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Sample records for baboons evolution comparee

  1. Baboon endogenous virus evolution and ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    1996-01-01

    Cross-species transmission of retroviruses among primates has recently been recognized as the source of the current epidemics of HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The distribution of baboon endogenous virus among non-human primates resembles that of exogenous viruses and

  2. Trichobezoars in baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejido, Diana C.P.; Dick, Edward J.; Williams, Priscilla C.; Sharp, R. Mark; Andrade, Marcia C.R.; DiCarlo, C.D.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little information available concerning trichobezoars in the nonhuman primate literature. Methods We evaluated 118 cases of trichobezoar in baboons over a 29 year period at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Results The anatomic locations affected in decreasing order were the stomach, small intestine, cecum, esophagus, and colon. The most common clinical history was weight loss. The most frequent associated pathology included gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration, emaciation, peritonitis, intussusception, pneumonia, and aspiration. Trichobezoars were the cause of death in 9 baboons and the reason for euthanasia in 12. Females were 2.14 times more likely than males to be affected. The greater the percentage of group housing time, the more likely the baboon was to develop trichobezoars. Conclusions The baboon may present a useful model to evaluate the etiology, genetic predisposition, physiopathology, neurobiology, and treatment response of trichobezoars. PMID:19457157

  3. The baboon syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjorth, N; Menné, T

    1984-01-01

    The catchword "baboon syndrome" is used to denote a characteristic distribution pattern of systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Diffuse erythema of the buttocks, upper inner surface of the thighs, and axillae are characteristic features. We describe 3 cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel...

  4. Trade-offs in skillacquisition and time allocation among juvenile chacma baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara E; Bock, John

    2004-03-01

    We hypothesize that juvenile baboons are less efficient foragers than adult baboons owing to their small size, lower level of knowledge and skill, and/or lesser ability to maintain access to resources. We predict that as resources are more difficult to extract, juvenile baboons will demonstrate lower efficiency than adults will because of their lower levels of experience. In addition, we hypothesize that juvenile baboons will be more likely to allocate foraging time to easier-to-extract resources owing to their greater efficiency in acquiring those resources.We use feeding efficiency and time allocation data collected on a wild, free-ranging, non-provisioned population of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Moremi Wildlife Reserve, Okavango Delta, Botswana to test these hypotheses. The major findings of this study are:1. Juvenile baboons are significantly less efficient foragers than adult baboons primarily for difficult-to-extract resources.We propose that this age-dependent variation in efficiency is due to differences in memory and other cognitive functions related to locating food resources, as is indicated by the greater amount of time juvenile baboons spend searching for food. There is no evidence that smaller body size or competitive disruption influences the differences in return rates found between adult and juvenile baboons in this study.2. An individual baboon's feeding efficiency for a given resource can be used to predict the duration of its foraging bouts for that resource.These results contribute both to our understanding of the ontogeny of behavioral development in nonhuman primates, especially regarding foraging ability, and to current debate within the field of human behavioral ecology regarding the evolution of the juvenile period in primates and humans.

  5. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  6. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... and endogenous (normal circulating hormones) on vaginal histology. In this study, we evaluated the vaginal histological changes in the baboon during the menstrual cycle. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Animal selection: Nine healthy adult female baboons. (Papio anubis) (mean±SD [15.2±2.03 Kg], range ...

  7. Distribution of mitochondrial clades and morphotypes of baboons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent genetic studies, using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, indicate a complex evolutionary history for baboons Papio spp. in general, and for eastern African baboons in particular. To further address this topic and to improve our understanding of phylogeographic patterns of baboons in eastern Africa, ...

  8. Mitochondrial phylogeny and systematics of baboons (Papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Timothy K; Jolly, Clifford J; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Baboons (Papio, s.s.) comprise a series of parapatric allotaxa (subspecies or closely related species) widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite extensive studies of their ecology, morphology, and behavior, disagreement about their phylogenetic relationships continues, as expressed in the current coexistence of at least three major, competing taxonomic treatments. To help resolve this situation, we sequenced approximately 900 bases of mitochondrial DNA of 40 individuals from five of the widely recognized "major" allotaxa. Total sequence diversity (>5%) is high compared to most primate species. Major mitochondrial clades correspond to recognized allotaxa, with the important exception that haplotypes from yellow and olive baboons form a single, monophyletic clade within which the two allotaxa do not comprise mutually exclusive clusters. The major clades fall unambiguously into the pattern: (chacma (Guinea (hamadryas (yellow + olive)))). This phylogeny does not support taxonomies that oppose hamadryas to all other baboons ("desert" vs. "savanna"), but is compatible with the view that all definable allotaxa should be recognized as coordinates, either as "phylogenetic" species or "biological" subspecies. The close relationship and unsegregated distribution of haplotypes from Kenyan and Tanzanian yellow and olive baboons are unexplained, but may reflect introgression across the documented hybrid zone. The overall phylogeny, when combined with paleontological data, suggests a southern African origin for extant Papio baboons, with all extant lineages sharing a common mitochondrial ancestor at approximately 1.8 Ma. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Behavioral implications of ontogenetic changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions in olive baboons (Papio Anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druelle, François; Young, Jesse; Berillon, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons. Longitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months. The length of digits and metapodials, measured from radiographs, were used to calculate phalangeal indices (i.e., PIs: summed length of non-distal phalanges relative to corresponding metapodial length). We also examined the allometric scaling of digital bones relative to body mass. We observed baboon positional behaviors over a 15-day period following the radiographic sessions, quantifying the frequency of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors. PIs for all digits declined during growth, a result of the differential scaling of metapodials (which scaled to body mass with isometry) versus phalanges (which scaled with negative allometry). The incidence of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors declined with age. Though we found no relationship between forelimb grasping and hand proportions, the incidence of hindlimb grasping was directly correlated with postaxial digit PIs. Only changes in the intrinsic proportions of the pedal digits are associated with variation in grasping activity in growing baboons. This finding accords previous biomechanical and neuroanatomical studies showing distinct functional roles for the hands and feet during primate locomotion, and has important implications for reconstructing primate locomotor evolution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... the changes on the perineal sex skin which has led to easier follow up of baboon menstrual cycle (1,5). ... of vaginal epithelial histological changes during the menstrual cycle and perineal sex skin changes. ..... In normally cycling women, Patton et al (7) showed that the thickness of the ectocervical and.

  11. 60 ASSESSMENT OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF BABOONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 16 food plants, 4 invertebrates (millipedes, earthworms, grasshopper and crabs); 2 vertebrates (goats and sheep) and 4 crop plants (groundnuts, guinea corn, maize and beans) were observed to be eaten by baboons in the study area. Wet season food plant species include. Annona senegalensis Parkia biglobosa, Ficus ...

  12. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riashna Sithaldeen

    Full Text Available Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp. supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  13. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  14. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  15. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  16. Are baboons learning "orthographic" representations? Probably not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Linke

    Full Text Available The ability of Baboons (papio papio to distinguish between English words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. However, given that pigeons (columba livia, whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between English words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to explain this behavior. Accordingly, we examined whether the learning model of Rescorla and Wagner, which has proved to be amazingly fruitful in understanding animal and human learning could account for these data. We show that a discrimination learning network using gradient orientation features as input units and word and nonword units as outputs succeeds in predicting baboon lexical decision behavior-including key lexical similarity effects and the ups and downs in accuracy as learning unfolds-with surprising precision. The models performance, in which words are not explicitly represented, is remarkable because it is usually assumed that lexicality decisions, including the decisions made by baboons and pigeons, are mediated by explicit lexical representations. By contrast, our results suggest that in learning to perform lexical decision tasks, baboons and pigeons do not construct a hierarchy of lexical units. Rather, they make optimal use of low-level information obtained through the massively parallel processing of gradient orientation features. Accordingly, we suggest that reading in humans first involves initially learning a high-level system building on letter representations acquired from explicit instruction in literacy, which is then integrated into a conventionalized oral communication system, and that like the latter, fluent reading involves the massively parallel processing of the low-level features encoding semantic contrasts.

  17. Assessment of Feeding Behaviour of Baboons ( Papio Anubis ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the feeding behaviour of baboons of Hong hills. Direct observation method was used for the study. Data was collected for a period of eight months. The results indicate high diversity and abundance of food items for baboons in the study area. A total of 16 food plants, 4 invertebrates ...

  18. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  19. Vaginal Histological Changes Of The Baboon During The Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the histological changes in baboon vagina associated with cyclic variations during normal menstrual cycle. Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy female olive baboons were used in this study.

  20. Crop-raiding Baboons (Papio anubis) and Defensive Farmers: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baboons are often reported as the worst crop-raiders in Africa, but there has been little observation of the actual behavioural-ecology of their crop-raiding, especially in West Africa. The paper examines the crop-raiding behaviour of a group of habituated baboons (Gamgam group) near the village of Gashaka on the ...

  1. Behavioural Patterns of a Troop of Olive Baboons ( Papio Anubis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive baboons forage viciously on agricultural crops causing huge losses of farm produce to farmers. In this study, behavioural pattern of a troop of crop raiding olive baboons, Papio anubis which dwell at the periphery of Gashaka Gumti National Park and forage on crops were studied as they raided maize farms. Successful ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_ham...adryas_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+ham...adryas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=186 ...

  4. Cognitive control under social influence in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Pascal; Barbet, Isabelle; Belletier, Clément; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Fagot, Joël

    2014-12-01

    From cockroaches to human beings, the presence of other members of the same species typically facilitates dominant (habitual/well-learned) responses regardless of their contextual relevance. This social facilitation requires special attention in animal species such as primates, given their evolved cognitive control mechanisms. Here we tested baboons who freely engaged in (computer-based) conflict response tasks requiring cognitive control for successful performance, and discovered that social presence does not only enhance dominant responses but also consumes cognitive control resources. Under social presence, the baboons experienced greater cognitive conflicts, were less able to inhibit a learned action in favor of a new one, and were also less able to take advantage of previous experience with response conflict, compared with isolation. These findings explain why inappropriate behaviors are not easily suppressed in primates acting in social contexts, and indicate a greater demand for cognitive control in social groups. This extra demand might represent a major evolutionary drive of human intelligence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in a pregnant baboon (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M; Hubbard, G B; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N

    2007-04-01

    Old World monkeys are considered more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) than New World monkeys. Several cases of TB in baboons are described in the literature. The data regarding baboon reaction to the tuberculin skin test (TST) are controversial. Some authors described anergy in this species, while the others documented a positive reaction. An 8-year-old clinically healthy pregnant female baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) developed positive TST after 3 years of negative tests in captivity while not pregnant. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated three nodular densities in the lung. Histological examination of tracheobronchial lymph nodes revealed multiple coalescing pyogranulomas filled with caseonecrotic debris and mineralized foci with numerous large foreign body-type and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. The bacterial culture contained a slow growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a positive TST in a wild caught, pregnant baboon with latent infection after 3 years in captivity.

  6. [Grooming and group structure in hamadryas baboons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The results of 3-year observation on coral living hamadryas baboons transported from natural habitat in Tuapse reservation have been presented. Despite of the fact that grooming between males and females accounted for 73% of total cases of grooming in adult individual pairs, only the relationships of males with high-ranked females of their harems fully corresponded to a star-shaped sociogram. The high-ranked females were not different from all the other females either according to a total number of grooming cases with their female partners or according to a proportion of a performed and received grooming. Grooming between the related females was noted predominantly in the cases when they belonged to the same harem. Grooming between the related males accounted for 59% of all the cases of grooming between the male partners.

  7. Metabolism of endogenous surfactant in premature baboons and effect of prenatal corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Seidner, [No Value; Ikegami, M; Wattimena, JLD; Sauer, PJJ; Jobe, AH; Zimmermann, LJI

    1999-01-01

    We studied the synthesis of surfactant and the effect of prenatal betamethasone treatment in vivo in very preterm baboons. Ten pregnant baboons were randomized to receive either betamethasone (beta) or saline (control) 48 and 24 h before preterm delivery. The newborn baboons were intubated, treated

  8. Life history and the competitive environment: trajectories of growth, maturation, and reproductive output among chacma baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara E

    2003-01-01

    The social environment is a key feature influencing primate life histories. Chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) are a female-bonded species with a strict linear dominance hierarchy. In this species, the allocation of energy to competing demands of growth and reproduction is hypothesized to vary as a function of competitive ability, which in turn increases with social rank. Since growth rate is a major component of life history models, measures of age-specific growth were used to analyze variation in life history traits across social ranks. Weights of 42 immature baboons were obtained without sedation or baiting from a troop of well-habituated chacma baboons in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using demographic and weight data from this wild population, five main findings emerged: 1) Weight for age and growth rate of infant and juvenile females are positively associated with maternal rank. 2) Male growth is not influenced by maternal rank. 3) Female growth shows smaller variation across feeding conditions than male growth. 4) Low-ranking adult females continue investment in offspring through prolonged lactation until they reach a weight comparable to that of high-ranking infants. 5) The benefit of rank to reproductive success shown in this study is 0.83 additional offspring. Reproductive span determined predominantly by age at maturation contributes 27-38% to the difference in expected number of offspring by rank, vs. 62-73% due to reproductive rate. These findings have major implications for understanding the role of social environment in phenotypic plasticity of life history traits, and in the evolution of primate life histories. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Maternal and neonatal vaccination protects newborn baboons from pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfel, Jason M; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-08-15

    The United States is experiencing a pertussis resurgence that resulted in a 60-year high of 48 000 cases in 2012. The majority of hospitalizations and deaths occur in infants too young to be vaccinated. Neonatal and maternal vaccination have been proposed to protect newborns until the first vaccination, currently recommended at 2 months of age. These interventions result in elevated anti-Bordetella pertussis titers, but there have been no studies demonstrating that these measures confer protection. Baboons were vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine at 2 days of age or at 2 and 28 days of age. To model maternal vaccination, adult female baboons primed with acellular pertussis vaccine were boosted in the third trimester of pregnancy. Neonatally vaccinated infants, infants born to vaccinated mothers, and naive infants born to unvaccinated mothers were infected with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Naive infant baboons developed severe disease when challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Baboons receiving acellular pertussis vaccine and infants born to mothers vaccinated at the beginning of their third trimester were protected. Our results demonstrate that neonatal vaccination and maternal vaccination confer protection in the baboon model and support further study of these strategies for protection of newborns from pertussis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. White monkey syndrome in infant baboons (Papio species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P A; Hubbard, G B; Dammann, M J; Snider, C L; Moore, C M; Hodara, V L; Giavedoni, L D; Rohwer, R; Mahaney, M C; Butler, T M; Cummins, L B; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N E

    2004-08-01

    Over 23 months, zinc toxicosis was diagnosed in 35 baboons aged 5-12 months in one galvanized metal and concrete cage complex with conditions that led to excessive exposure to environmental zinc. Clinical signs included reduced pigmentation of hair, skin, and mucous membranes (whiteness), alopecia, dehydration, emaciation, cachexia, dermatitis, diarrhea and, in six cases, severe gangrenous dermatitis of extremities. The syndrome was characterized by pancytopenia, elevated zinc and low copper serum concentrations, low vitamin D and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, and atypical myelomonocytic proliferation of bone marrow. This syndrome emphasizes the importance of proper husbandry and cage design and indicates the potential of infant baboons as a model to study the effects of excessive zinc on development. This is the first report describing the epidemiologic and clinical presentation of zinc toxicosis in infant baboons in captivity.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  12. A comparative study of the {sup 90}Sr/Ca ratio in human diet and bone tissue; Etude comparee chez l'homme du rapport {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans l'alimentation et le tissu osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Madelmont, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A comparative study of both the evolution of strontium-90 content in the bones of individuals of different ages for the period 1962-1967 as related to calcium, and the corresponding diets allowed to establish the relationship between food contribution and the resulting bone burden. The study is mainly devoted to the group of adults for which a mathematical expression is proposed which allows for the exchangeable form of a skeletal calcium fraction turned over in less than a year from the dietary calcium, and the stabilized form constituting the larger part of bone tissue characterized by a slow turnover. Both the amount of the exchangeable fraction and the turnover rate of the stabilized fraction are determined for vertebrae and ribs. At birth, bone levels indicate that the calcium used for skeleton modelling during foetal life originates from both maternal diet and bone tissue and a value is given, to their relative significance. There appears a good relationship between bone levels in infants from 6 months to 1 year of age and their diets. The physiological parameters particular to this age are quantified. (authors. [French] L'etude comparee de l'evolution de la teneur en strontium 90 rapportee au calcium, mesuree dans les os d'individus a differents ages durant la periode 1962-1967 et celle du regime alimentaire correspondant, a permis d'etablir la relation qui existe entre l'apport du a l'alimentation et la charge osseuse qui en resulte. L'essentiel de l'etude est consacre au cas des adultes. Pour ce groupe la formulation mathematique proposee tient compte de la presence de la forme echangeable d'une fraction du calcium osseux, renouvelee en moins d'un an a partir du calcium alimentaire, et de la forme stabilisee, constituant la majeure partie du tissu osseux, caracterisee par un renouvellement lent. L'importance de la fraction echangeable, ainsi que le taux de renouvellement de la fraction stabilisee sont

  13. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8

  14. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-11-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8.

  15. A survey of gastrointestinal helminths in Baboons ( Papio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species identified were Strongyloides (63.3%), Oesophagostomum (16.7%) and Trichostrongylus (10.0%). The observed high worm burden in yellow baboons and warthogs of SANAPA show that wild animals are the resevoirs of gastrointestinal parasites and could serve as potential sources of infestations to domestic ...

  16. Anaesthesia for Baboons – Practical and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Animal research is still a cornerstone of modern scientific discovery. A practical approach to anaesthetising Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) undergoing experimental cardiac surgery is described. This physiological model has many similarities to human physiology. Subtle differences exist which could influence outcome.

  17. Problem animals, indigeneity and land: the chacma baboon in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparently opposing images found throughout colonial writing of the baboon as trespasser and as original inhabitant – exemplified in the works of Percy Fitzpatrick, WC Scully, C R Prance, Stuart Cloete, Perceval Gibbon, and F W Fitzsimons – are revealed to be mutually implicated in the territorial anxieties of the ...

  18. Baboons as potential reservoirs of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    contaminated food, water and hands10. They are known to be the most common causative agents of debilitating diarrhoea in humans. However, it should be noted that although baboons at YNP showed natural infections with eggs and cysts of helminth, nematode and protozoan parasites that are morphologically similar to ...

  19. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the troop while foraging was greatest in summer. Female baboons had menstrual cycles and copulated throughout the year. The calculated reproductive rate (12%) was roughly 80% of those reported ...

  20. Ecology of baboons ( Papio ursinus ) at Cape Point | Davidge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the troop while foraging was greatest in summer. Female baboons had menstrual cycles and copulated throughout the year. The calculated reproductive rate (12%) was roughly 80% of those reported for congeners ...

  1. Microcirculatory alterations after orthotopic pig-to-baboon heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Andreas; Renz, Vivian; Baschnegger, Heiko; Abicht, Jan-Michael; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Brenner, Paolo; Thein, Eckart; Schmoeckel, Michael; Reichart, Bruno; Christ, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Whilst macrohemodynamic function of porcine xenografts transplanted into baboons has been assessed perioperatively, the ability of the xenograft to maintain systemic microcirculatory perfusion has not been investigated after pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation so far. We investigated the sublingual microcirculation of six baboons undergoing orthotopic transplantation of hCD46-transgenic pig hearts using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Microvascular measurements were performed after induction of anesthesia, in the early phase of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), during reperfusion of the porcine heart and 1 h after the xenograft had resumed its life-supporting function. Microvascular blood flow was analyzed semiquantitatively and the number of visualized cell-to-cell interactions was counted. The proportion of continuously perfused microvessels was 97 (96 to 97) % at baseline and 95 (94 to 97) % in the early phase of CPB. It decreased significantly (P pig-to-baboon heart transplantation, despite systemic hemodynamic parameters being well maintained by the porcine xenograft. These changes are moderate but persist after termination of CPB. Further studies need to elucidate whether these changes are transient or add to the mortality associated with cardiac xenotransplantation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... The baboons' diet included 95% vegetable matter (grass, seeds, fruit, leaves). Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the ... The climate of the area is "mediterranean", unlike most of sub-saharan Africa, with wet cool winters and warm dry ...

  3. Full-length proviruses of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) and dispersed BaEV reverse transcriptase retroelements in the genome of baboon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) is present in multiple copies in many Old World monkey species. BaEV proviruses may contain open reading frames for all major genes, as is indicated by the rescue of infectious virus particles from baboon and gelada tissues after cocultivation with permissive cells. We

  4. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  5. A review of 105 necropsies in captive baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kalter, S S

    1975-07-01

    In contrast to the findings in newly caught babboons in Africa, the leading cause of death in captivity in America was a pneumonia and enteritis complex. Bacterial species such as Proteus morgani, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium sp., Pseudomonas paracolon, pathogenic Escherichia coli and cocci have been isolated in association with a pneumoenteric syndrome of 35 newborn baboons, including neonates. The majority of these animals died with pulmonary factors such as anoxia and pneumonia.

  6. An economic analysis of "demand" for food in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    Foltin, R W

    1991-01-01

    Responding of 6 adult male baboons (Papio c. anubis) was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement during daily 22-hr experimental sessions. Completion of the ratio requirement resulted in the delivery of a single 1-g food pellet; supplemental feeding was limited to a daily fruit ration. Ratio values were increased on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays according to the following schedule: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 96, 128. Responding under each ratio value was examined four times...

  7. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins, explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  8. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  9. Upper limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in experimental renovascular hypertension in the baboon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Jones, J V; MacKenzie, E T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of arterial hypertension on cerebral blood flow was studied by the intracarotid 133Xe clearance method in baboons. The arterial blood pressure was raised in gradual steps with angiotensin. Baboons with renal hypertension of 8-12 weeks duration were studied along with normotensive baboo...

  10. Activity budgets of olive baboon ( Papio anubis f.) at Gashaka Gumti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained indicated that the baboons spent 34.14% of their time feeding, 35.83% resting, 9.08% grooming, 4.47% handling infants, 11.19% travelling and 0.28% playing. Generally, activity budgets did not differ significantly ( p > 0.05) across months. Olive baboon food habit showed that food items mostly eaten were ...

  11. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  12. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown

  13. Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei

    OpenAIRE

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. ...

  14. Clinical relevance of the baboon as a model for the study of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooghe, T M

    1997-10-01

    To review the value of the baboon as a model for the study of endometriosis. Studies performed at the Institute of Primate Research in Nairobi, Kenya (1990-1994), and published in peer-reviewed journals. Spontaneous endometriosis was found in about 25% of the baboons, and its prevalence increased with the duration of captivity. The laparoscopic appearance, pelvic localization, and microscopic aspects of the disease were similar to endometriosis in women. Microscopic endometriosis in macroscopically normal peritoneum was rare. Sampson's hypothesis (i.e., retrograde menstruation causes endometriosis) was supported by the increased incidence of retrograde menstruation in baboons with spontaneous endometriosis, the observation that cervical occlusion could cause retrograde menstruation and endometriosis, and the finding that intrapelvic injection of menstrual endometrium caused experimental moderate to severe endometriosis similar to the spontaneous disease. During follow-up of more than 2 years, endometriosis in baboons appeared to be a progressive disease, with active remodeling between several types of lesions. Progression was stimulated by high-dose immunosuppression. Fertility was normal in baboons with minimal disease but was reduced in baboons with mild, moderate, or severe endometriosis, possibly related to an increased incidence and recurrence of the luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome. The baboon is a good model for the study of endometriosis.

  15. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  16. Home range utilization by chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) troops on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Kerry; Barrett, Alan; Brown, Leslie R

    2018-01-01

    Rapid urbanization coupled with decreasing areas of natural habitat are causing baboon populations to become scattered and isolated, often resulting in increased levels of human-baboon conflict. To implement baboon-human conflict management strategies, it is essential to formulate realistic conservation policies that deal with all stakeholder concerns and ensure the conservation of viable baboon populations. A study was initiated in response to complaints of perceived excessive baboon numbers and associated lack of food resources on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve in South Africa. Data obtained from GPS tracking collars fitted to one baboon from each of 10 identified troops were analyzed to determine home range size and utilization. The spatial representation of home ranges generated from this study will allow reserve management to identify areas of potential high and low human-baboon conflict and will contribute to the development of a formal baboon management plan to reduce human-baboon conflict on and around the reserve. Home ranges were unevenly distributed and had a mean size of 26.72 km2 ± 13.91 SD in the cold/dry season and 26.54 km2 ± 12.76 SD in the warm/wet season. Troop home ranges overlapped to some degree and five troops utilized areas outside the reserve. Although no significant relationship between troop size and home range was found, there was a positive relationship between troop size and daily distance travelled. All troops had significantly longer mean daily distances during the warm/wet season than during the cold/dry season (P ≤ 0.02).

  17. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Janssen; V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); P.E. Cogo (Paola); S.R. Seidner; I.H.I. Luijendijk; J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); A.H. Jobe (Alan); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing

  18. Innate Immune Responses to TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Jessica F.; Pechenkina, Ekaterina A.; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background African catarrhine primates differ in bacterial disease susceptibility. Methods Human, chimpanzee, and baboon blood was stimulated with TLR-detected bacterial agonists and cytokine/chemokine induction assessed by real-time pcr. Results Humans and chimpanzees shared similar cytokine/chemokine responses, while baboon cytokine/chemokine induction differed. Generally, responses were agonist-independent. Conclusions These primates tend to generate species rather than agonist–specific responses to bacterial agonists. PMID:22978822

  19. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  20. The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caspian; Piel, Alex K; Forman, Dan; Stewart, Fiona A; King, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales. At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability. Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

  1. Alopecia in Outdoor Group- and Corral-Housed Baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Sharp, R Mark

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia has been reported to occur in several species of captive NHP. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; whether other primate species such as baboons are affected similarly is unknown. Because alopecia can be a focus of inspectors and a possible marker of wellbeing, the purpose of the current study was to survey the occurrence of alopecia in 2 baboon populations and to identify potential risk factors. Subjects were 262 group-housed and 279 corral-housed baboons. Alopecia was assessed cage-side (group-housed) and on sedated animals (corral-housed). Although alopecia was mild in both populations, there were significant effects of season and sex. Alopecia was greater in the winter (group-housed) and the fall (corral-housed) and in female baboons. In addition, the group-housed baboons showed a significant negative effect of age and a lesser effect of group size on alopecia. These results demonstrate that variables other than those associated with animal management practices can affect hair loss in baboons.

  2. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Irám

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas. We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR. Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.

  3. Extreme behavioural shifts by baboons exploiting risky, resource-rich, human-modified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Gaelle; O'Riain, M Justin; Kerr-Smith, Catherine; Hailes, Stephen; Luckman, Adrian; Shepard, Emily L C; King, Andrew J

    2017-11-08

    A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources. Baboon-attached motion/GPS tracking collars showed that raiding male baboons spent almost all of their time at the urban edge, engaging in short, high-activity forays into the urban space. Moreover, activity levels were increased where the likelihood of deterrence by rangers was greater. Overall, these raiding baboons display a time-activity balance that is drastically altered in comparison to individuals living in more remote regions. We suggest our methods can be used to obtain precise estimates of management impact for this and other species in conflict with people.

  4. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2010-11-01

    Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups.

  6. Effect of carotid ligation on cerebral blood flow in baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Harper, Murray; Jennett, Bryan

    1974-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were carried out in two groups of anaesthetized normocapnic baboons. In the first group of five animals the effect of hypoxia on the CBF before and after ipsilateral carotid artery ligation was studied. The results showed that, although after ipsilateral carotid ligation there was little change in the CBF at normal PaO2, at hypoxia there was only 20% rise in the CBF as compared with an 80% rise before the carotid ligation. In the second group of 10 animals, effects of haemorrhagic hypotension on the CBF after ipsilateral carotid artery ligation were estimated. The results indicated impairment of autoregulatory response of the cerebral circulation. PMID:4836753

  7. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting [ 14 C]cholesterol 186 days and [ 3 H]cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates

  8. Periodontitis in Pregnant Baboons: Systemic Inflammation and Adaptive Immune Responses and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Baboon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Holt, Stanley C.; Cappelli, David

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontal infections have been suggested to contribute to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study describes the relationship of patterns of systemic inflammatory mediators and IgG antibody to 20 oral bacteria in pregnant female baboons (Papio anubis) coupled with clinical features of ligature-induced periodontitis, as risk indicators for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals showing a preterm delivery and/or low birth weight newborns, as well as those pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or fetal demise were tabulated as adverse pregnancy outcomes. A significantly greater frequency of the periodontitis group neonates had a low birth weight (18.1%; p=0.008) and decreased gestational age (9.8%). Spontaneous abortion/stillbirth/fetal demise were increased in the periodontitis (8.7%) versus the control group (3.8%) (p=0.054). The baseline oral clinical presentation of the experimental animals did not relate to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals with the greatest extent/severity of periodontitis progression during the initial ½ of gestation (ie. to mid-pregnancy) had the greatest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Baseline biological parameters indicating historical responses of the animals to periodontal challenge demonstrated individual variation in selected mediators, some of which became more differential during ligature-induced periodontitis. The relationship of clinical parameters to systemic inflammatory responses was consistent with a temporal contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in a subset of the animals. These results support a link between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the baboons and provide a prospective experimental model for delineating the biologic parameters that contribute to a causal relationship between chronic oral infections and birth events. PMID:23710643

  9. Metabolism and Disposition of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”) in Baboons after Oral Administration: Comparison with Humans Reveals Marked Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Melanie; Goodwin, Amy K.; Ator, Nancy A.; McCann, Una D.; Ricaurte, George A.

    2011-01-01

    The baboon is potentially an attractive animal for modeling 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) effects in humans. Baboons self-administer MDMA, are susceptible to MDMA neurotoxicity, and are suitable for positron emission tomography, the method most often used to probe for MDMA neurotoxicity in humans. Because pharmacokinetic equivalence is a key feature of a good predictive animal model, we compared the pharmacokinetics of MDMA in baboons and humans. Baboons were trained to orally cons...

  10. Sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons and their perceptual discrimination by baboon listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew; Owren, Michael J.; Weerts, Elise; Hienz, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study quantifies sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons (Papio spp.) and tests the basic perceptual discriminability of these differences to baboon listeners. Acoustic analyses were performed on 1028 grunts recorded from 27 adult baboons (11 males and 16 females) in southern Africa, focusing specifically on the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies. The mean F0 and the mean frequencies of the first three formants were all significantly lower in males than they were in females, more dramatically so for F0. Experiments using standard psychophysical procedures subsequently tested the discriminability of adult male and adult female grunts. After learning to discriminate the grunt of one male from that of one female, five baboon subjects subsequently generalized this discrimination both to new call tokens from the same individuals and to grunts from novel males and females. These results are discussed in the context of both the possible vocal anatomical basis for sex differences in call structure and the potential perceptual mechanisms involved in their processing by listeners, particularly as these relate to analogous issues in human speech production and perception.

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author).

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author)

  13. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Rateau, G.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , prepared at 1000 0 C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  14. Olive baboons: a non-human primate model for testing dengue virus type 2 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Castro, Jorge; Odoyo, Damián; Hitler, Rikoi; Munene, Elephas; Romero, Yaremis; Ochola, Lucy; Cosme, Karelia; Kariuki, Thomas; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of a non-human primate, the olive baboon (Papio anubis), as a model of dengue infection. Olive baboons closely resemble humans genetically and physiologically and have been used extensively for assessing novel vaccine formulations. Two doses of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) were tested in baboons: 10(3) and 10(4) pfu. Similarly, African green monkeys received the same quantity of virus and acted as positive controls. Following exposure, high levels of viremia were detected in both animal species. There was a trend to detect more days of viremia and more homogeneous viral titers in animals receiving the low viral dose. In addition, baboons infected with the virus generally exhibited positive virus isolation 1 day later than African green monkeys. Humoral responses consisting of antiviral and neutralizing antibodies were detected in all animals after infection. We conclude that baboons provide an alternative non-human primate species for experimental DENV-2 infection and we recommend their use for further tests of vaccines, administering the lowest dose assayed: 10(3) pfu. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Zoology); Clark, J.D. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Lab. Animal Medicine); Stirewalt, M.A.; Lewis, F.A. (Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1985-06-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with ..gamma..-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines.

  16. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Park, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Watson, C.R.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239 PuO 2 . To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  17. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  18. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with γ-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines. (author)

  19. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-11-22

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks.

  20. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  1. A non-Lévy random walk in chacma baboons: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric

    2011-01-13

    The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover this Brownian walk is not the main process responsible for movement patterns of baboons. Findings about their speed and trajectories show that baboons use metal maps and memory to find resources. Thus the Brownian process found in this species appears to be more dependent on the environment or might be an alternative when known food patches are depleted and when animals have to find new resources.

  2. A non-Lévy random walk in chacma baboons: what does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover this Brownian walk is not the main process responsible for movement patterns of baboons. Findings about their speed and trajectories show that baboons use metal maps and memory to find resources. Thus the Brownian process found in this species appears to be more dependent on the environment or might be an alternative when known food patches are depleted and when animals have to find new resources.

  3. Hepatic Failure After Pig Heart Transplantation Into a Baboon: No Involvement of Porcine Hepatitis E Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja A; Reichart, Bruno; Plotzki, Elena; Güthoff, Sonja; Falkenau, Almuth; Kind, Alexander; Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-07

    After transplantation of pig hearts into baboons, a particularly high increase of liver parameters was observed in 1 animal. To evaluate whether porcine hepatitis E virus (HEV) was involved in the pathological changes, the donor pig and the recipient baboon were screened for the presence of HEV. Screening for HEV was performed using highly sensitive and specific PCR methods as well as immunological screening for HEV-specific antibodies. HEV was not detected in the donor pig or the baboon recipient. At necropsy, histopathological examination of liver sections showed acute coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and hemorrhage, but minimal inflammatory cell activity. The liver failure observed in the recipient animal was not due to transmission of porcine HEV. Liver failure could have been caused by the onset of cardiac failure related to delayed transplant rejection.

  4. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  5. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L.

