WorldWideScience

Sample records for babies tired mothers

  1. How mothers keep their babies warm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B

    1991-05-01

    Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections.

  2. Mothers' use of and attitudes to BabyCheck.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Hilary; Ross, Sue; Wilson, Philip; McConnachie, Alex; Watson, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A copy of BabyCheck was sent to 497 mothers shortly after the birth of their baby. Six months later they were sent a questionnaire asking about their use of and attitudes to, BabyCheck. Questionnaires were returned by 323 (65%) mothers; 215 (67%) of them reported reading BabyCheck, the majority found it easy to understand (74%) and agreed with the advice (67%). Eighty-four (26%) of the mothers who returned the questionnaires reported using BabyCheck when their baby was ill; of these, 71% agre...

  3. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  4. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…

  5. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    pressures, and exhibit sufficient runflat ability to evacuate from dangerous conditions. Tires are the only vehicle components that make contact with the...contact area is captured for each test condition using inked tire prints. Figure 8 shows a typical tire print. General descriptions of the contact...8. Typical ink print of tire contact area. c. Additional tread descriptors (per DOT HS-810 56130) are shown in Figure 9. TOP 02-2-704A 15

  6. A novel neonatal Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome with craniosynostosis and gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Akalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder and characterized clinically well defined multiple ring shaped skin creases. Our patient was born to onconsanguineous healthy parents as the third child of the family at 40 weeks of uneventful gestation with distinctive skin creases and gigantism. He was 4,950 g in weight (>90 percentile, 57.5 cm in length (>90 percentile, and had a head circumferences of 39.5 cm (>90 percentile at birth. The physical examination showed a rough face, brachicephaly and craniosynostosis. His vital and laboratory findings were within normal limits at birth. Cranial and renal ultrasonograms, Xray graphics and cytogenetic analyses were normal. Echocardiography revealed small patent ductus arteriosis and patent foramen ovale. In this report, we present a new case of Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome who is the first neonate associated with severe gigantism and craniosynostosis, in the literature. A review of the related literature has also been presented.

  7. Bereaved mothers' attitudes regarding autopsy of their stillborn baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Here we present additional information from the Safe Passage Study, where the effect of alcohol exposure during pregnancy on sudden infant death syndrome and stillbirth was investigated. Objective. To explore bereaved mothers' attitudes toward obtaining an autopsy on their stillborn baby, and the future ...

  8. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  10. Teenage pregnancy: a psychopathological risk for mothers and babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.

  11. Baby's milk: a source of trust between mothers and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, B

    1991-09-01

    The task of providing infants adequate amounts of nutritious milk, in spite of mothers' ability to produce breast milk, has never been easy. In America cow's milk became the food of choice when mothers ceased to breast-feed their infants. In the mid-1800s advances in bacteriology and chemistry led to a beginning understanding of the role of microbes in food and the development of commercial proprietary formulas. Many mothers discontinued breast-feeding at an early age and relied on these products for their children. With the growth of cities, dairy farms were pushed many miles from the consumers of milk. The distance the new uncooled milk had to be transported, especially during the hot summer months, increased the chances of milk-borne diseases infecting infants. To combat the high rates of infant gastroenteritis and death, welfare reformers and health professionals banded together to improve the milk supply through pasteurization, certification, and safe distribution; and to educate the public, especially mothers, on ways to feed and keep their infants healthy. Through their close contact with mothers in their homes, nurses taught these women how to prepare, store, and feed infants' milk. When their babies survived the summer, mothers developed a sense of trust in the nurse and the things she taught about ways to protect their infants and the entire family's health.

  12. Mindful with Your Baby : Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effects of a Mindful Parenting Group Training for Mothers and Their Babies in a Mental Health Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Aktar, E.; Rexwinkel, M.; Rigterink, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many mothers experience difficulties after the birth of a baby. Mindful parenting may have benefits for mothers and babies, because it can help mothers regulate stress, and be more attentive towards themselves and their babies, which may have positive effects on their responsivity. This study

  13. What about the Dads: A Case Study of Young Fathers of Babies Born to Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Marilyn Faris

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a persistent societal problem. Both teenage mothers and the fathers of their babies are unprepared for parenthood and often drop out of school, take low-paying jobs, and never complete their education. Fathers of babies born to adolescent mothers are a critical but often forgotten component of the adolescent pregnancy…

  14. Mothers' Continuing Bond With the Baby: The Case of Feticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtentritt, Ronit D; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2017-04-01

    The nature of the ongoing bond maintained by the bereaved with the deceased has attracted considerable attention, but studies have generally ignored postdeath relationships when loss occurs in utero. The goal of this research was to reach an interpretive understanding of the continuing bond experience among Israeli mothers who underwent feticide, examining the strategies they use in maintaining a postdeath relationship with a child they did not know, whose death they chose and witnessed, within a social context that ignores their loss and forces them to silence their grief. The results highlight two themes: (a) strategies for relinquishing connection with the baby and (b) strategies for maintaining a postdeath relationship. These processes partially correspond with two theoretical views that shed light on interpretation of the results: the dual process of coping with bereavement and relational dialectic theory. Implications of the results to the practice of health providers are outlined.

  15. [Floppy baby with macrocytic anemia and vegan mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapbach, L J; Schütz, B; Nuoffer, J M; Brekenfeld, C; Müller, G; Fluri, S

    2007-08-29

    We report the case of a 7 month-old girl that presented with acute anemia, generalized muscular hypotonia and failure to thrive. Laboratory evaluation revealed cobalamin deficiency, due to a vegan diet of the mother. The clinical triad of an acquired floppy baby syndrome with megaloblastic anemia and failure to thrive is pathognomic for infantile cobalamin deficiency. Neurological abnormalities are often irreversible and may be associated with delayed myelinization in the MRI. A normal cobalamin level in maternal serum and absence of anemia do not exclude subclinical deficiency. If cobalamin deficiency is suspected, e.g. in pregnant women on vegan diet, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion and plasma homocysteine levels should be determined and cobalamin substitution should be started at an early stage to avoid potentially irreversible damage of the fetus.

  16. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  17. Statistical modeling of the mother-baby system in newborn infants with cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model could consider the influence of specific maternal psychoemotional and personality factors on a newborn with cerebral ischemia and develop a procedure to prevent negative consequences of postpartum depression in the mother-baby system.

  18. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported.

  19. #6: No Separation of Mother and Baby with Unlimited Opportunity for Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette, Crenshaw; Klaus, Phyllis H.; Klaus, Marshall H.

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the value of keeping mothers and their babies together from the moment of birth is discussed and presented as an evidenced-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. Babies held skin-to-skin with their mothers cry less often, breathe easier, and stay warmer than babies who are sepa...

  20. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  1. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  2. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  3. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction.

  4. Changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Tania

    2017-11-01

    this paper explores changing messages about place of birth offered to women by Mother and Baby magazine, a UK publication aimed at a general readership DESIGN: the research uses an historical perspective to explore changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956-1992. It analyses the content and medium of the magazine through a narrative and semiotic approach. the UK between the mid-1950s and 1990s. The period was a time of significant change in the maternity services, at both a philosophical and organisational level with a move towards hospital rather than home birth and a dominant discourse which privileged medical models of care over social ones. producers and consumers of Mother and Baby magazine FINDINGS: Mother and Baby moved from an assumption of home birth to a focus on hospital birth, reflecting national changes in policy. The magazine moved from a social to a risk focused medical view of birth, with an emphasis on the safety of the baby and the sacrifice of the mother. These changes can be traced through both the organisation and the language of content between 1956 and 1992. However, home birth was always offered to readers as a viable, if increasingly niche, option. This reflected the magazine's need to appeal to its readers as consumers; both in consumption of the magazine and of maternity care. the evidence suggests that Mother and Baby magazine mirrored elements of the prevailing policy discourse around place of birth. However, it always gave space to other narratives. In doing so it reminds us of the complexity about how messages about labour and birth are told and received. It gives insight into ways in which the media lead and reflect change and the impact this might have on decision making by women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid disease in pregnancy in 2011: Thyroid function--effects on mother and baby unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2011-12-06

    The complex relationship between pregnancy and thyroid function, and its clinical effect on mother and baby, continued to stimulate research in 2011. Key advances were made on three important issues: how long maternal thyroid function affects fetal thyroid hormone levels; whether thyroid autoimmunity affects pregnancy outcome; and the prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism after postpartum thyroiditis.

