is permitted in 20 countries. However, in order to establish the international distribution organization for irradiated foods, the PR to consumers and the development of the means of detecting irradiation are the important subjects. The authors used pepper, and examined whether the hydrogen generated by irradiation remains in seeds and it can be detected or not. The experimental method and the results are reported. From the samples without irradiation, hydrogen was scarcely detected. The quantity of hydrogen generated was proportional to dose. The measuring instrument is only a gas chromatograph. (K.I.)

  8. Nanoindentation on ion irradiated steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced mechanical property changes can cause major difficulties in designing systems operating in a radiation environment. Investigating these mechanical property changes in an irradiation environment is a costly and time consuming activity. Ion beam accelerator experiments have the advantage of allowing relatively fast and inexpensive materials irradiations without activating the sample but do in general not allow large beam penetration depth into the sample. In this study, the ferritic/martensitic steel HT-9 was processed and heat treated to produce one specimen with a large grained ferritic microstructure and further heat treated to form a second specimen with a fine tempered martensitic lath structure and exposed to an ion beam and tested after irradiation using nanoindentation to investigate the irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties. It is shown that the HT-9 in the ferritic heat treatment is more susceptible to irradiation hardening than HT-9 after the tempered martensitic heat treatment. Also at an irradiation temperature above 550 deg. C no detectable hardness increase due to irradiation was detected. The results are also compared to data from the literature gained from the fast flux test facility.

  9. Microbiological Principles in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the important microbiological objectives of irradiation treatments, with special reference to the definitions of the proposed new terms, radappertization, radicidation and radurization. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the food in determining the microbiological requirements of the irradiation treatment. It is suggested that, just as with heat-processed foods, classifications into the major groups of ''acid'' or ''cured'' foods will remain valid with the irradiation process, and that different microbiological criteria will apply to these different classes of foods. The differences depend in part on the influence which the nature of the food has on the effectiveness of the irradiation treatment itself, but more especially on the way in which the nature of the food affects the activities of those microorganisms which might survive irradiation. The principles used to calculate the appropriate doses of radiation are discussed, with comments on the reliability of the fundamental assumptions or the need for further experimentation. The microbiological characteristics of irradiated foods are compared with those of corresponding heat- processed foods, to emphasize points of difference, with special reference to the appropriateness of suggested classifications for heat-processed foods. Finally, some general difficulties are considered, such as uncertainty about the significance and behaviour of food-borne viruses, and about the significance of the mutations which might conceivably be induced in microorganisms surviving-an irradiation process. (author)

  10. Detection of some irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the possibility of using two rapid methods namely Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Direct Solvent Extraction (DSE) methods for extraction and isolation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) followed by detecting this chemical marker by Gas chromatography technique and used this marker for identification of irradiated some foods containing fat (beef meat, chicken, camembert cheese and avocado) post irradiation, during cold and frozen storage. Consequently, this investigation was designed to study the following main points:- 1- The possibility of applying SFE-GC and DSE-GC rapid methods for the detection of 2-DCB from irradiated food containing fat (beef meat, chicken, camembert cheese and avocado fruits) under investigation.2-Studies the effect of gamma irradiation doses on the concentration of 2-DCB chemical marker post irradiation and during frozen storage at -18 degree C of chicken and beef meats for 12 months.3-Studies the effect of gamma irradiation doses on the concentration of 2-DCB chemical marker post irradiation and during cold storage at 4±1 degree C of camembert cheese and avocado fruits for 20 days.

  11. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Introduction of Post-Processing to Correct the Direct Normal Irradiance from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Clarkson, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Solar electricity production is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions. This study focuses on comparing model forecasts with observations for the period of May-December, 2011. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was run for two nested domains centered on Arizona in order to better capture the complex terrain driven dynamics of the region. The modeling performance from the simulation with the Global Forecast System model output as initial and boundary condition was better, with respect to both direct normal irradiance and global horizontal irradiance, than that with the North American Mesoscale model output. The observed aerosol optical depth is correlated with the water vapor, soil moisture and wind-blown dust and therefore, the aerosol optical depth is parameterized by the modeling outputs for these variables. The aerosol correction factor reduces the relative root mean square error from 12 to 6 %. In cases where dust was transported at high altitude, our algorithm did not correct the bias of direct normal irradiance.