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans

  7. Evolution linguistique et evolution de perspective en grammaire comparee des langues indoeuropeennes: le cas du "locatif sans desinence" (Linguistic Evolution and Evolution of Perspective in the Comparative Grammar of Indo-European Languages: The Case of the "Endingless Locative").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanseveren, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of the casual origin of the Greek infinitives in "-men,""ein," with respect to the "endingless locative" and the casus indefinitus" hypothesis. These assumptions can be connected with the progress made in the linguistic research, especially on the nominal inflection, from a…

  8. Effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal treatments on evaluation of tubal patency in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Mishler, Emily; Lim, Jeong Y; Slayden, Ov D

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated whether menstrual cycle phase influences the assessment of tubal patency by hysterosalpingography (HSG) in baboons. Retrospective analysis of baseline tubal patency studies and serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P4) values obtained from female baboons used as models for development of non-surgical permanent contraception in women. The main outcome measure was bilateral tubal patency (BTP) in relationship with estradiol level. Female baboons (n = 110) underwent a single (n = 81), two (n = 26), or three (n = 3) HSG examinations. In 33/142 (23%) HSG examinations, one or both tubes showed functional occlusion (FO). The median E 2 in studies with BTP (49 pg/mL) was significantly higher than in those studies with FO (32 pg/mL, P = .005). Among 18 animals with repeat examinations where serum E 2 changed from <60 to ≥ 60 pg/mL, 13 results changed from FO to BTP (P = .0001). No sets showed a change from BTP to FO with an increase in estradiol. In baboons, functional occlusion of the fallopian tube is associated with low estradiol levels, supporting a role for estrogen-mediated relaxation of the utero-tubal junction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aromatase inhibitor treatment limits progression of peritoneal endometriosis in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoi, David; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Gurates, Bilgin; Chai, Daniel; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Bulun, Serdar E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of inhibiting aromatase activity on endometrial lesion growth and aromatase expression in a baboon model of induced endometriosis. Prospective study. Primate research institute. Sixteen olive baboons. Sixteen olive baboons with induced endometriosis were examined with laparoscopy 10 months after disease inoculation. Animals in group 1 (n = 10) were treated with 1.25 mg/d of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole, and animals in group 2 (n = 6) were given a placebo for a total of 6 months. Total number of endometriotic lesions, morphology, and volume of lesions, as well as semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for levels of aromatase cytochrome messenger RNA were measured. Ovarian volumes were evaluated before treatment initiation and every 2 months during the study. Treatment of group 1 animals with an AI significantly decreased lesion volume from baseline measurements, whereas the placebo-treated animals showed an increase in lesion volume. Aromatase messenger RNA levels in lesions in the AI-treated animals were significantly lower compared with the placebo-treated animals. Ovarian volumes were significantly increased at 6 months of AI treatment compared with pretreatment volumes. These findings suggest that suppression of aromatase cytochrome P450 may inhibit the in vivo growth of endometriotic lesions in baboons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Assessment Of The Efficacy Of Dfmo In Baboons (Papio Anubis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease also disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of sleep and wakefulness between weeks 8 and 10 when the animals were in the classical diurnal sleepiness with 8 - 10 sleep episodes and nocturnal restlessness. All the infected baboons died from the attendant disease between the 8 and 10 weeks of infection.

  11. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cutroneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  12. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate

  13. The average baboon brain: MRI templates and tissue probability maps from 89 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Scott A; Marie, Damien; Roth, Muriel; Lacoste, Romain; Nazarian, Bruno; Bertello, Alice; Coulon, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-05-15

    The baboon (Papio) brain is a remarkable model for investigating the brain. The current work aimed at creating a population-average baboon (Papio anubis) brain template and its left/right hemisphere symmetric version from a large sample of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images collected from 89 individuals. Averaging the prior probability maps output during the segmentation of each individual also produced the first baboon brain tissue probability maps for gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The templates and the tissue probability maps were created using state-of-the-art, freely available software tools and are being made freely and publicly available: http://www.nitrc.org/projects/haiko89/ or http://lpc.univ-amu.fr/spip.php?article589. It is hoped that these images will aid neuroimaging research of the baboon by, for example, providing a modern, high quality normalization target and accompanying standardized coordinate system as well as probabilistic priors that can be used during tissue segmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Live Attenuated Pertussis Vaccine BPZE1 Protects Baboons Against Bordetella pertussis Disease and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin, James F.; Lecher, Sophie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Thalen, Marcel; Solovay, Ken; Rubin, Keith; Mielcarek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Evidence suggests that the resurgence of pertussis in many industrialized countries may result from the failure of current vaccines to prevent nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the principal causative agent of whooping cough. Here, we used a baboon model to test the protective potential of the novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1. A single intranasal/intratracheal inoculation of juvenile baboons with BPZE1 resulted in transient nasopharyngeal colonization and induction of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A to all antigens tested, while causing no adverse symptoms or leukocytosis. When BPZE1-vaccinated baboons were challenged with a high dose of a highly virulent B. pertussis isolate, they were fully protected against disease, whereas naive baboons developed illness (with 1 death) and leukocytosis. Total postchallenge nasopharyngeal virulent bacterial burden of vaccinated animals was substantially reduced (0.002%) compared to naive controls, providing promising evidence in nonhuman primates that BPZE1 protects against both pertussis disease and B. pertussis infection. PMID:28535276

  15. Microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the olive baboon (papio anabis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Thurlow, Brenda J.; Wakhisi, Johnston

    1975-01-01

    1.1. The activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes—azo reductase, nitroreductase, p-hydroxylation, N-demethylation, O-demethylation, NADPH cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P P-450—in the olive baboon are lower than in other animal species, e.g. mouse, rat, guinea-pig. 2. 2. The level...

  16. Phosphate Ion Exchange Resin Used in the Liquid Preservation of Baboon Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-08

    phlebotomy each baboon was sedated with 30 mg of phencyclidine hydrochloride (Sernylan) or with 130 mg of pentobarbital . Using an 18-gauge needle and an AE-2...REFERENCES 1. Valeri CR. Blood banking and the use of frozen blood products. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 1976:35-48. 2. Benesch R, Benesch RE. The effect of

  17. The endocannabinoid system in the baboon (Papio spp.) as a complex framework for developmental pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Guindon, Josee; Ruiz, Marco; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Hubbard, Gene; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura E; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Dick, Edward J; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    The consumption of marijuana (exogenous cannabinoid) almost doubled in adults during last decade. Consumption of exogenous cannabinoids interferes with the endogenous cannabinoid (or "endocannabinoid" (eCB)) system (ECS), which comprises N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), endocannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R), encoded by CNR1 and CNR2, respectively), and synthesizing/degrading enzymes (FAAH, fatty-acid amide hydrolase; MAGL, monoacylglycerol lipase; DAGL-α, diacylglycerol lipase-alpha). Reports regarding the toxic and therapeutic effects of pharmacological compounds targeting the ECS are sometimes contradictory. This may be caused by the fact that structure of the eCBs varies in the species studied. First: to clone and characterize the cDNAs of selected members of ECS in a non-human primate (baboon, Papio spp.), and second: to compare those cDNA sequences to known human structural variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes). Polymerase chain reaction-amplified gene products from baboon tissues were transformed into Escherichia coli. Amplicon-positive clones were sequenced, and the obtained sequences were conceptually translated into amino-acid sequences using the genetic code. Among the ECS members, CNR1 was the best conserved gene between humans and baboons. The phenotypes associated with mutations in the untranslated regions of this gene in humans have not been described in baboons. One difference in the structure of CNR2 between humans and baboons was detected in the region with the only known clinically relevant polymorphism in a human receptor. All of the differences in the amino-acid structure of DAGL-α between humans and baboons were located in the hydroxylase domain, close to phosphorylation sites. None of the differences in the amino-acid structure of MAGL observed between baboons and humans were located in the area critical for enzyme function. The evaluation of

  18. Brucella papionis sp. nov., isolated from baboons (Papio spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Davison, Nicholas; Cloeckaert, Axel; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Zygmunt, Michel S; Brew, Simon D; Perrett, Lorraine L; Koylass, Mark S; Vergnaud, Gilles; Quance, Christine; Scholz, Holger C; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    2014-12-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoid bacteria (strains F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61) isolated from clinical specimens obtained from baboons (Papio spp.) that had delivered stillborn offspring were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, both strains, which possessed identical sequences, were assigned to the genus Brucella. This placement was confirmed by extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), where both strains possessed identical sequences, and whole-genome sequencing of a representative isolate. All of the above analyses suggested that the two strains represent a novel lineage within the genus Brucella. The strains also possessed a unique profile when subjected to the phenotyping approach classically used to separate species of the genus Brucella, reacting only with Brucella A monospecific antiserum, being sensitive to the dyes thionin and fuchsin, being lysed by bacteriophage Wb, Bk2 and Fi phage at routine test dilution (RTD) but only partially sensitive to bacteriophage Tb, and with no requirement for CO2 and no production of H2S but strong urease activity. Biochemical profiling revealed a pattern of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities distinct from existing species of the genus Brucella. Molecular analysis of the omp2 locus genes showed that both strains had a novel combination of two highly similar omp2b gene copies. The two strains shared a unique fingerprint profile of the multiple-copy Brucella-specific element IS711. Like MLSA, a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the isolates clustered together very closely, but represent a distinct group within the genus Brucella. Isolates F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61 could be distinguished clearly from all known species of the genus Brucella and their biovars by both phenotypic and molecular properties. Therefore, by applying the species concept for the genus Brucella suggested by the ICSP

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) with Baboons Generate Live Offspring: A Nonhuman Primate Model for ART and Reproductive Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin R.; Castro, Carlos A.; Jacoby, Ethan; Grund, Kevin; Turpin, Janet; McFarland, Dave; Champagne, Jamie; Jimenez, Joe B.; Frost, Pat; Bauer, Cassandra; Hewitson, Laura; Schatten, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Human reproduction has benefited significantly by investigating non-human primate (NHP) models, especially rhesus macaques. To expand the Old World monkey species available for human reproductive studies, we present protocols in baboons, our closest Old World primate relatives, for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) leading to live-born offspring. Baboons complement rhesus by confirming or modifying observations generated in humans often obtained by the study of clinically-discarded specimens donated by anonymous infertility patient-couples. Here, baboon ART protocols, including oocyte collection, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), preimplantation development to blastocyst stage and embryo transfer techniques are described. With baboon ART methodologies in place, motility during baboon fertilization was investigated by time-lapse video microscopy. The first ART baboons produced by ICSI, a pair of male twins, were delivered naturally at 165 days post-gestation. Genetic testing of these twins confirmed their ART parental origins and demonstrated that they are unrelated fraternal twins, not identicals. These results have implications for ART outcomes, embryonic stem cell derivation, and reproductive sciences. PMID:20631291

  20. Studies on the propagation in cell culture and the infectivity for baboons of human hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.B.

    1985-05-01

    Current aspects of hepatitis A and hepatitis A virus (HAV) research and the techniques used for the propagation and monitoring of HAV and HAV antigen (HA Ag) production in vitro and HAV infection in vivo, and its sequelae are reviewed. Radioimmunoassay, immunofluorescence and electron microscopic techniques for the demonstration of HA Ag were adapted for this investigation. The cell-adapted strain of HAV(MBB) was successfully propagated in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 at 32 degrees Celsius. A crystalline structure was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of HAV-infected cells by thin-section electron microscopy. The origin and significance of this structure is uncertain. A possible temperature variant of HAV (strain MBB) or an HAV-related baboon virus was detected in PLC/PRF/5 cells maintained at 37 degrees Celsius after infection with a faecal extract prepared from baboons which had been infected with the cell-cultured HAV. Baboons, both free-ranging and in captivity, were found to have antibodies to HAV, which suggests susceptibility to human HAV or another cross-reacting virus. The experimental infection of the Cape baboon orally, intravenously or by both routes with HAV were investigated. The results of the study suggest reasons for the presence of anti-HAV antibodies in certain baboon populations and show that the baboon is not an ideal model for hepatitis A investigations

  1. Metabolism and gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium and protactinium in adult baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, L.G.; Cohen, N.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Ayres, L.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of neptunium and protactinium was studied in adult female baboons following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Immediately following intravenous injection (10 -1 to 10 -10 mg Np per kg body wt), neptunium cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 0.2%), and was excreted predominantly via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a biological half-time of approx.100 days in liver and 1.5 +- 0.2 yr in bone. In comparison, injected protactinium (10 -9 mg/kg) was retained in blood in higher concentrations and was initially eliminated in urine to a lesser extent (6 +- 3%). In vivo measurements indicated that protactinium was retained in bone (65 +- 0.3%) with a half-time of 3.5 +- 0.6 yr. Differences in the physicochemical states of the neptunium or protactinium solutions injected did not alter the metabolic behavior of these nuclides. The gastrointestinal absorption value for neptunium in two fasted baboons, sacrificed at 1 day post administration, was determined to be 0.92 +- 0.04%. Of the total amount of neptunium absorbed, 52 +- 3% was retained in bone, 6 +- 2% was in liver, and 42 +- 0.1% was excreted in urine. A method was developed to estimate GI absorption values for both nuclides in baboons which were not sacrificed. Absorption values calculated by this method for neptunium and protactinium in fasted baboons were 1.8 +- 0.8% and 0.65 +- 0.01%, respectively. Values for fed animals were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those for fasted animals. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  2. Metabolism and gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium and protactinium in adult baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, L.G.; Cohen, N.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Ayres, L.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of neptunium and protactinium was studied in adult female baboons following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Immediately following intravenous injection (10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -10/ mg Np per kg body wt), neptunium cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 0.2%), and was excreted predominantly via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a biological half-time of approx.100 days in liver and 1.5 +- 0.2 yr in bone. In comparison, injected protactinium (10/sup -9/ mg/kg) was retained in blood in higher concentrations and was initially eliminated in urine to a lesser extent (6 +- 3%). In vivo measurements indicated that protactinium was retained in bone (65 +- 0.3%) with a half-time of 3.5 +- 0.6 yr. Differences in the physicochemical states of the neptunium or protactinium solutions injected did not alter the metabolic behavior of these nuclides. The gastrointestinal absorption value for neptunium in two fasted baboons, sacrificed at 1 day post administration, was determined to be 0.92 +- 0.04%. Of the total amount of neptunium absorbed, 52 +- 3% was retained in bone, 6 +- 2% was in liver, and 42 +- 0.1% was excreted in urine. A method was developed to estimate GI absorption values for both nuclides in baboons which were not sacrificed. Absorption values calculated by this method for neptunium and protactinium in fasted baboons were 1.8 +- 0.8% and 0.65 +- 0.01%, respectively. Values for fed animals were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those for fasted animals. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  3. Explaining sex differences in lifespan in terms of optimal energy allocation in the baboon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Annette M.; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Shanley, Daryl P.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that sex role specialization may account for sex differences in lifespan in baboons if such specialization causes the dependency of fitness upon longevity, and consequently the optimal resolution to an energetic trade-off between somatic maintenance...... from differences in the value of somatic maintenance relative to other fitness-enhancing functions in keeping with the disposable soma theory....

  4. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on mobilization and excretion of cholesterol in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    Karsenty, C; Baraona, E; Savolainen, M J; Lieber, C S

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol administration on the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol, turnover and balance studies were carried out in baboons pair-fed cholesterol-free diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for several years. Ethanol feeding increased free cholesterol in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, and esterified cholesterol in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein (H...

  5. Characterization of tubal occlusion after transcervical polidocanol foam (PF) infusion in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Yao, Shan; Bauer, Cassondra; Morgan, Terry K; Slayden, Ov D

    2015-08-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a nonsurgical method of fallopian tubal occlusion for the purpose of permanent contraception. We have previously demonstrated that transcervical administration of 5% polidocanol foam (PF) can create tubal occlusion in macaques but that multiple treatments are required. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of various regimens of PF with and without depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (to control ovarian cycle phase) in the baboon. Adult cycling female baboons were evaluated for tubal patency by hysterosalpingography and then received a transcervical infusion of PF with (+) or without (-) an intramuscular injection of DMPA (3.5 mg/kg). Two concentrations of PF were compared: 1% [(+) DMPA, n=5; (-) DMPA, n=3] and 5% [(+) DMPA, n=4; (-) DMPA, n=3]. Controls received (+) DMPA (n=2) or (-) DMPA, (n=3) only. The reproductive tracts were removed 1-3 months after treatment for examination. No fallopian tubal occlusion was observed in negative controls (±DMPA). Histologic complete tubal occlusion was observed in 3/8 of females treated with 1% PF and in 6/7 treated with 5% PF. Histologic evaluation suggested that 1% PF is associated with prolonged chronic inflammation (more than 2-3 months), while 5% treatment eliminates the epithelial lining, at least focally, and resolves into complete occlusion within 1-2 months. This pattern of complete occlusion was seen in all 4 females that received 5% PF (+DMPA) and in 2/3 that received 5% PF (-DMPA). In a baboon model of transcervical permanent contraception, a single treatment with 5% PF resulted in complete tubal occlusion more reliably (85%) than 1% PF (38%). Cotreatment with DMPA may improve treatment results with 5% PF but requires additional study. A finding that a single transcervical treatment with 5% PF can occlude the fallopian tubes of baboon supports further study of this approach as a novel strategy for permanent contraception for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  7. Sepsis-Induced Coagulation in the Baboon Lung Is Associated with Decreased Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiwang; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Popescu, Narcis; Peer, Glenn; Hack, Erik; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B.; Lupu, Florea

    2007-01-01

    Increased tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity in sepsis may be partly due to decreased expression or function of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To test this hypothesis, baboons were infused with live Escherichia coli and sacrificed after 2, 8, or 24 hours. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed increased leukocyte infiltration and fibrin deposition in the intravascular and interstitial compartments. Large amounts of TF were detected by immunostaining in leukocytes and platelet-rich microthrombi. TF induction was documented by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and coagulation assays. Lung-associated TFPI antigen and mRNA decreased during sepsis, and TFPI activity diminished abruptly at 2 hours. Blocking antibodies against TFPI increased fibrin deposition in septic baboon lungs, suggesting that TF-dependent coagulation might be aggravated by reduced endothelial TFPI. Decreased TFPI activity coincided with the release of tissue plasminogen activator and the peak of plasmin generation, suggesting that TFPI could undergo proteolytic inactivation by plasmin. Enhanced plasmin produced in septic baboons by infusion of blocking antibodies against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 led to decreased lung-associated TFPI and unforeseen massive fibrin deposition. We conclude that activation of TF-driven coagulation not adequately countered by TFPI may underlie the widespread thrombotic complications of sepsis. PMID:17640967

  8. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor prevents acute antibody-mediated rejection in alloimmunized baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Poirier, Nicolas; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stéphanie; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Renaudin, Karine; Vistoli, Fabio; Karam, Georges; Daha, Mohamed; Soulillou, Jean Paul; Blancho, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    Acute antibody-mediated rejection is an unsolved issue in transplantation, especially in the context of pretransplant immunization. The deleterious effect of preformed cytotoxic anti-HLA antibodies through complement activation is well proven, but very little is known concerning complement blockade to prevent/cure this rejection. Here, we used a baboon model of preimmunization to explore the prevention of acute antibody-mediated rejection by an early inhibition of the classical complement pathway using human recombinant C1-inhibitor. Baboons were immunized against peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allogeneic donors and, once a specific and stable immunization had been established, they received a kidney from the same donor. Rejection occurred at day 2 posttransplant in untreated presensitized recipients, with characteristic histological lesions and complement deposition. As recombinant human C1-inhibitor blocks in vitro cytotoxicity induced by donor-specific antibodies, other alloimmunized baboons received the drug thrice daily intravenously during the first 5 days after transplant. Rejection was prevented during this treatment but occurred after discontinuation of treatment. We show here that early blockade of complement activation by recombinant human C1-inhibitor can prevent acute antibody-mediated rejection in presensitized recipients. This treatment could also be useful in other forms of acute antibody-mediated rejection caused by induced antibodies.

  9. A baboon syndrome induced by intravenous human immunoglobulins: report of a case and immunological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, A; Tréchot, P; Granel, F; Lonchamp, P; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L; Béné, M C

    1999-01-01

    Following the second series of intravenous human immunoglobulins (IVIg; 0.4 g/kg) prescribed to treat a sensorimotor polyneuritis, a 28-year-old woman developed pompholyx that recurred after each of the following monthly treatments with IVIg. During the administration of the 10th series, the patient developed a typical baboon syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies of a skin biopsy revealed an unexpected epidermal expression of P-selectin, usually expressed by endothelial cells. Patch, prick and intradermal tests performed with IVIg on the back, arms and buttocks gave negative results on immediate and delayed readings. IVIg were re-administered, with the informed consent of the patient, and induced a generalized maculopapular rash. This is the first reported case of baboon syndrome induced by IVIg. Although extensive skin testing was performed, all test sites remained negative. We wonder whether IVIg could reproduce immunological mechanisms involved in the 3 types of systemic contact dermatitis (pompholyx, baboon syndrome and maculopapular rash), including the epidermal expression of P-selectin.

  10. Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristin N.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Armelagos, George J.; Knauf, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains. PMID:23284649

  11. Homeothermy and primate bipedalism: is water shortage or solar radiation the main threat to baboon (Papio hamadryas) homeothermy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Duncan; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-05-01

    Other than the hominin lineage, baboons are the diurnally active primates that have colonized the arid plains of Africa most successfully. While the hominin lineage adopted bipedalism before colonizing the open, dry plains, baboons retained a quadrupedal mode of locomotion. Because bipedalism has been considered to reduce the thermoregulatory stress of inhabiting open dry plains, we investigated how baboons cope with thermal loads and water restriction. Using implanted data loggers, we measured abdominal temperature every 5 min in six unrestrained baboons while they were exposed to simulated desert conditions (15 degrees C at night rising to 35 degrees C during the day, with and without extra radiant heating), or an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, core temperature averaged 37.9 degrees C and cycled nychthemerally by 1.7 degrees C. Mean, minimum, and maximum daily core temperatures in euhydrated baboons in the simulated desert environments did not differ from the temperatures displayed in the 22 degrees C environment, even when radiant heating was applied. At 22 degrees C, restricting water intake did not affect core temperature. During the desert simulations, maximum core temperature increased significantly on each day of water deprivation, with the highest temperatures (>40 degrees C) on the third day in the simulation that included radiant heat. When drinking water heated to 38 degrees C was returned, core temperature decreased rapidly to a level lower than normal for that time of day. We conclude that baboons with access to water can maintain homeothermy in the face of high air temperatures and radiant heat loads, but that a lack of access to drinking water poses a major threat to baboon homeothermy. We speculate that any competitive thermoregulatory advantage of bipedalism in early hominins was related to coping with water shortage in hot environments, and that their freed hands might have enabled them to transport enough water to avoid

  12. Treponema pallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N Harper

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum, yaws (subsp. pertenue, and bejel (subsp. endemicum in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

  13. Validating Baboon Ex Vivo and In Vivo Radiation-Related Gene Expression with Corresponding Human Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, M; Majewski, M; Herodin, F; Valente, M; Drouet, M; Forcheron, F; Tichy, A; Sirak, I; Zavrelova, A; Malkova, A; Becker, B V; Veit, D A; Waldeck, S; Badie, C; O'Brien, G; Christiansen, H; Wichmann, J; Eder, M; Beutel, G; Vachelova, J; Doucha-Senf, S; Abend, M

    2018-01-26

    The research for high-throughput diagnostic tests for victims of radio/nuclear incidents remains ongoing. In this context, we have previously identified candidate genes that predict risk of late-occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model. The goal of the current study was to validate these genes after radiation exposure in humans. We also examined ex vivo relative to in vivo measurements in both species and describe dose-response relationships. Eighteen baboons were irradiated in vivo to simulate different patterns of partial- or total-body irradiation (TBI), corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Sv. Human in vivo blood samples were obtained from patients exposed to different dose ranges: diagnostic computerized tomography (CT; 0.004-0.018 Sv); radiotherapy for prostate cancer (0.25-0.3 Sv); and TBI of leukemia patients (2 × 1.5 or 2 × 2 Sv, five patients each). Peripheral whole blood of another five baboons and human samples from five healthy donors were cultivated ex vivo and irradiated with 0-4 Sv. RNA was isolated pairwise before and 24 h after irradiation and converted into cDNA. Gene expression of six promising candidate genes found previously by us in a baboon model ( WNT3, POU2AF1, CCR7, ARG2, CD177, WLS), as well as three genes commonly used in ex vivo whole blood experiments ( FDXR, PCNA, DDB2) was measured using qRT-PCR. We confirmed the six baboon candidate genes in leukemia patients. However, expression for the candidate gene FDXR showed an inverse relationship, as it was downregulated in baboons and upregulated in human samples. Comparisons among the in vivo and ex vivo experiments revealed the same pattern in both species and indicated peripheral blood cells to represent the radiation-responsive targets causing WNT3 and POU2AF1 gene expression changes. CCR7, ARG2, CD177 and WLS appeared to be altered due to radiation-responsive targets other than the whole blood cells. Linear dose-response relationships of

  14. Genetic variations in the beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of Trichuris species from man and baboons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Olsen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate whether these SNPs were present in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichuris spp. from humans and baboons. As a secondary objective, the degree of identity between T. trichiura from humans and Trichuris spp. from baboons was evaluated based on the beta-tubulin gene and the internal...

  15. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N. [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa); Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W. [Medical Univ. of Southern Africa (MEDUNSA), Pretoria (South Africa)

    1992-12-31

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N.; Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W.

    1992-01-01

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with 99m Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Peripheral oxytocin in female baboons relates to estrous state and maintenance of sexual consortships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovice, Liza R; Ziegler, Toni E

    2012-11-01

    The neuro-hypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in female reproductive and maternal behaviors and in the formation of pair bonds in monogamous species. Here we measure variation in urinary OT concentrations in relation to reproductive biology and socio-sexual behavior in a promiscuously breeding species, the chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus). Subjects were members of a habituated group of baboons in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. We collected behavioral data and urine samples from n=13 cycling females across their estrous cycles and during and outside short-term, exclusive sexual consortships. Samples were analyzed via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and we used linear mixed models (LMM) to explore the relationship between peripheral OT and a female's estrous stage and consortship status, her previous reproductive experience and fertility. We also used a Pearson's correlation to examine the relationship between OT concentrations of consorting females and their extent of behavioral coordination with their consort partners. The results of the LMM indicate that only estrous stage had a significant influence on OT levels. Females had higher OT levels during their periovulatory period than during other stages of their estrous cycle. There were no differences in the OT levels between consorting and non-consorting periovulatory females. However, among consorting females, there was a significant positive relationship between urinary OT levels and the maintenance of close proximity between consort partners. Our results suggest that physiological and behavioral changes associated with the initiation and maintenance of short-term inter-sexual relationships in baboons correspond with changes in peripheral OT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Investigation of Extracellular Histones in Pig-To-Baboon Organ Xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Lee, Whayoung; Hara, Hidetaka; Long, Cassandra; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ayares, David; Huang, Hai; Wang, Yi; Esmon, Charles T; Cooper, David K C; Iwase, Hayato

    2017-10-01

    Serum (extracellular) histone levels are increased in inflammatory states and in the presence of coagulation dysfunction, for example, trauma, chemical/ischemic injury, infection. There is increasing evidence of a systemic inflammatory response associated with the presence of a pig xenograft in a nonhuman primate. We evaluated extracellular histone levels in baboons with various pig xenografts. We measured serum histones in baboons with pig heterotopic heart (n = 8), life-supporting kidney (n = 5), orthotopic liver (n = 4), and artery patch (n = 9) grafts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), free triiodothyronine (fT3), serum amyloid A (SAA), and platelet counts were also measured, all of which may provide an indication of an inflammatory state. We investigated the effect of histones on platelet aggregation and on cytotoxicity of pig cells in vitro. Serum histones increased when baboons developed consumptive coagulopathy (eg, thrombocytopenia) or infection. CRP levels tended to be higher and fT3 levels lower when consumptive coagulopathy developed. Measurement of SAA correlated fairly well with CRP and indicated the state of inflammation. Treatment of the recipient with tocilizumab reduced the level of serum histones, CRP, and SAA, and increased the level of fT3 and platelet counts. In vitro, histone-induced platelet aggregation and endothelial cell apoptosis were both significantly reduced by the NF-κB pathway inhibitor, parthenolide. These noninvasive assays may be useful for monitoring the health status of nonhuman primate recipients of pig organ grafts and may help in management after xenotransplantation. Tocilizumab and NF-κB inhibitors might prove valuable in reducing the inflammatory response to a pig xenograft.

  19. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer expression in the baboon endometrium: menstrual cycle and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braundmeier, A G; Fazleabas, A T; Nowak, R A

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; BSG) regulates tissue remodeling through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In human and non-human primates, endometrial remodeling is important for menstruation and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We hypothesized that as in humans, BSG and MMPs are expressed in the endometrium of cycling baboons, and their expression is hormonally regulated by ovarian hormones, but endometriosis disrupts this regulation. BSG expression was evaluated in the baboon endometrium by q-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In the endometrium of control cycling animals, BSG mRNA levels were highest in late secretory stage tissue. BSG protein localized to glandular epithelial cells during the proliferative phase; whereas, secretory stage tissues expressed BSG in glandular and luminal epithelia with weak stromal staining. Several MMPs were differentially expressed throughout the menstrual cycle with the highest levels found during menstruation. In ovariectomized animals, BSG endometrial mRNA levels were highest with treatment of both estrogen and progesterone than that with only estrogen. Estrogen alone resulted in BSG protein localization primarily in the endometrial glandular epithelia, while estrogen and progesterone treatment displayed BSG protein localization in both the glandular and stromal cells. Exogenous hormone treatment resulted in differential expression patterns of all MMPs compared with the control cycling animals. In the eutopic endometrium of endometriotic animals, BSG mRNA levels and protein were elevated early but decreased later in disease progression. Endometriosis elevated the expression of all MMPs except MMP7 compared with the control animals. In baboons, BSG and MMP endometrial expression is regulated by both ovarian hormones, and their expression patterns are dysregulated in endometriotic animals.

  20. Ozone Treatment of Alveolar Bone in the Cape Chacma Baboon Does Not Enhance Healing Following Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A.; Kotze, Harry F.

    2013-01-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5–4 % O3), ...

  1. A Non-Lévy Random Walk in Chacma Baboons: What Does It Mean?

    OpenAIRE

    Sueur, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover...

  2. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of plutonium and uranium in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Cohen, N.

    1984-01-01

    Individual isotopes of plutonium and uranium were administered both intragastrically and intravenously to a baboon. Samples of urine, faces, blood, and tissues were taken and are now being analyzed. Preliminary results indicate that the fractional absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 1 x 10 -3 and 1 x 10 -2 , respectively, and their retentions about one month later were about 20% and 10%, respectively, of the amounts absorbed. The fractional retentions of the intravenously injected plutonium and uranium at that time were 0.90 and 0.07. 13 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  3. Evaluation of samarium-153 and holmium-166-EDTMP in the normal baboon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, W.K.A.; Dormehl, I.C.; Rensburg, A.J. van; Hugo, N.; Alberts, A.S.; Forsyth, O.E.; Beverley, G.; Sweetlove, M.A.; Marais, J.; Loetter, M.G.; Aswegen, A. van

    1996-11-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) complexes of samarium-153 and holmium-166 are receiving considerable attention for therapeutic treatment of bone metastases. In this study, using the baboon experimental model, multicompartmental analysis revealed that with regard to pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and skeletal localisation, {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP was significantly inferior to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. A more suitable {sup 166}Ho-bone-seeking agent should thus be sought for closer similarity to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP to exploit fully the therapeutic potential of its shorter half-life and more energetic beta radiation.

  4. Immunological and physiological observations in baboons with life-supporting genetically engineered pig kidney grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Hayato; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Li, Tao; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Gao, Bingsi; Liu, Hong; Long, Cassandra; Wang, Yi; Cassano, Amy; Klein, Edwin; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Humar, Abhinav; Wijkstrom, Martin; Cooper, David K C

    2017-03-01

    Genetically engineered pigs could provide a source of kidneys for clinical transplantation. The two longest kidney graft survivals reported to date have been 136 and 310 days, but graft survival >30 days has been unusual until recently. Donor pigs (n=4) were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human complement regulatory protein (CD46) background (GTKO/CD46). In addition, the pigs were transgenic for at least one human coagulation regulatory protein. Two baboons received a kidney from a six-gene pig (GroupA) and two from a three-gene pig (GroupB). Immunosuppressive therapy was identical in all four cases and consisted of anti-thymoglobulin (ATG)+anti-CD20mAb (induction) and anti-CD40mAb+rapamycin+corticosteroids (maintenance). Anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6R mAbs were administered to reduce the inflammatory response. Baboons were followed by clinical/laboratory monitoring of immune/coagulation/inflammatory/physiological parameters. At biopsy or euthanasia, the grafts were examined by microscopy. The two GroupA baboons remained healthy with normal renal function >7 and >8 months, respectively, but then developed infectious complications. However, no features of a consumptive coagulopathy, eg, thrombocytopenia and reduction of fibrinogen, or of a protein-losing nephropathy were observed. There was no evidence of an elicited anti-pig antibody response, and histology of biopsies taken at approximately 4, 6, and 7 months and at necropsy showed no significant abnormalities. In contrast, both GroupB baboons developed features of a consumptive coagulopathy and required euthanasia on day 12. The combination of (i) a graft from a specific six-gene genetically modified pig, (ii) an effective immunosuppressive regimen, and (iii) anti-inflammatory therapy prevented immune injury, a protein-losing nephropathy, and coagulation dysfunction for >7 months. Although the number of experiments is very limited, our impression is that expression of human endothelial

  5. Effect of loading rate on the compressive mechanics of the immature baboon cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Paul Z; Nuckley, David J; Ching, Randal P

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-four cervical spine segments were harvested from 12 juvenile male baboons and compressed to failure at displacement rates of 5, 50, 500, or 5000 mm/s. Compressive stiffness, failure load, and failure displacement were measured for comparison across loading rate groups. Stiffness showed a significant concomitant increase with loading rate, increasing by 62% between rates of 5 and 5000 mm/s. Failure load also demonstrated an increasing relationship with loading rate, while displacement at failure showed no rate dependence. These data may help in the development of improved pediatric automotive safety standards and more biofidelic physical and computational models.