  6. Using baby books to change new mothers' attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J; Auger, Anamarie

    2012-02-01

    Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the US. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers' attitudes about their use of corporal punishment. Low-income, ethnically diverse women (n=167) were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed until their child was 18 months old. Findings from home-based data collection throughout this period suggest that educational baby books compared with non-educational baby books or no books can reduce new mothers' support for the use of corporal punishment (respective effect sizes=.67 and .25) and that these effects are greater for African-American mothers (effect sizes=.75 and .57) and those with low levels of educational attainment (high school diploma, GED, or less) (effect sizes=.78 and .49). Given their low cost and ease of implementation, baby books offer a promising way to change new mothers' attitudes and potentially reduce the use of corporal punishment with infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  8. Bereaved mothers' attitudes regarding autopsy of their stillborn baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in keeping with international trends.[5] Autopsies and the insights revealed will be critical to further reduction in stillbirth rates. Understanding the views of parents, and the influences of various cultural and religious beliefs, may contribute to greater enrollment in autopsy.[6,7] The views of mothers and their families regarding.

  9. Implementing the Mother-Baby Model of Nursing Care Using Models and Quality Improvement Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Vicki

    As family-centered care has become the expected standard, many facilities follow the mother-baby model, in which care is provided to both a woman and her newborn in the same room by the same nurse. My facility employed a traditional model of nursing care, which was not evidence-based or financially sustainable. After implementing the mother-baby model, we experienced an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge, increased patient satisfaction, improved staff productivity and decreased salary costs, all while the number of births increased. Our change was successful because it was guided by the use of quality improvement tools, change theory and evidence-based practice models. © 2015 AWHONN.

  10. Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Hugh; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that premature neonates exposed to music have reduced symptoms of stress, faster weight gain, and shorter neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. This pilot study attempted to measure contingent effects of mothers' singing during feedings. Mothers sang to their babies during 2 of 4 feedings on 2 consecutive days, logging songs they sang, and subjectively evaluating each feeding. Infants' heart and respiration rates were recorded as well as duration of feeding and volume of fluid taken orally; feeding velocity and percent of feeding goal were calculated. In paired t tests, no significant benefits or deterrents assignable to the singing were observed.

  11. The pathways from mother's love to baby's future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Korosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with genetic factors, early-life experience governs the expression and function of stress-related genes throughout life. This, in turn, contributes to either resilience or vulnerability to depression and to aging-related cognitive decline. In humans and animal models, both the quality and quantity of early-life maternal care has been shown to be a predominant signal triggering bi-directional and enduring changes in expression profiles of genes including glucocorticoids and CRH (hypothalamic and hippocampal, associated with the development of resilient or vulnerable phenotypes. However, many crucial questions remain unresolved. For examples, how is the maternal-derived signal transmitted to specific neuronal populations where enduring (likely epigenetic regulation of gene expression takes place? What is the nature of this information? In other words, how do neurons know to ‘turn on’ epigenetic machinery? What are the direct functional consequences of altered gene expression? This review describes the voyage of recurrent bursts of sensory input from the mother (‘mother’s love’ to CRH-expressing hypothalamic neurons that govern the magnitude of the response to stress. In addition, the acute and enduring effects of both nurturing and fragmented maternal care on the structure, cellular signaling and function of specific hippocampal and hypothalamic neurons are discussed. The evolving understanding of the processes initiated by the early life experience of ‘mother’s love’ suggest novel molecular targets for prevention and therapy of stress-related affective and cognitive disorders.

  12. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  13. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  14. Knowledge and Behaviour of the Mothers Having 0-6 Month Old Babies about the Breast Milk and Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Cetin Ekerbicer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the knowledge levels, behaviour and determining factors on the breast milk and breast feeding for the mothers who have 0-6 month old babies. METHOD: This research has been carried out, in June-August 2009, on the mothers who have 0- 6-month old babies in the responsibility area of the MADO and Ortaseki Primary Health Centres in the Kahramanmaras province. The mothers, who are in the area of these Primary Health Centres, are selected with regard to the Baby Determination Form existed in the registrations of these centres. The Baby Determination Form showed that there are total 341 mothers having 0-6 month old babies, 201 in the MADO Primary Health Center and 140 in the Ortaseki Primary Health Center. The research is planned to include all these 341 mothers. There was not a sampling. However, it was not possible to reach a 19,1 percent of the mothers, therefore 80,9 percent of the mothers were included in the study. RESULTS: The average age is 26.6±5.6, average numbers of children is 2.2 ±1.1 in the research group. It is seen that 96.8 percent of the mothers’ breast fed their babies and the same percent of them also gave colostrums to their babies. A 69.3 percent of the study group stated that they breast fed their babies in first 0-59 minutes after the birth. The average of the Breast Milk Information Point is 6.9±4.9. CONCLUSION: The knowledge level of the mothers included in the study group is in the average level. Although the breast feeding in the first one hour is above its average in Turkey, however it is not in the desired level. The mothers should be trained and educated about importance of the breast milk, since the level of information in terms of breast milk and breast feed has influences on the breast feeding behaviour of the mothers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 315-320

  15. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  16. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  17. Differences in eating behaviour, well-being and personality between mothers following baby-led vs. traditional weaning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Baby-led weaning, where infants self-feed family foods in place of traditional spoon-feeding of purees, is continuing to grow in popularity. Evidence is emerging which suggests that the method may promote healthier eating behaviour and weight gain in children, but the research is in its infancy. One issue is the self-selecting nature of participants to the approach. Although those who follow a baby-led approach are known to have a higher education and more professional occupation, little is known about wider maternal characteristics, which might affect either adoption of or outcomes of the method. The aim of this study was to explore differences in maternal characteristics between those adopting a baby-led or traditional approach. Six hundred four mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months completed a questionnaire including a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and depression scales) and Ten Item Personality Questionnaire (TIPQ) alongside details of weaning approach (baby-led vs. traditional). Mothers who adopted a baby-led weaning style scored significantly lower on restrained eating (DEBQ), anxiety and introversion (TIPQ) and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (BSI). Mothers who currently adopt a baby-led approach are therefore significantly different in personality, eating behaviour and well-being characteristics compared with those adopting a traditional approach. These characteristics may affect likelihood of choosing a baby-led approach or indirectly affect outcomes for infants weaned using the approach. Further research exploring baby-led weaning in a wider population sample is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring

    2012-01-01

    Objective Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Design, setting and participants Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge o...

  19. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  20. Application of the baby friendly hospital initiative to neonatal care: suggestions by Swedish mothers of very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain suggestions from mothers of very preterm infants regarding modification of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Thirteen mothers were interviewed 2 to 6 months after their infants' discharge from the hospital. The interviews generated 13 steps, which partly agree with the BFHI steps. The new steps address respect for mothers' individual decisions about breastfeeding, education of staff in specific knowledge and skills, antenatal information about lactation in the event of preterm birth, skin-to-skin (kangaroo mother) care, breast milk expression, early introduction of breastfeeding, facilitation of mothers' 24-hour presence in the hospital, preference for mother's own milk, semi-demand feeding before transition to demand breastfeeding, special benefits of pacifier sucking, alternative strategies for reduction of supplementation, use of bottle-feeding when indicated, a family-centered and supportive physical environment, support of the father's presence, and early transfer of infants' care to parents.

  1. The Factors That Influence Mother's Behavior in Giving Food Complement of Breast Milk for Baby in Age 6 - 36 Month

    OpenAIRE

    Kristianto, Yonatan; Sulistyarini, Tri

    2013-01-01

    Food complement of breast milk is food that contain nutrient, giving to child in age 6–36 months to complete nutrient requirement. Giving that food is precisely influenced by mother's behavior who have baby. The objective of the research to prove the factors that influence mother's behavior in giving food complement breast milk to child in age 6–36 months.The design of the research was correlation. The population was all mother who have children in age 6–36 months at Posyandu Mawar I Karangre...