  12. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  13. Pork fat peroxidation by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, pork fat peroxidation by γ-irradiation and the possible effects of oxygen, UV-irradiation and storage after the γ-irradiation have been investigated. It has been found that the level of peroxides in irradiated pork increases linearly with the increasing absorbed dose. The chemical yield of peroxides formed in the irradiated fat is about 4.2 and independent on the sample temperature or absorbed dose rate, but dependent on storage time of sample before γ-irradiation. The irradiated pork exhibits some unusual features as following: 1) the peroxide content in irradiated pork is higher than that in unirradiated one; 2) the peroxide content in irradiated pork increases gradually on storage and is essentially constant in unirradiated one, which is very useful for the detection of irradiated pork; 3) the further peroxidation in irradiated pork is much more susceptible to UV radiation than that in unirradiated pork

  14. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food additives and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the issue of the irradiation of food containing food additives or pesticide residues. The conclusion is that there is no health hazard posed by radiolytic products of pesticides or food additives. 1 ref

  15. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  16. LINGUISTIC GLOBALIZATION CONSEQUENCE OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia FIRICÄ‚; Jean FIRICÄ‚

    2011-01-01

    Economic globalization has been a much debated phenomenon with consequences at all levels - social, economic, technical, scientific, cultural, every day life, in a word. Linguistic globalization, obvious more and more all over the world, manifested itself by Anglicization or Americanization of most current languages which, at least in what concerns their basic stock of words, allowed English and American loans to enter their vocabulary. The paper tackles the problem of linguistic globalizatio...

  17. Irradiation a boon to farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation sterilization is emerging as a process of tremendous value to the food marketing industry. Much of the latest research has been done by the Atomic Energy Board at Pelindaba, using the strong gamma rays produced by cobalt-60 to kill the pathogens, microprobes, small insects and other food destroying agents usually found in food and fruit. Irradiation also helps delay ripening and ageing to a slight degree, a property of great value to food and fruit exporters. The advantages of various irradiated food are shortly discussed

  18. Irradiation services for crops improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an effort to pioneer and promote the use of nuclear technology in plant breeding in Malaysia, MINT has developed the procedures, methodology and service for the irradiation of ornamental plants, food and industrial crops. This paper discusses the issues related to the irradiation services for plant samples for the period of 15 years since the service was started. The main issues include the procedures for sample irradiation, statistics for the services that have been provided, problems and the solutions in providing the services. (Author)

  19. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats received dried potatoes, irradiated with 10 krad, in an amount of 72% of the diet. Control groups received the same amount of non-irradiated potatoes. The experiment began on 7 May 1965 and is still running. To date, there is no difference between the groups fed with irradiated potatoes and the controls as far as weight gain and protein efficiency are concerned. Another experiment has been running for 12 weeks under the same conditions, except that the radiation dose was 100 krad. Here, too, no difference to the control groups can be observed. (author)

  20. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  1. AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  2. Methodology for RPV steels irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. The methodology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels irradiations is elaborated. Irradiation in a materials test reactor and surveillance of the state of embrittlement in 'typical' plant specific materials are considered

  3. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  4. Food irradiation dispelling the doubts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation processing of the food item eliminates the use of harmful chemicals for treatment of food items and the produce can be conserved fresh. Another important aspect of this process is that it can help to stabilize the prices and give better remuneration to the farmer and hygienic product to the consumer. The already growing Indian nuclear industry can provide the source as well as the pros and cons of food technology for installation of irradiation facilities. The pros and cons of irradiation process are described. (M.K.V.)