  6. Monkey Management: Using Spatial Ecology to Understand the Extent and Severity of Human-Baboon Conflict in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali S. Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflict with humans poses one of the greatest threats to the persistence and survival of all wildlife. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, human-baboon conflict levels remain high despite substantial investment by conservation authorities in a variety of mitigation measures. Here we explore how spatial ecology can inform wildlife managers on the extent and severity of both current and projected human-baboon conflict. We apply conservative and generous densities - 2.3 and 5.9 baboons/km2 - to hypothetical landscape management scenarios to estimate whether the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus population in the Cape Peninsula is currently overabundant. We correlate conflict indices with spatial variables to explain intertroop differences in conflict levels. We investigate how an understanding of key elements of baboon ecology, including sleeping-site characteristics and intertroop territoriality, can direct management efforts and mitigate conflict. Our findings suggest that the current population of 475 baboons is below even the most conservative density estimate and that the area could potentially sustain up to 799 baboons. Conflict levels correlated positively with the loss of access to low-lying land through habitat transformation (Pearson r = 0.77, p = 0.015, n = 9 troops, and negatively with the distance of sleeping sites from the urban edge (Pearson r = 0.81, p = 0.001, n = 9 troops. Despite the availability of suitable sleeping sites elsewhere, more than half of all troops slept

  7. Progesterone--specific binding sites in the kidney of the female baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaker, F.J.; Herbert, D.C.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake and retention of a radiolabeled synthetic progestin, ORG 2058, was studied in the urinary tract of the female baboon. Four estrogen-primed baboons were injected intravenously with 2.5 micrograms./kg. body weight of 3H-ORG 2058. One animal, which served as a control, received an additional injection of 2.5 mg./kg. body weight of unlabeled progesterone. One hour after the injections, the animals were killed and the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of progestin was observed in the nuclei of the convoluted and straight segments of the distal tubule, the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle and both cortical and medullary collecting tubules. Connective tissue cells were also labeled in the medulla and cortex of the kidney. An absence of silver grains was noted in the renal corpuscle, all segments of the proximal tubule and the thin loop of Henle. Concentration of the tritiated steroid was not observed in either the ureter or bladder or in any portions of the urinary tract of the control animal. This study suggests that progesterone has a direct effect via a progesterone specific receptor on the various target cells that sequestered the 3H-ORG 2058

  8. In vivo imaging of nicotinic receptor upregulation following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment in baboon using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiou, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Meikle, Steven R.; Birrell, Alex; Constable, Chris; Fulham, Michael J.; Wong, Dean F.; Musachio, John L.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify changes in neuronal nAChR binding in vivo, quantitative dynamic SPECT studies were performed with 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 in baboons pre and post chronic treatment with (-)-nicotine or saline control. Infusion of (-)-nicotine at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg/24h for 14 days resulted in plasma (-)-nicotine levels of 27.3 ng/mL. This is equivalent to that found in an average human smoker (20 cigarettes a day). In the baboon brain the regional distribution of 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 was consistent with the known densities of nAChRs (thalamus > frontal cortex > cerebellum). Changes in nAChR binding were estimated from the volume of distribution (V d ) and binding potential (BP) derived from 3-compartment model fits. In the (-)-nicotine treated animal V d was significantly increased in the thalamus (52%) and cerebellum (50%) seven days post cessation of (-)-nicotine treatment, suggesting upregulation of nAChRs. The observed 33% increase in the frontal cortex failed to reach significance. A significant increase in BP was seen in the thalamus. In the saline control animal no changes were observed in V d or BP under any experimental conditions. In this preliminary study, we have demonstrated for the first time in vivo upregulation of neuronal nAChR binding following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment

  9. The effects of age and cytomegalovirus on markers of inflammation and lymphocyte populations in captive baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available The human immune system undergoes age-related changes that can lead to increased disease susceptibility. Using the baboon as a model for human immune system aging, we examined age-related changes in relative and absolute numbers of T cell subpopulations, cytomegalovirus (CMV titer and markers of inflammation. In addition, the effect of gender, social status and peer group on lymphocyte subpopulations was determined. Relative and absolute numbers of total lymphocytes (CD3+, T helper cells (CD4+, and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+ increased with age. The proportion of naïve T cells (CD45RA+ decreased, while the total number of cells negative for the co-stimulatory receptor, CD28 (CD28- increased in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, CMV titers were negatively correlated with the number of naive CD4+ cells. IL-6 and cortisol concentration were also negatively associated with T cell subpopulations. Additionally, socially dominant baboons exhibited decreases in naïve CD4+ and CD8+ cells (by 65% and 52%, respectively compared to subordinate animals. These results suggest that factors such as CMV exposure and inflammation may contribute to the age-related decline in immune health and indicate that factors like social status should be considered when studying immunosenescence in animal models.

  10. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.

    1985-06-01

    CM 40907 (3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine) is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders.

  11. Life-supporting function of genetically modified swine lungs in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc H; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Zhang, Tianshu; Wu, Guosheng; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Shuurman, Henk-Jan; Sachs, David H; Ayares, David; Allan, James S; Pierson, Richard N

    2007-05-01

    During ex vivo perfusion with human blood, homozygous galactosyl transferase knockout swine lungs exhibit prolonged survival (approximately 2 hours) relative to wild-type (swine lungs expressing human decay accelerating factor (lungs was evaluated. Three galactosyl transferase knockout swine left lungs were transplanted into baboons in a life-supporting model. One baboon lung allograft and two swine lung xenografts transgenic for human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) served as controls. Whereas two membrane cofactor protein lungs exhibited high pulmonary vascular resistance (>500 mm Hg x min/L) and failed to support life within 21 minutes, two of three galactosyl transferase knockout lungs supported life, for 90 and 215 minutes, and displayed low peripheral vascular resistance (48 +/- 12 mm Hg x min/L at 60 minutes), similar to the allogeneic control. Complement activation (delta C3a lungs. Neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets were rapidly sequestered in galactosyl transferase knockout and human membrane cofactor protein lung recipients, unlike the allogeneic control ( 0.5 nmol/L) was seen in the galactosyl transferase knockout recipients. Platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin rise > 200) and appearance of capillary congestion and vessel thrombosis confirmed coagulation activation associated with galactosyl transferase knockout lung failure. Galactosyl transferase knockout swine lungs are significantly protected in vivo from the physiologic consequences (increased pulmonary vascular resistance, capillary leak) associated with hyperacute lung rejection. As during ex vivo perfusion, dysregulated coagulation-thrombin elaboration, platelet activation, and intravascular thrombosis-mediates galactosyl transferase knockout lung xenograft injury.

  12. Emotion-Cognition Interaction in Nonhuman Primates: Cognitive Avoidance of Negative Stimuli in Baboons (Papio papio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Marzouki, Yousri; Claidière, Nicolas; Gullstrand, Julie; Fagot, Joël

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. In a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. Through prior long-term conditioning, one of the two colors had acquired a negative valence. Subjects were slower and less accurate on the memory task when the targets were negative than when they were neutral. In contrast, subjects were faster and more accurate when the distractors were negative than when they were neutral. Some of these effects were modulated by individual differences in emotional disposition. Overall, the results reveal a pattern of cognitive avoidance of negative stimuli, and show that emotional value alters cognitive processing in baboons even when the stimuli are not physically present. This suggests that emotional influences on cognition are deeply rooted in evolutionary continuity.

  13. Knockouts of high-ranking males have limited impact on baboon social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Mathias; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    Social network structures can crucially impact complex social processes such as collective behaviour or the transmission of information and diseases. However, currently it is poorly understood how social networks change over time. Previous studies on primates suggest that `knockouts' (due to death or dispersal) of high-ranking individuals might be important drivers for structural changes in animal social networks. Here we test this hypothesis using long-term data on a natural population of baboons, examining the effects of 29 natural knockouts of alpha or beta males on adult female social networks. We investigated whether and how knockouts affected (1) changes in grooming and association rates among adult females, and (2) changes in mean degree and global clustering coefficient in these networks. The only significant effect that we found was a decrease in mean degree in grooming networks in the first month after knockouts, but this decrease was rather small, and grooming networks rebounded to baseline levels by the second month after knockouts. Taken together our results indicate that the removal of high-ranking males has only limited or no lasting effects on social networks of adult female baboons. This finding calls into question the hypothesis that the removal of high-ranking individuals has a destabilizing effect on social network structures in social animals.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Methansulphonate (CMS) and Colistin after CMS Nebulisation in Baboon Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sandrine; Bouchene, Salim; de Monte, Michèle; Guilleminault, Laurent; Montharu, Jérôme; Cabrera, Maria; Grégoire, Nicolas; Gobin, Patrice; Diot, Patrice; Couet, William; Vecellio, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different nebulizers: Eflow rapid® and Pari LC star® by scintigraphy and PK modeling to simulate epithelial lining fluid concentrations from measured plasma concentrations, after nebulization of CMS in baboons. Three baboons received CMS by IV infusion and by 2 types of aerosols generators and colistin by subcutaneous infusion. Gamma imaging was performed after nebulisation to determine colistin distribution in lungs. Blood samples were collected during 9 h and colistin and CMS plasma concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted and simulations were performed to predict lung concentrations after nebulization. Higher aerosol distribution into lungs was observed by scintigraphy, when CMS was nebulized with Pari LC® star than with Eflow Rapid® nebulizer. This observation was confirmed by the fraction of CMS deposited into the lung (respectively 3.5% versus 1.3%).CMS and colistin simulated concentrations in epithelial lining fluid were higher after using the Pari LC star® than the Eflow rapid® system. A limited fraction of CMS reaches lungs after nebulization, but higher colistin plasma concentrations were measured and higher intrapulmonary colistin concentrations were simulated with the Pari LC Star® than with the Eflow Rapid® system.

  15. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  16. Generalized relational matching by guinea baboons (Papio papio) in two-by-two-item analogy problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Thompson, Roger K R

    2011-10-01

    Analogical reasoning is considered the hallmark of human reasoning, but some studies have demonstrated that language- and symbol-trained chimpanzees can also reason analogically. Despite the potential adaptive value of this ability, evidence from other studies strongly suggests that other nonhuman primates do not have this capacity for analogical reasoning. In our three experiments, 6 of 29 baboons acquired the ability to perform a relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) task in which pairs of shapes composed relational displays. Five of these 6 monkeys then transferred this ability to RMTS tasks using novel exemplars of identity (elements in a pair are the same) and nonidentity (elements in a pair are different) relations. This transfer occurred even on trials in which the incorrect pair shared an element with the sample pair with which it was being compared. The baboons retained this ability 12 months later. The findings from our study of symbol-naive monkeys indicate that although language and symbol training facilitate conceptual thinking in nonhuman primates, such training is not a prerequisite for analogical reasoning.

  17. Other better versus self better in baboons: an evolutionary approach of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, F; Fagot, J; Davranche, K; Claidière, N

    2017-05-31

    Comparing oneself with others is an important characteristic of human social life, but the link between human and non-human forms of social comparison remains largely unknown. The present study used a computerized task presented in a social context to explore psychological mechanisms supporting social comparison in baboons and compare major findings with those usually observed in humans. We found that the effects of social comparison on subject's performance were guided both by similarity (same versus different sex) and by task complexity. Comparing oneself with a better-off other (upward comparison) increased performance when the other was similar rather than dissimilar, and a reverse effect was obtained when the self was better (downward comparison). Furthermore, when the other was similar, upward comparison led to a better performance than downward comparison. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of upward comparison on baboons' performance was only observed during simple task. Our results support the hypothesis of shared social comparison mechanisms in human and non-human primates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Maternal Vaccination With a Monocomponent Pertussis Toxoid Vaccine Is Sufficient to Protect Infants in a Baboon Model of Whooping Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Parul; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Wagner, Leslie D; Merkel, Tod J

    2018-03-28

    Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen responsible for serious respiratory illness. The disease is most severe in infants too young to be vaccinated with most hospitalizations and deaths occurring within this age group. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization of pregnant women to protect infants from birth until their first vaccination at 6-8 weeks of age. We previously demonstrated that maternal vaccination with licensed acellular pertussis vaccines protected newborn baboons from disease. We hypothesized that protection was due to toxin-neutralizing, maternal anti-pertussis toxin antibodies and predicted that maternal vaccination with a pertussis toxoid (PTx)-only vaccine would protect newborns from disease. Infant baboons born to unvaccinated mothers or mothers vaccinated with a PTx-only vaccine were challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age and followed for infection and signs of disease. Although all challenged infants were heavily colonized, the infant baboons born to mothers vaccinated with PTx-only vaccine were free from clinical disease following exposure to B. pertussis. In contrast, disease was observed in infants born to unvaccinated mothers. Our results demonstrated that maternal vaccination with a PTx-only vaccine is sufficient to protect newborn baboons from disease following exposure to pertussis.

  19. Effect of the antiestrogen ethamoxytriphetol (MER-25) on placental low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, M.C.; Babischkin, J.S.; Pepe, G.J.; Albrecht, E.D.

    1988-05-01

    The present study determined if the decline in placental progesterone (P4) production that results from administration of the antiestrogen ethamoxytriphetol (MER-25) to pregnant baboons results from a change in placental low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and/or degradation. Pregnant baboons (Papio anubis) were untreated (n = 10) or received MER-25 (25 mg/kg BW, orally; n = 10) daily on days 140-170 of gestation (term, 184 days). Placentas were removed by cesarean section on day 170 of gestation, and villous tissue was dispersed with 0.1% collagenase at 37 C for 40 min. Placental cells (10(6)) were incubated in medium 199 (pH 7.2) for 12 h at 37 C with increasing amounts (5-100 micrograms) of (125I)LDL, with or without a 100-fold excess of unlabeled baboon LDL. Mean (+/- SE) peripheral serum P4 concentrations on days 140-170 of gestation were 51% lower (P less than 0.01) in MER-25-treated (5.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) than in untreated (11.6 +/- 0.5 ng/ml) baboons. The uptake of LDL was 56% lower (P less than 0.01) in placental cells from antiestrogen-treated (6.3 +/- 1.6 ng/micrograms cell protein) than in those from untreated (14.4 +/- 1.9 ng/micrograms cell protein) baboons. The dissociation constants for placental LDL uptake, as assessed by Scatchard analysis, however, were similar in untreated (0.80 microgram/ml) and MER-25-treated (0.76 microgram/ml) animals. The amount of (125I)LDL concomitantly degraded by cells from baboons that received MER-25 was 54% of that degraded by cells from untreated controls. The relative decline in LDL degradation by cells of antiestrogen-treated baboons was proportionate to the decline in overall LDL uptake. The results indicate, therefore, that antiestrogen treatment decreased the amount of placental LDL uptake, but did not change the affinity for the lipoprotein.

  20. Opioid receptor imaging and displacement studies with [6-O-[{sup 11}C]methyl]buprenorphine in baboon brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galynker, Igor; Schlyer, David J.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Gatley, S. John; MacGregor, Robert R.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Holland, M. J.; Brodie, Jonathan; Simon, Eric; Wolf, Alfred P

    1996-04-01

    Buprenorphine (BPN) is a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist used as an analgesic and in the treatment of opiate addiction. We have used [6-O-[{sup 11}C]methyl]buprenorphine ([{sup 11}C]BPN) to measure the regional distribution in baboon brain, the test-retest stability of repeated studies in the same animal, the displacement of the labeled drug by naloxone in vivo, and the tissue distribution in mice. The regional distribution of radioactivity in baboon brain determined with PET was striatum > thalamus > cingulate gyrus > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > occipital cortex > cerebellum. This distribution corresponded to opiate receptor density and to previously published data (37). The tracer uptake in adult female baboons showed no significant variation in serial scans in the same baboon with no intervention in the same scanning session. HPLC analysis of baboon plasma showed the presence of labeled metabolites with 92% {+-} 2.2% and 43% {+-} 14.4% of the intact tracer remaining at 5 and 30 min, respectively. Naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, administered 30-40 min after tracer injection at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg i.v., reduced [{sup 11}C]BPN binding in thalamus, striatum, cingulate gyrus, and frontal cortex to values 0.25 to 0.60 of that with no intervention. There were minimal (< 15%) effects on cerebellum. Naloxone treatment significantly reduced the slope of the Patlak plot in receptor-containing regions. These results demonstrate that [{sup 11}C]BPN can be displaced by naloxone in vivo, and they affirm the feasibility of using this tracer and displacement methodology for short-term kinetics studies with PET. Mouse tissue distribution data were used to estimate the radiation dosimetry to humans. The critical organ was the small intestine, with a radiation dose estimate to humans of 117 nrad/mCi.

  1. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  2. Effect of immobilization on the EEG of the baboon. Comparison with telemetry results from unrestricted animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, J.; Collomb, H.

    1980-01-01

    The EEG of the baboon was studied under two very different sets of conditions: 37 were totally immobolized while 12 were studied in their free movements with 4 channel telemetry. For the immobilzed, 3 stages were described: (1) activation, record desynchronized; (2) rest with 13-15 cm/sec rhythm, like the human alpha rhythm stage but with eyes open or closed; (3)relaxation with a decrease in 13-15 rhythm and the appearance of 5-7 cm/sec theta waves, eyelids closed, animal apparently sleeping. For the free animals the rest stage appeared when the animal's attention was not directed anywhere and there was no relaxation stage. It is concluded that the EEG pattern of the immobilized animal that was described as the "relaxation" stage really represents a special functional state which one must distinguish clearly from the physiological stages of sleep.

  3. Hexachlorophene and the central nervous system. Toxic effects in mice and baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripier, M F; Bérard, M; Toga, M; Martin-Bouyer, G; Le Breton, R; Garat, J

    1981-01-01

    A study on hexachlorophene encephalopathy in mice and baboons is reported. By light microscopy, a severe spongiform lesion of the central nervous system (CNS) was localized in the white matter, without myelin breakdown or cellular reaction. By electron microscopy, the myelin alteration was characterized by wide intralamellar spaces or "splitting" developed in the intraperiod line of compact sheaths. The acute changes described were induced by administration of the drug by the digestive or cutaneous routes at various dosage levels in an aqueous solution or in talcum powder. The toxic effects depended on the age of the animals, the survival times and the concentrations of hexachlorophene, i.e., 6%, 3%, and 0.5%. The findings are compared with previous reports on the neurotoxicity of hexachlorophene and other chemicals in human and experimental animals. Hexachlorophene cannot be recommended for use in young infants because of its neurotoxicity in very low doses as demonstrated in the present report.

  4. Effect of alcohol on internally deposited Am-241 in the baboon: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Antonelli, R.; LoSasso, T.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of ethyl alcohol in enhancing the excretion of Am-241 from the baboon has been tested. Alcohol enhances Am-241 excretion via the fecal route by a factor of about 2.5. However, there is a corresponding increase in fecal volume, and no significant change in the concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Other cathartics tested caused increased fecal volumes with no change in amount of activity excreted leading to a decreased concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Alcohol is not as effective as DTPA in removing Am-241 from the body. Preliminary results suggest that alcohol has little or no enhancement effect on the decorporation capability of DTPA

  5. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of BPD using the baboon and sheep models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, Kurt H

    2013-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is among the most common chronic lung diseases in infants in the US. Improved survival of preterm infants who developed BPD is becoming increasingly important because of the high risk for persistent pulmonary morbidities such as poor respiratory gas exchange, pulmonary hypertension, and excess airway expiratory resistance later in life. This review focuses on unique insights provided by the two large-animal, physiological models of neonatal chronic lung disease: preterm baboons and preterm lambs. The models' are valuable because they contribute to better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms. An epigenetic hypothesis is proposed as a pathogenic mechanism for BPD and its persistent pulmonary morbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. White monkey syndrome and presumptive copper deficiency in wild savannah baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, A Catherine; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2011-11-01

    In immature wild savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus), we observed symptoms consistent with copper (Cu) deficiency and, more specifically, with a disorder referred to as white monkey syndrome (WMS) in laboratory primates. The objectives of this study were to characterize this pathology, and test three hypotheses that (1) Cu deficiency may have been induced by zinc (Zn) toxicity, (2) it may have been induced by molybdenum (Mo) toxicity, and (3) cumulative rainfall during the perinatal period and particularly during gestation is an ecological factor distinguishing infants afflicted with WMS from non-WMS infants. During 2001-2009, we observed 22 instances of WMS out of a total 377 live births in the study population. Visible symptoms exhibited by WMS infants included whitening of the animal's fur and/or impaired mobility characterized by an apparent "stiffening" of the hindlimbs. Occurrence of WMS did not vary significantly by gender. However, among individuals that survived at least 180 days, WMS males had a significantly lower survivorship probability than non-WMS males. Zn/Cu ratios assessed from hair samples of adult female baboons were higher in females who had produced at least one WMS offspring relative to females who had not had a WMS offspring. This was true even when the hair sample was collected long after the birth of the female's afflicted infant. We consider this potentially indicative of a robust tendency for low Cu levels induced by elevated Zn intake in some individuals. No significant differences of Mo/Cu ratios were observed. Cumulative rainfall during gestation (∼179 days) was 50% lower for WMS infants relative to non-WMS infants. In contrast, rainfall for the two classes of infants did not differ in the 180 days before conception or in the 180 days following birth. This finding highlights the importance of prenatal ecological conditions in healthy fetal development with regard to WMS. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The baboon (Papio anubis extracranial carotid artery: An anatomical guide for endovascular experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Ilya

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As novel endovascular strategies are developed for treating neurological disease, there is an increasing need to evaluate these techniques in relevant preclinical models. The use of non-human primates is especially critical given their structural and physiological homology with humans. In order to conduct primate endovascular studies, a comprehensive understanding of the carotid anatomy is necessary. We therefore performed a detailed examination of the vessel lengths, lumen diameters and angles of origin of the baboon extracranial carotid system. Methods We characterized the extracranial carotid system often male baboons (Papio anubis, range 15.1–28.4 kg by early post-mortem dissection. Photographic documentation of vessel lengths, lumen diameters, and angles of origin were measured for each segment of the carotid bilaterally. Results The common carotid arteries averaged 94.7 ± 1.7 mm (left and 87.1 ± 1.6 mm (right in length. The average minimal common carotid lumen diameters were 3.0 ± 0.3 mm (left and 2.9 ± 0.2 mm (right. Each animal had a common brachiocephalic artery arising from the aorta which bifurcated into the left common carotid artery and right braciocephalic artery after 21.5 ± 1.6 mm. The vascular anatomy was found to be consistent among animals despite a wide range of animal weights. Conclusions The consistency in the Papio anubis extracranial carotid system may promote the use of this species in the preclinical investigation of neuro-interventional therapies.

  8. Endothelial reconstitution by CD34+ progenitors derived from baboon embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Schatten, Gerald; Hodara, Vida; Simerly, Calvin; VandeBerg, John L

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we used a large non-human primate model, the baboon, to establish a step-wise protocol to generate CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to demonstrate their reparative effects. Baboon ESCs were sequentially differentiated from embryoid body cultures for 9 days and then were specified into EPCs by culturing them in monolayer for 12 days. The resulting EPCs expressed CD34, CXCR4 and UEA-1, but neither CD31 nor CD117. The EPCs were able to form intact lumen structures when seeded on Matrigel, took up Dil-LDL, and responded to TNF-α. Angioblasts specified in EGM-2 medium and ECGS medium had 6.41 ± 1.16% (n = 3) and 9.32 ± 3.73% CD34+ cells (n = 3). The efficiency of generating CD34+ EPCs did not differ significantly from ECGS to EGM-2 culture media, however, angioblasts specified in ECGS medium expressed a higher percentage of CD34+/CXCR4+ cells (3.49 ± 1.32%, n = 3) than those specified in EGM-2 medium (0.49 ± 0.52%, n = 3). To observe their reparative capacity, we purified CD34+ progenitors after specification by EGM-2 medium; inoculated fluorescently labelled CD34+ EPCs into an arterial segment denuded of endothelium in an ex vivo system. After 14 days of ex vivo culture, the grafted cells had attached and integrated to the denuded surface; in addition, they had matured further and expressed terminally differentiated endothelial markers including CD31 and CD146. In conclusion, we have proved that specified CD34+ EPCs are promising therapeutic agents for repairing damaged vasculature. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. PATHOGENIE COMPAREE DE QUELQUES SOUCHES DE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    . Deux types d'inoculum du champignon (talc et vermiculite) ... prendre conscience de l'importance des dégâts provoqués par cette maladie. Aujourd'hui, la fusariose du ... Le matériel végétal est constitué de 4 variétés d'espèces maraîchères :.

  10. ETUDE COMPAREE DES COMPLICATIONS DES AVORTEMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We thus conclude that Misoprostol used for abortive aims is less noxious than other methods. Low dosages could explain the high rate of severe hemorrhagic complications in our series. KEY WORDS: Induced abortion - Misoprostol - Maternal infection - Maternal mortality - Africa. 1Centre Hospitalier de Libreville, Gabon.

  11. Functional evaluation of malaria Pfs25 DNA vaccine by in vivo electroporation in olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nyakundi, Ruth; Kariuki, Thomas; Ozwara, Hastings; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Mlambo, Godfree; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2013-06-28

    Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 antigen, expressed on the surface of zygotes and ookinetes, is one of the leading targets for the development of a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV). Our laboratory has been evaluating DNA plasmid based Pfs25 vaccine in mice and non-human primates. Previously, we established that in vivo electroporation (EP) delivery is an effective method to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine encoding Pfs25 in mice. In order to optimize the in vivo EP procedure and test for its efficacy in more clinically relevant larger animal models, we employed in vivo EP to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of Pfs25 encoding DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates (olive baboons, Papio anubis). The results showed that at a dose of 2.5mg DNA vaccine, antibody responses were significantly enhanced with EP as compared to without EP resulting in effective transmission blocking efficiency. Similar immunogenicity enhancing effect of EP was also observed with lower doses (0.5mg and 1mg) of DNA plasmids. Further, final boosting with a single dose of recombinant Pfs25 protein resulted in dramatically enhanced antibody titers and significantly increased functional transmission blocking efficiency. Our study suggests priming with DNA vaccine via EP along with protein boost regimen as an effective method to elicit potent immunogenicity of malaria DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates and provides the basis for further evaluation in human volunteers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  13. Pre-Exposure Gene Expression in Baboons with and without Pancytopenia after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Port

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiosensitivity differs in humans and likely among primates. The reasons are not well known. We examined pre-exposure gene expression in baboons (n = 17 who developed haematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS without pancytopenia or a more aggravated HARS with pancytopenia after irradiation. We evaluated gene expression in a two stage study design where stage I comprised a whole genome screen for messenger RNAs (mRNA (microarray and detection of 667 microRNAs (miRNA (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR platform. Twenty candidate mRNAs and nine miRNAs were selected for validation in stage II (qRT-PCR. None of the mRNA species could be confirmed during the validation step, but six of the nine selected candidate miRNA remained significantly different during validation. In particular, miR-425-5p (receiver operating characteristic = 0.98; p = 0.0003 showed nearly complete discrimination between HARS groups with and without pancytopenia. Target gene searches of miR-425-5p identified new potential mRNAs and associated biological processes linked with radiosensitivity. We found that one miRNA species examined in pre-exposure blood samples was associated with HARS characterized by pancytopenia and identified new target mRNAs that might reflect differences in radiosensitivity of irradiated normal tissue.

  14. Patterns of wounding in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jodi N; Leeds, Austin; Carpenter, Kamisha D; Kendall, Corinne J

    2018-02-14

    In North American zoos, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) have traditionally been housed as single one-male units (single male groups). In recent years, efforts have been made to house hamadryas in groups composed of multiple one-male units (multi-male groups) to more closely mirror their natural social structure, in addition to all-male or bachelor groups to manage surplus males. Given that the majority of social conflict in hamadryas occurs between males during the acquisition and defense of females, it was thought that managing hamadryas in these multi-male groups would result in increased rates of wounding. To assess this, incidences of wounding were recorded over one year across seven zoos (10 social groups, 59 individuals). Overall, we found no difference in wounding rates between group types, or by sex, and group type. These data provide evidence that managing hamadryas in multi-male and bachelor groups is an effective husbandry practice that does not negatively impact the welfare of the individuals, in addition to providing a more species-appropriate social setting for hamadryas in zoos. As the management of hamadryas in multi-male and bachelor groups continues and expands, additional research will be needed to understand what factors contribute to optimal cohesion, and welfare of groups and if wounding rates change as group size continues to increase. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. DNA repair in baboon alveolar macrophages: a system for assessing biohazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltz, M.L.

    1976-06-01

    The repair of DNA in the alveolar macrophages of the baboon has been investigated after treatment of the cells in vitro with ultraviolet light and with the alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate. Repair replication has been observed to occur after ultraviolet-light irradiation of macrophages attached to plastic dishes. The two different techniques used for measuring repair replication were a standard density-gradient procedure which separates normal-density, repair-replicated, preexisting DNA from semiconservatively synthesized DNA containing sufficient (/sup 3/H)bromodeoxyuridine to cause a density shift; and an alternative procedure applicable to nonproliferating cell systems wherein residual semiconservative synthesis is inhibited by hydroxyurea, and the increased incorporation of the DNA precursor (/sup 3/H)thymidine due to repair replication is measured. The latter technique was applied to the investigation of the concentration dependence of repair replication both after and during the treatment of the cells with the alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate. The labeling after treatment measures the repair of damage still present at the end of the treatment interval, while the labeling during treatment allows for greater sensitivity and detection of all repair occurring during the treatment period.

  16. A decline in female baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity anticipates aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Gerow, Kenneth G; Huber, Hillary F; Considine, McKenna M; Li, Cun; Mattern, Vicki; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2017-05-09

    Stressors that disrupt homeostasis advance aging. Glucocorticoids regulate multiple processes that determine the aging trajectory. Debate exists regarding life-course circulating glucocorticoid concentrations. Rodent and nonhuman primate studies indicate circulating glucocorticoids fall from early life. We measured fasting morning cortisol in 24 female baboons (6-21 years, human equivalent ~18-70). We also quantified hypothalamic paraventricular nuclear (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone, steroid receptors, and pituitary proopiomelanocortin immunohistochemically in 14 of these females at 6-13 years. We identified significant age-related 1) linear fall in cortisol and PVN AVP from as early as 6 years; 2) increased PVN glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors; 3) increased PVN 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2, regulators of local cortisol production, and 4) decreased pituitary proopiomelanocortin. Our data identify increased age-related negative feedback and local PVN cortisol production as potential mechanisms decreasing PVN drive to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that result in the age-related circulating cortisol fall. Further studies are needed to determine whether the cortisol fall 1) causes aging, 2) protects by slowing aging, or 3) is an epiphenomenon unrelated to aging processes. We conclude that aging processes are best studied by linear life-course analysis beginning early in life.

  17. Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Berny, Philippe; Gumisiriza, Francis; Gross, Régine; Demeneix, Barbara; Fini, Jean Baptiste; Chapman, Colin A; Chapman, Lauren J; Seguya, Andrew; Wasswa, John

    2017-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation. Each pathology could have a congenital component, potentially exacerbated by environmental factors. In addition, at least six of 35 photographed baboons from a Sebitoli troop (17%) have similar severe nasal deformities. Our inquiries in villages and tea factories near Sebitoli revealed use of eight pesticides (glyphosate, cypermethrin, profenofos, mancozeb, metalaxyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and 2,4-D amine). Chemical analysis of samples collected from 2014 to 2016 showed that mean levels of pesticides in fresh maize stems and seeds, soils, and river sediments in the vicinity of the chimpanzee territory exceed recommended limits. Notably, excess levels were found for total DDT and its metabolite pp'-DDE and for chlorpyrifos in fresh maize seeds and in fish from Sebitoli. Imidacloprid was detected in coated maize seeds planted at the edge the forest and in fish samples from the Sebitoli area, while no pesticides were detected in fish from central park areas. Since some of these pesticides are thyroid hormone disruptors, we postulate that excessive pesticide use in the Sebitoli area may contribute to facial dysplasia in chimpanzees and baboons through this endocrine pathway. Chimpanzees are considered as endangered by IUCN and besides their intrinsic value and status as closely related to humans, they

  18. Behavioral Effects and Pharmacokinetics of (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) after Intragastric Administration to Baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Mueller, Melanie; Shell, Courtney D.; Ricaurte, George A.; Ator, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) is a popular drug of abuse. We aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of intragastric MDMA in a species closely related to humans and to relate behavioral effects to plasma MDMA and metabolite concentrations. Single doses of MDMA (0.32–7.8 mg/kg) were administered via an intragastric catheter to adult male baboons (N = 4). Effects of MDMA on food-maintained responding were assessed over a 20-hour period, whereas untrained behaviors...

  19. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  20. Endocannabinoid crosstalk between placenta and maternal fat in a baboon model (Papio spp.) of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, B; Zoerner, A A; Janjetovic, Z; Skobowiat, C; Gupta, S; Moore, B M; Slominski, A; Zhang, J; Schenone, M; Phinehas, R; Ferry, R J; Dick, E; Hubbard, G B; Mari, G; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N

    2013-11-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) remains a serious obstetric problem with acute and chronic morbidities for both mothers and offspring. The mechanisms underlying these adverse consequences of MO remain unknown. Endocannabinoids (ECB) are neuromodulatory lipids released from adipocytes and other tissues. Metabolic crosstalk between placenta and adipocytes may mediate sequelae of MO. The goal of this study was to elucidate placental and systemic ECB in MO. Placentas, sera, and subcutaneous fat were collected at Cesarean sections performed near term (0.9 G) in four non-obese (nOB) and four obese (OB) baboons (Papio spp.). Concentrations of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG pathways were characterized in placentas by Q-RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Placental 2-AG levels were lower and maternal fat AEA levels were higher in OB (1254.1 ± 401.3 nmol/kg and 17.3 ± 4 nmol/kg) vs. nOB (3124.2 ± 557.3 nmol/kg and 3.1 ± 0.6 nmol/kg) animals. Concentrations of 2-AG correlated positively between maternal fat and placenta (r = 0.82, p = 0.013), but correlated negatively with maternal leptin concentrations (r = -0.72, p = 0.04 and r = -0.83, p = 0.01, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate differential ECB pathway regulation in maternal fat and placenta in MO. Differential regulation and function exist for AEA and 2-AG as the major ECB pathways in placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo imaging of brain aromatase in female baboons: [11C]vorozole kinetics and effect of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Biegon, Anat; Alexoff, David; Carter, Pauline; Shea, Coreen; Muench, Lisa; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S; Kim, Sunny W; Logan, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the brain distribution of the enzyme aromatase in the female baboon with positron emission tomography and the tracer [11C]vorozole using three different quantification methods for estimating the total distribution volume (V(T)): a graphical method, compartment modeling, and a tissue to plasma ratio. The graphical model and the compartment modeling gave similar estimates to the data and similar values (correlation R  =  .988; p  =  .0001). [11C]Vorozole shows a rapid uptake by the brain followed by a relatively constant accumulation, suggesting the possibility of using the tissue to plasma ratio as an estimate of V(T). The highest uptake of [11C]vorozole in the baboon brain was measured in the amygdala, followed by the preoptic area and hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cortical areas. Pretreatment studies with vorozole or letrozole showed a generalized decrease in brain accumulation and V(T). The results suggested that the physiologic changes in gonadal hormone levels accompanying the menstrual cycle had a significant effect on brain aromatase V(T).