  2. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khine Wut Yee Kyaw

    Full Text Available Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU.A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months.Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2% were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART. Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI: 5.40 (1.66-17.53, 5.91(1.68-20.84, 2.27 (1.22-4.22 and 2.33 (1.16-4.69 respectively].Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to

  3. The meaning of rituals after a stillbirth: A qualitative study of mothers with a stillborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Fen; Hsu, Min-Tao; Hsieh, Yueh-Tzu; Cheng, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-03-01

    To explore the meaning of rituals that women and their families perform after a stillbirth. A cultural taboo in Taiwan prohibits discussing death; thus, parents of stillborn babies have no established public mourning or burial ceremonies to perform for their stillborn children. Stillbirths are often treated as if they had never happened. Qualitative descriptive study. In-depth interviews, which were transcribed and content analysed, were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 women discharged from two teaching hospitals in Taiwan after they had a stillbirth. Families engaged in rituals for two underlying reasons: to benefit the deceased child and the immediate family. The meanings of the rituals for the child are presented through three themes: (i) sending the baby's spirit to a safe place, (ii) protecting it from suffering and (iii) preparing it for a better reincarnation. The meanings of rituals for the families are presented through four themes: (i) releasing parental guilt by doing their best for the deceased child, (ii) cutting bonds with the child, (iii) avoiding additional misfortune should they mishandle the funeral and (iv) praying for a successful subsequent pregnancy. Death-related rituals are highly culturally diverse. This study fills a gap about Asian cultures. Participating in rituals permits a mother to do something for her deceased child, helps relieve her guilt and lets her cope with the stillbirth. Rituals after a stillbirth can help a woman recover from grieving and allow her to hope for a successful subsequent pregnancy. Health professionals should discuss with bereaved parents what rituals they would like to perform and then respect their decisions. A continuum of care and support that exists from the prenatal diagnosis through the stillbirth and beyond is recommended for parents and families during this difficult time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of maternal attachment, self-efficacy, levels of depression, and anxiety in mothers who have babies diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Gonca; Özyurt, Ayhan; Ozturk, Taylan; Yaman, Aylin; Berk, A Tulin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the emotional stress and its effects on parental self-efficacy and mother-infant attachment in mothers whose babies were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study sample was consisted of voluntarily participating 82 mothers whose babies were first diagnosed with ROP, 83 mothers of preterm babies without ROP, and 85 mothers of term babies admitting for their routine visits. Sociodemographic data form maternal attachment scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and parental self-efficacy scale were applied to study participants, and the overall results of three groups were statistically compared. The sociodemographic features of three study groups were similar. Statistical significant differences were found in depression and state anxiety levels among study groups, while maternal attachment scale and trait anxiety level scores and parental self-efficacy scale total score were similar in study groups. Maternal depression and state-anxiety levels were tend to be higher in mother of children diagnosed with ROP and prematurity; however, there were no statistically significant differences between levels of mothers' of premature children with or without ROP. This is the first study in literature assessing the additional effect of ROP on the anxiety and depression levels of recent mothers, as well as mother-infant attachment and parental self-efficacy. Supporting of mothers having an infant with diagnosed ROP is crucial because of feeling themselves inefficient and responsible for all interventions applied to their babies.

  5. Mother's attachment history and antenatal attachment to the second baby: the moderating role of parenting efficacy in raising the firstborn child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Xu, Yuhong

    2017-12-30

    In this exploratory study, we examined the associations between mothers' attachment history, parenting efficacy in raising the firstborn child, and antenatal attachment to the second baby. Mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy with their second child were recruited to attend this quantitative study. Data were obtained by means of mother-report questionnaires. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their attachment to their own mother, parenting efficacy in raising their first child, and antenatal attachment to their second baby. Hierarchical regression modeling was conducted. Mothers' attachment to their own mother was associated with antenatal attachment to their second baby, but this association was moderated by parenting efficacy in raising the first child. Specifically, mothers' attachment to their own mother was positively associated with antenatal attachment among mothers with high parenting efficacy. The results suggest that parenting efficacy may enhance the role of maternal attachment on emotional relationships between second-time mothers and their baby during the pregnancy. Second-time mothers who experienced low parenting efficacy in raising their first child should receive training in parenting. It may be beneficial to take parenting-related cognition into account when planning interventions.

  6. Successful implementation of Helping Babies Survive and Helping Mothers Survive programs-An Utstein formula for newborn and maternal survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege L Ersdal

    Full Text Available Globally, the burden of deaths and illness is still unacceptably high at the day of birth. Annually, approximately 300.000 women die related to childbirth, 2.7 million babies die within their first month of life, and 2.6 million babies are stillborn. Many of these fatalities could be avoided by basic, but prompt care, if birth attendants around the world had the necessary skills and competencies to manage life-threatening complications around the time of birth. Thus, the innovative Helping Babies Survive (HBS and Helping Mothers Survive (HMS programs emerged to meet the need for more practical, low-cost, and low-tech simulation-based training. This paper provides users of HBS and HMS programs a 10-point list of key implementation steps to create sustained impact, leading to increased survival of mothers and babies. The list evolved through an Utstein consensus process, involving a broad spectrum of international experts within the field, and can be used as a means to guide processes in low-resourced countries. Successful implementation of HBS and HMS training programs require country-led commitment, readiness, and follow-up to create local accountability and ownership. Each country has to identify its own gaps and define realistic service delivery standards and patient outcome goals depending on available financial resources for dissemination and sustainment.

  7. The health team and the safety of the mother-baby binomial during labor and birth

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    Dinara Dornfeld

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the performance of the health care team regarding the safety of both mother and baby during labor and birth. Methodology. Qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study. The subjects were: obstetricians, residents in Obstetrics, pediatricians, nurses, and nursing technicians. The observation technique was used for data collection in a public hospital, between March and July 2010. The data was subjected to thematic content analysis. CEP-GHC (No. 10/001. Results. Data analysis revealed the themes: empathic support, woman’s companion, skin-to-skin contact (SSC, and birth environment. The team promoted safe care through empathic support for women and appreciation and respect for the escort. In relation to SSC and the enabling environment for the reception of the newborn, efforts are still needed for these practices to be configured in secure care circumstances. Conclusion. The Nurse played a differential role in the team for the realization of safe care, because she was predominant in supporting women and promoting CPP.

  8. Prospective randomized comparison of short-access mother-baby cholangioscopy versus direct cholangioscopy with ultraslim gastroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Juergen; Meves, Volker C; Mayer, Gerhard; Behrens, Angelika; Frimberger, Eckart; Ell, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Mother-baby technologies, the criterion standard for cholangioscopy, have several limitations. A novel, short-access, mother-baby (SAMBA) system may improve this technique. Direct cholangioscopy (DC) was recently developed as an alternative to mother-baby cholangioscopy. Comparison of success rates with SAMBA and DC. Single-center, randomized, controlled trial. Academic tertiary-care referral center. Sixty patients with suspected cholangiopathies randomized to either SAMBA (n = 30) or DC (n = 30). Cholangioscopy under deep sedation. Technical success rate of diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. A total of 24 and 21 diagnostic procedures were performed in the SAMBA and DC groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the overall technical success rates between SAMBA (90.0%) and DC (86.7%) (P = 1.0). There was better correlation between the endoscopic prediction and histologic findings in DC (P = .013). Procedure times were shorter in DC (P SAMBA allowed intrahepatic bile duct exploration in all cases, compared with 10.5% of cases in DC (P SAMBA and DC offer high technical success rates for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The advantages of DC consist of superior imaging, shorter total procedure time, and a wider working channel for adequate tissue sampling. SAMBA is better than DC with regard to intraductal stability and accessibility of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Luís Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; Costa, Patrícia Rodrigues da; Lima, Flávia Aparecida Felipe de; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by the "Mother-Baby Interaction Protocol 0-6 months" tool. The duration of the Kangaroo Position during all the hospitalization period was correlated with the interaction between mother and preterm infant. The longer the dyad spent time in the Kangaroo Position, the more the newborns made physical contact attempts with their mothers during breastfeeding (r=0.37; p=0.03); and the longer the time in the Kangaroo Position, the less the mothers talked to their children (r=-0.47; p=0.006). Longer periods in the Kangaroo Position stimulates the initial exchanges of contact between preterm infant with his mother, which suggests a higher alert status of the newborn and a better availability for interactions with the mother during breastfeeding.

  10. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services under routine care conditions in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. METHODS: We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider's perspective. RESULTS: Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in

  11. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  12. Evaluating the Effect of MotherBaby Skin- to- Skin Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Infants

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    M Kalhor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of motherbaby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Motherbaby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.

  13. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  14. Healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Interview notes and transcripts were analysed using content analysis to identify subcategories and extract illustrative quotes. Healthcare professionals had limited direct experience with BLW and the main concerns raised were the potential for increased risk of choking, iron deficiency and inadequate energy intake. Although they suggested a number of potential benefits of BLW (greater opportunity for shared family meal times, fewer mealtime battles, healthier eating behaviours, greater convenience and possible developmental advantages) most felt reluctant to recommend BLW because of their concern about the potential increased risk of choking. In contrast, mothers who had used this style of feeding reported no major concerns with BLW. They considered BLW to be a healthier, more convenient and less stressful way to introduce complementary foods to their infant and recommended this feeding approach to other mothers. Although mothers did not report being concerned about choking, 30% reported at least one choking episode-most commonly with raw apple. Given the lack of research on BLW, further work is needed to determine whether the concerns expressed by healthcare professionals and potential benefits outlined by mothers are valid. The current study suggests that there is a mismatch between healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences, with BLW.