  5. Growing acceptance of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the table are listed food products treated by irradiation which have been cleared for human consumption in a number of Member States of the Agency. The details are based on information up to 1 February 1968. Two words already known to food experts investigating nuclear techniques for preserving food and preventing wastage but perhaps unfamiliar as yet to others, appear in the table. They are radappertization and radurization. The first means sterilization by irradiation and the second extension of market life, also by irradiation. (author)

  6. Therapeutic postprostatectomy irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Emad; Forman, Jeffrey D; Tekyi-Mensah, Samuel; Bolton, Susan; Hart, Kim

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of patients receiving external beam radiation for an elevated postprostatectomy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Between December 1991 and September 1998, 108 patients received definitive radiation therapy for elevated postprostatectomy PSA levels. The median dose of irradiation was 68 Gy (range, 48-74 Gy). During treatment, the PSA levels were checked an average of 5 times (range, 3-7 times). Prostate-specific antigen values were judged to decline or increase during treatment if they changed by more than 0.2 ng/mL. After treatment, biochemical failure was defined as a measurable or rising PSA > 0.2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 51 months (range, 3-112 months). Fifty-eight patients (54%) had evidence of biochemical failure. The 3- and 5-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free (bNED) survivals for all patients were 55% and 39%, respectively. Upon univariate analysis, intratreatment PSA and preradiation PSA were significant predictors of bNED survival. Patients with a PSA level that decreased during treatment had a 5-year bNED survival of 43% compared to 10% in patients with an increasing PSA level (P = 0.0002). Using the preradiation therapy PSA value as a continuous variable, higher preradiation therapy PSA levels were associated with an increased risk of failure (P = 0.004). Cut points of pretreatment PSA were derived at 0.9 ng/mL and 4.2 ng/mL using the Michael Leblanc recursive partitioning algorithm. The 5-year bNED rate for patients with a preradiation therapy PSA or = 4.2 ng/mL (P = 0.0003). Patients with a Gleason score of 7 (P = 0.27). Other factors examined individually that did not reach statistical significance included time from surgery to radiation therapy, race, seminal vesicle involvement, pathological stage, surgical margin, and perineural invasion. Upon multivariate analysis, only preradiation therapy PSA (P < 0.001) and the PSA trend during radiation therapy (P < 0.001) were significant

  7. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  8. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  9. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics Mini Cell. A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local onsite control. Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  10. Facts about food irradiation: Safety of irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the safety of industrial irradiation facilities. Although there have been accidents, none of them has endangered public health or environmental safety, and the radiation processing industry is considered to have a very good safety record. Gamma irradiators do not produce radioactive waste, and the radiation sources at the facilities cannot explode nor in any other way release radioactivity into the environment. 3 refs

  11. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which, in...... turn, is determined by managers' risk perceptions, risk tolerance, and ability to employ risk-reducing measures. Many firms move into transformational global sourcing more or less deliberately. However, as the human asset specificity of the global sourcing operation increases, managers find themselves...

  12. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  13. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  14. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  16. Economics of Grain Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three years, in which preliminary designs were prepared, a grain irradiation plant has been designed and is being built into an existing silo installation. From this experience actual costs of plant construction are available for a plant using cobalt-60 and this experience is incorporated in estimates for machine installations for high grain throughput. Costs are compared for plants of comparable complexity and they indicate those areas in which each type of plant is pre-eminently suitable and those areas where either type may be best, dependent upon local site conditions, the standard of local technology and methods of operation. The two plants compared are described in sufficient detail to enable the precise extent of the equipment supply covered by the costs to be appreciated. The accounting methods employed have been discussed with industrial accountants to ensure that they are acceptable to the potential users. The methods employed are explained so that they can be applied to problems of a similar nature. (author)

  17. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fully portable, vitreous-carbon/thulium-170 (VCTm) irradiators were previously developed and tested in goats, sheep and dogs for effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin graft rejection. This past year the testing was extended to include studies of effects on kidney transplants in dogs. Six pairs of beagle dogs were tested. One of each pair was treated with an activated VCTm (i.e., containing 170Tm); the other was treated comparably, but had an inactive unit (containing 169Tm). Kidney donors were selected for maximum disparity in cellular immune (DLA) type between donor and host. The host's own kidneys were removed so that survival depended on the functioning of the transplanted kidney. The untreated dogs survived 9 to 23 days (mean = 15) after transplant; treated dogs survived 16 to 45 days (mean = 27 days). Histological examination showed that there was a distinct depletion of cells in all lymphoid tissues and a reduced cellular involvement in kidney tissues of treated animals