  2. Biological behaviour of plutonium inhaled by baboons as plutonium n-tributylphosphate complex. Comparison with ICRP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Duserre, C.; Rateau, G.; Legendre, N.; Masse, R.; Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to devise a model capable of calculating committed doses for workers contaminated by inhalation of plutonium tributylphosphate complex during reprocessing, we investigated the biokinetics of plutonium in baboons after inhalation of this chemical form. The animals were killed 0.6, 3, 15, 30, 90 and 365 days post inhalation. Urine and faeces were collected daily. After killing, the main organs were collected for chemical analysis. In order to improve our knowledge of the behaviour of systemic plutonium, three baboons were given an intravenous injection of Pu-TBP and were respectively killed 2, 30 and 365 days post injection. We observed that Pu-TBP could be classified as a W compound, with a half-time for lung clearance of 150 days. Urinary Pu excretion was 3 times higher than was expected from Durbin's model, suggesting that Pu introduced as Pu-TBP, is extremely mobile, and that the complex formed with blood proteins differs from the one formed after inhalation of plutonium nitrate. (author)

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  4. First report on Aonchotheca annulosa Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Capillariidae) in a Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) from a zoo in northern Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umur, S.; Moravec, František; Gurler, A.; Bolukbas, C.; Acici, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 384-387 ISSN 0047-2565 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aonchotheca annulosa * baboon * Capillariidae * Turkey * zoo Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine; GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmp.12020/abstract

  5. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O' Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  6. Pretreatment with a 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor-immunoglobulin fusion protein attenuates activation of coagulation, but not of fibrinolysis, during lethal bacteremia in baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Jansen, P. M.; van Zee, K. J.; Hack, C. E.; Oldenburg, H. A.; Loetscher, H.; Lesslauer, W.; Lowry, S. F.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Baboons (Papio anubis) receiving a lethal intravenous infusion with live Escherichia coli were pretreated with either a 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-IgG fusion protein (TNFR55:IgG) (n = 4, 4.6 mg/kg) or placebo (n = 4). Neutralization of TNF activity in TNFR55:IgG-treated animals was

  7. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  8. Livebirth and utero-placental insufficiency in Papio hamadryas baboons with uterus angiosome perfused by bilateral utero-ovarian microsurgical anastomoses alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, B; Arnolds, K; Shockley, M; Rivas, K; Medina, M; Escobar, P F; Tzakis, A; Falcone, T; Sprague, M L; Zimberg, S

    2017-09-01

    Can the baboon uterus support a gestation to livebirth with an angiosome using microsurgically anastomosed utero-ovarian vessels and lacking uterine arteries and veins? Our angiosome model allows healthy livebirth albeit with risk of fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. Uterine transplant can provide livebirth in humans, but requires a living donor to undergo a prolonged laparotomy for hysterectomy. In an attempt to avoid the time-consuming dissection of the uterine vein, our group has previously shown maintenance of baboon uterine menstrual function after ligation of the uterine vein and after ligation of both the uterine artery and uterine vein. In a 19-month timespan, three baboons underwent laparotomy to surgically alter uterine perfusion, and pregnancy outcomes were monitored after spontaneous mating in a breeding colony. Three nulligravid female Papio hamadryas baboons in a breeding colony underwent laparotomy to ligate uterine arteries and veins along with colpotomy and cervico-vaginal anastomosis. During the same surgery, the utero-ovarian arteries and veins were microsurgically transected and re-anastomosed to themselves. Intraoperative organ perfusion was confirmed with laser angiography. After a recovery period, monitoring of menstrual cycling via menstrual blood flow and sex-skin cycling occurred, as well as uterine viability via sonography and cervical biopsy. Each baboon was released to the breeding colony for spontaneous mating and pregnancies dated by menstrual calendar and compared with early ultrasound. Delivery outcomes were monitored in each including neonate weight and placental pathology. In the event of a stillbirth, the animal was returned to the breeding colony for repeat mating attempts. After achieving a livebirth, the maternal baboon was removed from the study. Each baboon in the trial underwent successful surgery with all uteri demonstrating viability and return of menstrual function within 10 weeks of surgery. Pregnancies occurred

  9. Activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis at midgestation by estrogen-induced changes in placental corticosteroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, G.J.; Waddell, B.J.; Albrecht, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have hypothesized that the change in placental cortisol (F)-cortisone (E) metabolism induced by estrogen late in gestation is important to activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, culminating in the ontogenesis of de novo F secretion by the fetal adrenal. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by comparing the proportion of F in the fetus derived via maternal and fetal production on day 100 (n = 7; term = day 184) and day 165 (n = 4) in untreated baboons and on day 100 in baboons (n = 9) in which 50-mg pellets of androstenedione were implanted sc in the mother in increasing numbers (i.e. two on day 70, four on day 78, six on day 86, and eight on day 94) to increase placental estrogen production. Maternal, uterine, and umbilical venous samples were collected during constant maternal infusion (120 min) of [3H]F/[14C]E, endogenous and radiolabeled F/E content was determined, and corticosteroid dynamics were quantified. The MCR and peripheral interconversion of F and E as well as the production rate of F were unaltered in the mother. However, at midgestation, androstenedione increased (P less than 0.05) estrogen by 62% and altered transuterofeto placental F-E metabolism from preferential reduction of E to preferential oxidation of F, a pattern similar to that at term. In untreated baboons, on day 100 none of the F in the fetus was due to fetal production, whereas by day 165, 49 +/- 6% was of fetal origin. In animals treated with androstenedione at midgestation, 22 +/- 4% of fetal F was derived de novo within the fetus. Thus, production of F by the fetus was negligible on day 100, increased near term in association with an increase in transplacental oxidation of F to E, and was induced at midgestation in baboons in which placental F-E metabolism was altered by an increase in estrogen production

  10. Mean xenograft survival of 14.6 days in a small group of hDAF-transgenic pig hearts transplanted orthotopically into baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, P; Schmoeckel, M; Wimmer, C; Eder, V; Rucker, A; Felbinger, T; Uchita, S; Hinz, M; Brandl, U; Meiser, B; Reichenspurner, H; Hammer, C; Reichart, B

    2005-01-01

    In a discordant orthotopic xenotransplantation model (pig-to-baboon) donor pigs expressing human decay accelerating factor (hDAF) as a regulator of complement activity were used to prevent hyperacute xenograft rejection (HXR). We investigated a modified immunosuppressive therapy consisting of ERL080 (Novartis Pharma AG, Base, Switzerland), cyclosporin A (Neoral), steroids, and a cyclophosphamide (CyP) induction protocol with several reduced doses to prevent acute vascular rejection (AVR). Donor hearts were harvested from hDAF-transgenic pigs (18.8 +/- 2.6 kg, Imutran Ltd., a Novartis Pharma AG Company). Four adult baboons (25.6 +/- 2.7 kg) with high titers of xenoreactive antibodies (XAb) served as recipients. Serological and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Finally, myocardial tissue was sampled for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. In the first baboon, an acute graft failure occurred after 1 hour due to preservation injury. The second succumbed after 11.1 day due to an acute renal failure. The third died after 13.1 days of an ileus. The fourth baboon had continuously excellent cardiac function (mean echocardiographic ejection fraction, 69.2%), but succumbed on day 20 due to anemia. Corrected mean xenograft survival (excluding the first baboon because of a technical failure) was 14.6 +/- 2.6 days. XAb decreased after day 3 to constantly low levels (transgen blocks HXR in this life-supporting model. AVR was prevented by using a modified quadruple immunosuppressive drug combination (Neoral, ERL080, steroids, and several small single doses of CyP). An optimum "fine-tuning" of immunosuppression is required to achieve the best risk-benefit ratio.

  11. Activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis at midgestation by estrogen-induced changes in placental corticosteroid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepe, G.J.; Waddell, B.J.; Albrecht, E.D. (Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (USA))

    1990-12-01

    We have hypothesized that the change in placental cortisol (F)-cortisone (E) metabolism induced by estrogen late in gestation is important to activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, culminating in the ontogenesis of de novo F secretion by the fetal adrenal. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by comparing the proportion of F in the fetus derived via maternal and fetal production on day 100 (n = 7; term = day 184) and day 165 (n = 4) in untreated baboons and on day 100 in baboons (n = 9) in which 50-mg pellets of androstenedione were implanted sc in the mother in increasing numbers (i.e. two on day 70, four on day 78, six on day 86, and eight on day 94) to increase placental estrogen production. Maternal, uterine, and umbilical venous samples were collected during constant maternal infusion (120 min) of (3H)F/(14C)E, endogenous and radiolabeled F/E content was determined, and corticosteroid dynamics were quantified. The MCR and peripheral interconversion of F and E as well as the production rate of F were unaltered in the mother. However, at midgestation, androstenedione increased (P less than 0.05) estrogen by 62% and altered transuterofeto placental F-E metabolism from preferential reduction of E to preferential oxidation of F, a pattern similar to that at term. In untreated baboons, on day 100 none of the F in the fetus was due to fetal production, whereas by day 165, 49 +/- 6% was of fetal origin. In animals treated with androstenedione at midgestation, 22 +/- 4% of fetal F was derived de novo within the fetus. Thus, production of F by the fetus was negligible on day 100, increased near term in association with an increase in transplacental oxidation of F to E, and was induced at midgestation in baboons in which placental F-E metabolism was altered by an increase in estrogen production.

  12. Pig-to-baboon heterotopic heart transplantation--exploratory preliminary experience with pigs transgenic for human thrombomodulin and comparison of three costimulation blockade-based regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Hayato; Ekser, Burcin; Satyananda, Vikas; Bhama, Jay; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Klein, Edwin; Wagner, Robert; Long, Cassandra; Thacker, Jnanesh; Li, Jiang; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Maolin; Nagaraju, Santosh; Zhou, Huidong; Veroux, Massimiliano; Bajona, Pietro; Wijkstrom, Martin; Wang, Yi; Phelps, Carol; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Wolf, Eckhard; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2015-01-01

    Three costimulation blockade-based regimens have been explored after transplantation of hearts from pigs of varying genetic backgrounds to determine whether CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) or anti-CD40mAb+CTLA4-Ig (belatacept) can successfully replace anti-CD154mAb. All pigs were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout/CD46 transgenic (GTKO.CD46) background. Hearts transplanted into Group A baboons (n=4) expressed additional CD55, and those into Group B (n=3) expressed human thrombomodulin (TBM). Immunosuppression included anti-thymocyte globulin with anti-CD154mAb (Regimen 1: n=2) or abatacept (Regimen 2: n=2) or anti-CD40mAb+belatacept (Regimen 3: n=2). Regimens 1 and 2 included induction anti-CD20mAb and continuous heparin. One further baboon in Group B (B16311) received a modified Regimen 1. Baboons were followed by clinical/laboratory monitoring of immune/coagulation parameters. At biopsy, graft failure, or euthanasia, the graft was examined by microscopy. Group A baboons survived 15 to 33 days, whereas Group B survived 52, 99, and 130 days, respectively. Thrombocytopenia and reduction in fibrinogen occurred within 21 days in Group A, suggesting thrombotic microangiopathy (TM), confirmed by histopathology. In Group B, with follow-up for >4 m, areas of myofiber degeneration and scarring were seen in two hearts at necropsy. A T-cell response was documented only in baboons receiving Regimen 2. The combination of anti-CD40mAb+belatacept proved effective in preventing a T-cell response. The expression of TBM prevented thrombocytopenia and may possibly delay the development of TM and/or consumptive coagulopathy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity changes due to acute and short-term valproic acid administration in the baboon model of GGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Salinas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity (FC is altered in baboons with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE compared to healthy controls (CTL. We compared FC changes between GGE and CTL groups after intravenous injection of valproic acid (VPA and following one-week of orally administered VPA. Seven epileptic (2 females and six CTL (3 females baboons underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI at 1 baseline, 2 after intravenous acute VPA administration (20 mg/kg, and 3 following seven-day oral, subacute VPA therapy (20–80 mg/kg/day. FC was evaluated using a data-driven approach, while regressing out the group-wise effects of age, gender and VPA levels. Sixteen networks were identified by independent component analysis (ICA. Each network mask was thresholded (z > 4.00; p < 0.001, and used to compare group-wise FC differences between baseline, intravenous and oral VPA treatment states between GGE and CTL groups. At baseline, FC was increased in most cortical networks of the GGE group but decreased in the thalamic network. After intravenous acute VPA, FC increased in the basal ganglia network and decreased in the parietal network of epileptic baboons to presumed nodes associated with the epileptic network. After oral VPA therapy, FC was decreased in GGE baboons only the orbitofrontal networks connections to the primary somatosensory cortices, reflecting a reversal from baseline comparisons. VPA therapy affects FC in the baboon model of GGE after a single intravenous dose—possibly by facilitating subcortical modulation of the epileptic network and suppressing seizure generation—and after short-term oral VPA treatment, reversing the abnormal baseline increases in FC in the orbitofrontal network. While there is a need to correlate these FC changes with simultaneous EEG recording and seizure outcomes, this study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating rs-fMRI effects of antiepileptic medications even after short-term exposure.

  14. Troop size and human-modified habitat affect the ranging patterns of a chacma baboon population in the cape peninsula, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Tali S; O'Riain, M Justin

    2012-09-01

    Differences in group size and habitat use are frequently used to explain the extensive variability in ranging patterns found across the primate order. However, with few exceptions, our understanding of primate ranging patterns stems from studies of single groups and both intra- and inter-specific meta-analyses. Studies with many groups and those that incorporate whole populations are rare but important for testing socioecological theory in primates. We quantify the ranging patterns of nine chacma baboon troops in a single population and use Spearman rank correlations and generalized linear mixed models to analyze the effects of troop size and human-modified habitat (a proxy for good quality habitat) on home range size, density (individuals/km(2) ), and daily path length. Intrapopulation variation in home range sizes (1.5-37.7 km(2) ), densities (1.3-12.1 baboons/km(2) ), and daily path lengths (1.80-6.61 km) was so vast that values were comparable to those of baboons inhabiting the climatic extremes of their current distribution. Both troop size and human-modified habitat had an effect on ranging patterns. Larger troops had larger home ranges and longer daily path lengths, while troops that spent more time in human-modified habitat had shorter daily path lengths. We found no effect of human-modified habitat on home range size or density. These results held when we controlled for the effects of both a single large outlier troop living exclusively in human-modified habitat and baboon monitors on our spatial variables. Our findings confirm the ability of baboons, as behaviorally adaptable dietary generalists, to not only survive but also to thrive in human-modified habitats with adjustments to their ranging patterns in accordance with current theory. Our findings also caution that studies focused on only a small sample of groups within a population of adaptable and generalist primate species may underestimate the variability in their respective localities. © 2012

  15. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the baboon endometrium during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Wang, J; Bambra, C; Das, S K; Dey, S K; Fazleabas, A T

    1999-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of PGs. PGs together with ovarian steroids play important regulatory roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in a number of different species. In the primate, little is known about the role of PGs in these processes. In this study, the uterine expression of COX-1 and COX-2 throughout the menstrual cycle [late follicular, day 5 postovulation (PO), day 10 PO, and day 14 PO] and pregnancy (days 12-18, day 39, day 51, and near term) was analyzed using semiquantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry. During the menstrual cycle, the highest expression of COX-1 occurred in luteal phase endometrium and was localized to the surface and glandular epithelium. The stromal cells did not express detectable levels of COX-1 at any time. COX-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, as measured by RT-PCR, was evident at all stages of the menstrual cycle, and in situ hybridization showed specific localization for this mRNA in the epithelial cells during the cycle. Treatment of animals with the antiprogestin (ZK 137.316) for 9 days (beginning on the day of the LH surge) inhibited COX-1 expression in the epithelium when the tissue was analyzed on day 10 PO, whereas COX-2 expression disappeared in the epithelium and increased in the stroma. With the onset of pregnancy, COX-1 expression in epithelial cells decreased dramatically. In contrast, COX-2 continued to be detected on the surface epithelium and was also strongly expressed specifically in the stromal cells at the site of implantation. Immunocytochemical staining for COX-2 showed the same pattern of expression for the protein as the message. Finally, near-term decidua expressed very little COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA. These studies suggest that in the baboon endometrium, COX-1 expression is regulated primarily by progesterone, whereas regulation of COX-2 expression may involve additional mediators of embryonic origin at the site of

  16. Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen and progestin receptors in the baboon (Papio anubis) uterus during implantation and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild-Petito, S; Verhage, H G; Fazleabas, A T

    1992-04-01

    Although estrogen and progesterone are essential for the establishment of pregnancy in primates, localization of their specific receptors in uterine cell types during pregnancy has not been investigated. Therefore, uteri were obtained from baboons during the menstrual cycle, after steroid treatment, or during early pregnancy on days 18, 25 and 32 postovulation. Uterine and placental tissues were also collected from baboons during late pregnancy. Tissues were processed for indirect immunocytochemical localization with specific monoclonal antibodies against estrogen receptor (ER; H222) and progestin receptor (PR; JZB39). Identification of specific cell types was confirmed by iron-hematoxylin/van Gieson and Gimori's stains. Specific staining for steroid receptors was detected only in the nucleus. In the absence of ovarian steroid hormones (ovariectomized baboons), ER were present in glandular epithelium, stroma, and myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMC). In contrast, PR were absent from all uterine cell types. In the estrogen-dominated (follicular and estradiol treatment) uterus, ER and PR were detected in the nuclei of glandular and surface epithelium, stroma, and myometrial SMC. Elevated progesterone levels (luteal or after progesterone treatment) resulted in a loss of nuclear ER in stroma and epithelium, except in the deep glandular epithelium in the basalis. PR was maintained in the stroma throughout the endometrium, but was detected only in the epithelium of the deep glands. The myometrial SMC contained both ER and PR. In early pregnancy, ER was absent from the glands and stroma as early as day 18 postovulation, but was present in the wall of spiral arteries, blood vessels, and myometrial SMC. On day 18 postovulation, staining for PR was absent from all glandular epithelium, but was maintained in the stroma surrounding the glands and spiral arteries, the wall of spiral arteries, blood vessels, and myometrial SMC. Stroma away from glandular epithelium contained few

  17. Evaluation of 6-([{sup 18}F]fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide for PET imaging of histone deacetylase in the baboon brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Alicia E. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: areid@bnl.gov; Hooker, Jacob; Shumay, Elena; Logan, Jean; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Collins, Shanika [School of Science, Health and Technology Medgar Evers College, Brooklyn, NY 11225 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Volkow, Nora [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications that shift the balance toward chromatin condensation and silencing of gene expression. Here, we evaluate the utility of 6-([{sup 18}F]fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([{sup 18}F]FAHA) for positron emission tomography imaging of HDAC activity in the baboon brain. For this purpose, we assessed its in vivo biodistribution, sensitivity to HDAC inhibition, metabolic stability and the distribution of the putative metabolite [{sup 18}F]fluoroacetate ([{sup 18}F]FAC). Methods: [{sup 18}F]FAHA and its metabolite [{sup 18}F]FAC were prepared, and their in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics were determined in baboons. [{sup 18}F]FAHA metabolism and its sensitivity to HDAC inhibition using suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) were assessed in arterial plasma and by in vitro incubation studies. The chemical form of F-18 in rodent brain was assessed by ex vivo studies. Distribution volumes for [{sup 18}F]FAHA in the brain were derived. Results: [{sup 18}F]FAHA was rapidly metabolized to [{sup 18}F]FAC, and both labeled compounds entered the brain. [{sup 18}F]FAHA exhibited regional differences in brain uptake and kinetics. In contrast, [{sup 18}F]FAC showed little variation in regional brain uptake and kinetics. A kinetic analysis that takes into account the uptake of peripherally produced [{sup 18}F]FAC indicated that SAHA inhibited binding of [{sup 18}F]FAHA in the baboon brain dose-dependently. In vitro studies demonstrated SAHA-sensitive metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FAHA to [{sup 18}F]FAC within the cell and diffusion of [{sup 18}F]FAC out of the cell. All radioactivity in brain homogenate from rodents was [{sup 18}F]FAC at 7 min postinjection of [{sup 18}F]FAHA. Conclusion: The rapid metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FAHA to [{sup 18}F]FAC in the periphery complicates the quantitative analysis of HDAC in the brain. However, dose-dependent blocking studies with SAHA and kinetic modeling

  18. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  19. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  20. Analogical reasoning in baboons (Papio papio): flexible reencoding of the source relation depending on the target relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

    2013-09-01

    Analogical reasoning is a cornerstone of human cognition, but the extent and limits of analogical reasoning in animals remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that apes and monkeys can match relations with relations, suggesting that these species have the basic abilities for analogical reasoning. However, analogical reasoning in humans entails two additional cognitive processes that remain unexplored in animals. These include the ability to (1) flexibly reencode the relations instantiated by the source domain as a function of the relational properties of the target domain, and (2) to match relations across different stimulus dimensions. Using a two-dimensional relational matching-to-sample task, the present study demonstrates that these two abilities are in the scope of baboons, given appropriate training. These findings unveil the richness of the cognitive processes implicated during analogical reasoning in nonhuman primates and further reduce the apparent gap between animal and human cognition.

  1. Dynamic pressure patterns in the hands of olive baboons (Papio anubis) during terrestrial locomotion: implications for cercopithecoid primate hand morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Wunderlich, Roshna E

    2010-04-01

    Habitually terrestrial monkeys adopt digitigrade hand postures at slow speeds to increase effective forelimb length and reduce distal limb joint moments. As these primates move faster, however, their hands transition to a more palmigrade posture, which is likely associated with the inability of wrist and hand joints to resist higher ground reaction forces (GRF) associated with faster speeds. Transitioning to a palmigrade posture may serve to distribute GRFs over a larger surface area (i.e., increased palmar contact), ultimately reducing stresses in fragile hand bones. To test this hypothesis, dynamic palmar pressure data were collected on two adult baboons (Papio anubis) walking, running, and galloping across a runway integrated with a dynamic pressure mat (20 steps each; speed range: 0.46-4.0 m/s). Peak GRF, contact area, peak pressure, and pressure-time integral were quantified in two regions of the hand: fingers and palms (including metacarpal heads). At slower speeds with lower GRFs, the baboons use digitigrade postures resulting in small palmar contact area (largely across the metacarpal heads). At faster speeds with higher GRFs, they used less digitigrade hand postures resulting in increased palmar contact area. Finger contact area did not change across speeds. Despite higher GRFs at faster speeds, metacarpal pressure was moderated across speeds due to increased palmar contact area as animals transitioned from digitigrady to palmigrady. In contrast, the pressure in the fingers increased with faster speeds. Results indicate that the transition from digitigrady to palmigrady distributes increased forces over a larger palmar surface area. Such dynamic changes in palmar pressure likely moderate strain in the gracile bones of the hand, a structure that is integral not only for locomotion, but also feeding and social behaviors in primates. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) after intragastric administration to baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amy K; Mueller, Melanie; Shell, Courtney D; Ricaurte, George A; Ator, Nancy A

    2013-06-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a popular drug of abuse. We aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of intragastric MDMA in a species closely related to humans and to relate behavioral effects to plasma MDMA and metabolite concentrations. Single doses of MDMA (0.32-7.8 mg/kg) were administered via an intragastric catheter to adult male baboons (N = 4). Effects of MDMA on food-maintained responding were assessed over a 20-hour period, whereas untrained behaviors and fine-motor coordination were characterized every 30 minutes until 3 hours postadministration. Levels of MDMA and metabolites in plasma were measured in the same animals (n = 3) after dosing on a separate occasion. MDMA decreased food-maintained responding over the 20-hour period, and systematic behavioral observations revealed increased frequency of bruxism as the dose of MDMA was increased. Drug blood level determinations showed no MDMA after the lower doses of MDMA tested (0.32-1.0 mg/kg) and modest levels after higher MDMA doses (3.2-7.8 mg/kg). High levels of 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) were detected after all doses of MDMA, suggesting extensive first-pass metabolism of MDMA in the baboon. The present results demonstrate that MDMA administered via an intragastric catheter produced behavioral effects that have also been reported in humans. Similar to humans, blood levels of MDMA after oral administration may not be predictive of the behavioral effects of MDMA. Metabolites, particularly HHMA, may play a significant role in the behavioral effects of MDMA.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and baboon PET imaging of the potential adrenal imaging agent cholesteryl-p-[18f]fluorobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonson, Stephanie D.; Welch, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholesteryl-p-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]CFB) was investigated as a potential adrenal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the diagnostic imaging of adrenal disorders. We describe the synthesis, biodistribution, adrenal autoradiography, and baboon PET imaging of [ 18 F]CFB. The synthesis of [ 18 F]CFB was facilitated by the use of a specially designed microwave cavity that was instrumental in effecting 70-83% incorporation of fluorine-18 in 60 s via [ 18 F]fluoro-for-nitro exchange. Tissue distribution studies in mature female Sprague-Dawley rats showed good accumulation of [ 18 F]CFB in the steroid-secreting tissues, adrenals and ovaries, at 1 h postinjection. The effectiveness of [ 18 F]CFB to accumulate in diseased adrenals was shown through biodistribution studies in hypolipidemic rats, which showed a greater than threefold increase in adrenal uptake at 1 h and increased adrenal/liver and adrenal/kidney ratios. Analysis of the metabolites at 1 h in the blood, adrenals, spleen, and ovaries of hypolipidemic and control rats showed the intact tracer representing greater than 86%, 93%, 92%, and 82% of the accumulated activity, respectively. [ 18 F]CFB was confirmed to selectively accumulate in the adrenal cortex versus the adrenal medulla by autoradiography. Normal baboon PET imaging with [ 18 F]CFB effectively showed adrenal localization as early as 15 min after injection of the tracer, with enhanced adrenal contrast seen at 60-70 min. These results suggest that [ 18 F]CFB may be useful as an adrenal PET imaging agent for assessing adrenal disorders

  4. Investigation of the retention and distribution of americium-241 in the baboon and the enhanced removal of americium-241 from the body by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the metabolism and distribution of intravenously administered 241 Am in the adult and juvenile baboon; in addition, decorporation therapy using Na 3 -CaDTPA was performed on selected baboons to assess the efficacy of this drug in removing systemic burdens of 241 Am from this primate species. Determination of the kinetics of 241 Am was accomplished principally by in vivo methodologies and by radiochemical analysis of 241 Am activity of biological material. The use of Na 3 -CaDTPA as a therapeutic agent for the removal of 241 Am from the body proved to be an effective form of treatment in the case of early administration. (U.S.)

  5. The use of autologous 111In-labelled platelets and scintigraphy to illustrate enhanced platelet activity during erection in the chacma baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The demonstration of thrombelastographic hypercoagulability in the penile blood during erection, and the accompanying deposition of fibrin onto the endothelial layer of the deep penile artery and trabecular surface inspired this investigation of the possible role that platelets might play in the process. The bloodpooling pattern in the penis during and after erection from electro-stimulation was studied in 9 male adult baboons (Papio ursinus) using in vivo sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells and scintigraphy. Platelet activity was similarly investigated after administering autologous 111 In-labelled platelets to the baboons. The results indicate an enhanced platelet concentration with respect to blood-pooling during erection, and an entrapment of platelets after erection. (orig.) [de

  6. Clinical manifestation and aetiology of a genital associated disease in Olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a genitally associated disease and to describe its clinical manifestation and aetiology in baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in the United Republic of Tanzania. Lake Manyara National Park is located in the northern part of the country, 160 km northwest of the Mt. Kilimanjaro. It is among the smallest protected areas, but belongs to the extended ecosystem of the Serengeti, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Lake Manyara and Tarangire National Park. The...

  7. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 by insulin in the baboon (Papio anubis endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazleabas Asgerally T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of insulin on expression and synthesis of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in the baboon endometrium in vitro. Methods Baboon endometrial explants collected from cycling, ovariectomized, steroid-treated, simulated-pregnant and pregnant animals were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of insulin, with or without estradiol, progesterone and hCG. Results Insulin clearly inhibited IGFBP-1 production and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was not significantly affected. The inhibitory effects of insulin on IGFBP-1 were more evident in explants of non-pregnant tissue or tissue away from the implantation site. In the absence of insulin, synthesis of IGFBP-1 was induced in explants with low levels of de novo synthesis whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was inhibited. This effect was potentiated by steroids and hCG in the explant cultures. Conclusion Insulin differentially regulates endometrial IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 secretion in the baboon.

  8. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation leads to impaired right ventricular function in young adult baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Huber, Hillary F; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and leads to heightened cardiovascular risks later in life. We report right ventricular (RV) filling and ejection abnormalities in IUGR young adult baboons using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Both functional and morphological indicators of poor RV function were seen, many of which were similar to effects of ageing, but also with a few key differences. We observed more pronounced RV changes compared to our previous report of the left ventricle, suggesting there is likely to be a component of isolated RV abnormality in addition to expected haemodynamic sequelae from left ventricular dysfunction. In particular, our findings raise the suspicion of pulmonary hypertension after IUGR. This study establishes that IUGR also leads to impairment of the right ventricle in addition to the left ventricle classically studied. Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years - human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle remains poorly studied. We examined the right ventricle with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the same cohorts. We observed decreased ejection fraction (49 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 3%, P < 0.001), cardiac index (2.73 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.20 l min -1 m -2 , P < 0.05), early filling rate/body surface area (BSA) (109.2 ± 7.8 vs. 44.6 ± 7.3 ml s -1  m -2 , P < 0.001), wall thickening (61 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 5%, P < 0.05), and longitudinal shortening (26 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2%, P < 0.01) in IUGR animals with increased

  9. [{sup 11}C]d-threo-Methylphenidate, a new radiotracer for the dopamine transporter. Characterization in baboon and human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    dl-threo Methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) is a psychostimulant drug which binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT). We evaluated [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate ([{sup 11}C]d-MP), the more active enantiomer, as a radiotracer for the DAT in baboons and human brain. Stereoselectivity, saturability and pharmacological specificity and reproducibility were examined. Stereoselectivity was examined in baboons by comparing [{sup 11C}]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]l-MP and [{sup 11}C]dl-MP. Unlabeled MP was used to assess the reversibility and saturability of the binding. GBR 12909,{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ({beta}-CIT), tomoxetine and citalopram were used to assess the specificity of the binding. The ratios between the radioactivity in the striatum to that in cerebellum (ST/CB) were 3.3,2.2 and 1.1 for [{sup 11}C]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]dl-MP and [{sup 11}C]l-MP respectively. Most of the striatal binding of [{sup 11}C]d-threo-MP was displaced by injection of nonradioactive MP demonstrating reversibility. Pretreatment with MP (0.5 mg/kg), GBR12909 (1.5 mg/kg) or {beta}-CIT (0.3 mg/kg) reduced ST/CB by about 60% and the ratios of distribution volumes at the steady-state for the triatum to cerebellum (DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb}) by about 50%. Pretreatment with tomoxetine (3.0 mg/kg) or citalopram (2.0 mg/kg), inhibitors of the norepinephrine and serotonin transporter, had no effect. Studies of [{sup 11}C]d-MP in the human brain showed highest uptake in basal ganglia with a half clearance time of about 60 minutes. Repeated studies in 6 normal human subjects showed differences in DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb} between -7% and 8%. MP pretreatment decreased BG but no cortical or cerebellar binding and reduced Bmax/Kd by 91%.

  10. Histopathology of kidney induced by LICAM (C) therapy in baboons after inhalation of plutonium-tributyl phosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lepage, M.; Duserre, C.; Metivier, H.; Gerasimo, P.

    1989-01-01

    The histological changes induced in baboon kidneys after administration of LICAM C and/or DTPA to remove Pu after inhalation of large doses of 239 Pu-TBP have been characterised. Treatment with LICAM C alone was most effective at removing Pu from the body but increased its retention in the kidneys. It also induced specific kidney lesions confined to the proximal tubules, i.e. vacuole formation in the basal part of the tubular cells. No vacuolar lesions were observed after treatment with DTPA alone. Combined treatment with LICAM C and DTPA was less effective than with LICAM C alone but more effective than with DTPA alone. After this combined treatment, in which the smallest cumulated dose of LICAM C was used, the kidney Pu burden decreased compared to the burden after treatment with LICAM C alone, but the specific lesions in the proximal tubules were still sometimes observed. The vacuole formation induced by LICAM C seemed to be reversible and the number of vacuoles was closely correlated with the dose of LICAM C administered. (author)

  11. Measurements of the effects of decellularization on viscoelastic properties of tissues in ovine, baboon, and human heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tong; Clifton, Rodney J; Converse, Gabriel L; Hopkins, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    In the development of tissue-engineered heart valves based on allograft decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds, the material properties of the implant should be ideally comparable to the native semilunar valves. This investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the three functional aortic/pulmonary valve tissues (leaflets, sinus wall, and great vessel wall) was undertaken to establish normative values for fresh samples of human valves and to compare these properties after various steps in creating scaffolds for subsequent bioreactor-based seeding protocols. Torsional wave methods were used to measure the viscoelastic properties. Since preclinical surgical implant validation studies require relevant animal models, the tests reported here also include results for three pairs of both ovine and baboon aortic and pulmonary valves. For human aortic valves, four cryopreserved valves were compared with four decellularized scaffolds. Because of organ and heart valve transplant scarcity for pulmonary valves, only three cryopreserved and two decellularized pulmonary valves were tested. Leaflets are relatively soft. Loss angles are similar for all tissue samples. Regardless of species, the decellularization process used in this study has little effect on viscoelastic properties.

  12. Development of beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in baboon brain: an autoradiographic study using [125I]iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slesinger, P.A.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Singer, H.S.; Walker, L.C.; Casanova, M.F.; Price, D.L.; Coyle, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    [125I]iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) autoradiography was used to investigate the temporal development and distribution of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in brains of baboons at ages embryonic day 100 (E100), full-term gestation (El80), and 3 years. In all brain regions examined, with the exception of the hippocampus, binding to beta 1 receptors exceeded that to beta 2 receptors. The highest densities of beta 1 receptors were found in the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex; intermediate receptor densities were observed in most nuclei of thalamus, and the lowest concentrations were in the hippocampus. At E100, beta receptors were identified in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus. During maturation, the number of beta 1 receptors declined in cortical areas but increased in the head of the caudate and putamen. Significant differences in the developmental distribution of beta receptors during development were also detected: at E100 and E180 beta 1 receptors appeared as patches in the caudate and putamen, but by 3 years of age they were more homogeneously distributed in both regions; changes also occurred in the distribution of binding within cortical layers. Autoradiograms of [125I]ICYP and [3H]mazindol binding show overlapping patches of labeling in the E180 striatum, suggesting a possible developmental association between beta receptors and dopamine high-affinity uptake carrier sites. This study demonstrates that noradrenergic receptors in the primate forebrain undergo significant developmental reorganization with regional variations

  13. A cocktail of humanized anti-pertussis toxin antibodies limits disease in murine and baboon models of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annalee W; Wagner, Ellen K; Laber, Joshua R; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Harvill, Eric T; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Padlan, Eduardo A; Bristol, Andy; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2015-12-02

    Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis rates are rising in industrialized countries and remain high worldwide. With no specific therapeutics to treat disease, pertussis continues to cause considerable infant morbidity and mortality. The pertussis toxin is a major contributor to disease, responsible for local and systemic effects including leukocytosis and immunosuppression. We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the Bordetella pertussis-induced rise in white blood cell counts and decreased bacterial colonization. When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated, but not untreated control animals, experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell counts and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. These preliminary findings support further investigation into the use of these antibodies to treat human neonatal pertussis in conjunction with antibiotics and supportive care. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Chemical fate of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic radiotracer [123I]5-IA-85380 in baboon brain and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Ronald M.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Staley, Julie K.; Brenner, Eric; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Amici, Louis; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, Robert B.; Tamagnan, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The fate of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor radiotracer [ 123 I]5-IA-85380 ([ 123 I]5-IA) was studied in baboon by analyzing the chemical composition of brain tissue and plasma after intravenous administration of the tracer. Acetonitrile denaturation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed predominantly unchanged (91-98%) parent tracer in all brain tissues examined, compared to significant metabolism (23% parent) in the plasma at 90 min postinjection, and control tissue recovery of 95-98%. [ 123 I]5-IA was distributed to the thalamus with a standardized uptake value of 9.2 (0.04% dose/g) or a concentration 5.8 times higher than that of the cerebellum. The HPLC behavior of a synthesized sample of one hypothesized metabolite, 5-iodo-3-pyridinol (5-IP), was consistent with plasma radiometabolite fraction. Since only parent radiotracer compound was found in brain tissue, these results add confidence that information derived from single photon emission computed tomography images of 123 I activity in the brain after [ 123 I]5-IA administration can be interpreted as distribution of an intact radiotracer

  15. An ecological and behavioural approach to hominin evolution during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-07-01

    The study considers the turnover in hominins, together with carnivorans and other primates, at 3.5 Ma against an environmental backdrop. Communalities are identified between evolving guilds that may directly inform hominin evolution. These are the evolution of (a) dietary generalists and (b) evidence for sociality in carnivores, baboons and hominins. Sociality and behavioural flexibility are regarded advantageous for the procurement of resources while, at the same time, reducing intraspecific competition; in primates it may initially also have served to reduce predation risk. Behavioural flexibility explains the evolutionary success of Panthera leo, Papio and Homo. Viewed within a wider palaeoecological and environmental context, it is possible that sociality in hominins, including allocare, were triggered by abiotic changes at about 3.5 Ma. If confirmed in future studies, this would mark the beginning of hominin life history evolution.

  16. Synthesis, radiolabeling and baboon SPECT imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross [Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Mailman Research Center McLean Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: gtamagnan@indd.org

    2008-01-15

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, ). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [{sup 123}I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo.