  15. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  16. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Moon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word baby depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word baby recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  17. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word "baby" depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word "baby" recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  18. Prevalence of Antibodies to Zika Virus in Mothers from Hawaii Who Delivered Babies with and without Microcephaly between 2009-2012.

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    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen. ZIKV infection is linked to the development of severe fetal abnormalities that include spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, hydranencephaly, and microcephaly. ZIKV outbreaks have been recorded in the United States. We recently demonstrated the first congenital ZIKV infection in the United States. In this study, we investigated archived blood samples from six mothers who gave birth to babies with microcephaly and 12 mothers who gave birth to healthy babies in Hawaii between 2009 and 2012. We tested maternal blood for the presence of ZIKV IgM and IgG antibodies using commercially available human ZIKV IgM and IgG ELISA kits. Blood from one mother who delivered babies with microcephaly tested positive for ZIKV IgM antibody (16.6% and blood from three mothers tested positive for ZIKV IgG antibody (50%. ZIKV showed a trend toward significance with microcephaly. ZIKV IgG antibody positive mothers were more likely to deliver babies with microcephaly than mothers who were negative for ZIKV IgG antibodies (Odds ratio [OR] = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-147.9, p = 0.083. Similarly, ZIKV IgM antibody positive mothers were also more likely to deliver babies with microcephaly than mothers who were negative for ZIKV IgM antibody (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 0.2-195.1. These data provide further evidence of a link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly and suggests presence of ZIKV positive cases and associated microcephaly in the United States as early as 2009.

  19. Integrating the teaching-learning process of Occupational Therapy students and the care of mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study approaches the process of teaching-learning of a group of occupational therapy students to act in the care of mothers of babies at risk in the hospital context. It is linked to a community project, supported by the ‘Programa de Extensao Universitaria’. Objective: It aimed to qualify the students for understanding the risk rising, the initial mother-baby bond in the hospital environment, the monitoring of the child development and troubleshooting, as well as to see themselves as subjects of their own training. Method: Participants were six students, three teachers, 26 mothers and their 28 babies. The procedures had been developed in three articulated axles: practice, theoretical basis and invitation to reflection, each axle guided by one of three teachers. There were 65 meetings; 27 of the group of mothers, 11 of the group for theoretical overviews and 27 of the reflection group. Six students have completed their participation in the study, having achieved qualification for the care of occupational therapy to mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization and at home after discharge, as well as the co-responsibility with people and served family. All 26 mothers received care in the nursery; 25 of them in addition to the nursery, were treated at mothers group and 6 in addition to the nursery and the group, were visited at home. Conclusion: This study made it possible to contemplate two subjects with the same priority: the mother and her baby, as subjects of the attention and care of an occupational therapist and the student, as the subject of the attention and care of the teacher of occupational therapy.

  20. Diplomas and Diapers: Schooling for Young Street Mothers and Their Babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Roloff, Marilee

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Crosswalk program in Spokane, Washington, which provides teenage street mothers with housing, day care, and the opportunity to attend school. Discusses the development of the program, and describes the cases of several typical teenage mothers in the program. (MDM)

  1. "My Baby & Me": effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttentag, Cathy L; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Baggett, Kathleen M; Noria, Christine W; Borkowski, John G; Swank, Paul R; Farris, Jaelyn R; Crawford, April; Lanzi, Robin G; Carta, Judith J; Warren, Steven F; Ramey, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a multimodule parenting intervention, "My Baby & Me," that began prenatally and continued until children reached 2.5 years of age. The intervention targeted specific parenting skills designed to alter trajectories of maternal and child development. Of 361 high-risk mothers (193 adolescents, 168 adults) enrolled across 4 states, half were randomly assigned to the high-intensity (HI) home visitation coaching program (55 sessions), and half to a low-intensity (LI) condition that included monthly phone calls from a coach, printed informational materials, and community resource referrals. Videotaped observations of mother-child play were coded at 5 time points for multiple maternal and child behaviors and skills. Compared to mothers in the LI group, mothers in the HI group showed higher levels of contingent responsiveness, higher quality verbal stimulation, and more verbal scaffolding by 30 months, with higher levels of warmth and greater decreases in physical intrusiveness and negativity when their children were 24 months. By 30 months, children in the HI group showed more rapid increases and higher levels of engagement with the environment, expressive language skills, and social engagement, as well as more complex toy play and fewer problem behaviors than those in the LI group. Gains in maternal responsive behaviors mediated the effects of the intervention on child outcomes. Results were comparable for adolescent and adult mothers. A strong theoretical framework, consistent focus on maternal responsiveness, high dosage, and trusting relationships with coaches are thought to explain the positive outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Batons and Babies: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Mothers Who Are Band Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Renee L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what it is to be a mother and a band director from the perspectives of 15 women. The researcher hoped to create a document which will be helpful to band directors who are or who someday may become mothers. According to statements made in the Band Director Group on Facebook, there is a need for a sense of…

  3. A descriptive study investigating the use and nature of baby-led weaning in a UK sample of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Lee, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    An alternative to traditional weaning methods known as baby-led weaning (BLW) appears to be emerging in the UK. This approach advocates bypassing typical weaning practices of spoon-feeding puréed foods or baby rice, encouraging instead the introduction of foods in their whole form to the infant from 6 months old. A key tenet of BLW is self-feeding. Anecdotally, the practice of BLW appears to be gaining in popularity. However, research evidence is scant, and little is known about the nature of BLW and the demography of those who utilize it. This study aimed to characterize a sample of women who have chosen to adopt the BLW method and to describe associated attitudes and behaviours. Six hundred and fifty five mothers with a child between 6 months and 12 months of age provided information about timing of weaning onset, use of spoon-feeding and purées, and experiences of weaning and meal times. Those participants who used a BLW method reported little use of spoon-feeding and purées and were more likely to have a higher education, higher occupation, be married and have breastfed their infant. BLW was associated with a later introduction of complementary foods, greater participation in meal times and exposure to family foods. Levels of anxiety about weaning and feeding were lower in mothers who adopted a BLW approach. These findings provide an insight into BLW practices and the characteristics of a small population of users. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. ABO phenotypes and malaria related outcomes in mothers and babies in The Gambia: a role for histo-blood groups in placental malaria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loscertales, María-Paz; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Host susceptibility to P.falciparum is critical for understanding malaria in pregnancy, its consequences for the mother and baby, and for improving malaria control in pregnant women. Yet host genetic factors which could influence placental malaria risk are little studied and there are no

  5. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqun Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials.

  6. Psychosocial Risk-Mothers and Their Babies: Opinions about Interaction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Studies focusing on mothers' own reports of their experience with intervention programmes are rare, so very little has been known about their evaluations of the programmes and what they have learned. The aim of the present study was to use interviews to evaluate these aspects of an intervention programme. The interviews were designed to capture…

  7. Infant feeding practices of teenage mothers attending a well-baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The elevated odds of early breastfeeding cessation were associated with a young maternal age (≤ 17 years) and experiencing breastfeeding problems. This highlights the importance of targeting adolescent mothers for support and promotion of breastfeeding, noting the influence of society and peer pressure.

  8. Relationship between low birth weight of babies and antenatal care of mothers: A cross sectional study at a tertiary care hospital of Kishanganj, Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality thus an important public health concern. Aim To identify the maternal determinants associated with LBW of babies Setting M.G.M Medical college & L.S.K Hospital Kishanganj ,Bihar. Design Hospital based cross sectional study Study period January 2014 to March 2014 Methodology Institution based descriptive cross sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. All postnatal women (190 with singleton apparently healthy babies during the study period were selected for study. Birth weight of babies was recorded, mothers were interviewed and antenatal cards were reviewed. Result 34% of newborns were found to be low birth weight in our study. Statistically significant association was found between Low birth weight of babies and mother’s age, religion, literacy of mother, consumption of IFA tablets and regular ANC checkup during pregnancy. Conclusion The study suggests various maternal factors influence the birth weight of newborn babies and by improving antenatal care services both in coverage and quality we can reduce infant mortality in country.