  18. MRI evaluation of rabbit bone marrow after acute irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: magnetic resonance imaging is a safe modality and useful in characterizing normal and abnormal bone marrow. magnetic resonance imaging also presents a more global view of bone marrow than biopsy; therefore , it may provide a better understanding of hematologic disorders. The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of bone marrow in acute phase of irradiation (1-10 day after total body irradiation with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: twelve New Zealand adult male white rabbits (10 for total body irradiation and 2 as controls) were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma rays. magnetic resonance imaging was performed for each rabbit femoral marrow and marginal muscles around femur region (as internal control) using T1-weighted (W) and SPIR (TR/TE 631/15) techniques before and after (24h, 48h, 72h, 5d, 10d) post total body irradiation. Results: the results were expressed as MR signal ratio (mean MR signal of femur/mean MR signal of muscle). The bone marrow MR- signal intensity values were subsequently compared to the histologic values of bone marrow cellularity, edema and hemorrhage. Values of T1-signal intensity of bone marrow for 1 to 5 days after irradiation was smaller than those the values for before irradiation data (P< 0.006) SPIR-signal intensity values of bone marrow in 3, 5 and 10 days were less than values for before irradiation (P<0.001). Since signal intensity depends to edema and hemorrhage the high correlation between cellularity and T1-signal intensity (r=0.725, P= 0.018) or SPIR-SI (r= 0.814, P 0.004) was not found. Conclusion: This study indicated that radiation-induced modification of bone marrow-signal intensity is tightly linked to the parameters like decline of all hematopoietic cell lines, edema and hemorrhage. IT was concluded that magnetic resonance imaging can distinguish normal from irradiated bone marrow so that radiation-induced alterations in bone marrow could be assessed with

  19. Irradiation of food - the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author outlines the history of the process for the interest of the baking industry, and discusses the difficulties concerning public relations in this field, before the introduction of irradiation to the British food industry. (U.K.)

  20. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  1. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  2. URAM-2 Cryogenic Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Shabalin, E P; Kulikov, S A; Kulagin, E N; Melihov, V V; Belyakov, A A; Golovanov, L B; Borzunov, Yu T; Konstantinov, V I; Androsov, A V

    2002-01-01

    The URAM-2 irradiation facility has been built and mounted at the channel No. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor. It was constructed for study of radiolysis effects by fast neutron irradiation in some suitable for effective cold neutron production materials (namely: solid methane, methane hydrate, water ice, etc.). The facility cooling system is based on using liquid helium as a coolant material. The original charging block of the rig allows the samples to be loaded by condensing gas into irradiation cavity or by charging beads of ice prepared before. Preliminary tests for each facility block and assembling them at the working position were carried out. Use of the facility for study accumulation of chemical energy under irradiation at low temperature in materials mentioned above and its spontaneous release was started.

  3. Irradiation emerges as processing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticipating that food irradiation may soon become an important addition to the many food processing techniques currently available, this article discusses many aspects of this process. Primarily, the benefits of irradiation for all foods include insect and bacterial control, increasing the potential to reduce incidences of food-borne illnesses, in addition to delaying the deterioration of fruits and vegetables. Currently approved uses of food irradiation in the U.S. and other countries, a summary of the proposed rule for wider application, and the labeling issue encompassed in the proposal are addressed. Additionally, the areas of great consumer concern--safety and public health implications, are talked about with the conclusion that food irradiation has been declared safe