  17. Assessing adaptability and reactive scope: Introducing a new measure and illustrating its use through a case study of environmental stress in forest-living baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLarnon, A M; Sommer, V; Goffe, A S; Higham, J P; Lodge, E; Tkaczynski, P; Ross, C

    2015-05-01

    In order to maintain regulatory processes, animals are expected to be adapted to the range of environmental stressors usually encountered in their environmental niche. The available capacity of their stress responses is termed their reactive scope, which is utilised to a greater or lesser extent to deal with different stressors. Typically, non-invasive hormone assessment is used to measure the physiological stress responses of wild animals, but, for methodological reasons, such measurements are not directly comparable across studies, limiting interpretation. To overcome this constraint, we propose a new measure of the relative strength of stress responses, 'demonstrated reactive scope', and illustrate its use in a study of ecological correlates (climate, food availability) of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels in two forest-living troops of baboons. Results suggest the wild-feeding troop experiences both thermoregulatory and nutritional stress, while the crop-raiding troop experiences only thermoregulatory stress. This difference, together with the crop-raiding troop's lower overall physiological stress levels and lower demonstrated fGC reactive scope, may reflect nutritional stress-buffering in this troop. The relatively high demonstrated fGC reactive scope levels of both troops compared with other baboons and primate species, may reflect their extreme habitat, on the edge of the geographic range for baboons. Demonstrated reactive scope provides a means of gauging the relative strengths of stress responses of individuals, populations, or species under different conditions, enhancing the interpretive capacity of non-invasive studies of stress hormone levels in wild populations, e.g. in terms of animals' adaptive flexibility, the magnitude of their response to anthropogenic change, or the severity of impact of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum miR-451a Levels Are Significantly Elevated in Women With Endometriosis and Recapitulated in Baboons ( Papio anubis) With Experimentally-Induced Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnick, Warren B; Falcone, Tommaso; Joshi, Niraj; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Graham, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that human microRNA-451a (miR-451a) endometriotic lesion expression is significantly higher compared to that of the corresponding eutopic endometrium. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between lesion and serum content of miR-451a and to determine the utility of serum miR-451a in distinguishing between women with and without visible signs of endometriosis. Eighty-one participants were enrolled in this study, 41 with confirmed endometriosis and 40 without visible signs of endometriosis at laparoscopy (n = 20) or symptoms of endometriosis (pain, infertility n = 20). Experimental endometriosis was also induced in 8 baboons. Blood, endometriotic lesions, and eutopic endometrial samples were collected from women undergoing laparoscopy for surgical removal of endometriosis. Blood was also collected from control participants with no signs and symptoms associated with the disease as well as from baboons prior to, and then 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15 months postinduction of endometriosis. MicroRNA-451a was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in all samples. In humans, serum miR-451a levels positively correlated with endometriotic lesion miR-451a content, and sera levels were significantly higher in these participants compared to controls. The area under the curve (AUC) for miR-451a was 0.8599. In baboons, serum miR-451a reached statistically significant peak levels at 6 months postinduction of endometriosis. We conclude from this study that sera miR-451a levels positively correlated with endometriotic lesion content and are significantly greater compared to sera levels in women without visible signs or symptoms of endometriosis. MicroRNA-451a may serve as a serum diagnostic marker for endometriosis.

  19. Impact of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Progression of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Baboon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Alison J; Bergin, Ingrid L; Chai, Daniel; Bassis, Christine M; LeBar, William; Oluoch, George O; Liechty, Emma R; Nyachieo, Atunga; Young, Vincent B; Aronoff, David M; Patton, Dorothy L; Bell, Jason D

    2018-01-30

    Understanding the relationship between the levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasingly important as use of the LNG-IUS grows to include women at higher risk for STIs. This study assessed the impact of the LNG-IUS on development of Chlamydia trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease, using a baboon model. Baboons with and those without the LNG-IUS were cervically inoculated with C. trachomatis and monitored daily, and cervical and fallopian tube swab specimens were collected weekly for C. trachomatis quantitation by nucleic acid amplification testing and culture. Vaginal swab specimens were collected for cytokine analysis, and serum samples were obtained for detection of C. trachomatis antibodies. The LNG-IUS resulted in an increased C. trachomatis burden in the cervix, with the bacterial burden in the LNG-IUS group diverging from that in the non-LNG-IUS group by 6 weeks after infection. One of 7 baboons in the non-LNG-IUS group and 2 of 6 in the LNG-IUS group developed pelvic inflammatory disease, while 3 animals in each group met criteria suggestive of pelvic inflammatory disease. LNG-IUS increased baseline interleukin 8 levels but failed to further upregulate interleukin 8 during infection. In LNG-IUS recipients, early perturbations in the interleukin 1β axis corresponded to decreased C. trachomatis clearance and increased T-helper type 2 immune responses. LNG-IUS use results in delayed clearance of C. trachomatis and might alter the reproductive tract immune environment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  1. The processing of positional information in a two-item sequence limits the emergence of symmetry in baboons (Papio papio), but not in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Malassis, Raphaelle; Medam, Tiphaine

    2018-03-01

    When trained to associate Stimulus A to Stimulus B, humans can derive the untrained symmetrical B to A relation while nonhuman animals have much more difficulties. Urcuioli (2008, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90, 257--282; 2015, Conductal, 3, 4--25) proposed that the apparent difficulty of animals in symmetry testing reflects their double encoding of the information on the stimuli (identity and relation) and their positional (i.e., spatial and temporal/ordinal) characteristics. This comparative study tested the emergence of symmetry in humans and baboons in a task in which the position of the stimuli was manipulated independently of their relation. Humans and baboons initially learned to associate pairs of visual shapes on a touch screen in a specific order. Three pairs of (A-B, C-D, and E-F) stimuli were used in training. After training, the two species were tested with the B-A, F-C, and E-D pairs. The B-A pairs preserved the association initially learned with A-B but reversed the positional information relative to training. The F-C pair neither preserved the association nor the positional information of the training pairs, and positional information were the only cues preserved in the E-D pair. Humans showed a response time advantage for B-A, suggesting symmetry, but also for E-D, suggesting that they also process positional information. In baboons, the advantage was found only for E-D, suggesting that they only process positional information. These results confirm that the processing of stimulus pairs differ between nonhuman animals to humans.

  2. Comparison of two Hologic DXA systems (QDR 1000 and QDR 4500/A) for in vivo bone mass measurement in the baboon (Papio ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Ilario Dal; Biscardi, Anna; Ripamonti, Ugo

    2002-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for bone mass measurement in humans. New generation osteodensitometers have been introduced and numerous studies have been performed to compare new and old devices for in vivo measurements of bone mineral density (BMD). However similar studies in nonhuman primates have yet to be performed. In this longitudinal study, two generation of osteodensitometers from the same manufacturer (Hologic QDR 1000 and Hologic QDR 4500/A) were used to detect bone changes in a cohort of 24 ovariectomized (OVX) Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) during a period of 36 mo. Correlation between the same osteodensitometers were also obtained for the lumbar spine (L1-L4) area, BMD, and bone mineral content (BMC) in a cohort of 33 adult female baboons and for the total hip area, BMD, and BMC in a group of 25 adult female baboons. The QDR 1000 to QDR 4500/A area, BMC, and BMD correlation coefficient (r(2)) were 0.848, 0.939, and 0.916, respectively; r(2) for total hip BMD was 0.818. Percentage of variation (PV) among the total vertebral (L1-L4) area measured by the two osteodensitometers was 5.3 +/- 2.3 (mean +/- SD). BMC had the lowest PV and the highest r(2). The mean lumbar BMD was higher when measured by QDR 1000 with a PV% of 7.7 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD). The mean hip BMD was higher measured by QDR 1000 with a PV% of 9.3 +/- 7.1 (mean +/- SD). Slopes of two regression lines for the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip BMD were 0.928 and 0.914, respectively. Longitudinal analysis of lumbar BMD in OVX baboons showed that QDR 4500/A detected a significant bone density increase at 36 and 48 mo post- OVX, compared to time 12, whereas the QDR 1000 did not. Our results indicate that both osteodensitometers can be used to measure bone changes in longitudinal studies in primates, but that before upgrading to a newgeneration osteodensitometer, a calibration curve has to be obtained so that both devices can be equally used in regular experimental

  3. Structural characterization of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pig heart and kidney glycolipids and their reactivity with human and baboon antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diswall, Mette; Angström, Jonas; Karlsson, Hasse; Phelps, Carol J; Ayares, David; Teneberg, Susann; Breimer, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    alpha1,3-galactosyltranferase knockout (GalT-KO) pigs have been established to avoid hyperacute rejection in GalT-KO pig-to-human xenotransplantation. GalT-KO pig heart and kidney glycolipids were studied focusing on elimination of Gal-antigens and whether novel antigens would appear. Non-human primates are used as pre-clinical transplantation experimental models. Therefore, sera from baboons transplanted with GalT-KO hearts were compared with human serum regarding reactivity with pig glycolipids. Neutral and acidic glycolipids were isolated from GalT-KO and WT pig hearts and kidneys. Glycolipid immune reactivity was tested on TLC plates using human affinity-purified anti-Gal Ig, anti-blood group monoclonal antibodies, lectins, and human serum as well as baboon serum collected before and after GalT-KO pig heart transplantations. Selected glycolipid fractions, isolated by HPLC, were structurally characterized by mass spectrometry and proton NMR spectroscopy. GalT-KO heart and kidney lacked alpha3Gal-terminated glycolipids completely. Levels of uncapped N-acetyllactosamine precursor compounds, blood group H type 2 core chain compounds, the P1 antigen and the x(2) antigen were increased. Human serum antibodies reacted with Gal-antigens and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) in WT organs of which only the NeuGc reactivity remained in the GalT-KO tissues. A clear difference in reactivity between baboon and human antibodies with pig glycolipids was found. This was most pronounced for acidic, not yet identified, compounds in GalT-KO organs which were less abundant or lacking in the corresponding WT tissues. GalT-KO pig heart and kidney completely lacked Gal glycolipid antigens whilst glycolipids synthesized by competing pathways were increased. Baboon and human serum antibodies showed a different reactivity pattern to pig glycolipid antigens indicating that non-human primates have limitations as a human pre-clinical model for immune rejection studies.

  4. Compared study of the local structure of alteration products of SON 68 glass and natural gels; Etude comparee de la structure locale des produits d'alteration du verre SON 68 et de gels naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrin, E

    2000-07-01

    This study is a contribution in the understanding of the long time behavior of alteration products of the glass SON 68, used to simulate the nuclear glass R7T7. The local structure around Zirconium and iron has been probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in altered surface layer of glass SON 68. Alteration products of this glass have been prepared for short (3 hours to 7 days) and long (17 months) time, using various indexes of saturation for the leaching solution with respect to the Si content of the glass (from 0 to 90 %). The evolution of the local structure around Fe has also been studied in recent and old natural ferric gels. Zr, Fe- L{sub 2,3} XANES and Zr, Fe-K EXAFS spectroscopies have shown that, in the pristine glass, these elements are connected to the polymeric network. Zr is found in an environment close to that of a zircon-silicate containing Na and Ca. Trivalent Fe is a network former. The leached layer of glass SON 68 is constituted of poorly ordered Zr-and Fe-(oxi-hydr)oxides that may have been formed by a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation; a relict phase with the same Zr local structure as that observed in the pristine glass, probably obtained thanks to in-situ solid condensation. The structural characteristics of the leached layer are observed from the first steps of alteration for Zr and Fe. Conversely to Fe, the structural status of Zr depends on the leaching kinetic as well as the contents of Ca and Si in the solid. Fe-K EXAFS results in recent natural ferri-hydrides present a clear structural similarity with that determined in glass SON 68 leached products. The study of old paleosols (between 1,800 and 200,000 years) has demonstrated the long time stability of ferric gels, although an increase of medium range order around Fe is seen. (author)

  5. Stability of cardiodynamic and some blood parameters in the baboon following intravenous anaesthesia with ketamine and diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Du Plooy

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of cardiodynamic and some blood parameters during a slow, continuous infusion of a combination of ketamine and diazepam is reported. Contractility (dP/dt, myocardial relaxation (Tln, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP, arterial blood pressure and certain blood parameters were assessed in 3 male and 3 female juvenile baboons (Papio ursinus. Anaesthesia was induced with 15 mg/kg ketamine IM and maintained with a continuous IV infusion (40-60 mℓ/h of ketamine and diazepam. The mixture consisted of 2 mℓ ketamine (100 mg/mℓ, 2 mℓ diazepam (5 mg/mℓ and 50 mℓ saline. A period of 75 + 10 min was allowed for preparation of the animals, after which lead II of the ECG, femoral artery blood pressure and left ventricular pressure were recorded at 15-min intervals for a period of 2 h: the total duration of anaesthesia was 195 min. Arterial blood samples were analysed at 30-min intervals for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and insulin. Left ventricular parameters were derived from the left ventricular pressure curve. Tln, LVSP and LVEDP showed small fluctuations. Contractility decreased (p < 0.037 at the 195-min interval. No arrhythmias or ECG changes were seen, while blood pressure decreased gradually. Serum calcium concentration decreased and blood glucose levels increased gradually over time. Anaesthesia and analgesia were sufficient and no other drugs were necessary. The animals appeared sedated and dazed 60-80 min after the procedure. A continuous infusion of a combination of ketamine and diazepam for a duration of 150 min can provide stable anaesthesia for cardiodynamic measurements.

  6. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  7. Novel Inducers of Fetal Globin Identified through High Throughput Screening (HTS Are Active In Vivo in Anemic Baboons and Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Boosalis

    Full Text Available High-level fetal (γ globin expression ameliorates clinical severity of the beta (β hemoglobinopathies, and safe, orally-bioavailable γ-globin inducing agents would benefit many patients. We adapted a LCR-γ-globin promoter-GFP reporter assay to a high-throughput robotic system to evaluate five diverse chemical libraries for this activity. Multiple structurally- and functionally-diverse compounds were identified which activate the γ-globin gene promoter at nanomolar concentrations, including some therapeutics approved for other conditions. Three candidates with established safety profiles were further evaluated in erythroid progenitors, anemic baboons and transgenic mice, with significant induction of γ-globin expression observed in vivo. A lead candidate, Benserazide, emerged which demonstrated > 20-fold induction of γ-globin mRNA expression in anemic baboons and increased F-cell proportions by 3.5-fold in transgenic mice. Benserazide has been used chronically to inhibit amino acid decarboxylase to enhance plasma levels of L-dopa. These studies confirm the utility of high-throughput screening and identify previously unrecognized fetal globin inducing candidates which can be developed expediently for treatment of hemoglobinopathies.

  8. A case report of ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) in a baboon (Papio spp.) and a brief review of the non-human primate literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perminov, Ekaterina; Mangosing, Sara; Confer, Alexandra; Gonzalez, Olga; Crawford, Jason R; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Kumar, Shyamesh; Dick, Edward

    2018-03-05

    Disorders of sexual development are rare in non-human primates. We report a case of true hermaphroditism in a 19-year-old, nulliparous, female baboon (Papio spp.). At necropsy, the animal was obese with adequate muscle mass and hydration. Reproductive organs appeared normal with the exception of 2 firm nodular structures in the myometrium (1-1.5 cm diameter) and a thickened, dark endocervical mucosa. Histologically, both gonads were ovotestes and contained discrete areas of ovarian and testicular tissue. There were follicles in various stages of development surrounded by ovarian stroma. Other areas contained hypoplastic seminiferous tubules lined by Sertoli cells, but lacked germ cells and spermatozoa. The uterine lesions were consistent with adenomyosis and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Cervical lesions were consistent with atypical glandular hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia with dysplasia. We report the first case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (OT-DSD), or true hermaphroditism in a baboon. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization in baboons by an enzyme-activated aromatase inhibitor (MDL 18,962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, C.; Femino, A.; Johnston, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The peripheral aromatization ([rho]BM) of androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) was measured before and after administration of the aromatase inhibitor 10-(2 propynyl)estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (MDL-18,962) to five mature female baboons, Papio annubis. The measurements were made by infusing [3H]androstenedione/[14C]estrone or [3H]testosterone/[14C]estradiol for 3.5 h and collecting blood samples during the infusions and all urine for 96 h from the start of the infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for radioactivity as infused and product steroids, and the data were used to calculate MCRs. An aliquot of the pooled urine was analyzed for the glucuronides of estrone and estradiol and used to calculate the [rho]BM. MDL-18,962 was administered as a pulse in polyethylene glycol-400 (1-5 ml) either iv or via gastric tube 30 min before administration of the radiolabeled steroids. Control studies were done with and without polyethylene glycol-400 administration. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A was decreased 91.8 +/- 0.9% from the control value of 1.23 +/- 0.13% to 0.11 +/- 0.01%. At the same dose, aromatization of T was decreased 82.0 +/- 7.1%, from a control value of 0.20 +/- 0.03% to 0.037 +/- 0.018%. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at doses of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04, and 0.01 mg/kg, the values for aromatization of A were 0.16 +/- 0.03%, 0.18 +/- 0.06%, 0.37 +/- 11%, and 0.65 +/- 0.09%, respectively. The administration of MDL-18,962 via gastric tube at 4 mg/kg as a pulse decreased the aromatization of A from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.43 +/- 0.12%, an inhibition of 67.2 +/- 10.7%. When administered via gastric tube daily for 5 days at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A fell from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.063 +/- 0.003%, an inhibition of 84.4 +/- 0.5%

  10. In vivo infusion of interleukin-1beta and chorionic gonadotropin induces endometrial changes that mimic early pregnancy events in the baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakova, Zuzana; Mavrogianis, Patricia; Meng, Xuemei; Hastings, Julie M; Jackson, Kevin S; Cameo, Paula; Brudney, Allison; Knight, Oluwatoyin; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2005-09-01

    Both human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and IL-1beta induce changes in the endometrium that are associated with the establishment of pregnancy. We investigated the synergistic effect of these two embryonic signals on endometrial function using a baboon model of simulated pregnancy. Recombinant hCG (30 IU/d) was infused between d 6 and 10 post ovulation (PO) to mimic blastocyst transit. On the expected day of implantation (d 10 PO), IL-1beta (12 ng/d) or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 12 ng/d) was infused for an additional 5 d. Endometria were harvested on d 15 PO. Both hCG and hCG plus IL-1beta induced marked differences in the distribution of alpha-smooth muscle actin, proliferation marker Ki67, decidualization marker IGF-binding protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-1. The most marked effect of IL-1beta was the induction of IGF-binding protein-1 protein in stromal cells close to the apical surface, whereas cyclooxygenase-1 was down-regulated in the glandular epithelium. Protein arrays of uterine flushings showed significant suppression of death receptors, Fas and TNF receptor 1, in the hCG- with or without IL-1beta-treated groups, suggesting an inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and IL-4 were suppressed in treated animals compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in cytokine profile between hCG-treated and hCG- plus IL-1beta-treated baboons. This study confirms that in preparation for pregnancy, the primate endometrium undergoes both morphological and functional changes, which are modulated by hCG and IL-1beta, that lead to the inhibition of apoptosis and the development of an immunotolerant environment. These changes suggest that infusion of IL-1beta at the time of implantation into the nonpregnant baboon treated with hCG synergizes with hCG and mimics the early endometrial events associated with the presence of an embryo.

  11. CROISSANCE COMPAREE CHEZ LES LARVES DE LA PERCHE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    concentré (250 g.l-1) à la même concentration. (1 ml/10 l). Quand le développement des algues en grands volumes avoisine la concentration de quatorze millions de cellules par ml, on les inocule avec les Rotifères, à des densités variables (2 à. 10 ind.ml-1) en fonction du temps prévu pour l'éclosion des oeufs de perche.

  12. epidemiologie comparee de la cercosporiose noire et de la

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Mots clés : Cercosporiose noire, cladosporiose, bananiers, épidémiologie, Côte d'Ivoire. ABSTRACT. EPIDEMIOLOGY SURVEY OF BLACK SIGATOKA DISEASE AND CLADOSPORIOSE SPECKLE IN BANANA IN IVORY COAST. Sigatoka disease and cladosporium speckle are the 2 main diseases affecting banana leaves ...

  13. Analyse Sensorielle Comparee De Deux Produits De Fritures A L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les bananes hybrides CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17 et FHIA 21, tolérantes à la cercosporiose et la variété Orishele ont fait l\\'objet d\\'évaluations sensorielles. Ces nouveaux hybrides et la variété de banane plantain Orishele du même degré de mûrissement, ont été comparés sous 2 formes de préparations culinaires.

  14. Effect of body mass distribution on the ontogeny of positional behaviors in non-human primates: Longitudinal follow-up of infant captive olive baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druelle, François; Aerts, Peter; Berillon, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of primates' positional capabilities is unique among mammals. Indeed, they exhibit a daily repertoire composed of various locomotor and postural modes that may be linked to their particular morphological pattern. Because ontogeny undergoes parallel behavioral and morphological modifications, it may be useful to investigate the biomechanical consequences of the changing body shape. We, therefore, collected accurate quantitative and longitudinal data on positional behaviors, body mass distribution patterns, activities, and environment on a sample of six infant olive baboons, Papio anubis. These baboons are kept at the Primatology Station of the CNRS, France, where they live within the same social group. Individual behaviors were quantified using the focal sampling method. The body mass distribution was estimated according to a geometric model based on direct external measurements. Multivariate analysis enabled us to analyze the interactions between the data. Our results show that body mass distribution changes together with the ontogenetic changes in positional behaviors. At an early age, individuals have distally heavy segment masses in the limbs and an important fraction of the behavioral repertoire involves efficient grasping abilities. At the end of infancy, the same individuals have relatively more mass in proximal segments of the limbs and the proportion of quadrupedal walking is significantly higher while other climbing and suspensory behaviors decreased substantially. The present study experimentally confirms the association between body mass distribution and the positional repertoire of primates. These relationships, when interpreted in the context of basic biomechanical concepts, may improve our understanding of primate locomotion. We discuss further the implications of these functional relationships when modeling the evolutionary pathway of primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1201-1221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  15. Decreased chronic-stage cortical C-11-flumazenil binding after focal ischemia-reperfusion in baboons - A marker of selective neuronal loss?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffard, C.; Landeau, B.; Kerrouche, N.; Young, A.R.; Giffard, C.; Landeau, B.; Kerrouche, N.; Young, A.R.; Giffard, C.; Landeau, B.; Baron, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Although the penumbra can be saved by early reperfusion, in the rat it is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss. Mapping selective neuronal loss in the living primate would be desirable. Methods - Five young adult baboons underwent 15 O positron emission tomography for cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction fraction mapping at baseline and serially during and after 20-hours temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. At approximately day 30, 11 C-flumazenil (FMZ), a potential positron emission tomography marker of selective neuronal loss, and structural magnetic resonance-based infarct mapping were obtained, and the brain was perfused-fixed. Reduced FMZ binding in non-infarcted cortical middle cerebral artery areas was searched voxel-wise, and specific binding was assessed using compartmental modeling of FMZ time-activity curves. Results - Visual inspection revealed reduced late FMZ uptake in the affected cortical territory, extending well beyond the infarct. Accordingly, the incidence of selected voxels was greater than chance, documenting mildly but significantly reduced FMZ uptake and specific binding. Serial 15 O positron emission tomography revealed moderately severe acute ischemia followed by reperfusion. Histopathology documented only mild neuronal changes in or near the affected areas. Conclusions - We document moderate but definite late FMZ binding decrements in non-infarcted cortical areas in the baboon, consistent with previous rat and human studies. These were acutely characterized by moderate ischemia followed by reperfusion, consistent with neuronal damage from ischemic or reperfusion injury in the salvaged at-risk tissue. Only mild histopathological changes subtended these FMZ alterations suggesting subtle processes such as isolated dendrite or synapse loss. Whether these changes impact on clinical outcome deserves studying because they may be targeted by specific neuro

  16. PET measurement of D2 and S2 receptor binding of 3-N-([2'-18F]fluoroethyl)-spiperone in baboon brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.H.; Stoecklin, G.; Laufer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The regional pharmacokinetic behavior in baboon brain of 18 F-fluoro-ethyl and 18 F-fluoropropylspiperone ( 18 FESP, 18 FPSP) at specific activities ≥1000 Ci/mmol was studied with PET. Four hours after injection of 5-10 mCi 18 FESP, uptake in striatum was 0.048%±0.005% of injected dose per cm 3 , which is almost the same as with 18 F- and 11 C-methylspiperone. While 18 FPSP was taken up in much smaller amounts than 18 FESP, striatum to cerebellum activity ratios were quite similar for both ligands (about 9 to 10 at 4 h p.i.). Because of its higher striatal uptake, 18 FESP seems to be better suited for PET. Furthermore, relative binding to S 2 receptors was much smaller for FESP: Competing cold S 2 antagonists (ritanserin, ketanserin) did not alter 18 8FESP binding to striatum, concurrently reducing uptake in frontal cortex by only 15%-20%. With coinjection of increasing amounts of cold FESP, saturation of 18 FESP binding to striatum occurred at doses exceeding 10 μg per kg. Quantitative analysis of radiolabelled ligand in arterial plasma (decrease to 8% at 4 h p.i.) demonstrated identical metabolic turnover for both ligands. Direct use of binding fractions from the saturation curve resulted in overestimation of the receptor density in striatum. Using the 18 FESP plasma concentration time curve and the dynamic uptake data, k 3 of a three compartment model could be determined by non linear regression. However, dramatic changes of the dependence of k 3 on the specifically bound ligand concentration were observed even at small loading doses of FESP. Estimation of B max yielded a D 2 receptor density of only 6 pmol per cm 3 in baboon striatum. (orig.)

  17. Decreased chronic-stage cortical C-11-flumazenil binding after focal ischemia-reperfusion in baboons - A marker of selective neuronal loss?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffard, C.; Landeau, B.; Kerrouche, N.; Young, A.R. [Univ Caen, INSERM Avenir, INSERM U320, INSERM E 0218, F-14032 Caen (France); Giffard, C.; Landeau, B.; Kerrouche, N.; Young, A.R. [Univ Caen, CYCERON, F-14032 Caen (France); Giffard, C.; Landeau, B. [Univ Caen, CYCERON, CEA LRV 10, F-14032 Caen (France); Baron, J.C. [Univ Cambridge, Dept Clin Neurosci, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Background and Purpose - Although the penumbra can be saved by early reperfusion, in the rat it is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss. Mapping selective neuronal loss in the living primate would be desirable. Methods - Five young adult baboons underwent {sup 15}O positron emission tomography for cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction fraction mapping at baseline and serially during and after 20-hours temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. At approximately day 30, {sup 11}C-flumazenil (FMZ), a potential positron emission tomography marker of selective neuronal loss, and structural magnetic resonance-based infarct mapping were obtained, and the brain was perfused-fixed. Reduced FMZ binding in non-infarcted cortical middle cerebral artery areas was searched voxel-wise, and specific binding was assessed using compartmental modeling of FMZ time-activity curves. Results - Visual inspection revealed reduced late FMZ uptake in the affected cortical territory, extending well beyond the infarct. Accordingly, the incidence of selected voxels was greater than chance, documenting mildly but significantly reduced FMZ uptake and specific binding. Serial {sup 15}O positron emission tomography revealed moderately severe acute ischemia followed by reperfusion. Histopathology documented only mild neuronal changes in or near the affected areas. Conclusions - We document moderate but definite late FMZ binding decrements in non-infarcted cortical areas in the baboon, consistent with previous rat and human studies. These were acutely characterized by moderate ischemia followed by reperfusion, consistent with neuronal damage from ischemic or reperfusion injury in the salvaged at-risk tissue. Only mild histopathological changes subtended these FMZ alterations suggesting subtle processes such as isolated dendrite or synapse loss. Whether these changes impact on clinical outcome deserves studying because they may be targeted by specific

  18. Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower vs. solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Mathew; Saunders, Julian; Swedell, Larissa

    2011-07-01

    The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which "leader" males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males--the follower and solitary male--whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. "Initial units" (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and baboon PET imaging of the potential adrenal imaging agent cholesteryl-p-[{sup 18}f]fluorobenzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonson, Stephanie D.; Welch, Michael J. E-mail: welch@mirlink.wustl.edu

    1999-01-01

    Cholesteryl-p-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]CFB) was investigated as a potential adrenal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the diagnostic imaging of adrenal disorders. We describe the synthesis, biodistribution, adrenal autoradiography, and baboon PET imaging of [{sup 18}F]CFB. The synthesis of [{sup 18}F]CFB was facilitated by the use of a specially designed microwave cavity that was instrumental in effecting 70-83% incorporation of fluorine-18 in 60 s via [{sup 18}F]fluoro-for-nitro exchange. Tissue distribution studies in mature female Sprague-Dawley rats showed good accumulation of [{sup 18}F]CFB in the steroid-secreting tissues, adrenals and ovaries, at 1 h postinjection. The effectiveness of [{sup 18}F]CFB to accumulate in diseased adrenals was shown through biodistribution studies in hypolipidemic rats, which showed a greater than threefold increase in adrenal uptake at 1 h and increased adrenal/liver and adrenal/kidney ratios. Analysis of the metabolites at 1 h in the blood, adrenals, spleen, and ovaries of hypolipidemic and control rats showed the intact tracer representing greater than 86%, 93%, 92%, and 82% of the accumulated activity, respectively. [{sup 18}F]CFB was confirmed to selectively accumulate in the adrenal cortex versus the adrenal medulla by autoradiography. Normal baboon PET imaging with [{sup 18}F]CFB effectively showed adrenal localization as early as 15 min after injection of the tracer, with enhanced adrenal contrast seen at 60-70 min. These results suggest that [{sup 18}F]CFB may be useful as an adrenal PET imaging agent for assessing adrenal disorders.

  20. The effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, A C; O'Riain, M J; Swedell, L

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of extreme seasonality on the activity budget and diet of wild chacma baboons with access to a high-quality, human-derived food source. The Cape Peninsula of South Africa is unusual among nonhuman primate habitats due to its seasonal extremes in day length and climate. Winter days are markedly shorter and colder than summer days but have higher rainfall and higher primary production of annually flowering plants. This combination of fewer daylight hours but higher rainfall is substantially different from the ecological constraints faced by both equatorial baboon populations and those living in temperate climates with summer rainfall. We sought to understand how these seasonal differences affect time budgets of food-enhanced troops in comparison to both other food-enhanced troops and wild foraging troops at similar latitudes. Our results revealed significant seasonal differences in activity budget and diet, a finding that contrasts with other baboon populations with access to high-return anthropogenic foods. Similar to nonprovisioned troops at similar latitudes, troop members spent more time feeding, socializing, and traveling during the long summer days compared to the short winter days, and proportionately more time feeding and less time resting in summer compared to winter. Summer diets consisted mainly of fynbos and nonindigenous foods, whereas winter diets were dominated by annually flowering plants (mainly grasses) and ostrich pellets raided from a nearby ostrich farm. In this case, food enhancement may have effectively exaggerated seasonal differences in activity budgets by providing access to a high-return food (ostrich pellets) that was spatially and temporally coincident with abundant winter fallback foods (grasses). The frequent use of both alien vegetation and high-return, human-derived foods highlights the dietary flexibility of baboons as a key element of their overall success in rapidly transforming environments such as the

  1. Arresting Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2017-12-01

    Evolution in the form of selective breeding has long been harnessed as a useful tool by humans. However, rapid evolution can also be a danger to our health and a stumbling block for biotechnology. Unwanted evolution can underlie the emergence of drug and pesticide resistance, cancer, and weeds. It makes live vaccines and engineered cells inherently unreliable and unpredictable, and therefore potentially unsafe. Yet, there are strategies that have been and can possibly be used to stop or slow many types of evolution. We review and classify existing population genetics-inspired methods for arresting evolution. Then, we discuss how genome editing techniques enable a radically new set of approaches to limit evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce human B cells and allow active factor IX B cell secretion in vivo in NOD/SCIDγc-/-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C; Fusil, F; Amirache, F; Costa, C; Girard-Gagnepain, A; Negre, D; Bernadin, O; Garaulet, G; Rodriguez, A; Nair, N; Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M; Cosset, F-L; Verhoeyen, E

    2016-12-01

    Essentials B cells are attractive targets for gene therapy and particularly interesting for immunotherapy. A baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vector (BaEV-LV) was tested for B-cell transduction. BaEV-LVs transduced mature and plasma human B cells with very high efficacy. BaEV-LVs allowed secretion of functional factor IX from B cells at therapeutic levels in vivo. Background B cells are attractive targets for gene therapy for diseases associated with B-cell dysfunction and particularly interesting for immunotherapy. Moreover, B cells are potent protein-secreting cells and can be tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. Objective Evaluation of human B cells for secretion of clotting factors such as factor IX (FIX) as a possible treatment for hemophilia. Methods We tested here for the first time our newly developed baboon envelope (BaEV) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LVs) for human (h) B-cell transduction following their adaptive transfer into an NOD/SCIDγc -/- (NSG) mouse. Results Upon B-cell receptor stimulation, BaEV-LVs transduced up to 80% of hB cells, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus G protein VSV-G-LV only reached 5%. Remarkably, BaEVTR-LVs permitted efficient transduction of 20% of resting naive and 40% of resting memory B cells. Importantly, BaEV-LVs reached up to 100% transduction of human plasmocytes ex vivo. Adoptive transfer of BaEV-LV-transduced mature B cells into NOD/SCID/γc -/- (NSG) [non-obese diabetic (NOD), severe combined immuno-deficiency (SCID)] mice allowed differentiation into plasmablasts and plasma B cells, confirming a sustained high-level gene marking in vivo. As proof of principle, we assessed BaEV-LV for transfer of human factor IX (hFIX) into B cells. BaEV-LVs encoding FIX efficiently transduced hB cells and their transfer into NSG mice demonstrated for the first time secretion of functional hFIX from hB cells at therapeutic levels in vivo. Conclusions The BaEV-LVs might represent a valuable tool for therapeutic protein

  3. Effects of ferumoxytol on quantitative PET measurements in simultaneous PET/MR whole-body imaging: a pilot study in a baboon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ronald Jh; Cho, Hoon-Sung; Bowen, Spencer L; Attenberger, Ulrike; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Josephson, Lee; Rosen, Bruce R; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous PET/MR imaging depends on MR-derived attenuation maps (mu-maps) for accurate attenuation correction of PET data. Currently, these maps are derived from gradient-echo-based MR sequences, which are sensitive to susceptibility changes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been used in the measurement of blood volume, tumor microvasculature, tumor-associated macrophages, and characterizing lymph nodes. Our aim in this study was to assess whether the susceptibility effects associated with iron oxide nanoparticles can potentially affect measured (18)F-FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUV) through effects on MR-derived attenuation maps. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Using a Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR scanner, we evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of ferumoxytol and ferumoxytol aggregates on MR-derived mu-maps using an agarose phantom. In addition, we performed a baboon experiment evaluating the effects of a single i.v. ferumoxytol dose (10 mg/kg) on the liver, spleen, and pancreas (18)F-FDG SUV at baseline (ferumoxytol-naïve), within the first hour and at 1, 3, 5, and 11 weeks. Phantom experiments showed mu-map artifacts starting at ferumoxytol aggregate concentrations of 10 to 20 mg/kg. The in vivo baboon data demonstrated a 53% decrease of observed (18)F-FDG SUV compared to baseline within the first hour in the liver, persisting at least 11 weeks. A single ferumoxytol dose can affect measured SUV for at least 3 months, which should be taken into account when administrating ferumoxytol in patients needing sequential PET/MR scans. Advances in knowledge 1. Ferumoxytol aggregates, but not ferumoxytol alone, produce significant artifacts in MR-derived attenuation correction maps at approximate clinical dose levels of 10 mg/kg. 2. When performing simultaneous whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/MR, a single dose of ferumoxytol can result in observed SUV decreases up to 53%, depending on the

  4. Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jeanna

    2005-01-01

    Eighty years after the famous 1925 Scopes "monkey trial," which tested a teacher's right to discuss the theory of evolution in the classroom, evolution--and its most recent counterview, called "intelligent design"--are in the headlines again, and just about everyone seems to have an opinion. This past July, President Bush weighed in, telling…

  5. A direct comparison of the brain uptake and plasma clearance of N-[11C]methylspiroperidol and [18F]N-methylspiroperidol in baboon using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Arnett, C.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; MacGregor, R.R.; Halldin, C.; Laangstroem, B.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Serial PET studies of N-[ 11 C]methylspiroperidol and [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol were carried out in a single baboon with an intervening time period of 2 h between injection of the 11 C and the 18 F-labeled tracers. The kinetic patterns of uptake and egress of radioactivity in striatum and cerebellum as well as the magnitude of the uptake was very similar with the two tracers. No significant difference in clearance of total radioactivity from arterial plasma was detected. Analysis of plasma radioactivity for unchanged drug showed no significant differences in the amount of unchanged tracer at different times, although the profile of labeled metabolites was different. These results indicate that the only significant difference between the use of N-[ 11 C]methylspiroperidol and [ 18 F]N-methylspiroperidol for PET studies of brain dopamine receptors relate to the difference in physical half-life of the radionuclide rather than to differences in the profile of metabolically produced labeled compounds. (author)

  6. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Autologous cell therapy as a new approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: preliminary study in a baboon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Drouet, M. [Radiohematology Unit, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche CEDEX (France)

    2002-07-01

    The sparing of viable hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells located in underexposed bone marrow territories associated with the relative radioresistance of certain stem cell populations is the rationale for autologous cell therapy consisting of ex vivo expansion of residual cells after collection postirradiation. The feasibility of this treatment mainly depends on time constraints and hematopoietic cell threshold. We showed in this study that in the absence of early-acting mobilizing agent administration, subliminar amounts of CD34{sup +} cells can be collected (1 x 10{sup 6} CD34{sup +} cells/100 mL bone marrow or for 1 L apheresis) from 6-Gy {gamma} globally irradiated baboons. Residual CD34{sup +} cells were successfully expanded in serum-free medium in the presence of antiapoptotic cytokine combination (stem cell factor + FLT-3 ligand + thrombopoietin + interleukin 3, 50 ng/mL each, i.e., 4F): K{sub CD34{sup +}} = x2.8 and x13.7 (n=2). Moreover, we demonstrated the short-term neutrophil engraftment potential of a low-size mixed expanded graft (1.5 x 10{sup 6} final CD34{sup +}cells/kg) issued from the coculture of unirradiated (20%) and 2.5-Gy in vitro irradiated (80%) CD34{sup +} cells on an allogeneic stromal cell layer in the presence of 4F. Further preclinical research needs to be performed to clearly establish this therapeutic approach that could be optimized by the early administration of antiapoptotic cytokines. (author)

  8. Development of beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in baboon brain: an autoradiographic study using (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slesinger, P.A.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Singer, H.S.; Walker, L.C.; Casanova, M.F.; Price, D.L.; Coyle, J.T.