  9. Clinical characteristics and mental health outcomes for women admitted to an Australian Mother-Baby Unit: a focus on borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Chris; Girke, Teresa; Tottman, Charlotte; Williams, Anne Sved

    2015-12-01

    To describe the clinical population of women admitted to a Mother-Baby Unit in Adelaide, South Australia and to evaluate changes during admission in both Axes I and II diagnoses of maternal mental health, and in mother-infant relationships. Both clinical and self-report assessments of maternal mental health were made at admission and discharge, and self-report comparisons of the mother-infant relationship. Depressive illnesses (46.2%) were found to be the most prevalent conditions leading to admission, with rates of psychosis (10.3%) and bipolar disorder (3.4%) being lower. A high incidence of borderline personality disorder (23.1%) was found clinically, with almost half the admitted women showing features of borderline personality disorder on a self-report measure at admission. Significant improvements in maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship were found at the time of discharge. Admission to this Mother-Baby Unit on mothers' self-report scales showed improvement in mothers' mental health and the relationship that they have with their infant. Given the high prevalence of borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation identified within the population, treatment implications and possible consequences for the infant are discussed for this client group. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Hush now baby: mothers' and fathers' strategies for soothing their infants and associated parenting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Carolyn Joy; Walsh, Tova B; Oh, Wonjung; Volling, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the types of soothing behaviors used by mothers and fathers of infants, differences in use trajectories over time, and associated parenting outcomes. A longitudinal study of 241 families expecting their second child was performed. Data were collected at 1, 4, and 8 postnatal months and included measures of parental soothing techniques, involvement in soothing, distress in response to infant crying, and parenting self-efficacy. The average number of soothing techniques used was 7.7 for mothers and 5.9 for fathers. Soothing frequency decreased over time, and change patterns of soothing differed over time by gender. In couples who shared responsibility for soothing, fathers felt more efficacious in parenting and mothers were less upset by infant crying. Clinicians are encouraged to support fathers' engagement in infant soothing, facilitate the development of fathers' parenting confidence, and promote fathers' involvement in children's health and health care. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effectiveness of baby books for providing pediatric anticipatory guidance to new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Bickman, Leonard; Saville, Benjamin R; Alvarez, Joann

    2010-05-01

    To assess whether embedding pediatric anticipatory guidance into books read to infants is an effective way to educate low-income, first-time mothers about injury-prevention and health-promotion practices. Primiparous women (N = 168) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational-book group; a noneducational-book group; or a no-book group. Knowledge of anticipatory-guidance topics regarding children from birth to 12 months of age (eg, injury prevention, parenting, nutrition) was assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy and again when infants were approximately 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational-book group scored consistently higher on knowledge than did those in the other 2 groups. Those in the educational-book group were found to have significantly higher knowledge scores than those in both the noneducational-book group (effect size [ES]: 0.3, P book group (ES: 0.3, P Books read by mothers to infants seem to be an effective way to provide anticipatory guidance to new mothers. However, future work is needed to determine if increased knowledge translates into safer and more developmentally appropriate parenting practices.

  12. New hadron discovered at Entrance B (mother and baby doing fine)

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2013-01-01

    Hadron: A heavy, strongly interacting particle. So say the dictionaries, and the definition seems entirely appropriate for the latest addition to a particular family that was passing CERN’s Entrance B on Monday afternoon en route for the Hôpital de la Tour.   The father of the baby (left) and the members of the CERN Fire Brigade and Medical Service dealing with the unexpected happy event. (Photo by D. Pagnani, CERN Fireman. The photo is reproduced by the CERN Bulletin with the agreement of the di Castro family.) The new "hadron" certainly showed the strength of its desire to interact with the world in arriving a little earlier than expected, causing its fraught parents to pull up the car and seek help at the first port of call. Luckily for them, that turned out to be CERN. Our medical service and ambulance personnel proved to be entirely up to the task. The fire brigade provided first aid, and was soon joined by the medical service, which ensured that mot...

  13. The use of salutogenesis theory in empirical studies of maternity care for healthy mothers and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Botella, Mercedes; Downe, Soo; Magistretti, Claudia Meier; Lindstrom, Bengt; Berg, Marie

    2015-03-01

    Health care outcomes used in service evaluation and research tend to measure morbidity and mortality. This is the case even in maternity care, where most women and babies are healthy. Salutogenesis theory recognises that health is a continuum, with explicit inclusion of well-being as well as illness and pathology. This offers the potential to reframe the outcomes and therefore, the focus of, maternity care research and provision. The aim of this study was to identify how salutogenesis has been defined and used in maternity care research undertaken with healthy women. A scoping review was undertaken, using a formal pre-defined search strategy. Inclusion criteria encompassed research papers relating to the maternity episode up to 1 year after birth, using salutogenesis or any of its associated concepts, focused on healthy women, and written in a language which any of the members of the group could understand. The search was undertaken in two phases (database inception--April 2011 and May 2011-February 2013). Included studies were subject to narrative analysis. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. They covered seven topics, spanning the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods. Only two papers employed both positive health orientation and explicit use of Antonovsky's theory. The remaining studies used discrete aspects of the theory. Salutogenic framing is rarely used in maternity care research with healthy participants. An increase in research that measures salutogenically orientated outcomes could, eventually, provide a balance to the current over-emphasis on pathology in maternity care design and provision worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Complications of Pregestational and Gestational Diabetes in Saudi Women: Analysis from Riyadh Mother and Baby Cohort Study (RAHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the burden of diabetes and to explore the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with pregestational diabetes mellitus (pre-GDM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM among the Saudi pregnant population. In this subcohort, we compared the maternal and the neonatal outcomes of diabetic women with pre-GDM and GDM to the outcomes of nondiabetic mothers who delivered during the same period. From the total cohort, 9723 women participated in this study. Of the participants, 24.2% had GDM, 4.3% had pre-GDM, and 6951 were nondiabetic. After adjustment for confounders, women with GDM had increased odds of delivering a macrosomic baby (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.1. Women with pre-GDM were more likely to deliver by Cesarean section (OR: 1.65; CI: 1.32–2.07 and to have preterm delivery < 37 weeks (OR: 2.1; CI: 1.5–2.8. Neonates of mothers with pre-GDM were at increased risk of being stillbirth (OR: 3.66; CI: 1.98–6.72, at increased risk of admission to NICU (OR: 2.21; CI: 1.5–3.27, and at increased risk for being macrosomic (OR: 2.40; CI: 1.50–3.8. The prevalence of GDM and pre-GDM in the Saudi pregnant population is among the highest in the world. The conditions are associated with high maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities.

  15. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  16. Assessing Parenting Capacity in Psychiatric Mother and Baby Units: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Julie; Lipsedge, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    This review aimed to improve infant risk assessments in the context of maternal mental illness by identifying key predictors of poor parenting outcomes. Inadequate parenting as a result of severe and persistent mental illness is a common reason for courts terminating parental rights. However, the current practice of parenting capacity assessments in the setting of perinatal psychiatry is fraught with risks and uncertainty. A well-recognised flaw in the assessment process is the lack of valid and reliable tools that have been specifically validated for assessing parenting capacity in mothers with a history of mental illness and the potential risk of harm to their infant. To date, there is only one instrument available. A systematic search of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase via the Ovid interface was conducted between September and December 2014. Citation snowball sampling was also used to identify further relevant studies. An additional search was performed in Google to access grey literature. A total of 38 citations were identified, of which 8 publications focusing on the populations of England, France and Belgium met the eligibility criteria of this review. Evidence from existing research suggests that poor parenting outcomes in maternal psychiatric illness are strongly associated with correlates of socio-economic inequalities. However, evidence regarding the long-term implications of such factors is weak as only one follow up study and no longitudinal studies were identified in this review. Our review suggests that the use of standardised empirically validated risk assessment tools would benefit the current practice of parenting assessments by improving the process by which collected information is analysed. This would enhance the accuracy of decision-making, and improve the safeguarding of the infant. Further research is needed on medium to long-term parenting outcomes, particularly regarding its relations to: the type of maternal psychiatric disorder; the quality

  17. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best when fed more often and on a demand schedule. They tend to tire quickly during the ... your baby. Other Liquids Avoid giving your infant water, because water has no calories. You may give ...