  4. Gamma irradiators: developments in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive programme for the production of 60Co sources and their applications was initiated at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1970. Initially a series of research irradiators called Gamma Chambers and Panoramic Batch Irradiators (PANBITs) was fabricated for R and D and pilot scale studies. In 1974 the first commercial scale, gamma sterilization plant ISOMED was commissioned with UNDP assistance. Subsequently two more plants were designed and built indigenously, one at Bangalore and the other at Delhi. A radiation plant for sludge hygienisation was built at Baroda and commissioned in 1992. The current interest in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) prompted the development and commissioning of a pilot scale NRL, irradiator at Kottayam, Kerala in 1992. A multipurpose irradiator is built recently at Jodhpur, as an upgraded version of the vintage PANBIT. Salient feature of these plants are presented . (author). 6 figs

  5. URAM-2 cryogenic irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The URAM-2 irradiation facility has been built and mounted at channel No.3 of the IBR-2 reactor. It was constructed for study of radiolysis effects by fast neutron irradiation in some suitable for effective cold neutron production materials (namely: solid methane, methane hydrate, water ice, etc.). The facility cooling system is based on using liquid helium as a coolant material. The original charging block of the rig allows the samples to be loaded by condensing gas into irradiation cavity or by charging beads of ice prepared before. Preliminary tests for each facility block and assembling them at the working position were carried out. Use of the facility for studying accumulation of chemical energy under irradiation at low temperature in materials mentioned above and its spontaneous release was started

  6. Irradiation of spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the microbiology, chemistry, mutagenicity and sensory of spices due to gamma irradiation are discussed. This process has been shown to be safe and wholesome with no effect on product quality or flavour

  7. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

  8. Massive allografts sterilised by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1984 to 1988 we implanted 127 massive allografts irradiated with a dose of 25 000 grays. These were reviewed at a minimum follow-up of three years to determine the effect of irradiation on infection, the complications and the functional result. No bacteriological infection was seen in the 44 patients who had allografts for revision of joint arthroplasty or for a tumour with no adjuvant therapy. For the 83 patients who also had chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both for a bone tumour, the rate of infection was 13%. The major mechanical complications were nonunion in seven grafts (5.5%) and fracture in eight (6%). These rates do not differ greatly from those reported for non-irradiated grafts. Our results suggest that irradiation, which remains the most convenient and acceptable method of sterilisation, does not jeopardise the clinical results. (author)

  9. Detection of irradiated food: Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the administrative monitoring procedures, - documentation by the irradiation facility operators and the documents accompanying irradiated foods -, reliable methods for food testing and post-factum detection of foods treated with ionizing radiation are required. The paper reviews the methods available for this purpose, summarizes results of the interlaboratory comparisons performed for verification, and lists the mandatory procedures required by the law. It is important to note that methods are available today that will detect unauthorized irradiation in almost any of the foods that are suitable for radiation treatment. In addition, the available methods are improved and refined whenever possible. The results of monitoring and testing activities so far according to the food surveillance regime in Germany show that there are only few irradiated foods on the market. (orig./cB)

  10. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  11. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin

  12. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  13. The facts behind food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this, the second of a two part article, professor Bert McGill completes his investigation of the process of food irradiation. He looks at some of the literature released on food irradiation and the complications thereof. He shows on half truths, innuendos and statements taken out of context, prepared to present only that picture which it wants to present, as it comes forward in documentation

  14. Preliminary studies on irradiated spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, a special attention is given to study different algae, especially to microscopic ones. Spirulina is one of them being used both nutritive supplement and medicine. The aim of the paper is to study the electron beam irradiated Spirulina by physical and biochemical methods. The UV-Vis and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectra and antioxidant activity are presented for Spirulina irradiated up to 80 kGy. (authors)

  15. Irradiation injury to large arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of irradiation injury to large arteries following radiotherapy treatment are presented and the literature is reviewed. Three patterns of injury have emerged: 1) intimal damage resulting in mural thrombosis presenting within 5 years of irradiation, 2) fibrotic occlusion presenting within 10 years of injury, and 3) a predisposition to the development of atheroma together with periarterial fibrosis associated with a latent interval of 20 or more years. The treatment of choice is a bypass procedure of the arterial lesion. (author)