    1988-07-15

    (125I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) autoradiography was used to investigate the temporal development and distribution of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in brains of baboons at ages embryonic day 100 (E100), full-term gestation (El80), and 3 years. In all brain regions examined, with the exception of the hippocampus, binding to beta 1 receptors exceeded that to beta 2 receptors. The highest densities of beta 1 receptors were found in the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex; intermediate receptor densities were observed in most nuclei of thalamus, and the lowest concentrations were in the hippocampus. At E100, beta receptors were identified in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus. During maturation, the number of beta 1 receptors declined in cortical areas but increased in the head of the caudate and putamen. Significant differences in the developmental distribution of beta receptors during development were also detected: at E100 and E180 beta 1 receptors appeared as patches in the caudate and putamen, but by 3 years of age they were more homogeneously distributed in both regions; changes also occurred in the distribution of binding within cortical layers. Autoradiograms of (125I)ICYP and (3H)mazindol binding show overlapping patches of labeling in the E180 striatum, suggesting a possible developmental association between beta receptors and dopamine high-affinity uptake carrier sites. This study demonstrates that noradrenergic receptors in the primate forebrain undergo significant developmental reorganization with regional variations.

  9. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  10. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This draft of a book on Schumpeter is distributed for commenting. It is a stylised intellectual biography that focus on the emergence and extension of the Schumpeterian vision and analysis of economic and social evolution. The draft provides novel interpretations of Schumpeter's six major books. He...... originally developed his evolutionary research programme in Wesen from 1908 by studying the inherent limitations of Neoclassical Economics. He presented core results on economic evolution and sketched an extension evolutionary analysis to all social sciences in Entwicklung from 1912. He made a partial...... reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  11. Influence of intravenously administered lidocaine on cerebral blood flow in a baboon model standardized under controlled general anaesthesia using single-photon emission tomography and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)); Lipp, M.D.W. (Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie, Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)); Hugo, N. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)); Daublaender, M. (Stadtkrankenhaus Landau, Abt. fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie (Germany)); Picard, J.A. (H.A. Grove Research Centre, Pretoria (South Africa))

    1993-11-01

    The baboon under general anaesthesia as a model to assess druginduced cerebral blood flow changes ([Delta] CBF) using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) offers great in vivo possibilities but has to comply with demands on control of anaestesia-related influencing factors, such as P[sub a]CO[sub 2] changes. The model sought in this study and described here allows control of P[sub a]CO[sub 2], in the baboon under thiopentone anaesthesia by ventilation, and was evaluated for the functioal dependence of [Delta] CBF vs [Delta] P[sub a]CO[sub 2], using SPET technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and the split-dose method together with controlled ventilation. During the experiment the model was validated for normal reactivity to P[sub a]CO[sub 2] changes, and subsequently applied to investigate the mechanisms (still uncertain) of CBF increase known to follow administration of the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Six baboons received 6 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously. CBF was measured between two consecutive SPET acquisitions (split-dose method) respectively relating to HMPAO distributions in the brain before and after the injection of lidocaine. Meanwhile the animals were maintained at constant respiratory rate and volume. The results indicate that the correlation between D CBF and the ensuing fall in P[sub a]CO[sub 2] deviated from the baseline pattern from the model and confirmed a cerebrovascular contribution to the lidocaine-induced CBF increase. This agreed well with mean and systolic blood pressure changes and heart rate. (orig.)

  12. Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal nutrient reduction on expression of genes regulating cortisol metabolism in fetal baboon adipose and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Li, Cun; Myatt, Leslie; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Kang

    2013-04-01

    Maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) during fetal development may predispose offspring to chronic disease later in life. Increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic tissues is fundamental to the developmental programming of metabolic syndrome, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) generates NADPH, the cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulate 11β-HSD1 expression. We hypothesize that MNR increases expression of fetal C/EBPs, GR, and H6PD, thereby increasing expression of 11β-HSD1 and reductase activity in fetal liver and adipose tissues. Pregnant MNR baboons ate 70% of what controls ate from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation (term, 184 days). Cortisol levels in maternal and fetal circulations increased in MNR pregnancies at 0.9 gestation. MNR increased expression of 11β-HSD1; H6PD; C/EBPα, -β, -γ; and GR in female but not male perirenal adipose tissue and in male but not female liver at 0.9 gestation. Local cortisol level and its targets PEPCK1 and PPARγ increased correspondingly in adipose and liver tissues. C/EBPα and GR were found to be bound to the 11β-HSD1 promoter. In conclusion, sex- and tissue-specific increases of 11β-HSD1, H6PD, GR, and C/EBPs may contribute to sexual dimorphism in the programming of exaggerated cortisol regeneration in liver and adipose tissues and offsprings' susceptibility to metabolic syndrome.

  13. Biphasic response of checkpoint control proteins in hyperoxia: exposure to lower levels of oxygen induces genome maintenance genes in experimental baboon BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumuda C; Wasnick, John D

    2014-10-01

    Breathing high concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia) causes lung injury and is associated with lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborns. Hyperoxia (95-100 %O2) causes DNA damage and growth arrest of lung cells and consequently cells die by apoptosis or necrosis. Although supplemental oxygen therapy is clinically important, the level and duration of hyperoxic exposure that would allow lung cells to reenter the cell cycle remains unclear. We hypothesized that cells exposed to lower concentrations of hyperoxia will retain the capacity to enter cell cycle when recovered in room air. We employed varying concentrations of oxygen (21-95 %) to determine the response of lung cells to hyperoxia. Our results indicate that cells were growth arrested and failed to reenter the cell cycle when exposed to greater than 60 % oxygen. Cell cycle checkpoint proteins were increased in a biphasic manner, increasing until 70 % oxygen, but declined in greater than 90 % oxygen. Microarray analysis shows that there is significant decrease in the abundance of Cdks 6-8 and retinoblastoma protein (Rb), p107 and p130 in exposure to 90 % oxygen for 48 h. We further tested the effect of clinically relevant as needed oxygen [(pro-re-nata (prn)] in premature infant (125-days and 140-days) baboon model of BPD. The microarray results show that 6 or 14d PRN oxygen-exposed animals had induced expression of chromosomal maintenance genes (MCMs), genes related to anti-inflammation, proliferation, and differentiation.

  14. 5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol-15-one. Studies on its metabolism in cultured cells and male baboons. Volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajewski, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    5α-Cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol-15-one is a potent is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis which has been found to have significant hypocholesterolemic action upon oral administration to rodents and nonhuman primates. The metabolism of [2,4- 3 H]5α-cholest-8(14)-3n-3β-ol-15-one was studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. The incorporation of the labeled 15-ketosterol into the cells was linear with respect to sterol concentration in the medium over the range of concentrations studied and was higher than the uptake of cholesterol. The results of detailed analyses of the lipids recovered from the cells after 6 hours of incubation with the [2,4- 3 H]-15-ketosterol indicated that most of the 3 H was associated with the free 15-ketosterol. Considerably smaller amounts of 3 H were associated with esters of the 15-ketosterol. No conversion of the 15-ketosterol to cholesterol or other C 27 monohydroxysterols was observed. The labeled material with the chromatographic behavior of esters of the 15-ketosterol gave, after mild saponification, the free 15-ketosterol which was characterized by cocrystallization and chromatographic studies. The metabolism of the 15-ketosterol was also studied in male baboons (Papio cynocephalus) treated with the 15-ketosterol. After oral administration of a mixture of [2,4- 3 H]5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol-15-one and [4- 14 C]cholesterol, blood samples were obtained at various times. Marked differences in the time courses of the levels of 3 H and 14 C in plasma were observed. 3 H showed maximum levels at 4 to 8 h, while maximum values for the levels of 14 C were observed much later. Total lipid extraction of plasma showed that essentially all of the 14 C of plasma was recovered in the lipid extract

  15. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  16. No-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine and N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine -synthesis, anatomical distribution in mice and rats, and tomographic studies in a baboon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanqin Bai; Renrui Teng; Chyngyann Shiue; Wolf, A.P.; Dewey, S.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Holland, M.J.; Simon, E.J. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center)

    1990-01-01

    N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3a) and N-(3-fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4a) were synthesized by N-alkylation of norbuprenorphine (1) and nordiprenorphine (2) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane. The corresponding no-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3b) and N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4b) were synthesized by N-alkylation of 1 and 2 with NCA 1-({sup 18}F)fluoro-3-iodopropane. In vitro studies indicate that in the absence of sodium chloride, compounds 3a, 4a, N-propyl-N-norbuprenorphine (5), buprenorphine and diprenorphine are reasonably comparable in binding affinity for opioid receptors. In the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride, however, compounds 3a, 4a and 5, are clearly less potent than buprenorphine and diprenorphine. The anatomical distribution study of compound 3b in mice shows radioactivity accumulating in bone. Rat studies of both compounds 3b and 4b indicate the specific distribution of these two radioligands within certain cortical and subcortical regions of rat brain. However, the absolute uptake of compound 4b in rat brain was only half that of compound 3b. PET studies of 3b in a baboon revealed specific binding of compound 3b in striatum and cerebellum. At 1 h after injection, ratios of specific/non-specific binding of 3b in striatum and cerebellum of a baboon were 1.9 and 1.7 respectively. (author).

  17. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 3. Venom Evolution - Genetic and External Factors. Ema Fatima. Research News Volume 18 Issue 3 March 2013 pp 287-288. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/03/0287-0288 ...

  18. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  19. Art & Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  20. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Venom Evolution. Genetic and External Factors. Ema Fatima. The term venom is used for a variety of toxins that are injected by certain animals into a victim through a specialized ... known to be an important evolutionary force. Gene duplication is the ... On the other hand, in species such as cone snails and snakes, where ...

  1. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    , and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. The book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences. This thoroughly revised third edition......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  2. Regional cerebral pharmacokinetics of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine as examined by position emission tomography in a baboon is altered by tranylcypromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerlein, S.M.; Stoecklin, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    The selective dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has chemical and metabolic characteristics which allow its in vivo tissue distribution to be studied using positron emission tomography (PET). The cerebral pharmacokinetics of ( 11 C)MPTP labelled at the N-methyl position was quantitatively traced in the living brain of an anesthetized baboon using PET, and the effect of administration of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor tranylcypromine on this regional cerebral distribution was determined in the same animal. Following injection of ( 11 C)MPTP, radioactivity rapidly concentrated in the basal ganglia of the primate's brain. This in vivo localization was prevented by prior administration of tranylcypromine, suggesting that it is oxidized metabolites of MPTP which are sequestered by dopaminergic neurons. Radioactivity rapidly localized preferentially in the basal ganglia of the primate brain, and this in vivo localization was blocked by prior administration of the MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. (Author)

  3. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  4. [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999, a new radioligand to study the dopamine transporter with PET: characterization in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, W.; Schollhorn, M.A.; Valette, H.; Dolle, F.; Bottlaender, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Chalon, S.; Garreau, L.; Emond, P.; Guilloteau, D. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U619, 37 - Tours (France); Deloye, J.B. [Cyclopharma, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2008-02-15

    The dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is the main regulator of the synaptic concentration of dopamine in the brain and plays a key role in many neurological and psychiatric diseases. The goal of the study was to characterize the properties of [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 in baboons. Regional brain distribution was examined in vitro by autoradiographic studies on brain sections and in vivo by PET. Results of in vitro autoradiographic studies were in agreement with the localisation of the D.A.T. and revealed high level of [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 binding in the putamen and caudate, moderate level in the midbrain, and low level in the cortex and cerebellum. In PET study, the time course of the concentration of [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 in different regions of the brain showed that the highest accumulation of [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 was observed in the striatum with a peak uptake at 50 min (maximum = 5.7 {+-} 1.7 and 4.7 {+-}1.0% I.D./100 ml in putamen and caudate nucleus respectively, n 5). The radioactivity uptake peaked at 8 min in the midbrain (2.3 {+-} 1.2% I.D./100 ml) and decreased rapidly as a function of time. The lowest uptake was observed in the cortex (0.62 {+-}0.1 % I.D./100 ml, at 50 min) and in the cerebellum (0.44 {+-} 0.08% I.D./100 ml, at 50 min). In the test retest studies (n = 3) the variability of the uptake was 5% in the putamen and 6% in the caudate. Following HPLC analysis of plasma samples, [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 was rapidly metabolized. Unchanged [{sup 18}F]L.B.T.-999 accounted for around 21% and 7% of the radioactivity at 30 and 120 min post-injection respectively. The region to cerebellum radioactivity ratio was calculated. This ratio reached a maximum at 110 min post injection (22.1 {+-} 4.6 and 18.8 {+-} 2.1 in the putamen and the caudate respectively) and remained stable during the time of the PET scan (4 h). This ratio was 4.21 {+-} 0.92, 2.0 {+-} 0.3 and 1.6 {+-} 0.2 in the midbrain, thalamus, and cortical structure at 110 min post-injection. Binding

  5. by the baboon (Papio ursinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    96 ± 6% of those present in the blood), was prepared by repeated washing of platelets from the red cell layer! PRP 2 m1 was gently layered onto the gradient. The platelets were separated by centrifuging at 400 g for 30 minutes ...

  6. Nudging Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institutional "fit" might play a role in helping to develop better understanding of the social components of interlinkages between the socioeconomic-cultural and ecological dynamics of social-ecological systems. Two clearly discernible patterns provide a map of this Special Feature: (1 One pattern is the authors' positions regarding the place and role of normativity within their studies and assessment of institutional fit. Some place this at the center of their studies, exploring phenomena endogenous to the process of defining what constitutes institutional fit, whereas others take the formation of norms as a phenomenon exogenous to their study. (2 Another pattern is the type of studies presented: critiques and elaborations of the theory, methods for judging qualities of fit, and/or applied case studies using the concept. As a body of work, these contributions highlight that self-understanding of social-ecological place, whether explicit or implicit, constitutes an important part of the study object, i.e., the role of institutions in social-ecological systems, and that this is, at the same time, a crucial point of reference for the scholar wishing to evaluate what constitutes institutional fit and how it might be brought into being.

  7. Coevolution of URAT1 and Uricase during Primate Evolution: Implications for Serum Urate Homeostasis and Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Philip K; Farrar, Jennifer E; Gaucher, Eric A; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2016-09-01

    Uric acid is the highly insoluble end-product of purine metabolism in humans. Serum levels exceeding the solubility threshold can trigger formation of urate crystals resulting in gouty arthritis. Uric acid is primarily excreted through the kidneys with 90% reabsorbed back into the bloodstream through the uric acid transporter URAT1. This reabsorption process is essential for the high serum uric acid levels found in humans. We discovered that URAT1 proteins from humans and baboons have higher affinity for uric acid compared with transporters from rats and mice. This difference in transport kinetics of URAT1 orthologs, along with inability of modern apes to oxidize uric acid due to loss of the uricase enzyme, prompted us to ask whether these events occurred concomitantly during primate evolution. Ancestral URAT1 sequences were computationally inferred and ancient transporters were resurrected and assayed, revealing that affinity for uric acid was increased during the evolution of primates. This molecular fine-tuning occurred between the origins of simians and their diversification into New- and Old-World monkey and ape lineages. Remarkably, it was driven in large-part by only a few amino acid replacements within the transporter. This alteration in primate URAT1 coincided with changes in uricase that greatly diminished the enzymatic activity and took place 27-77 Ma. These results suggest that the modifications to URAT1 transporters were potentially adaptive and that maintaining more constant, high levels of serum uric acid may have provided an advantage to our primate ancestors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Understanding Evolution: An Evolution Website for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchmoor, Judy; Janulaw, Al

    2005-01-01

    While many states are facing challenges to the teaching of evolution in their science classrooms, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, working with the National Center for Science Education, has developed a useful web-based resource for science teachers of all grade- and experience-levels. Understanding Evolution (UE) was developed…

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Potential of Extracts of Sterculia africana, Acacia sieberiana, and Cassia abbreviata ssp. abbreviata Used by Yellow Baboons (Papio cynocephalus for Possible Self-Medication in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kirabo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The animals in general and nonhuman primates in particular self-medication has been widely reported; however, little is still known about the pharmacological activity of the extracts present in their daily diet. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the stem, root bark, and leaf extracts of three selected plants on which yellow baboons feed in unusual manner in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, was evaluated. Crude plant extracts were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of medical and veterinary importance employing a modified agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC technique. The lowest MIC value for Gram positive strains was 0.31 mg/ml demonstrated by Cassia abbreviata ssp. abbreviata against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The highest susceptibility to the ethanol plant extracts was exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, examples of microbes that affect both human and nonhuman primates. These findings demonstrate that the plant extracts from Sterculia africana, Acacia sieberiana, and Cassia abbreviata ssp. abbreviata have antibacterial activity and may be used as feed for their prophylactic benefits. Remarkably, the lowest MIC of 0.16 mg/ml was only 16-fold weaker than Gentamicin, a standard drug.

  10. HIV Evolution and Escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Christos; Wong, Joseph K.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exemplifies the principles of Darwinian evolution with a telescoped chronology. Because of its high mutation rate and remarkably high rates of replication, evolution can be appreciated over periods of days in contrast to the durations conceived of by Darwin. Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described. Images Fig. 5 PMID:17060974

  11. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  12. analyse sensorielle comparee de deux produits de fritures a l'huile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    . Colombia. In : ACORBAT y COL (Eds.). Reunión de la associación para la cooperación en investigación de banano en el Caribe y en América tropical. Mem. XV reunión. AUGURA, Asociación de. Bananeros de Colombia, Medellín Reunión.

  13. Etude comparee de l'efficacite de trois methodes de prévention des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'élevage de la pintade se heurte à de nombreuses contraintes touchant principalement la santé des pintadeaux. Des mortalités des pintadeaux et des pintades sont fréquemment enregistrées dans les élevages. Afin de proposer une ou des méthodes de lutte efficaces, cette étude conduite au nord Togo a eu comme ...

  14. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  15. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  16. Stellar structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  17. Museums teach evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; Evans, E Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Natural history museums play a significant role in educating the general public about evolution. This article describes Explore Evolution, one of the largest evolution education projects funded by the National Science Foundation. A group of regional museums from the Midwestern United States worked with leading evolutionary scientists to create multiple permanent exhibit galleries and a curriculum book for youth. This program invites the public to experience current evolutionary research on organisms that range in size from HIV to whales. Learning research is being conducted on museum visitors to understand how they reason about evolution and to determine what influences the process of conceptual change.

  18. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  19. Kognition, evolution og Bibel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2012-01-01

    En opfordring til, at Bibelvidneskaberne oprienterer sig i retning af aktuelle teorier om bio-kulturel evolution (Merlin Donald, aksetids-teori hos fx Robert Bellah)......En opfordring til, at Bibelvidneskaberne oprienterer sig i retning af aktuelle teorier om bio-kulturel evolution (Merlin Donald, aksetids-teori hos fx Robert Bellah)...

  20. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the ...

  1. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in our...

  2. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to current 3D codes that simulate binary black holes. A prime application of characteristic evolution is Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  3. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to current 3D black hole codes that run forever. A prime application of characteristic evolution is Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  4. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  5. Evolution of Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu Chih; Chen, I Ju

    2010-01-01

    The contrast between social constructivism and cognitive constructivism are depicted in different ways in many studies. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the evolution of constructivism and put a focus on social constructivism from the perception of Vygotsky. This study provides a general idea of the evolution of constructivism for people…

  6. Thermodynamical Arguments against Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be…

  7. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an empirical investigation of requirements evolution for groupware systems in use by means of case studies. Its goal is to contribute to the development of a theory of requirements evolution. A conceptual framework offering an integrated view of requirements as a collection of domains

  8. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  9. General theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csányi, V

    1980-01-01

    The biological, neural, cultural and technical evolutions and their phenomena have been explored, and on the basis of our findings the formation of a general theory of evolution has been undertaken. In each of the systems studied, the presence of structural building units, excitable structures and an energy-flow going through the system can be observed. Under the organizing effect of this energy-flow, the spontaneous generation of the replicative information begins and the structures of the system establish functional relations with each other. It can be demonstrated that the evolution of structures has a replicative character. The evolution goes through a phase of non-identical replication, and reaches the phase of identical replication. The parts of the system become separated, that is, compartments develop within it. The replicative information becomes compartmentalized and it converges. As a consequence of the convergence, the compartments compose new structural units which is tantamount to the development of new evolutional levels. The direction of evolution is determined by the growth of replicative information, and this process is concluded when the total system becomes one replicative unit. In the last part of the paper a few of the basic principles of evolution concerning matter, energy and information are drawn up.

  10. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  11. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  12. Contemporary evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bäck, Thomas; Krause, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies have more than 50 years of history in the field of evolutionary computation. Since the early 1990s, many algorithmic variations of evolution strategies have been developed, characterized by the fact that they use the so-called derandomization concept for strategy parameter adaptation. Most importantly, the covariance matrix adaptation strategy (CMA-ES) and its successors are the key representatives of this group of contemporary evolution strategies. This book provides an overview of the key algorithm developments between 1990 and 2012, including brief descriptions of the a

  13. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-10-13

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  14. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  15. Telomeres in evolution and evolution of telomeres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajkus, Jiří; Sýkorová, Eva; Leitch, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 469-479 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/0055; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/04/P105; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : ALT * end-maintenance * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2005

  16. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...... architecture. Following the early aspect paradigm, Tran SAT allows the software architect to design a software architecture stepwise in terms of aspects at the design stage. It realises the evolution as the weaving of new architectural aspects into an existing software architecture....

  17. Computer technology and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology and evolution : from artificial intelligence to artificial life. - In: Advances in the philosophy of technology / ed. by Evandro Agazzi ... - Newark, Del. : Soc. for Philosophy and Technology, 1999. - S. 105-119

  18. Stellar evolution. VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Evolution of low mass Population I stars from main sequence to red giant branch in Hertzsprung- Russell diagram, through energy generation phases of p-p chain reactions /dominating over C-N cycle reactions/ and hydrogen burning

  19. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroczkin, D.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of Truran and Cameron concerning the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is described, as well as the photometric properties obtained from the galactic models calculations. Also few observational facts are given. (author)

  20. Evolution of market heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Hommes, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The time evolution of aggregate economic variables, such as stock prices, is affected by market expectations of individual investors. Neoclassical economic theory assumes that individuals form expectations rationally, thus forcing prices to track economic fundamentals and leading to an efficient

  1. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  2. Co-Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of techniques of DNA analysis in assessing the genetic relationships between various species. Focuses on wolf-dog evolution using DNA evidence and historical data about human/wolf-dog relationships. (DDR)

  3. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  4. Developing theology for evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wiltsher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This speculative paper explores one idea for approaching some of the problems which arise when the doctrines of Christian theology meet the current scientific understanding of evolution through natural selection. The main suggestion is that Christian theology should relax the requirement that God controls everything. Some implications of this move are explored, with a brief look at how similar ideas might be of use for non-Christian religions entering into dialogue with the theory of evolution

  5. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  6. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  7. Evolution of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, A. E.; Ferreira, N.; Schut, M.; Kernbach, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively mastering evolution. As of today, the only area where human experimenters can design and manipulate evolutionary processes in full is that of Evolutionary Computing, where evolutionary processes are carried out in a digital space, inside computers, in simulat...

  8. Solar wind stream evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Highlights of the recent progress in understanding the problem of high speed stream evolution with increasing heliocentric distance are reviewed. Crucial to this understanding are the measurements made in the inner solar system by Helios and the outer solar system by Pioneers 10 and 11. When coupled with observations at 1 AU these measurements allow a testing of current theoretical models of stream evolution. 21 references

  9. Evolution, museums and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-11-01

    Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.

  10. Software evolution in prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins, V.; Qi, Lu

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of software changes for supporting the evolution of software prototypes. The software evolution steps are decomposed into primitive substeps that correspond to monotonic specification changes. This structure is used to rearrange chronological derivation sequences into structures containing only meaning-preserving changes. The authors indicate how this structure can be used to automatically combine different changes to a specification. A set of examples illustrates ...

  11. Fitness landscapes and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peliti, Luca

    1995-01-01

    The concept of fitness is introduced, and a simple derivation of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection (which states that the average fitness of a population increases if its variance is nonzero) is given. After a short discussion of the adaptative walk model, a short review is given of the quasispecies approach to molecular evolution and to the error threshold. The relevance of flat fitness landscapes to molecular evolution is stressed. Finally a few examples which involve wider conce...

  12. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  13. Evolution: from cosmogenesis to biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, Sz.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1990-11-01

    The volume contains the material of an interdisciplinary evolution symposium. The purpose was to shed some light on possible connections between steps of evolution of matter on different levels of organisation. The topics involved are as follow: cosmogenesis; galactic and stellar evolution; formation and evolution of the solar system; global atmospheric and tectonic changes of Earth; viral evolution; phylogeny and evolution of terrestrial life; evolution of neural system; hominization. The material also includes some discussions of the underlying phenomena and laws of nature. (author)

  14. Energy and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, George

    I have called my lecture Energy and Evolution, and that embraces Physics and Biology. I suppose that what I have in mind are the great things that have happened in the last 135 years since Charles Darwin; and the great problems that we have in this field today. In 1859 Charles Darwin wrote history on a grand scale and he gave mankind an intellectual shock which changed our concept of ourselves and our place in the world. Rather suddenly we have come to realize that the process of natural evolution which he described and which has served the world for three billion years may be about to cease or least to change in a profound way. The Darwinian changes of evolution occurred slowly, unnoticed by participants who had very little to say about the forms that their descendants would take. They merely flocked to survive and if they survived they had one privilege only and that was the privilege of handing on their genes. The situation has changed drastically in the last few years. One species, man now so dominates the earth that it is in his part to eliminate most of the other species if he so wishes. Those who do survive do so only because man finds them interesting and useful and he is busy with the natural evolution even of these. It is the end of the evolution, as Darwin knew it. Far greater powers to play God will soon be in our hands. Genetic Engineering will enable us to eliminate conquered genes and other unfavorable genetic information and even to change the nature of mankind. We may not wish to do this but it will become possible. What we see happening is a rapid transfer of responsibility for the future evolution into the hands of ourselves, the hands of one species, homosapiens. We are no longer pawns in the game of evolution. We are not even the kings and queens, we are the players.

  15. The theory of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The book The Theory of Evolution: from the Space Vacuum to Neural Ensembles and Moving Forward, an edition of 100 copies, was published in Russian language, in December 2014 in Kiev. Its Russian version is here: http://en.bazaluk.com/journals.html. Introduction, Chapter 10 and Conclusion published in English for the first time. Since 2004 author have been researching in the field of theory of Evolution, Big History. The book was written on the base of analysis of more than 2000 primary sources of this research topic. The volume is 90,000 words (with Reference. The book is for a wide range of professionals, from students to professors and researchers working in the fields of: philosophical anthropology, philosophy, Big History, cosmology, biology, neuroscience and etc. In the book, the author defines the evolution as continuous and nonlinear complication of the structure of matter, the types of interaction and environments; analyzes existing in modern science and philosophy approaches to the research of the process of evolution, degree of development of the factors and causes of evolution. Unifying interdisciplinary researches of evolution in cosmology, biology, neuroscience and philosophy, the author presents his vision of the model of «Evolving Matter», which allows us to consider not only the laws of transition of space vacuum in neural ensembles but also to see our Universe as a complication, heterogeneous organization. Interdisciplinary amount of information on the theory of evolution is systematized and a new method of world perception is proposed in the book.

  16. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  17. Boussinesq evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model for wave...

  18. Education and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    known foreign thinkers in the general public at the time of his death in 1903. Moreover, in the decades around 1900 Spencer’s thoughts on education were part of the curricula at many colleges of education. Spencer’s ideas on evolution and education were thus widely circulated and positively received......Herbert Spencer’s ideas were first introduced to a Scandinavian audience in the early 1870s when the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding published and lectured on his evolutionary philosophy. At this time, Høffding also played an important role in disseminating Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution...... and in discussing the philosophical consequences of an evolutionary worldview. In the late 1870s and 1880s several of Spencer’s works were translated into Danish and Swedish and he became a household name among liberal intellectuals who primarily discussed his views on education and evolution. His most influential...

  19. Evolution and Christian Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughgarden, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    My recent book, Evolution and Christian Faith explores how evolutionary biology can be portrayed from the religious perspective of Christianity. The principal metaphors for evolutionary biology---differential success at breeding and random mutation, probably originate with the dawn of agriculture and clearly occur in the Bible. The central narrative of evolutionary biology can be presented using Biblical passages, providing an account of evolution that is inherently friendly to a Christian perspective. Still, evolutionary biology is far from complete, and problematic areas pertain to species in which the concept of an individual is poorly defined, and to species in which the expression of gender and sexuality depart from Darwin's sexual-selection templates. The present- day controversy in the US about teaching evolution in the schools provides an opportunity to engage the public about science education.

  20. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  1. Ethics, evolution and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  2. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  3. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research.

  4. Evolution of meteoroid streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadzhanov, P.B.; Obrubov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    A meteoroid stream generally considered to be an elliptical ring of relatively small thickness is described. Such shape is attributable to meteoroid streams in an early stage of their evolution. Differences in planetary perturbations influencing the meteoroid particles ejected from the parent body from various points in its orbit at different velocities and time can result in a significant thickening of the stream. Our studies on the evolution of the short-period meteoroid streams have shown that these streams can produce several couples of showers active in different seasons of the year. (author). 5 figs., 7 tabs., 53 res

  5. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed......, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape...

  6. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrad, Hyron

    2005-01-01

    The evolution in the form and structure of galaxies which has taken place since the universe was in its infancy is one of the most closely studied by astrophysicists and cosmologists today. It has profound implications for our understanding of how the universe itself has evolved over the past 12 billion years or so. This book will discuss the evolution of galaxies in detail, emphasising the boundaries of our knowledge about the most distant galaxies, but demonstrating how it is possible to make important comparisons between nearby galaxies and the most distant current observed. The author will also review galaxy morphology and its likely (but as yet unproven) history.

  7. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alesio Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  8. Multitemporal conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Schema evolution is the ability of the database to respond to changes in the real world by allowing the schema to evolve.  The multidimensional conditionally evolving schema (MD-CES) is a conceptual model for conditional schema changes, which modify the schema of those tuples that satisfy...... two time dimensions.  We show that the space complexity of these new evolution models is linear or polynomial. 1D-CES and 2D-CES are compared to temporal schema versioning, and we show that, unlike valid time versioning, they are lossless and achieve the same space complexity as temporal versioning...

  9. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  10. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  11. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  12. Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution. Rasoul Sorkhabi. Book Review Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 80-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/06/0080-0081. Author Affiliations.

  13. Open-Ended Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Tim; Bedau, Mark A.; Channon, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the First Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones (OEE1), held during the ECAL 2015 conference at the University of York, U.K., in July 2015. We briefly summarise the content of the talks and discussions and the workshop, and provide links...

  14. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  15. Evolution of subsidiary competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben; Dhanaraj, Charles

    of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution...