  18. Music for Mothers and Babies Living in a Prison: A Report on a Special Production of "BebeBaba"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Helena; Leite, Anabela; Faria, Cristina; Monteiro, Irene; Rodrigues, Paulo Maria

    2010-01-01

    "BebeBaba" is a project that combines education and artistic performance in a process that is centred on music, babies and their parents. We discovered that previous productions resulted in a very strong bonding among parents and babies, families and the community. In 2008 we implemented a special production in a prison in Oporto where…

  19. High baby birth weight and risk of hormone-associated cancer in mothers: the cancer-cardiovascular disease dichotomy and its possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M

    2013-07-01

    The idea of intrauterine or fetal factors being the cause of several prevalent noninfectious diseases in adults has recently gained the status of an axiom. One of the most thoroughly studied predictors is birth weight (BW). Although many published studies point at relations between BW and later adult morbidity or mortality, much less attention is paid to associations between baby BW and maternal morbidity. Available data suggest a sort of dichotomy in these relationships. Thus, cardiovascular risk is higher in mothers of babies with a reduced BW, while cancer risk, mainly of the breast and some other hormone-dependent cancers, is often higher among mothers of babies with a large BW (newborn macrosomia). This review addresses possible causes and endocrine mechanisms of this topic and suggests a 'particular' and 'general' solution for arising controversy. Emphasis is placed on a probable competition between chronic diseases (mainly, between female hormone-related cancer and cardiovascular pathology) within the concept of multiple causes of death. These associations should be remembered while studying the relation between offspring BW and maternal predisposition to hormone-associated cancers and other noncommunicable diseases.

  20. The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: History, evidence, interventions, and FIGO's mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suellen; Lalonde, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that disrespectful/abusive/coercive service delivery by skilled providers in facilities, which results in actual or perceived poor quality of care, is directly and indirectly associated with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. The present article reviews the evidence for disrespectful/abusive care during childbirth in facilities (DACF), describes examples of DACF, discusses organizations active in a rights-based respectful maternity care movement, and enumerates some strategies and interventions that have been identified to decrease DACF. It concludes with a discussion of one strategy, which has been recently implemented by FIGO with global partners-the International Pediatrics Association, International Confederation of Midwives, the White Ribbon Alliance, and WHO. This strategy, the Mother and Baby Friendly Birth Facility (MBFBF) Initiative, is a criterion-based audit process based on human rights' doctrines, and modeled on WHO/UNICEF's Baby Friendly Facility Initiative. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Every death counts: use of mortality audit data for decision making to save the lives of mothers, babies, and children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Debbie; Chopra, Mickey; Kerber, Kate; Lawn, Joy E; Bamford, Lesley; Moodley, Jack; Pattinson, Robert; Patrick, Mark; Stephen, Cindy; Velaphi, Sithembiso

    2008-04-12

    South Africa is one of the few developing countries with a national confidential inquiry into maternal deaths. 164 health facilities obtain audit data for stillbirths and neonatal deaths, and a new audit network does so for child deaths. Three separate reports have been published, providing valuable information about avoidable causes of death for mothers, babies, and children. These reports make health-system recommendations, many of which overlap and are intertwined with the scarcity of progress in addressing HIV/AIDS. The leaders of these three reports have united to prioritise actions to save the lives of South Africa's mothers, babies, and children. The country is off-track for the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Mortality in children younger than 5 years has increased, whereas maternal and neonatal mortality remain constant. This situation indicates the challenge of strengthening the health system because of high inequity and HIV/AIDS. Coverage of services is fairly high, but addressing the gaps in quality and equity is essential to increasing the number of lives saved. Consistent leadership and accountability to address crosscutting health system and equity issues, and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, would save tens of thousands of lives every year. Audit is powerful, but only if the data lead to action.

  2. Dose-effect on the mothers and babies attending the Programa de Apoyo Psicológico P/Materno-Infantil©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pons-Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the intervention dose-effect of the Parent Child Psychological Support Program© (Cerezo 1990 a program aimed at promoting protective adaptive system in children which is offered to all new-borns in a given catchment area. The program offers support to parents during the first 18 months of the baby's life. The program dose-effect is examined regarding the parents by examining the level of distress reported by them and with babies by examining the development of attachment using the Strange Situation test of Ainsworth et al. (1978. The study is based on 342 families who made between 2 and 4 visits to the Program before being evaluation post-intervention. The results indicate that at least 3 program sessions are required to produce a significant decrease in the distress scores for mothers, between pre and post evaluation. The proportion of children with secure attachment is greater when the family attends 3 or 4 times, compared to those who attend on 2 occasions. It was also noted that mothers of children with insecure attachment had higher scores on the maternal distress and other factors affecting parenting than mothers of children with secure attachment.

  3. Associations between singing to babies and symptoms of postnatal depression, wellbeing, self-esteem and mother-infant bond

    OpenAIRE

    Fancourt, D.; Perkins, R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is growing research documenting the psychological benefits of singing. However, it remains unknown whether singing to new babies is associated with enhanced maternal mental health. This study had two aims: (i) to explore whether these associations exist, and (ii) to compare the effects of singing to babies with listening to music in order to explore whether the sound of music alone or the physical act of singing might be responsible for effects.\\ud Methods: Multiple linear...

  4. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has been widely used in the prevention of dental caries for a long time. To prevent dental caries, fluoride must be induced in low amount at high frequency. Inducing it through implantation process even make slow release of small concentration of fluoride. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the induction of monofluorophosphate (MFP implant into the white rat mothers affects the level of fluoride in the incisors of their young babies. Method: The objects of the research were twenty white rat mothers in two days of pregnancy which then were divided into four groups (n=5. First, those mothers have been induced with implant under their back skin until their born young babies in the age of 35 days (n=5. The level of fluoride in the incisors of those young babies then is measured with Potentiometer. The obtained data were finally analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test and continued by with LSD test (p=0.05. Result: The result of this research showed that the means of the fluoride level in the incisors of those babies divided into those four groups in series were about 11956.16±201.35 ppb (K, 27328.04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267.21±248.86 ppb (P2, and 18103.50±267.11 ppb (P3. The result of ANOVA test then showed that the induction of various MFP implant levels significantly affected the level of fluoride in the incisors of the babies. The mean differences among the treatment groups after being tested with LSD 0.05 were also significant. Conclusion: The finding confirm that the significant increasing of the optimal fluoride retention in the incisors of white rat babies can be achieved with the induction of fluoride with MFP ions implant in about 52.98 mg.Latar belakang: Pencegahan karies gigi menggunakan senyawa fluor telah banyak dilakukan dan berlangsung dalam jangka waktu lama. Pemberian fluor dalam jumlah rendah dan frekuensi tinggi merupakan pemenuhan kebutuhan pencegahan karies gigi. Pemberian dengan cara

  5. "Breastfeeding" without baby: A longitudinal, qualitative investigation of how mothers perceive, feel about, and practice human milk expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Julia P; Geraghty, Sheela R; Quaglieri, Caroline W; Yamada, Rei; Wong, Adriana J; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    Most American mothers who produce human milk (HM) now pump in place of some or all feeding at the breast, and most American infants are now fed pumped HM. We aimed to investigate mothers' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and practices for pumping and providing pumped HM. Results related to pumping are reported here. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of 20 mothers who pumped, following each from pregnancy through infant HM-feeding cessation up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas.ti. Mothers' reasons for pumping changed over time and reflected their needs and desires (e.g., latch difficulty, return to work, and increasing their milk supply). Mothers reported that pump type and quality were important to pumping success and that pumping was time-consuming, costly, and unpleasant compared to feeding at the breast. Regardless of how often mothers pumped, most felt pumping was necessary to meet their infant HM-feeding goals and was a welcome means of sharing with other caregivers the bonding opportunity and tasks they associated with feeding infants. Mothers interpreted output from pumping sessions to understand their ability to provide enough milk to meet their infants' needs. Mothers' reasons for pumping may signal constraints to infant HM feeding that may be addressed with policy changes. Mothers' attitudes and perceptions toward pumping indicate that, although pumping fills important and welcome roles for many mothers, the reality of its practice may make it an unacceptable or infeasible substitute for some. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pregnant & Lactating Mothers' Attitudes and Practice of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding at King Fahd Hospital of University (KFHU)--Khobar, Saudi Arabia: Appraisal of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Laila Younis Abu; Al Madani, Maha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: World Health organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have been recommended the application of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in order to promote & support breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant and lactating mothers' attitudes…

  7. Baby M: babies (and justice) for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1987-06-01

    A professor of health law criticizes the decisions of New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow which culminated in his awarding permanent custody of Baby M to her biological father, William Stern. Annas quotes from the In re Baby M decision and from the contract between Stern and his wife and surrogate mother Mary Beth Whitehead to support his contention that Sorkow "rendered a sermon filled with contradictions, double-standards, inapt analogies, and unsupported conclusions." He argues that legally Mrs. Whitehead could not have prospectively waived her right to rear a child she bore, that Sorkow was biased in favor of the "upper-middle-class Sterns," and that consideration should be given to returning Baby M to Mrs. Whitehead. He urges state legislatures to outlaw the sale of children, to affirm the legal status of the gestational mother, and to forbid a surrogate's relinquishment of parental rights until after her child's birth.