  16. A Mobile Irradiator Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for data on the technical and economic feasibility of commercial potato irradiation using Cobalt-60 gamma rays, led to a design and cost study of a mobile irradiator. Investigation of handling and storage of potatoes in major growing areas in Canada and the United States showed that the irradiator should process at least 6,000 lbs. (2,700 kilos) per hour in bulk or in 100 lb. (45 kilo) bags. Tests on irradiated potatoes indicated that a dose of 8,000 rads would effectively inhibit sprouting at a storage temperature of 68oF (20oC). Based on source configurations of other AECL irradiation facilities, calculations and measurements of dosage uniformity were made showing that ±33 per cent variation occurred when using two passes on each side of the line source. The source was designed to have increased activity near the ends. The calculated radiation utilization efficiency was 48 per cent. A truck-mounted irradiator was studied in some detail and was found to be too heavy for easy transportation. An irradiator using a railroad flatcar and weighing 60 tons (54,000 kilos) was then considered. Although its movement is restricted, most potato warehouses are located near railroad sidings and are easily reached by a railroad car. The processing cost, including depreciation, source replacement and operating costs, was estimated to be 0.9 per cent per lb. (2.0 cents per kilo) for 1,200 hours operation per year. A longer operation time per year results in a decrease in this processing cost. The above figure is based on estimated costs for a prototype unit. Somewhat lower costs are indicated for production irradiators. (author)

  17. Studies on the irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Irradiated Solids laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities concern the investigations on disordered solids (chemical or structural disorder). The disorder itself, its effects on the material physical properties and the particle-matter interactions, are investigated. The research works are performed in the following fields: solid state physics, irradiation and stoechiometric defects, and nuclear materials. The scientific reviews, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  18. Nutritional value of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statements made in 2 reports by the European Parliamentary Commission on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection, chaired on both occasions by members of the German Green Party, that irradiated foods have no nutritional value are challenged. Attempts by the European Commission to regulate food irradiation in the European Community have been turned down by the European Parliament on the basis of these reports

  19. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  20. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  1. Satellite remote sensing of ultraviolet irradiance on the ocean surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Teng; PAN Delu; BAI Yan; LI Gang; HE Xianqiang; CHEN Chen-Tung Arthur; GAO Kunshan; LIU Dong; LEI Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a significant influence on marine biological processes and primary productivity;however, the existing ocean color satellite sensors seldom contain UV bands. A look-up table of wavelength-integrated UV irradiance (280–400 nm) on the sea surface is established using the coupled ocean atmosphere radiative transfer (COART) model. On the basis of the look-up table, the distributions of the UV irradiance at middle and low latitudes are inversed by using the satellite-derived atmospheric products from the Aqua satellite, including aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm, ozone content, liquid water path, and the total precipitable water. The validation results show that the mean relative difference of the 10 d rolling averaged UV irradiance between the satellite retrieval and field observations is 8.20% at the time of satellite passing and 13.95% for the daily dose of UV. The monthly-averaged UV irradiance and daily dose of UV retrieved by satellite data show a good correlation with thein situ data, with mean relative differences of 6.87% and 8.43%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of satellite inputs is conducted. The liquid water path representing the condition of cloud has the highest effect on the retrieval of the UV irradiance, while ozone and aerosol have relatively lesser effect. The influence of the total precipitable water is not significant. On the basis of the satellite-derived UV irradiance on the sea surface, a preliminary simple estimation of ultraviolet radiation’s effects on the global marine primary productivity is presented, and the results reveal that ultraviolet radiation has a non-negligible effect on the estimation of the marine primary productivity.