  16. Evolution Projects Yield Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    When a federal court in 2005 rejected an attempt by the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board to introduce intelligent design as an alternative to evolution to explain the development of life on Earth, it sparked a renaissance in involvement among scientists in K-12 science instruction. Now, some of those teaching programs, studies, and research…

  17. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  18. Evolution of housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, C.; Mohammadi, S.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Perfection means something is complete and stands still and what stands still doesn’t change or evolve and is automatically dead. Everything in the universe changes, evolution implies that the creation is not complete hence the possibility of evolving’ (Osho, 1985). Our society and economy are

  19. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Evolution Through Architectural Reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Guelfi, Nicolas; Perrouin, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    One of the possible scenarios in a system evolution cycle, is to translate an emergent set of new requirements into software architecture design and subsequently to update the system implementation. In this paper, we argue that this form of forward engineering, even though addresses the new system

  1. The Evolution of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Therapeutic empathy has been an often-used construct by counseling professionals. Through that usage, the term has evolved in meaning and significance from its original presentation by Carl Rogers. This article traces that evolution by identifying its users and contributors over the past 20 years. (Author)

  2. The Idea of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The idea of evolution is examined in a historical perspective in this article. Considerable discussion is given to the works of Lamarck and Darwin. The evolutionary process is also examined with respect to philosophy, art and music history, and man's place in nature. References are included. (MA)

  3. Evolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Education should give an understanding of the world and of man, as well as offer the vocational training, at which the university excells. The use of case studies to provide immediate insight into advancing knowledge and the study of evolution have important instructional and educational implication for the goal of understanding man. (JH)

  4. Differential evolution with deoptim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardia, David; Boudt, Kris; Carl, Peter; Mullen, Katharine M.; Peterson, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The R package DEoptim implements the Differential Evolution algorithm. This algorithm is an evolutionary technique similar to classic genetic algorithms that is useful for the solution of global optimization problems. In this note we provide an introduction to the package and demonstrate its utility

  5. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  6. Evolution of rhizobium symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Op den R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of rhizobium symbiosis is studied from several points of view in this thesis. The ultimate goal of the combined approaches is to unravel the genetic constrains of the symbiotic interaction. To this end the legume rhizobium symbiosis is studied in model plant species from the

  7. MDSplus evolution continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Fredian, T.W.; Stillerman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the recent evolution of the MDSplus data system. ► It presents a Use Case to explain MDSplus expressions. ► It presents the features recently developed. ► It presents the features under development. - Abstract: The MDSplus data system has been in operation on several fusion machines since 1991 and it is currently in use at over 30 sites spread over 5 continents. A consequence is the extensive feedback provided by the MDSplus user community for bug fixes and improvements and therefore the evolution of MDSplus is keeping pace with the evolution in data acquisition and management techniques. In particular, the recent evolution of MDSplus has been driven by the change in the paradigm for data acquisition in long lasting plasma discharges, where a sustained data stream is transferred from the acquisition devices into the database. Several new features are currently available or are being implemented in MDSplus. The features already implemented include a comprehensive Object-Oriented interface to the system, the python support for data acquisition devices and the full integration in EPICS. Work is in progress for the integration of multiple protocols and security systems in remote data access, a new high level data view layer and a new version of the jScope tool for online visualization and the optimized visualization of very large signals.

  8. Evolution of market heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Hommes, C.

    2007-01-01

    The time evolution of aggregate economic variables, such as stock prices, is affected by market expectations of individual investors. Neo-classical economic theory assumes that individuals form expectations rationally, thus enforcing prices to track economic fundamentals and leading to an efficient

  9. The Evolution of Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrikov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of thought using the method of historical reconstruction, the theory of the cultural and historical determinism of psychological development, data on the relationship between morphological studies, modern findings about child development, and the scientific understanding of neural morphogenesis. We argue for…

  10. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  11. Evolution of rhizobium symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Op den R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of rhizobium symbiosis is studied from several points of view in this thesis. The ultimate goal of the combined approaches is to unravel the genetic constrains of the symbiotic interaction. To this end the legume rhizobium symbiosis is studied in model plant species from the

  12. The timetable of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of fossils, phylogeny, and geochronology has resulted in an increasingly well-resolved timetable of evolution. Life appears to have taken root before the earliest known minimally metamorphosed sedimentary rocks were deposited, but for a billion years or more, evolution played out beneath an essentially anoxic atmosphere. Oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere and surface oceans first rose in the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) 2.4 billion years ago, and a second increase beginning in the later Neoproterozoic Era [Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE)] established the redox profile of modern oceans. The GOE facilitated the emergence of eukaryotes, whereas the NOE is associated with large and complex multicellular organisms. Thus, the GOE and NOE are fundamental pacemakers for evolution. On the time scale of Earth’s entire 4 billion–year history, the evolutionary dynamics of the planet’s biosphere appears to be fast, and the pace of evolution is largely determined by physical changes of the planet. However, in Phanerozoic ecosystems, interactions between new functions enabled by the accumulation of characters in a complex regulatory environment and changing biological components of effective environments appear to have an important influence on the timing of evolutionary innovations. On the much shorter time scale of transient environmental perturbations, such as those associated with mass extinctions, rates of genetic accommodation may have been limiting for life. PMID:28560344

  13. Evolution, Insight and Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has been positioned at the centre of conflict between scientific and religious explanations of the workings of the world. However, little research has examined other possible reasons for some people rejecting scientific explanations. The author's research indicates that for some people, irrespective of faith, the ideas associated with…

  14. Architecture-Centric Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2006-01-01

    Despite the general acceptance of software architecture as a pivotal player in software engineering, software evolution techniques have been traditionally concentrated on the code level. The state-of-the-practice is comprised of refactoring and re-engineering techniques that focus on code artefacts.

  15. Evolution of morphological allometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pelabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril Joel Patrick; Bolstad, Geir Hysing; Voje, Kjetil L.; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolv...

  16. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. Cooperation; epigenetics; evolution; levels of selection ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or ...

  17. Massive star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshavskij, V.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1975-01-01

    The structure and evolution of 16 (Sun mass), 32 (Sun mass), and 64 (Sun mass) stars with the initial chemical composition X=0.602, Y=0.354, and Z=0.044 (X 12 = 0.00619 and X 16 = 0.01847) are analyzed from the initial main sequence to a complete burnup of oxygen in the nucleus of a red supergiant. At the stage of helium buring in the nucleus the evolutionary track of the star is determined by the equilibrium condition in the zone of varying chemical composition, and at later stages by energy losses due to neutrino emission. In the absence of neutrino emission the external convective zone propagates into regions occupied by the former hydrogen and helium layer sources. This may lead to considerable anomalies in the chemical composition at the star surface and to the decrease of the carbon-oxygen nucleus mass. With regard to neutrino energy losses the structure of layer sources and of the star itself becomes more complicated, thereby increasing the evolution time. Estimation is made of the change in heli.um, carbon, and oxygen contents in the interstellar space over the Galaxy's lifetime as a result of the evolution of massive stars. Some consequences of rotation and meridional circulations are discussed. A study of the structure and evolution of hydrogen-helium massive stars before firing of carbon in the nucleus is made

  18. Evolution Perception with Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to find out how the teacher candidates who graduated from the Faculty of Theology and study in pedagogical formation program perceive the theory of evolution. Having a descriptive characteristic, this research is conducted with 63 Faculty of Theology graduate teacher candidates of which 36 is women and 27 is…

  19. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  20. Evolution of Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle C.; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The ERP industry has undergone dramatic changes over the past decades due to changing market demands, thereby creating new challenges and opportunities, which have to be managed by ERP vendors. This paper inquires into the necessary evolution of business models in a technology-intensive industry (e...

  1. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  2. Ontology Evolution: Not the Same as Schema Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noy, Natalya F.; Klein, Michel

    2004-01-01

    As ontology development becomes a more ubiquitous and collaborative process, ontology versioning and evolution becomes an important area of ontology research. The many similarities between database-schema evolution and ontology evolution will allow us to build on the extensive research in schema

  3. Effective Strategies for Teaching Evolution: The Primary Evolution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    When Chris Hatcher joined the Primary Evolution Project team at the University of Reading, his goal was to find effective strategies to teach evolution in a way that keeps children engaged and enthused. Hatcher has collaborated with colleagues at the University's Institute of Education to break the evolution unit down into distinct topics and…

  4. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  5. Evolution of Brain and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  6. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  7. The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Michael S; Simpson, Scott W; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we described several features of the carpometacarpal joints in extant large-bodied apes that are likely adaptations to the functional demands of vertical climbing and suspension. We observed that all hominids, including modern humans and the 4.4-million-year-old hominid Ardipithecus ramidus, lacked these features. Here, we assess the uniqueness of these features in a large sample of monkey, ape, and human hands. These new data provide additional insights into the functional adaptations and evolution of the anthropoid hand. Our survey highlights a series of anatomical adaptations that restrict motion between the second and third metacarpals (MC2 and MC3) and their associated carpals in extant apes, achieved via joint reorganization and novel energy dissipation mechanisms. Their hamate-MC4 and -MC5 joint surface morphologies suggest limited mobility, at least in Pan. Gibbons and spider monkeys have several characters (angled MC3, complex capitate-MC3 joint topography, variably present capitate-MC3 ligaments) that suggest functional convergence in response to suspensory locomotion. Baboons have carpometacarpal morphology suggesting flexion/extension at these joints beyond that observed in most other Old World monkeys, probably as an energy dissipating mechanism minimizing collision forces during terrestrial locomotion. All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of our ancestral locomotor repertoire. Furthermore, the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle-walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms. The most parsimonious explanation of the structural similarity of these carpometacarpal specializations in great apes is that they evolved independently. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evolution of energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  9. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  10. QCD Evolution Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26–30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  11. Epigenetics and brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, Eric B

    2011-04-01

    Fundamental aspects of mammalian brain evolution occurred in the context of viviparity and placentation brought about by the epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes. Since the fetal placenta hormonally primes the maternal brain, two genomes in one individual are transgenerationally co-adapted to ensure maternal care and nurturing. Advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution has shown very few genetic changes between monkeys and humans. Although these lineages diverged at approximately the same time as the rat and mouse (20 million years ago), synonymous sequence divergence between the rat and mouse is double that when comparing monkey with human sequences. Paradoxically, encephalization of rat and mouse are remarkably similar, while comparison of the human and monkey shows the human cortex to be three times the size of the monkey. This suggests an element of genetic stability between the brains of monkey and man with a greater emphasis on epigenetics providing adaptable variability.

  12. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winicour Jeffrey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this artificial outer boundary via Cauchy-characteristic matching, by which the radiated waveform can be computed at null infinity. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  13. Evolution 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Bek-Thomsen, Jakob; Clasen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Studies in the history of science and education have documented that the reception and understanding of evolutionary theory is highly contingent on local factors such as school systems, cultural traditions, religious beliefs, and language. This has important implications for teaching evolution...... in primary and secondary schools. No universal strategy can be applied in overcoming the barriers of learning that exist and that are part of the practical and daily life in classrooms all over the world. In light of this, a huge challenge is to make high standard teaching materials fit to specific target...... audiences readily available. As more and more schools require teachers to use low cost or free web-based materials, in the research community we need to take seriously how to facilitate that demand in communication strategies on evolution. This article addresses this challenge by presenting the learning...

  14. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  15. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  16. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and want to get an overview of the different aspects of the topic, and for those who are experts with many years of experience, it particularly targets the needs of researchers and Ph.D. students in the area of software and systems engineering or information systems who study advanced topics concerning...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation......This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...

  17. The metaphysics of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John

    2017-10-06

    This paper briefly describes process metaphysics, and argues that it is better suited for describing life than the more standard thing, or substance, metaphysics. It then explores the implications of process metaphysics for conceptualizing evolution. After explaining what it is for an organism to be a process, the paper takes up the Hull/Ghiselin thesis of species as individuals and explores the conditions under which a species or lineage could constitute an individual process. It is argued that only sexual species satisfy these conditions, and that within sexual species the degree of organization varies. This, in turn, has important implications for species' evolvability. One important moral is that evolution will work differently in different biological domains.

  18. Evolution of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongtraychack Anachack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we can see the rapid evolution of mobile technology, which involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Features of mobile phones largely depend on software. In contemporary information and communication age [1–4], mobile application is one of the most concerned and rapidly developing areas. At the same time, the development of mobile application undergoes great changes with the introduction of new software, service platforms and software development kits (SDK. These changes lead to appearance of many new service platforms such as Google with Android and Apple with iOS. This article presents the information about the evolution of mobile application, gives some statistical data on the past and present situation, demonstrates how individual users of mobile devices can benefit, and shows how mobile applications affect society from the ethical perspective.

  19. Stochastic Models of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.

  20. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  1. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment....... This exercise circumvents the complexity of traditional experiments while it still demonstrates the trends of the HER volcano known from literature....

  2. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA- REVOLUTIONARY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhehi Narayan Nayak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mitochondrion, the sausage-shaped organelle residing in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, apart from being the power house, represents endosymbiotic evolution of a free living organism to intracellular structure. Anthropologically, mitochondrial DNA is the fossilised source to trace the human ancestry particularly of maternal lineage. This article attempts to highlight the various biological functions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with a note on its forensic application.

  3. Understanding primate brain evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, R.I.M; Shultz, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed reanalysis of the comparative brain data for primates, and develop a model using path analysis that seeks to present the coevolution of primate brain (neocortex) and sociality within a broader ecological and life-history framework. We show that body size, basal metabolic rate and life history act as constraints on brain evolution and through this influence the coevolution of neocortex size and group size. However, they do not determine either of these variables, which ap...

  4. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...

  5. Embodied artificial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, A. E.; Kernbach, S.; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-01-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement a...

  6. Painting Education & Artistic Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tandirli, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Art is the most effective way of expressing human emotions. It should also be an excellent application of traditional or technological tools. In our presentation-research we will be focusing on painting, painting education and advanced artistic evolution process in terms of traditional application domains. An immortal painting-masterpiece should be the competent example of an excellent composition and also a perfect example of application. Preparation of painting tubes, choice of pertinent an...

  7. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  8. PARADOXES OF AUTOMOTIVE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grabaurov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a historical analysis of tendencies pertaining to automotive evolution. It has been shown how motivation to higher speed and capacity had made it possible to manufacture automobiles with several hundred horsepower capacity. Traffic speed in the cities is rather less than technical capabilities of automobiles; there are serious ecological and traffic safety problems. Solution of serious traffic safety problems is possible only while developing clever automobiles for clever traffic roads within the framework of intelligent transportation systems.

  9. Semiconductor detectors. Recent evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siffert, P.

    1977-01-01

    The recent evolution as well as the problems appearing in the use of semiconductor counters in both X and γ-ray as well as heavy ions spectroscopy are reviewed. For the photon counters the discussion is limited to cadmium telluride and mercuric iodide room temperature diodes, whereas for heavy ions, identification by means of thin ΔE/Δx counters and some problems related to the pulse amplitude in E detectors are considered [fr

  10. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  11. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  12. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  13. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  14. Jupiter G Impact Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This mosaic of WFPC-2 images shows the evolution of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G impact site on Jupiter. The images from lower left to upper right show: the impact plume at 07/18/94 07:38 UT (about 5 minutes after the impact); the fresh impact site at 07/18/94 at 09:19 UT (1.5 hours after impact); the impact site after evolution by the winds of Jupiter (left), along with the L impact (right), taken on 07/21/94 at 6:22 UT (3 days after the G impact and 1.3 days after the L impact); and further evolution of the G and L sites due to winds and an additional impact (S) in the G vicinity, taken on 07/23/94 at 08:08 UT (5 days after the G impact).This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  15. Darwinian Evolution and Fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2009-05-01

    Did nature's beauty emerge by chance or was it intelligently designed? Richard Dawkins asserts that evolution is blind aimless chance. Michael Behe believes, on the contrary, that the first cell was intelligently designed. The scientific evidence is that nature's creativity arises from the interplay between chance AND design (laws). Darwin's ``Origin of the Species,'' published 150 years ago in 1859, characterized evolution as the interplay between variations (symbolized by dice) and the natural selection law (design). This is evident in recent discoveries in DNA, Madelbrot's Fractal Geometry of Nature, and the success of the genetic design algorithm. Algorithms for generating fractals have the same interplay between randomness and law as evolution. Fractal statistics, which are not completely random, characterize such phenomena such as fluctuations in the stock market, the Nile River, rainfall, and tree rings. As chaos theorist Joseph Ford put it: God plays dice, but the dice are loaded. Thus Darwin, in discovering the evolutionary interplay between variations and natural selection, was throwing God's dice!

  16. The evolution of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L; Strimling, P; Laland, K N

    2011-10-01

    Teaching, alongside imitation, is widely thought to underlie the success of humanity by allowing high-fidelity transmission of information, skills, and technology between individuals, facilitating both cumulative knowledge gain and normative culture. Yet, it remains a mystery why teaching should be widespread in human societies but extremely rare in other animals. We explore the evolution of teaching using simple genetic models in which a single tutor transmits adaptive information to a related pupil at a cost. Teaching is expected to evolve where its costs are outweighed by the inclusive fitness benefits that result from the tutor's relatives being more likely to acquire the valuable information. We find that teaching is not favored where the pupil can easily acquire the information on its own, or through copying others, or for difficult to learn traits, where teachers typically do not possess the information to pass on to relatives. This leads to a narrow range of traits for which teaching would be efficacious, which helps to explain the rarity of teaching in nature, its unusual distribution, and its highly specific nature. Further models that allow for cumulative cultural knowledge gain suggest that teaching evolved in humans because cumulative culture renders otherwise difficult-to-acquire valuable information available to teach. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film......Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film...

  18. Collisional Evolution of Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinhardt, Zoë Malka

    2010-05-01

    Over 400 extrasolar planets have been discovered. These planetary systems are very different from our solar system and surprisingly diverse. The large number of planets detected suggests that planet formation is common around main sequence stars. The major problem facing the scientific community with regards to these discoveries is that observations cannot trace the history of planet formation. Observations provide snapshots of the early stages of a protoplanetary gas disk orbiting a young star and the late stages after planetary systems have formed. But the evolution from a young star to a planetary system has not been observed. Thus, the challenge is to connect the early and late stages of planet formation. Planets form from the collisional growth of planetary building blocks, planetesimals. In recent numerical work we found that the resistance of planetesimals to collisional erosion changes dramatically during planet formation. Young planetesimals are weak aggregates that are easily disrupted due to efficient momentum coupling during low-velocity collisions in early phases of collisional evolution. However, as impact speeds increase the same weak planetesimals become dramatically stronger because the shock from a supersonic impact loses energy to deformation and phase changes. Our work identifies a paradox for the early stages of planet formation. Objects in the km-size range are weak and susceptible to collisional disruption. However, this disruption may actually produce large amounts of debris that can be accreted by remaining undisrupted planetesimals allowing growth. As we work to disentangle these sorts of conundrums we can expect to put forward hypotheses for collisional remnants in our solar system - for example, the dwarf planet Haumea and its collisional family. In this talk I will review the current understanding of planetesimal evolution and discuss how future numerical simulations may connect observational snapshots to provide a complete history of

  19. Evolution before genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasas Vera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our current understanding of evolution is so tightly linked to template-dependent replication of DNA and RNA molecules that the old idea from Oparin of a self-reproducing 'garbage bag' ('coacervate' of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell-like entities seems to be farfetched to most scientists today. However, this is exactly the kind of scheme we propose for how Darwinian evolution could have occurred prior to template replication. Results We cannot confirm previous claims that autocatalytic sets of organic polymer molecules could undergo evolution in any interesting sense by themselves. While we and others have previously imagined inhibition would result in selectability, we found that it produced multiple attractors in an autocatalytic set that cannot be selected for. Instead, we discovered that if general conditions are satisfied, the accumulation of adaptations in chemical reaction networks can occur. These conditions are the existence of rare reactions producing viable cores (analogous to a genotype, that sustains a molecular periphery (analogous to a phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that only when a chemical reaction network consists of many such viable cores, can it be evolvable. When many cores are enclosed in a compartment there is competition between cores within the same compartment, and when there are many compartments, there is between-compartment competition due to the phenotypic effects of cores and their periphery at the compartment level. Acquisition of cores by rare chemical events, and loss of cores at division, allows macromutation, limited heredity and selectability, thus explaining how a poor man's natural selection could have operated prior to genetic templates. This is the only demonstration to date of a mechanism by which pre-template accumulation of adaptation could occur. Reviewers This article was reviewed by William Martin and Eugene Koonin.

  20. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial conditions are probably set by results of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBNS) without intervening complications affecting the composition of visible matter so that extrapolation of observed abundances to BBNS products seems fairly secure. Primordial helium and deuterium abundances deduced in this way place upper and lower limits on baryonic density implying that both baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter exist and predicting no more than 3 neutrino flavours as recently confirmed in accelerator experiments. The validity of simple galactic chemical evolution models assumed in extrapolating back to the Big Bang is examined in the light of the frequency distribution of iron or oxygen abundances in the Galactic halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  2. Requirements Evolution for Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Giuşcă

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At a certain point of society evolution appears, due to an aberrant culture, more actually due to a subculture, one point occurred during the development of society, due to an aberrant culture, an exacerbated resources consumption, exaggerated, extravagant, that generates waste. Were produced objects without value having a small using importance, it appears whim, unnecessary, kitsch or groundless products. There was an exaggerated consumption even for fundamental or existential needs fulfilment. In our days in superstores the market basket is fill out and that goes to indigestion, obesity, diabetes, excess medicines, cardiac crisis and finally nothingness.

  3. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  4. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, D.C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nuclosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of 4 He, 12 C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of 14 N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally. (orig.)

  5. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  6. Evolution of cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.

    1981-01-01

    Cataclysmic binaries with short orbital periods have low mass secondary components. Their nuclear time scale is too long to be of evolutionary significance. Angular momentum loss from the binary drives the mass transfer between the two components. As long as the characteristic time scale is compared with the Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale of the mass losing secondary the star remains close to the main sequence, and the binary period decreases with time. If angular momentum loss is due to gravitational radiation then the mass transfer time scale becomes comparable to the Kelvin-Helmoltz time scale when the secondary's mass decreases to 0.12 Msub(sun), and the binary period is reduced to 80 minutes. Later, the mass losing secondary departs from the main sequence and gradually becomes degenerate. Now the orbital period increases with time. The observed lower limit to the orbital periods of hydrogen rich cataclysmic binaries implies that gravitational radiation is the main driving force for the evolution of those systems. It is shown that binaries emerging from a common envelope phase of evolution are well detached. They have to lose additional angular momentum to become semidetached cataclysmic variables. (author)

  7. Concrete Chemical Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Tang

    1998-07-31

    The objectives of this analysis are to discuss and evaluate testing results that were performed for the M&O by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to evaluate the potential long-term evolution of organic admixtures in cementitious materials at elevated temperatures. The testing was designed to help provide a basis for a determination by the Performance Assessment group (PA) of the long-term acceptability and longevity of cementitious materials for repository use. The main purpose of the testing was to assess the evolution of gases (especially CO{sub 2}) from hydrated cement paste at elevated temperatures and to determine the impact on alkalinity, i.e., the pH value of cement paste pore solution. This information in turn can be used as scoping information to determine if further tests of this nature are needed to support PA. As part of this discussion and evaluation of the PSU results, an assessment of alkalinity in a ''cementitious repository'' and an evaluation of organic materials are presented.

  8. Landscapes and molecular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    1997-02-01

    Evolution of RNA molecules in vitro is visualized as a hill-climbing process on a fitness landscape that can be derived from molecular properties and functions. The optimization process is shaped by a high degree of redundance in sequence-to-structure mappings: there are many more sequences than structures and sequences folding into the same structure are (almost) randomly distributed in sequence space. Two consequences of this redundance are important for evolution: shape space covering by small connected regions in sequence space and the existence of extended neutral networks. Both results together explain how nature can fast and efficiently find solutions to complex optimization problems by trial and error while the number of possible genotypes exceeds all imagination. In the presence of neutral networks populations avoid being caught in evolutionary traps and eventually reach the global optimum through a composite dynamics of adaptive walks and random drift. Results derived from mathematical analysis are confronted with the results of computer simulation and available experimental data.

  9. The evolution of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, David R J

    2014-11-01

    Although viviparity has evolved many times in the animal kingdom, it remains relatively uncommon-scorpions and therian mammals being rare examples of entirely viviparous major taxa. Viviparity is a specialised form of intra-species parasitism which biases parental investment towards fertilised eggs, temporally spreads that investment, and also temporarily protects offspring from many selection pressures. Importantly, the mammalian viviparity appeared at a relatively late stage in the process of vertebrate evolution. Because of this, viviparity was 'superimposed' on complex pre-existing cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and immune systems, and has altered them dramatically. Also, pregnancy has exerted pervasive effects on gene expression in mammals, including genetic imprinting, X inactivation, sex determination, and the ectopic expression in the extra-embryonic membranes of many genes previously expressed in the gonads, brain, pituitary and immune system. Finally, although lactation probably pre-dated viviparity in mammalian evolution, the two have co-evolved as alternative strategies of offspring nutrition ever since. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  11. The Evolution of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    This Review was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian Chemist and Physicist, on February the 10th 1976. The merits of the inductive and the deductive approach in tracing the pathways of evolution are discussed. Using the latter approach, it is concluded that photosynthesis followed fermentation as a method of obtaining energy-rich compounds, especially ATP. Photosynthesis probably arose by utilization of membranes for bioenergetic processes. Originally photosynthesis served photophosphorylation (ATP production), later reducing power was also made, either by open-ended, light-powered, electron flow or driven by ATP; ultimate electron donors were at first hydrogen or sulfur compounds, and later water, the last-named capability Was acquired by prokaryotic algae the earliest plants, similar to the recent blue-greens. When free oxygen entered the atmosphere for the first time, various forms of respiration (oxidative phosphorylation) became possible. Mechanistically, respiration evolved from photosynthesis (‘conversion hypotheses’). Prokaryotic algae are probably the ancestors of the chloroplasts in the eukaryotes, In the evolution of the eukaryotes, not much change in the basic processes of photosynthesis occurred.(author)

  12. Ultrastructure, macromolecules, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Lawrence S

    1981-01-01

    Thus far in the history of biology, two, and only two, fundamental principles have come to light that pervade and unify the entire science-the cell theory and the concept of evolution. While it is true that recently opened fields of inves­ tigation have given rise to several generalizations of wide impact, such as the universality of DNA and the energetic dynamics of ecology, closer inspection reveals them to be part and parcel of either of the first two mentioned. Because in the final analysis energy can act upon an organism solely at the cellular level, its effects may be perceived basically to represent one facet of cell me­ tabolism. Similarly, because the DNA theory centers upon the means by which cells build proteins and reproduce themselves, it too proves to be only one more, even though an exciting, aspect of the cell theory. In fact, if the matter is given closer scrutiny, evolution itself can be viewed as being a fundamental portion of the cell concept, for its effects arise only as a consequence ...

  13. [Societal evolution of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F

    2013-07-01

    To understand the societal evolution of sexuality with a reflection on its possible consequences on the therapeutic management of sexual disorders. Synthesis of key points from articles or books selected according to their scientific relevance, and epidemiologic studies published on this subject. Far from the classic framework of marriage and parallely to the social empowerment of women, relationships evolve in an increasingly short-lived way. The development of social networks leads to an externalization of owns intimacy. Adolescents are prematurely exposed to the easily accessible pornographic models through Internet. The development of internet encounters, this virtual sexuality, can lead to excessive behavior, at most a cyber addiction, with sometimes a major impact on the real relationship. The diktats of fashion, performance and youth are ever-present and broadly conveyed by the medias. The therapist must be aware of the societal evolution of sexuality, mainly orchestrated by the net and medias, to be able to adapt his management of the sexual disorders. He will ensure to protect each one's individuality, without anxiety, in our normative society. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Evolution of morphological allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril; Bolstad, Geir H; Voje, Kjetil L; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Rouzic, Arnaud Le; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-07-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolving species along fixed trajectories. Alternatively, allometric relationships may result from natural selection for functional optimization. Despite nearly a century of active research, distinguishing between these alternatives remains difficult, partly due to wide differences in the meaning assigned to the term allometry. In particular, a broad use of the term, encompassing any monotonic relationship between body parts, has become common. This usage breaks the connection to the proportional growth regulation that motivated Huxley's original narrow-sense use of allometry to refer to power-law relationships between traits. Focusing on the narrow-sense definition of allometry, we review here evidence for and against the allometry-as-a-constraint hypothesis. Although the low evolvability and the evolutionary invariance of the static allometric slope observed in some studies suggest a possible constraining effect of this parameter on phenotypic evolution, the lack of knowledge about selection on allometry prevents firm conclusions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbutina, B.

    2017-12-01

    This book, both a monograph and a graduate textbook, is based on my original research and partly on the materials prepared earlier for the 2007 and 2008 IARS Astrophysics Summer School in Istanbul, AstroMundus course 'Supernovae and Their Remnants' that was held for the first time in 2011 at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and a graduate course 'Evolution of Supernova Remnants' that I teach at the aforementioned university. The first part Supernovae (introduction, thermonuclear supernovae, core-collapse supernovae) provides introductory information and explains the classification and physics of supernova explosions, while the second part Supernova remnants (introduction, shock waves, cosmic rays and particle acceleration, magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation, hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants), which is the field I work in, is more detailed in scope i.e. technical/mathematical. Special attention is paid to details of mathematical derivations that often cannot be found in original works or available literature. Therefore, I believe it can be useful to both, graduate students and researchers interested in the field.

  16. Concrete Chemical Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.H. Tang

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis are to discuss and evaluate testing results that were performed for the M andO by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to evaluate the potential long-term evolution of organic admixtures in cementitious materials at elevated temperatures. The testing was designed to help provide a basis for a determination by the Performance Assessment group (PA) of the long-term acceptability and longevity of cementitious materials for repository use. The main purpose of the testing was to assess the evolution of gases (especially CO 2 ) from hydrated cement paste at elevated temperatures and to determine the impact on alkalinity, i.e., the pH value of cement paste pore solution. This information in turn can be used as scoping information to determine if further tests of this nature are needed to support PA. As part of this discussion and evaluation of the PSU results, an assessment of alkalinity in a ''cementitious repository'' and an evaluation of organic materials are presented

  17. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  18. Student Visual Communication of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin

    2017-06-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of visual representations to science education, previous research has given attention mostly to verbal modalities of evolution instruction. Visual aspects of classroom learning of evolution are yet to be systematically examined by science educators. The present study attends to this issue by exploring the types of evolutionary imagery deployed by secondary students. Our visual design analysis revealed that students resorted to two larger categories of images when visually communicating evolution: spatial metaphors (images that provided a spatio-temporal account of human evolution as a metaphorical "walk" across time and space) and symbolic representations ("icons of evolution" such as personal portraits of Charles Darwin that simply evoked evolutionary theory rather than metaphorically conveying its conceptual contents). It is argued that students need opportunities to collaboratively critique evolutionary imagery and to extend their visual perception of evolution beyond dominant images.

  19. Toward Documentation of Program Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The documentation of a program often falls behind the evolution of the program source files. When this happens it may be attractive to shift the documentation mode from updating the documentation to documenting the evolution of the program. This paper describes tools that support the documentation...... of program evolution. The tools are refinements of the Elucidative Programming tools, which in turn are inspired from Literate Programming tools. The version-aware Elucidative Programming tools are able to process a set of program source files in different versions together with unversioned documentation...... files. The paper introduces a set of fine grained program evolution steps, which are supported directly by the documentation tools. The automatic discovery of the fine grained program evolution steps makes up a platform for documenting coarse grained and more high-level program evolution steps...

  20. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  1. The cultural evolution of religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulbulia, Joseph; Geertz, Armin W.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2013-01-01

    I dette bidrag til en bog om kulturel evolution beskriver forfatterne religionens kulturel evolution. Kapitlet forsøger ved anvendelsen af en bred vifte af metoder og data at forklare kompleksiteten og variationen i religion inden for og på tværs of grupper gennem historien.......I dette bidrag til en bog om kulturel evolution beskriver forfatterne religionens kulturel evolution. Kapitlet forsøger ved anvendelsen af en bred vifte af metoder og data at forklare kompleksiteten og variationen i religion inden for og på tværs of grupper gennem historien....

  2. Evolution algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Jianjun Paul

    2008-01-01

    Behind genetics and Markov chains, there is an intrinsic algebraic structure. It is defined as a type of new algebra: as evolution algebra. This concept lies between algebras and dynamical systems. Algebraically, evolution algebras are non-associative Banach algebras; dynamically, they represent discrete dynamical systems. Evolution algebras have many connections with other mathematical fields including graph theory, group theory, stochastic processes, dynamical systems, knot theory, 3-manifolds, and the study of the Ihara-Selberg zeta function. In this volume the foundation of evolution algebra theory and applications in non-Mendelian genetics and Markov chains is developed, with pointers to some further research topics.

  3. Evolution of Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Vasiliu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Roofs are constructive subassembles that are located at the top of buildings, which toghether with perimetral walls and some elements of the infrastructure belongs to the subsystem elements that close the building. Roofs must meet resistance requirements to mechanical action, thermal insulating, waterproofing and acoustic, fire resistance, durability, economy and aesthetics. The man saw the need to build roofs from the oldest ancient times. Even if the design of buildings has an empirical character, are known and are preserved until today constructions that are made in antiquity, by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans with architectural achievements, worthy of admiration and in present time. General composition of civil construction has been influenced throughout the evolution of construction history by the level of production forces and properties of building materials available in every historical epoch. For over five millennia, building materials were stone, wood and ceramic products (concrete was used by theRomans only as filling material.

  4. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  5. Evolution of peptidase diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael J; Di Cera, Enrico

    2008-10-31

    A wide variety of peptidases associate with vital biological pathways, but the origin and evolution of their tremendous diversity are poorly defined. Application of the MEROPS classification to a comprehensive set of genomes yields a simple pattern of peptidase distribution and provides insight into the organization of proteolysis in all forms of life. Unexpectedly, a near ubiquitous core set of peptidases is shown to contain more types than those unique to higher multicellular organisms. From this core group, an array of eukaryote-specific peptidases evolved to yield well known intracellular and extracellular processes. The paucity of peptidase families unique to higher metazoa suggests gains in proteolytic network complexity required a limited number of biochemical inventions. These findings provide a framework for deeper investigation into the evolutionary forces that shaped each peptidase family and a roadmap to develop a timeline for their expansion as an interconnected system.

  6. Evolution of filament barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within periods as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes, only one overlays a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward, and then departed from, each other in Halpha , with the barb endpoints migrating as far as ˜ 10 arcsec. We conclude that the evolution of the barbs was driven by flux emergence and cancellation of small bipolar units at the EFC border.

  7. Allergy in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-01-01

    The 'foreignness' of proteins that we encounter in our homes and outdoors is in large part dependent on their evolutionary distance from man. This is relevant to understanding the differences between mammalian allergens, e.g. cats, and arthropod allergens, e.g. mites and cockroaches, as well as to understanding responses to a wide range of food allergens. On the other hand, allergic disease has gone through a major evolution of its own from a prehygiene state where there is minimal production of allergen-specific IgE, to the production of high-titer IgE, and then to the dramatic increase in asthma. The challenge is to understand how changes in both hygiene and lifestyle have contributed to the changes in allergic disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The circumstances of mass exchange in close binary systems whose components have a mass < or approx. =1 M/sub sun/ are analyzed for the case where the system is losing orbital angular momentum by radiation of gravitational waves. The mass exchange rate will depend on the mass ratio of the components and on the mass of the component that is overfilling its critical Roche lobe. A comparison of the observed orbital periods, masses of the components losing material, and mass exchange rates against the theoretical values for cataclysmic binaries indicates that the evolution of the close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves

  9. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Monitoring Evolution at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, P; Murphy, S; Pigueiras, L; Santos, M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two years, the operation of the CERN Data Centres went through significant changes with the introduction of new mechanisms for hardware procurement, new services for cloud provisioning and configuration management, among other improvements. These changes resulted in an increase of resources being operated in a more dynamic environment. Today, the CERN Data Centres provide over 11000 multi-core processor servers, 130 PB disk servers, 100 PB tape robots, and 150 high performance tape drives. To cope with these developments, an evolution of the data centre monitoring tools was also required. This modernisation was based on a number of guiding rules: sustain the increase of resources, adapt to the new dynamic nature of the data centres, make monitoring data easier to share, give more flexibility to Service Managers on how they publish and consume monitoring metrics and logs, establish a common repository of monitoring data, optimise the handling of monitoring notifications, and replace the previous ...