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of lactic acid bacteria in local fermented food, breast milk and faeces of mothers and their babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albesharat, Rima; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Korakli, Maher; Yazaji, Sabah; Vogel, Rudi F

    2011-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally accepted as beneficial to the host and their presence is directly influenced by ingestion of fermented food or probiotics. While the intestinal lactic microbiota is well-described knowledge on its routes of inoculation and competitiveness towards selective pressure shaping the intestinal microbiota is limited. In this study, LAB were isolated from faecal samples of breast feeding mothers living in Syria, from faeces of their infants, from breast milk as well as from fermented food, typically consumed in Syria. A total of 700 isolates were characterized by genetic fingerprinting with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and identified by comparative 16S rDNA sequencing and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analyses. Thirty six different species of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified. RAPD and MALDI-TOF-MS patterns allowed comparison of the lactic microbiota on species and strain level. Whereas some species were unique for one source, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis were found in all sources. Interestingly, identical RAPD genotypes of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and P. pentosaceus were found in the faeces of mothers, her milk and in faeces of her babies. Diversity of RAPD types found in food versus human samples suggests the importance of host factors in colonization and individual host specificity, and support the hypothesis that there is a vertical transfer of intestinal LAB from the mother's gut to her milk and through the milk to the infant's gut. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Land Vehicle Tire Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    RETREADING RETREADING ISSUES 22 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED CATL REQUALIFICATION • Once a tire manufacturers particular model/retreading process of...qualification was extended based on the qualification of the original tire model. REQUALIFICATION 23 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION PROCESS

  10. Vertical mother-to-child HIV transmission in babies born in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Manoela Muller; Von Linsingen, Renate; Sbalqueiro, Renato Luiz; Tristão, Edson Gomes

    2017-06-06

    Programs for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are essentially focused on prevention actions that occur during prenatal care. This study aimed to evaluate the mother-to-child vertical transmission (MCVT) rate, and identify its possible causes, in a sample of pregnant women with HIV. This was a retrospective and descriptive study. The sample was composed of HIV-positive pregnant women who delivered a live infant in the maternity ward at the hospital of the Federal University of Parana in Brazil, between January 2007 and December 2012. The calculated MCVT rate in this study was 5.1%. Comparisons between MCVT cases and control pregnant women with HIV but without MCVT showed that the highest risk factors for MCVT were: the detection of HIV infection status only at delivery; non-attendance to high risk prenatal care; unknown viral load; and late onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our results corroborate the assertion that viral replication control is essential for HAART, and that adherence to therapy is essential for such control. Factors that influence adherence to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) must be identified, and medical, psychological, or social assistance must be properly provided to these mothers.

  11. Early childhood transmission of hepatitis B prior to the first hepatitis B vaccine dose is rare among babies born to HIV-infected and non-HIV infected mothers in Gulu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremba, E; Van Geertruyden, J P; Ssenyonga, R; Opio, C K; Kaducu, J M; Sempa, J B; Colebunders, R; Ocama, P

    2017-05-19

    Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively. Socio-demographic and risk factors for HBV transmission were recorded. Mothers were tested for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-IgG) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBsAg-positive sera were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV viral load (HBVDNA). Babies were tested for HBsAg at presentation and at the last immunization visit. A sample of HBsAg-negative babies were tested for HBVDNA. Incident HBV infection was defined by either a positive HBsAg or HBVDNA test. Chi-square or fisher's exact tests were utilized to investigate associations and t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous differences. We recruited 612 mothers, median age 23years (IQR 20-28). 53 (8.7%) were HBsAg-positive and 339 (61.5%) were anti-HBc-IgG-positive. Ten (18.9%) of the HBsAg-positive mothers were HBeAg-positive. Median HBVDNA levels of HBV-infected mothers was 5.7log (IQR 4.6-7.0) IU/mL with 9 (17.6%) having levels≥10 5 IU/mL. Eighty (13.3%) mothers were HIV-infected of whom 9 (11.5%) were co-infected with HBV. No baby tested HBsAg or HBVDNA positive. Vertical transmission does not seem to contribute substantially to the high HBV endemicity in northern Uganda. The current practice of administering the first HBV vaccine to babies in Uganda at six weeks of age may be adequate in control of HBV transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... knees snug against your body. If your nipple hurts, see if your baby has slipped down and ... Rasmussen KM. Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother-infant dyad. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2013;60( ...

  13. Atuação fonoaudiológica em bebês pré-termos de mães adolescentes: uma nova realidade Speech therapy performance in preterm babies of teenage mothers: a new reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Maria de Lima Barros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar os aspectos do sistema sensório motor oral de recém-nascidos pré-termos de mães adolescentes, comparando-os com os de mães não adolescentes. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída de 15 mães e 18 recém-nascidos, já que duas das puérperas tiveram gravidezes múltiplas, dos quais, quatro bebês pré-termos são de mães adolescentes e 11 de mães não adolescentes na mesma condição, internos na Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: ficou evidente que existe uma inadequada assistência ao pré-natal, tanto das mães adolescentes quanto das mães não adolescentes, podendo estar relacionado a fatores socioeconômicos. Os recém-nascidos que apresentaram muito baixo peso ao nascer têm maior dificuldade quanto à transição da alimentação por sonda para via oral, tanto no grupo de mães adolescentes quanto no de mães não adolescentes. CONCLUSÃO: a imaturidade biológica dos recém-nascidos pré-termos pode levar na sua maioria à imaturidade do sistema sensório motor oral, independente da idade da mãe. As alterações do sistema sensório motor oral encontradas podem ter acontecido devido à quantidade de aparelhos utilizados pelos recém-nascidos. Não houve diferença no peso ao nascimento entre os bebês de mães adolescentes e não adolescentes, podendo ser explicado pela faixa etária das mães adolescentes que se encontraram entre 16 a 19 anos, o que definiu uma homogeneidade do grupo.PURPOSE: to investigate the aspects of the oral motor sensorial system of preterm babies of teenage mothers, in order to compare them with those of non-teenage mothers. METHODS: the sample was constituted of 15 mothers and 18 newborn babies, from which two mothers had multiple pregnancies, 4 preterm babies were born from teenage mothers and the others 11 from non-teenage mothers, all of them in the same condition of interns in the maternity of "Hospital das Clínicas da

  14. Mild gestational diabetes in pregnancy and the adipoinsular axis in babies born to mothers in the ACHOIS randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Blasio Miles J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild gestational diabetes is a common complication of pregnancy, affecting up to 9% of pregnant women. Treatment of mild GDM is known to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and associated birth injuries, such as shoulder dystocia, bone fractures and nerve palsies. This study aimed to compare the plasma glucose concentrations and serum insulin, leptin and adiponectin in cord blood of babies of women (a without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, (b with mild GDM under routine care, or (c mild GDM with treatment. Methods 95 women with mild GDM on oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT at one tertiary level maternity hospital who had been recruited to the ACHOIS trial at one of the collaborating hospitals and randomised to either Treatment (n = 46 or Routine Care (n = 49 and Control women with a normal OGTT (n = 133 were included in the study. Women with mild GDM (treatment or routine care group and OGTT normal women received routine pregnancy care. In addition, women with treated mild GDM received dietary advice, blood glucose monitoring and insulin if necessary. The primary outcome measures were cord blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin. Results Cord plasma glucose was higher in women receiving routine care compared with control, but was normalized by treatment for mild GDM (p = 0.01. Cord serum insulin and insulin to glucose ratio were similar between the three groups. Leptin concentration in cord serum was lower in GDM treated women compared with routine care (p = 0.02 and not different to control (p = 0.11. Adiponectin was lower in both mild GDM groups compared with control (Treatment p = 0.02 and Routine Care p = 0.07, while the adiponectin to leptin ratio was lower for women receiving routine care compared with treatment (p = 0.08 and control (p = 0.05. Conclusion Treatment of women with mild GDM using diet, blood glucose monitoring and insulin if necessary, influences the

  15. Collodion baby: A report of 4 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... decent. The abnormal appearances of the babies' skin were all no- ticed at birth. ... mal appearance of the baby's skin was noticed at birth. Baby was delivered at home but mother presented im- .... autosomal recessive fashion.16 Placental insufficiency and post maturity have also been implicated in some.