  2. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  3. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  4. Study on irradiation treatment to drunk crab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For guaranteeing the quality of irradiated drunk crab, manufacture method of the dosimeter, sample setting and taking position, irradiation time, asymmetry degree of irradiation dose, contrast of the dosimeter are discussed and some reference datum to commercialization of drunk crab's irradiation are provided

  5. China's move to food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese officials outlined China's past and future directions at a recent international food irradiation seminar in Shanghai sponsored by the FAO and IAEA. The meeting was attended by about 170 participants from China and 22 other countries, primarily from the Asian and Pacific region. Three food irradiation plants currently are operating in the region and 14 more are planned over the next 5 years. It was reported that China continues to suffer high food losses, up to 30% for some commodities, primarily due to preservation and storage problems. In January 1986, the first of five regional irradiation facilities planned in China officially opened in Shanghai. The Shanghai irradiation centre plans to process up to 35,000 tons of vegetables a year, as well as some spices, fruits, and non-food products. The Ministry of Public Health has approved seven irradiated foods as safe human diets: rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, peanuts, mushrooms and pork sausages; approval for apples is expected shortly. The Chinese officials at the Shanghai meeting stressed their openness to foreign participation and cooperation in food irradiation's development

  6. Irradiated vaccines against bovine babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted on non-splenectomized Bos taurus calves to determine the immunogenicity of blood vaccines containing either Babesia bigemina or Babesia bovis parasites irradiated in a 60Co source. Groups of calves between 6 and 10 months of age, found to be free of previous babesial infections by serodiagnosis, were inoculated with B. bigemina ('G' isolate) irradiated at rates ranging from 350 to 500 Gy. These vaccines caused low to moderate reactions on primary inoculation which subsided without treatment. Parasites irradiated at 350 Gy produced a strong immunity against virulent homologous challenge. Vaccinated calves also withstood virulent heterologous B. bigemina ('H' isolate) and B. bovis ('A' isolate) challenges made 85 and 129 days later. It also became evident that the use of babesicides to control reactions should be avoided since early treatment of 'reactor' animals caused breakdown of immunity among vaccinates. B. bovis ('A' isolate) parasites irradiated at dose rates of either 300 Gy or 350 Gy caused mild to moderate reactions in immunized calves, with the reactions in the 300 Gy group being slightly more severe. On challenge with homologous parasites, animals that had previously been inoculated with organisms irradiated at 300 Gy showed better protection than those that had received parasites irradiated at 350 Gy. (author). 28 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Material Irradiation at HANARO, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO: High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is an open-pool type multi-purposed research reactor located at KAERI, in Korea. It was designed to provide a peak thermal and fast flux of 5x1014 n/cm2.s and 2.1x1014 n/cm2.s (E >1.0MeV) respectively at a 30 MW maximum thermal power. A capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of nuclear materials and fuels in the core region of the HANARO reactor. Extensive efforts have been made to establish the design and manufacturing technology for a capsule and temperature control system, which should be compatible with HANARO's characteristics. A material capsule system consisting of main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport system were developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials. This capsule system has been actively utilized for the various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities and the industries. More than 7000 specimens have been irradiated at dedicated vertical hole of HANARO by using the developed capsule system since 1995. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation condition are being developed at HANARO. A strategic irradiation program at HANARO will place more emphasis on a special-purpose capsule system by focusing on the specific material or fuels for a next generation power reactor. (author)

  8. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  9. The present situation of irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of food irradiation in Japan is presented from a point of view of a trustee for irradiation business. Radiation sprout inhibition of potatoes, only approved by Government, and spice treatment, now being applied for, are explained. Existing establishments capable of entrusting irradiation services as business in Japan are outlined including Co-60 gamma ray and X-ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation. Principles of irradiation-induced physical and chemical effects in irradiated materials specifically organic polymers and brief explanation of facilities together with safety devices are also explained. (S. Ohno)

  10. Study on public acceptance of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4,500 kg potatoes of different sorts were irradiated by a 137Cs source with a dose of 10 krad. The potatoes were then stored for several months at a room temperature of 6 to 100C and a humidity of 80 to 85%. 0% of the irradiated potatoes sprouted, as compared to 100% of the non-irradiated potatoes. The percentage of rotting varied in the irradiated potatoes, depending on the variety. Cooking tests showed no difference between irradiated and non-irradiated potatoes. The irradiated potatoes were consumed and accepted by about 4,000 persons in the cafeteria of the institute. (AJ)