  11. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  12. Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide. R.J.G. Savage and M.R. Long. British Museum of Natural ... structural anatomy of fossils can be related to their probable function. The body of the text discusses the ... gnawers, rooters and browsers, mammals on island continents, hoofed herbivores and ftnally primate evolution,.

  13. Statistical features of quantum evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that the integral of the uncertainty of energy with respect to time is independent of the particular Hamiltonian of the quantum system for an arbitrary pseudo-unitary (and hence PT -) quantum evolution. The result generalizes the time– energy uncertainty principle for pseudo-unitary quantum evolutions.

  14. Evolution of the TOR Pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.J.P. van; Zwartkruis, F.J.; Bos, J.L.; Snel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and

  15. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  16. Nonlinear simulation of meander evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Ottevanger, W.; Blanckaert, K.; Leilei, G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of meanders, a complex morpho-dynamic process, has been the focus of research challenging river engineers for decades. The study replicates the natural evolution of meandering processes by coupling the Bank Erosion and Retreat Model (BERM, by Chen and Duan) with a nonlinear flow model (by

  17. Student Visual Communication of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of visual representations to science education, previous research has given attention mostly to verbal modalities of evolution instruction. Visual aspects of classroom learning of evolution are yet to be systematically examined by science educators. The present study attends to this issue by exploring…

  18. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  19. Landslides and Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, A. L.; Hovius, N.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides have long been recognised as a major hazard, and are a common product of both large earthquakes and rainstorms. Our appreciation for landslides as agents of erosion and land surface evolution, however, is much more recent. Only in the last twenty years have we come to understand the critical role that landslides play at the landscape scale: in allowing hillslopes to keep pace with fluvial incision, in supplying sediment to channel networks and sedimentary basins, in divide migration, and in setting the basic structure of the landscape. This perspective has been made possible in part by repeat remote sensing and new ways of visualising the land surface, and by extending our understanding of failure processes to the landscape scale; but it is also true that the big jumps in our knowledge have been triggered by large events, such as the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes. Thanks in part to a relative handful of such case studies, we now have a better idea of the spatial distribution of landslides that are triggered in large events, the volume of sediment that they mobilise, the time scales over which that sediment is mobilised and evacuated, and the overall volume balance between erosion and tectonic processes in the growth of mountainous topography. There remain, however, some major challenges that must still be overcome. Estimates of landslide volume remain highly uncertain, as does our ability to predict the evolution of hillslope propensity to failure after a major triggering event, the movement of landslide sediment (especially the coarse fraction that is transported as bedload), and the impact of landslides on both long-term erosion rates and tectonic processes. The limited range of case studies also means that we struggle to predict outcomes for triggering events in different geological settings, such as loess landscapes or massive lithologies. And the perspective afforded by taking a landscape-scale view has yet to be fully reflected in our

  20. Freud and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharbert, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The essay analyzes the influence of evolutionary thought in the work of Sigmund Freud. Based on Freud's initial occupation as a neuro-anatomist and physiologist certain aspects stemming from the history of nature and developmental biological reasoning that played a role in his endeavours to find a new basis for medical psychology will be pointed out. These considerations are to be regarded as prolegomena of the task to reread Freud once again, and in doing so avoiding the verdict that holds his neuro-anatomic and comparative-morphological works as simply "pre-analytic." In fact, the time seems ripe to reconsider in a new context particularly those evolutionary, medical, and cultural-scientific elements in Freud's work that appear inconsistent at first sight. The substantial thesis is that Freud, given the fact that he was trained in comparative anatomy and physiology in the tradition of Johannes Müller, had the capability of synthesizing elements of this new point of view with the findings and interrogations concerning developmental history and the theory of evolution. More over, this was perceived not merely metaphoric, as he himself stressed it (Freud 1999, XIII, 99), but in the sense of Ubertragung, that inscribed terms and methods deriving from the given field into the realm of psychology. The moving force behind this particular Ubertragung came from a dynamically-neurological perception of the soul that emerged in France since 1800, which Freud came to know trough the late work of Charcot.

  1. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  2. The evolution of programs

    CERN Document Server

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    1983-01-01

    -Ecclesiastes 12:12 Programs are invariably subjected to many rorms or transrormation. After an initial version of a program has been designed and developed, it undergoes debugging and certification. In addition, most long-lived pro­ grams have a liCe-cycle that includes modifications to meet amended specifications and extensions for expanded capabilities. Such evolution­ ary aspects of programming are the topic of this monograph. We present rormal methods for manipulating programs and illustrate their applica­ tion with numerous examples. Such methods could be incorporated in semi-automated programming environments, where they would serve to ease the burden on the programmer. We begin by describing a method whereby a given program that achieves one goal can be modified to achieve a different goal or a pro­ gram that computes wrong results can be debugged to achieve the 2 Preface intended results. The abstraction of a set of cognate programs to obtain a program schema, and the instantiation of abstract sc...

  3. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  4. Monitoring Evolution at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Fiorini, B.; Murphy, S.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two years, the operation of the CERN Data Centres went through significant changes with the introduction of new mechanisms for hardware procurement, new services for cloud provisioning and configuration management, among other improvements. These changes resulted in an increase of resources being operated in a more dynamic environment. Today, the CERN Data Centres provide over 11000 multi-core processor servers, 130 PB disk servers, 100 PB tape robots, and 150 high performance tape drives. To cope with these developments, an evolution of the data centre monitoring tools was also required. This modernisation was based on a number of guiding rules: sustain the increase of resources, adapt to the new dynamic nature of the data centres, make monitoring data easier to share, give more flexibility to Service Managers on how they publish and consume monitoring metrics and logs, establish a common repository of monitoring data, optimise the handling of monitoring notifications, and replace the previous toolset by new open source technologies with large adoption and community support. This contribution describes how these improvements were delivered, present the architecture and technologies of the new monitoring tools, and review the experience of its production deployment.

  5. Schramm–Loewner evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppainen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    This book is a short, but complete, introduction to the Loewner equation and the SLEs, which are a family of random fractal curves, as well as the relevant background in probability and complex analysis. The connection to statistical physics is also developed in the text in an example case. The book is based on a course (with the same title) lectured by the author. First three chapters are devoted to the background material, but at the same time, give the reader a good understanding on the overview on the subject and on some aspects of conformal invariance. The chapter on the Loewner equation develops in detail the connection of growing hulls and the differential equation satisfied by families of conformal maps. The Schramm–Loewner evolutions are defined and their basic properties are studied in the following chapter, and the regularity properties of random curves as well as scaling limits of discrete random curves are investigated in the final chapter. The book is aimed at graduate students or researcher...

  6. The evolution of relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    With human language, the same utterance can have different meanings in different contexts. Nevertheless, listeners almost invariably converge upon the correct intended meaning. The classic Gricean explanation of how this is achieved posits the existence of four maxims of conversation, which speakers are assumed to follow. Armed with this knowledge, listeners are able to interpret utterances in a contextually sensible way. This account enjoys wide acceptance, but it has not gone unchallenged. Specifically, Relevance Theory offers an explicitly cognitive account of utterance interpretation that presents a radical challenge to the neo-Gricean paradigm. Evolutionary considerations are one way in which we can choose between competing theories. A simple game-theoretic model of the evolution of communication is presented, and it is used to derive a number of basic qualities that will be satisfied by all evolved communication systems. These qualities are observed to precisely predict the foundational principles of Relevance Theory. The model thus provides biological support for that enterprise in general, and for the plausibility of the cognitive mechanisms that it describes in particular. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Uric acid and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lario, Bonifacio; Macarrón-Vicente, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans due to the loss of uricase activity by various mutations of its gene during the Miocene epoch, which led to humans having higher UA levels than other mammals. Furthermore, 90% of UA filtered by the kidneys is reabsorbed, instead of being excreted. These facts suggest that evolution and physiology have not treated UA as a harmful waste product, but as something beneficial that has to be kept. This has led various researchers to think about the possible evolutionary advantages of the loss of uricase and the subsequent increase in UA levels. It has been argued that due to the powerful antioxidant activity of UA, the evolutionary benefit could be the increased life expectancy of hominids. For other authors, the loss of uricase and the increase in UA could be a mechanism to maintain blood pressure in times of very low salt ingestion. The oldest hypothesis associates the increase in UA with higher intelligence in humans. Finally, UA has protective effects against several neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting it could have interesting actions on neuronal development and function. These hypotheses are discussed from an evolutionary perspective and their clinical significance. UA has some obvious harmful effects, and some, not so well-known, beneficial effects as an antioxidant and neuroprotector.

  8. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Evolution operator in semiclassical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Existence of evolution operator in semiclassical electrodynamics has been proved. Existence and properties of semiclassical evolution operater permit to simply separate semiclassical electrodynamics out of quantum dynamics. Derived was an expression showing that equations of semiclassical electrodynamics may be used as a calculational apparatus of quantum electrodynamics of a strong field. Difference of representation of the evolution operator from representations discussed earlier consists in that that the operator Ω effects on both variables of a quantum system and operators of classical amplitudes of the field, the effect of Ω on the latter transferring them to solutions of the Hamiltonian nonlinear equations [ru

  10. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  11. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  12. Asymmetrical DNA replication promotes evolution: disparity theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, M; Doi, H

    1998-01-01

    Heredity is guaranteed by faithful DNA replication whereas evolution depends upon errors accompanying DNA replication. This contradiction existing between heredity and evolution cannot be resolved in an individual organism, but only in terms of a population, in that a delicate balance exists between wild type and variants in a population which is necessary for the survival of the species. Namely, there seems to be a key in the mechanism of DNA replication to solve some problems of evolution. DNA is replicated semiconservatively using the leading and discontinuous lagging strands. According to our 'disparity theory of evolution', the existence of a sufficient fidelity difference between the leading and lagging strands is advantageous in terms of evolution, because the diversity of genotypes is enlarged but genotypes that have occurred in the past are guaranteed. In theory, by artificially increasing the fidelity difference between the leading and lagging strand ('disparity mutator'), evolution is accelerated while avoiding the extinction of the population. Using a disparity mutator, we should be able to improve living things, including multicellular organisms, within constrained conditions. A double-stranded algorithm, which mimics the structure and replication manner of DNA, is promising for solving optimization problems.

  13. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  14. Evolution of rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S K

    2008-06-01

    The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid -4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used "around and beyond" the nose.

  15. Evolution of a pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Steven B; Fritsche, Claire M; Klinger, Dean E; Tector, Alfred J; Shaker, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    To present a case that demonstrates the evolution of a pheochromocytoma over a several-year period and to emphasize the importance of a thorough work-up for pheochromocytoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and hypertension. We review the long-term clinical, biochemical, and imaging findings in a man with a complex medical history of hypertension, NF1, and cardiomyopathy. A 44-year-old man, with a well-documented history of headaches, hypertension, and NF1, was referred for evaluation of a right adrenal enlargement. He had developed cardiomyopathy and undergone an evaluation for cardiac transplantation. Initial computed tomography revealed subtle asymmetry in the upper right adrenal gland. Biochemical studies for pheochromocytoma yielded equivocal findings, with a 1.5-fold elevation in the urinary norepinephrine and near-normal urinary metanephrine level. Because 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging showed no tracer uptake in the area of the right adrenal gland, the patient was thought not to have a pheochromocytoma. The patient eventually underwent cardiac transplantation and did well. On reassessment 3 1/2 years later, he was found to have a larger right adrenal mass. The second endocrine evaluation demonstrated substantial elevation in the urinary metanephrine level, and the patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy to remove the tumor (3.5 by 3.0 by 2.5 cm), which proved to be a pheochromocytoma. This case shows that a pheochromocytoma can be difficult to diagnose and can evolve to become a large, biochemically active tumor. It is imperative that patients with an adrenal tumor undergo periodic reevaluation to ensure that the tumor remains stable in size. If the tumor enlarges, further biochemical testing is warranted.

  16. Mechanisms of oxygen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmer, R; Cheniae, G

    1976-08-01

    The production of O/sub 2/ from water requires the collaboration of four oxidizing equivalents. When dark-adapted O/sub 2/ evolving photosynthetic material is illuminated by a sequence of short (less than 2 ..mu..sec) saturating flashes, the amount of O/sub 2/ evolved per flash oscillates with a period of four. This indicates that a charge-collector, operating with its own reaction center, successively collects and stores four oxidizing equivalents, which are used in a concerted oxidation of two water molecules. Luminescence, fluorescence, and pH changes also reflect this cycle of four. The O/sub 2/ precursor states are quite stable; under some conditions they can have a lifetime of several minutes. The O/sub 2/-yielding reactions and reactions associated with trap recovery are fast relative to the rate-limiting step of photosynthesis. The molecular identity of the charge-collector is unknown, but correlative evidence suggests that a manganese containing catalyst (approximately 4 Mn/charge collector) participates, possibly directly. Formation of the active Mn-containing catalyst occurs via a multi-quantum process occurring within the System II reaction center. The photoactivated catalyst, located on the inner face of the thylakoid membrane, remains permanently active and essentially inaccessible to chemicals other than analogs of H/sub 2/O (e.g., NH/sub 3/, NH/sub 2/OH). This O/sub 2/ evolving catalyst can be deactivated by a variety of treatments that do not alter the system II reaction center. Anions such as chloride seem to participate rather directly in the O/sub 2/ evolution process via unknown mechanism(s).

  17. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  18. Molecular evolution under fitness fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ville; Lässig, Michael

    2008-03-14

    Molecular evolution is a stochastic process governed by fitness, mutations, and reproductive fluctuations in a population. Here, we study evolution where fitness itself is stochastic, with random switches in the direction of selection at individual genomic loci. As the correlation time of these fluctuations becomes larger than the diffusion time of mutations within the population, fitness changes from an annealed to a quenched random variable. We show that the rate of evolution has its maximum in the crossover regime, where both time scales are comparable. Adaptive evolution emerges in the quenched fitness regime (evidence for such fitness fluctuations has recently been found in genomic data). The joint statistical theory of reproductive and fitness fluctuations establishes a conceptual connection between evolutionary genetics and statistical physics of disordered systems.

  19. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2003-01-01

    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  20. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  1. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of ageing since Darwin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    D. in the 1950's, he proceeded to tackle the deep problems of evolutionary biology. In 1957, he published a paper on the evolution of ageing that was more detailed and satisfying than anything that had come before it.

  3. Epigenetic inheritance, prions and evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Johannes Manjrekar

    2017-07-11

    classical' TEI phenomena and their possible implications for evolution. The review then focusses on a less-discussed, unique kind of protein-only epigenetic inheritance mediated by prions. Much remains to be learnt about the ...

  4. Coevolution of URAT1 and Uricase during Primate Evolution: Implications for Serum Urate Homeostasis and Gout

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Philip K.; Farrar, Jennifer E.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Miner, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid is the highly insoluble end-product of purine metabolism in humans. Serum levels exceeding the solubility threshold can trigger formation of urate crystals resulting in gouty arthritis. Uric acid is primarily excreted through the kidneys with 90% reabsorbed back into the bloodstream through the uric acid transporter URAT1. This reabsorption process is essential for the high serum uric acid levels found in humans. We discovered that URAT1 proteins from humans and baboons have higher ...

  5. Prolegomenon to patterns in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    Despite Darwin, we remain children of Newton and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow prediction of the evolution of the biosphere. The main purpose of this article is to show that this dream is false, and bears on studying patterns of evolution. To do so, I must justify the use of the word "function" in biology, when physics has only happenings. The concept of "function" lifts biology irreducibly above physics, for as we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, I propose a post-entailing law explanatory framework in which Actuals arise in evolution that constitute new boundary conditions that are enabling constraints that create new, typically unprestatable, adjacent possible opportunities for further evolution, in which new Actuals arise, in a persistent becoming. Evolution flows into a typically unprestatable succession of adjacent possibles. Given the concept of function, the concept of functional closure of an organism making a living in its world becomes central. Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient cause, laws. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  7. Web evolution and Web Science

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy; Tiropanis, Thanassis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the World Wide Web as a network of networks and discusses the emergence of Web Science as an interdisciplinary area that can provide us with insights on how the Web developed, and how it has affected and is affected by society. Through its different stages of evolution, the Web has gradually changed from a technological network of documents to a network where documents, data, people and organisations are interlinked in various and often unexpected ways. It...

  8. Life and evolution in computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues for the possibility of 'artificial life' and computational evolution, first by discussing (via a highly simplified version) John von Neumann's self-reproducing automation and then by presenting some recent work focusing on computational evolution, in which 'cellular automata', a form of parallel and decentralized computing system, are evolved via 'genetic algorithms'. It is argued that such in silico experiments can help to make sense of the question of whether we can eventually build computers that are intelligent and alive.

  9. Factorizing the time evolution operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quijas, P C; Arevalo Aguilar, L M

    2007-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in the quantum physical community, and textbooks used to teach quantum mechanics, that it is a difficult task to apply the time evolution operator e itH-hat/h on an initial wavefunction. Because the Hamiltonian operator is, generally, the sum of two operators, then it is not possible to apply the time evolution operator on an initial wavefunction ψ(x, 0), for it implies using terms like (a-hat + b-hat). A possible solution is to factorize the time evolution operator and then apply successively the individual exponential operator on the initial wavefunction. However, the exponential operator does not directly factorize, i.e. e a-hat+b-hat ≠ e a-hat e b-hat . In this study we present a useful procedure for factorizing the time evolution operator when the argument of the exponential is a sum of two operators, which obey specific commutation relations. Then, we apply the exponential operator as an evolution operator for the case of elementary unidimensional potentials, like a particle subject to a constant force and a harmonic oscillator. Also, we discuss an apparent paradox concerning the time evolution operator and non-spreading wave packets addressed previously in the literature

  10. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  12. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  13. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  14. Galapagos III World Evolution Summit: why evolution matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    There is no place on Earth like the Galapagos Islands and no better destination to discuss the reality of evolution. Under the theme 'Why Does Evolution Matter', the University San Francisco of Quito (USFQ), Ecuador, and its Galapagos Institute for the Arts and Sciences (GAIAS), organized the III World Evolution Summit in San Cristóbal Island. The 200-attendee meeting took place on 1 to 5 June 2013; it included 12 keynote speakers, 20 oral presentations by international scholars, and 31 posters by faculty, postdocs, and graduate and undergraduate students. The Summit encompassed five sessions: evolution and society, pre-cellular evolution and the RNA world, behavior and environment, genome, and microbes and diseases. USFQ and GAIAS launched officially the Lynn Margulis Center for Evolutionary Biology and showcased the Galapagos Science Center, in San Cristóbal, an impressive research facility conceptualized in partnership with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. USFQ and GAIAS excelled at managing the conference with exceptional vision and at highlighting the relevance of Galapagos in the history of modern evolutionary thinking; Charles Darwin's visit to this volcanic archipelago in 1835 unfolded unprecedented scientific interest in what today is a matchless World Heritage.

  15. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  16. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…

  17. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David

    2016-07-01

    Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

  18. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  19. Musical emotions: functions, origins, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  20. JPSS CGS Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes the Earth Observing System [EOS]), Metop for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD, as well as research activities of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The CGS architecture is evolving over the next few years for several key reasons: 1. "Operationalizing" Suomi NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission 2. Leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support 3. Taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies 4. Satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment Three key aspects of the CGS architecture are being prototyped as part of the path to improve operations in the 2015 timeframe. First, the front end architecture for mission data transport is being re-architected to improve reliability and address the incorporation of new ground stations. Second, the IDPS is undergoing a decoupling process to enhance its flexibility and modularity for supporting an array of potential new missions beyond those listed above. Finally, a solution for complete situational awareness across the CGS is being developed, to facilitate quicker and more efficient identification and resolution of system anomalies. This paper discusses the evolution of the CGS architecture to address these future mission needs.

  1. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  2. Helicity evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g 1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of α s ln 2  (1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of α s ln (1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-N c and large-N c   N f limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equations map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for the g 1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002880050285.

  3. A new paradigma on the plant evolution: from a natural evolution to an artificial evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    After evidencing the great importance of plants for animals and humans in consequence of the photosynthesis, several considerations on plant evolution are made. One of the peculiar characteristics of the plant is the sessile property, due especially to the cell wall. This factor, principally, strengthened by the photosynthetic process, determined the particular developmental pattern of the plant, which is characterized by the continuous formation of new organs. The plant immobility, although negative for its survival, has been, in great part, overcome by the acquisition of the capacity of adaptation (plasticity) to the environmental stresses and changes, and the establishment of more adapted genotypes. This capacity to react to the external signals induced Trewavas to speak of "plant intelligence". The plant movement incapacity and the evolution of the sexual reproduction system were strongly correlated. In this context, the evolution of the flower in the Angiosperms has been particularly important to allow the male gamete to fertilize the immobile female gamete. Moreover, the formation of fruit and seed greatly improved the dispersal and conservation of the progeny in the environment. With the flower, mechanisms to favour the outcrossing among different individuals appeared, which are essential to increase the genetic variability and, then, the plant evolution itself. Although the Angiosperms seem highly evolved, the plant evolution is not surely finished, because many reported morpho-physiological processes may be still considered susceptible of further improvement. In the last years the relationships among humans, plants and environment are becoming closer and closer. This is due to the use of the DNA recombinant techniques with the aim to modify artificially plant characters. Therefore, the risk of a plant evolution strongly directed towards practical or commercial objectives, or "an artificial evolution", may be hypothesized.

  4. Institutional Evolution and Corporate Boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Victor Zitian; Hobdari, Bersant; Sun, Pei

    2014-01-01

    We argue that corporate boards are a dynamic repository of human- and social capital in response to external institutional evolution. Theoretically, integrating institutional economics, agency theory and resource dependence theory, we explain that evolution of market-, legal- and political...... institutions restructures the particular context in which board members play their two primary roles: monitoring the CEO on behalf of the shareholders, suggested by the agency theory, and supporting the CEO by providing resources, knowledge and information, suggested by the resource dependence theory......, since the board changes are typically proposed by the block shareholders, whose motivation for doing so is closely associated with a corporation’s financial performance, we further argue that financial performance is a key moderator of the relationships between institutional evolution and changes...

  5. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...... evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending...... computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific...

  6. Evolution of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, J.

    2017-07-01

    In the evolution of the cosmic web dark energy plays an important role. To understand the role of dark energy we investigate the evolution of superclusters in four cosmological models: standard model SCDM, conventional model LCDM, open model OCDM, and a hyper-dark-energy model HCDM. Numerical simulations of the evolution are performed in a box of size 1024 Mpc/h. Model superclusters are compared with superclusters found for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Superclusters are searched using density fields. LCDM superclusters have properties, very close to properties of observed SDSS superclusters. Standard model SCDM has about 2 times more superclusters than other models, but SCDM superclusters are smaller and have lower luminosities. Superclusters as principal structural elements of the cosmic web are present at all cosmological epochs.

  7. Modelling microstructural evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation is characterised by some unique features that are not typically present in other application environments. While much understanding has been achieved by experimental studies, the ability to model this microstructural evolution for complex materials states and environmental conditions not only enhances understanding, it also enables prediction of materials behaviour under conditions that are difficult to duplicate experimentally. Furthermore, reliable models enable designing materials for improved engineering performance for their respective applications. Thus, development and application of mesoscale microstructural model are important for advancing nuclear materials technologies. In this chapter, the application of the Potts model to nuclear materials will be reviewed and demonstrated, as an example of microstructural evolution processes. (author)

  8. The Chemodynamical Evolution of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brad K.; Kawata, Daisuke; Brook, Chris B.; Connors, Tim W.

    GCD+ (Galactic Chemodynamics Plus) is a soon-to-be publically available N-body/SPH code being developed at Swinburne University for modeling the formation and evolution of galaxies within a cosmological framework. A sophisticated chemical evolution module as been incorporated within GCD+ making use of the latest stellar yields on the market; a self-consistent treatment of energy feedback from Type Ia and II supernovae (relaxing the instantaneous recycling approximation) cooling and star formation is standard within GCD+. Spatially resolved synthetic maps can be generated ranging from stellar populations to the hot and warm X-ray emitting properties of clusters. We will demonstrate GCD+'s application to simulating the 7-dimensional phase space (position velocity chemistry) distribution of the oldest stars in the Milky Way in addition to its seemless predictive power in regards to spatial and temporal evolution of the age-metallicty relationship metallicity distribution functions and the disruption of the Magellanic System

  9. Institutional Evolution and Corporate Boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Victor Zitian; Hobdari, Bersant; Sun, Pei

    2014-01-01

    We argue that corporate boards are a dynamic repository of human- and social capital in response to external institutional evolution. Theoretically, integrating institutional economics, agency theory and resource dependence theory, we explain that evolution of market-, legal- and political....... Such particular contexts entail the external competitive environment and the principal-agency relationship in corporate governance, amplify (or weaken) the need for certain type of board roles, and ultimately require corporations to reconfigure the human- and social capital embedded within the board. Additionally......, since the board changes are typically proposed by the block shareholders, whose motivation for doing so is closely associated with a corporation’s financial performance, we further argue that financial performance is a key moderator of the relationships between institutional evolution and changes...

  10. The evolution of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is believed that only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were created during the 'Big Bang' origin of the Universe and that all heavier elements were synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars, the interstellar medium and possibly in 'little bangs' in the nuclei of galaxies. The composition of the interstellar medium has evolved through enrichment by processed material shed by evolving stars and the composition of the Solar System reflects that of the interstellar medium at the time of its formation. Differentiation processes during the evolution of the Solar System and individual planets account for the different compositions of the Sun and the planets. The measurement of the abundance distribution of the elements has become a very powerful tool in the elucidation of the evolution of the Solar System, stars and the Galaxy. This review attempts to trace the formation of the elements in stars and their subsequent evolution. (author)

  11. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boglione, Mariaelena [University of Turin, Torino, Italy; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Melis, Stefano [European Centre for Theoretical Studies; Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  12. The evolution of outsider exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, J R

    1990-02-22

    The rate of migration between different parts of a population can be important in determining evolutionary outcomes. This paper presents a mathematical model in which some individuals act to exclude immigrants from their group. It is shown that outsider exclusion can be favoured by evolution, even when outsider excluders incur a large cost. In addition, it is shown that the evolutionary mechanism which causes increases in the frequency of outsider excluders is a form of kin selection or group selection. A second model shows that a similar mechanisms can act to favour the evolution of reluctance to mate with immigrants.

  13. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  14. Energy needs: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is becoming more expansive, especially fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels contributes to increases the greenhouse effect. We cannot extrapolate the evolution of energy consumption without going to a disaster; we have to change our way of consuming energy without reducing our standard of life and in increasing this one of developing countries. it is possible with an evolution in replacing fossil fuels by other energy sources. this article makes a skimming over the present energy situation and the possibilities for the future. (N.C.)

  15. Statistical and physical evolution of QSO's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caditz, D.; Petrosian, V.

    1989-09-01

    The relationship between the physical evolution of discrete extragalactic sources, the statistical evolution of the observed population of sources, and the cosmological model is discussed. Three simple forms of statistical evolution: pure luminosity evolution (PLE), pure density evolution (PDE), and generalized luminosity evolution (GLE), are considered in detail together with what these forms imply about the physical evolution of individual sources. Two methods are used to analyze the statistical evolution of the observed distribution of QSO's (quasars) from combined flux limited samples. It is shown that both PLE and PDE are inconsistent with the data over the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.2, and that a more complicated form of evolution such as GLE is required, independent of the cosmological model. This result is important for physical models of AGN, and in particular, for the accretion disk model which recent results show may be inconsistent with PLE

  16. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.

  17. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  18. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. The Evolution of Diesel Engines. U Shrinivasa. General Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 365-377. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0365-0377. Keywords.

  19. Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the gravitational collapse of a radiating sphere evolving into a final static configuration described by the interior Schwarzschild solution. The temperature profiles of this par- ticular model are obtained within the framework of causal thermodynamics. The overall temperature evolution is enhanced by ...

  20. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2011-06-01

    Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo-devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics.

  1. The evolution of nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The already not so young history of nuclear regulations shows patterns and specific causes that have characterized and influenced its own evolution as well as the industry itself. Today's regulation is facing relevant challenges with potential significant effects. The quest for higher regulatory efficiency brings up the increasing need to base future actions on firmly established strategies. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Adaptive evolution in ecological communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Turcotte

    Full Text Available Understanding how natural selection drives evolution is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. Most studies of adaptation focus on how a single environmental factor, such as increased temperature, affects evolution within a single species. The biological relevance of these experiments is limited because nature is infinitely more complex. Most species are embedded within communities containing many species that interact with one another and the physical environment. To understand the evolutionary significance of such ecological complexity, experiments must test the evolutionary impact of interactions among multiple species during adaptation. Here we highlight an experiment that manipulates species composition and tracks evolutionary responses within each species, while testing for the mechanisms by which species interact and adapt to their environment. We also discuss limitations of previous studies of adaptive evolution and emphasize how an experimental evolution approach can circumvent such shortcomings. Understanding how community composition acts as a selective force will improve our ability to predict how species adapt to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  3. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  4. The middle way of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2012-09-01

    THIS ESSAY PROVIDES A CRITICAL REVIEW OF TWO RECENT BOOKS ON EVOLUTION: Richard Dawkins' The Greatest Show on Earth, and Jerry Coyne's Why Evolution is True, as well as a critique of mainstream evolutionary theory and of natural selection. I also suggest a generalization of sexual selection theory that acknowledges mind as pervasive in nature. Natural selection, as the primary theory of how biological change occurs, must be carefully framed to avoid the long-standing "tautology problem" and must also be modified to more explicitly include the role of mind in evolution. A propensity approach to natural selection, in which "expected fitness" is utilized rather than "fitness," can save natural selection from tautology. But to be a productive theory, natural selection theory should be placed alongside sexual selection - which is explicitly agentic/intentional - as a twin force, but also placed alongside purely endogenous factors such as genetic drift. This framing is contrary to the normal convention that often groups all of these factors under the rubric of "natural selection." I suggest some approaches for improving modern evolutionary theory, including a "generalized sexual selection," a panpsychist extension of Darwin's theory of sexual selection that explicitly recognizes the role of mind at all levels of nature and which may play the part of a general theory of evolution better than natural selection theory.

  5. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  6. Topology evolution in macromolecular networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryven, I.

    2014-01-01

    Governed by various intermolecular forces, molecular networks tend to evolve from simple to very complex formations that have random structure. This randomness in the connectivity of the basic units can still be captured employing distributional description of the state of the system; the evolution

  7. Climatic Change and Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)

  8. "Preconceived Adaptation and Inverted Evolution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, E.

    1975-01-01

    Alerts teachers, science-test writers and other relevant persons to the problem of distorted concepts which might arise from careless and/or irresponsible usage of the language of science. Provides examples of semantic problems in writings related to the concepts of adaptation and evolution. (GS)

  9. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physiology, gave rise to modern gerontology, which is still characterised by a focus on physiological changes accompanying human (or at least mammalian) ageing. On the other hand, nineteenth century thinkers like Alfred. Russell Wallace (co-propounder, with Darwin, of the theory of evolution by natural selection) and ...

  10. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  11. Social evolution in multispecies biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Sara; Xavier, João B; Foster, Kevin R

    2011-06-28

    Microbial ecology is revealing the vast diversity of strains and species that coexist in many environments, ranging from free-living communities to the symbionts that compose the human microbiome. In parallel, there is growing evidence of the importance of cooperative phenotypes for the growth and behavior of microbial groups. Here we ask: How does the presence of multiple species affect the evolution of cooperative secretions? We use a computer simulation of spatially structured cellular groups that captures key features of their biology and physical environment. When nutrient competition is strong, we find that the addition of new species can inhibit cooperation by eradicating secreting strains before they can become established. When nutrients are abundant and many species mix in one environment, however, our model predicts that secretor strains of any one species will be surrounded by other species. This "social insulation" protects secretors from competition with nonsecretors of the same species and can improve the prospects of within-species cooperation. We also observe constraints on the evolution of mutualistic interactions among species, because it is difficult to find conditions that simultaneously favor both within- and among-species cooperation. Although relatively simple, our model reveals the richness of interactions between the ecology and social evolution of multispecies microbial groups, which can be critical for the evolution of cooperation.

  12. The Semiosic Evolution of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of biosemiotics has revealed the achievement of knowledge and the development of science to be the results of the semiosis of all life forms, including those commonly regarded as cultural constructs. Education is thus a semiosic structure to which evolution itself has adapted, while learning is the semiotic phenomenon that…

  13. The Evolution of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of electronic publishing from the early 1960s when computers were used merely to produce conventional printed products to the present move toward networked scholarly publishing. Highlights include library development, periodicals on the Internet, online journals versus paper journals, problems, and the future of…

  14. Epigenetic inheritance, prions and evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI) raises obvious questions about a possible evolutionary role for epigenetic 'Lamarckian' mechanisms in evolution, particularly when epigenetic modifications are induced by environmental cues. In this review I attempt a brief overview of the periodically reviewed and ...

  15. The Evolution of Learning Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, John; Garcia y Robertson, Rodrigo

    This paper introduces seven principles of learning, enduring over the last five centuries of psychological thought, to discuss the evolution of the "Biophyche" (the brain in action) in the development of humans and other large organisms. It describes the conditioning theories of Darwin, Pavlov, and Thorndike and critically reviews the…

  16. Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the gravitational collapse of a radiating sphere evolving into a final static configuration described by the interior Schwarzschild solution. The temperature profiles of this particular model are obtained within the framework of causal thermodynamics. The overall temperature evolution is enhanced by ...

  17. The middle way of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides a critical review of two recent books on evolution: Richard Dawkins’ The Greatest Show on Earth, and Jerry Coyne’s Why Evolution is True, as well as a critique of mainstream evolutionary theory and of natural selection. I also suggest a generalization of sexual selection theory that acknowledges mind as pervasive in nature. Natural selection, as the primary theory of how biological change occurs, must be carefully framed to avoid the long-standing “tautology problem” and must also be modified to more explicitly include the role of mind in evolution. A propensity approach to natural selection, in which “expected fitness” is utilized rather than “fitness,” can save natural selection from tautology. But to be a productive theory, natural selection theory should be placed alongside sexual selection – which is explicitly agentic/intentional – as a twin force, but also placed alongside purely endogenous factors such as genetic drift. This framing is contrary to the normal convention that often groups all of these factors under the rubric of “natural selection.” I suggest some approaches for improving modern evolutionary theory, including a “generalized sexual selection,” a panpsychist extension of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection that explicitly recognizes the role of mind at all levels of nature and which may play the part of a general theory of evolution better than natural selection theory. PMID:23181154

  18. Evolution of Karyotypes in Chameleons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Velenský, P.; Baca, A. S.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 382. ISSN 2073-4425 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : karyotype evolution * ITS * rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2016

  19. Observational constraints on cluster evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current observational constraints on the dynamical evolution of star clusters are reviewed. Theory and observations now agree nicely on the mass dependency and time scales for disruption of young star clusters in galactic disks, but many problems still await resolution. The origin of the mass

  20. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2013-12-08

    Dec 8, 2013 ... Creation;. Natural selection;. Creative selection;. Biological adaptation;. Evolutionary diversity;. Biomolecules;. Human genome;. Human proteome; ... ing creation versus evolution are still occupying much interest of atheist as well as of believer ..... and money in research studies trying to know why they.