  11. Food irradiation newsletter. Vol. 15, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of three coordinated research meetings held in 1991: irradiation in combination with other processes for improving food quality; application of irradiation technique for food processing in Africa; and food irradiation programme for Middle East and European countries. The first Workshop on Public Information on Food Irradiation is summarized, and a Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly is announced. This issue also contains a report on the status of food irradiation in China, and a supplement lists clearances of irradiated foods. Tabs

  12. Ripening characteristics of light irradiated tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red color development in breaker stage tomatoes was accelerated by 3 min red (R) irradiation and delayed by 3 min far-red (FR) irradiation during the first 4 days of ripening. The effects were reversible and color development effective whether the interval between R and FR treatments was 1 day or 2 days. Firmness values of tomatoes irradiated with R were lower than those irradiated with FR, treated with ethylene, or stored in darkness. Light irradiation had the greatest effect on color development in tomatoes irradiated at the breaker and turning stages of maturity compared to those irradiated at the pink and light red stages

  13. The sensory quality of irradiated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced triangle tests indicated some significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated mushrooms. The irradiated mushrooms were significantly stronger flavoured and firmer than unirradiated mushrooms. The panelists showed no significant preference for either the irradiated or unirradiated mushrooms. The combination of irradiation at 2kGy with pre-packing and storage reduced weight loss in mushrooms and prevented excessive stalk elongation. Irradiation inhibited cap opening. Generally pre-packed irradiated mushrooms discoloured more slowly than unirradiated pre-packed samples. The texture of pre-packed irradiated mushrooms tended to be firmer than that of unirradiated samples. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  15. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  16. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  17. Improvement of irradiation facilities performance in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds of irradiation facilities are installed in the JMTR for the purpose of irradiation tests on fuels and materials and of producing radioisotopes. The irradiation facilities have been improved so far at every opportunity of new irradiation requirements and of renewing them which reached the design lifetime. Of these irradiation facilities, improvements of the power ramping test facility (BOCA/OSF-1 facility) and the hydraulic rabbit No.2 (HR-2 facility) are described here. (author)

  18. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)

  19. International co-operation in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Directors General of FAO, IAEA and WHO took the initiative in forming the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, as an independent body composed of government-designated experts (currently 37 member states). It is the successor of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (IFIP), Karlsruhe which terminated in 1983 after successful complation of its tasks. The major functions of ICGFI, as stated in Declaration, are: - To evaluate global developments; - to provide advice to Member States and the three organizations; - to furnish information through the organizations to the JECFI and CAC. ICGFI addresses matters such as safety assurance, legislation, public information, technical and economical feasibility, training and international trade. Under the Auspices of ICGFI Codes of Food Irradiation Practice for eight different food groups were published. ICGFI organizes workshops on different topics, harmonize legislation and regulation in the field of food irradiation, provides information to the general public, records the files on clearances of radiated food and market testing. (orig.)

  20. Transmission of UV-irradiance into nectarine fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the global depletion of the ozone layer, leaves and fruits are increasingly exposed to UV-irradiance on the tree. Some fruits are additionally exposed postharvest to artificial germicidal W-irradiance, leading to a cumulative effect. This paper examines the transmission of UV-light (200-400 nm) by the peel of ripe nectarine fruit using UV/VIS spectrophotometry to aid understanding of UV-effects and assess the sensitivity of the peel to UV wavelengths. Yellow peel of nectarine fruit transmitted less than 0.1 % in the UV-C range of 220 to 280 nm. With longer wavelenghts, UV-light transmission increased slowly from 0.4 % at 284 nm to 1.6 % at 320 nm and, in the UV-A region, progressively from 1.9 % at 330 nm to a maximum of 13 % of incident irradiance at 400 nm. Red peel of nectarine fruit transmitted less than 0.1 % of UV-C and UV-B light, but up to 0.9 % of incident UV-A light at 400 nm. Conversely, UV-absorption of nectarine peel decreased with longer wavelengths. Hence, fruit parenchyma is more affected by UV-irradiance at wavelengths above ca. 280 nm and underneath yellow than underneath red peel