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid administration in patients with cholestasis of pregnancy: effects on primary bile acids in babies and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, G; Rizzo, N; Azzaroli, F; Simoni, P; Bovicelli, L; Miracolo, A; Simonazzi, G; Colecchia, A; Nigro, G; Mwangemi, C; Festi, D; Roda, E; Nicola, R; Francesco, A; Patrizia, S; Luciano, B; Anna, M; Giuliana, S; Antonio, C; Giovanni, N; Constance, M; Davide, F; Enrico, R

    2001-03-01

    Little is known about the effects on the fetus of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Twenty ICP patients were given UDCA at 1.5 to 2 g/d, to our knowledge the highest dosage yet reported. Effects were evaluated on conjugated bile acids (BA) in amniotic fluid (15 of 20 patients) and umbilical cord serum obtained at delivery (20 of 22 newborns), as compared with 10 untreated patients (amniotic fluid, 9 of 10 patients; cord serum, 9 of 10 newborns). Liver function tests, serum BA and UDCA were evaluated on enrollment and then weekly until 1 week after delivery. Maternal serum conjugated cholic (CCA) and chenodeoxycholic (CCDCA) acids levels fell (18.5 +/- 1.9 to 10.5 +/- 1.9 micromol/L, and 5.8 +/- 0.8 to 2.97 +/- 0.7 micromol/L, respectively [P <.01]) in treated patients, and remained unaffected (20.0 +/- 3.1 vs. 20.3 +/- 2.3, and 5.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.5, respectively [P = not significant]) in untreated ones. Serum conjugated UDCA levels rose to 16.5 +/- 1.8 micromol/L (P<.001). Median values of CCA and CCDCA in amniotic fluid around delivery were 4.9 +/- 12.4 and 4.8 +/- 7.7 micromol/L, respectively, in treated patients, as against 17.9 +/- 27.5 and 18.5 +/- 20.9 micromol/L in untreated ones. In treated mothers, CCA and CCDCA concentrations in cord blood were 6.0 +/- 0.9 and 5.2 +/- 0.95 micromol/L, respectively, as against 21.9 +/- 5.6 and 18.9 +/- 2.1 micromol/L in untreated ones. In treated patients, median UDCA values in amniotic fluid and cord blood were 0.8 +/- 2.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.14 micromol/L, respectively. We conclude that increasing the dose of UDCA more effectively controls ICP and improves maternal clinical outcome after delivery.

  17. Land Vehicle Tire Qualification: DSCC Annual Tire Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    UNCLASSIFIED 32 CATL REQUALIFICATION • Once a tire manufacturers particular model/retreading process of tire has been qualified, it shall remain...the original tire model. REQUALIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED 33 QUALIFICATION PROCESS Tires defined by Product Description (ZZ-T-391, ZZ-T-410, ZZ-T-1619

  18. Domestic violence and the place of fear in mother/baby relationships: "what was I afraid of ? Of making it worse.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Fiona; Power, Charmaine; Verity, Fiona

    2013-06-01

    It should come as no surprise that when women who have raised babies in domestic violence come together to discuss the formation of relationships with their babies they raise issues of fear. Yet in current attachment studies about the formation of relationships between women and their babies, knowledge of fear based in lived experiences is undervalued. This article draws on a qualitative study of such experiences to explore ways in which fear impacted on 16 women and their babies. From this study it is discerned that fear impacts in diverse ways on women, babies, and their relationships with each other. Women's experiences show that fear is a complex emotion that cannot be understood outside of context, relations, and subjectivity. Furthermore, fear can be the motivation for protection, whereby actions by women are in the interests of safety of their babies. These insights look beyond attachment theory to the manifestations of and responses to fear identified by women who have raised babies while enduring domestic violence.

  19. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh E Keag

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016 reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death.Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017, supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and large (more than 1,000 participants prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%. One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies. Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies. Pregnancy after cesarean delivery was associated with

  20. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keag, Oonagh E.; Stock, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. Methods and findings Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large (more than 1,000 participants) prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%). One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries) were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies) and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies). Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies) and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies). Pregnancy after cesarean

  1. Teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  2. Collodion baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaded S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare congenital disorder characterized by parchment like taught membrane covering the whole body. Other findings in our case include ectropion, eversion of lips, and flattening of nose and ears. Skin biopsy showed features consistant with the diagnosis of collodion baby. The child was treated with supportive measures like antibiotics, intravenous fluids, humidification, and application of emollients.

  3. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... severe exploitation, such as forced labour, slavery, debt bondage, prostitution, pornography or the unlawful removal of organs”. Kalu (2011) in his report on the issue of 'baby factory' in the South East of Nigeria, described 'baby factory' as a form of child trafficking since the girls are harboured against their ...

  4. Voz cantada e a constituição da relação mãe-bebê Singing voice and the constitution of mother/baby relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: refletir sobre uma faceta da constituição da relação mãe-bebê, que se fez presente no uso criativo da voz cantada da mãe, na comunicação com o seu bebê. PROCEDIMENTOS: o único sujeito desse estudo é uma mãe, que se submeteu a oito sessões de terapias corporais associadas à emissão da voz cantada, sempre dirigidas ao bebê; as sessões transcorreram com a possibilidade de expressão livre pela fala e gesto da mãe e a escuta do terapeuta. RESULTADOS: o quadro que a mãe apresentava em relação ao seu bebê, no início do tratamento, se encaixa na descrição de depressão pós-parto. Após as sessões, a mãe conseguiu estabelecer contato com seu bebê, de modo prazeroso; por meio da emissão da voz cantada, ela estabeleceu a primeira forma de comunicação e não mais apresentou o quadro de dor e perda da voz. CONCLUSÃO: a possibilidade de reconhecimento, do bebê por sua mãe, teve a corporeidade como aliada, na conjunção dos corpos da mãe e do bebê, o que favoreceu o estabelecimento de uma comunicação com sintonia de ritmos, por meio da entoação de música cantada, que levou à constituição do bebê enquanto pessoa integrada.BACKGROUND: to address one aspect of mother/baby relationship, that arises from the use of singing voice in their communicative process. PROCEDURE: the subject of this case study is a mother who undergoes eight sessions of body therapy (massage and exercises associated to the utterance of singing voice, always directed to the baby; the sessions offered the possibility of free expression through the mother's use of gestures and speech along with the therapist' listening. RESULTS: in the beginning of treatment, the reaction of the mother towards her baby fits precisely in postpartum depression description. After the sessions, she was able to keep a most pleasant contact with her baby; by means of the singing voice, she has got the first way of communication with her child and either pain or

  5. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  6. Baby swimming and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  8. Activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways at the end of term are associated with inflammation and physio-somatic and depression symptoms, while predicting outcome characteristics in mother and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Matsumoto, Andressa Keiko; Nogueira, André de Souza; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Carvalho, André F; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Moreira, Estefania Gastaldello; Maes, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls. Pregnancy is accompanied by significantly increased AOPP and NOx, and lowered TRAP, -SH and LOOH. Increased O&NS and lowered LOOH and -SH levels are associated with prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, pain, dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal symptoms). Increased AOPP and NOx are significantly associated with lowered -SH, TRAP and zinc, and with increased haptoglobin and C-reactive protein levels. Increased O&NS and lowered TRAP and PON 1 activity, at the end of term predict mother (e.g. hyperpigmentation, labor duration, caesarian section, cord length, breast milk flow) and baby (e.g. sleep and feeding problems) outcome characteristics. Pregnancy is accompanied by interrelated signs of O&NS, lowered antioxidant defenses and activated neuro-immune pathways. Increased O&NS at the end of term is associated with perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms and may predict obstetric and behavioral complications in mother and baby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Loan P; Whaley, Shannon E; Gradziel, Pat H; Crocker, Nancy J; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Harrison, Gail G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, assessed preference for cash value vouchers (CVVs) for fruits and vegetables vs jarred baby foods, and examined whether preferences varied among selected ethnic groups. A survey of California WIC participants and statewide redemption data were used. Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV for fruits and vegetables and jarred baby foods, with statistically significant variation across ethnic groups. About two thirds of all participants reported a preference for CVVs for fruits and vegetables over jarred baby foods. Redemption data indicated declining redemption rates for jarred fruits and vegetables with increasing age of the infant across all ethnic groups. Although the addition of jarred fruits and vegetables to the food package for infants ages 6-11 months was well received, many caregivers want the option to choose between jarred foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  10. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  11. Depressão materna e a interação triádica pai-mãe-bebê Maternal depression and father-mother-baby triadic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Bitencourt Frizzo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo examinou as eventuais diferenças na interação triádica (pai-mãe-bebê e diádica (mãe-bebê, pai-bebê e mãe-pai em famílias com e sem depressão materna, com bebês de um ano de idade, durante uma sessão de interação livre. Participaram do estudo 19 famílias, das quais 9 de mães deprimidas e 10 de mães não-deprimidas. Foram investigados os padrões de interação triádico e diádico através de um protocolo envolvendo diversas categorias. Contrariando a hipótese do estudo, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas interações triádicas entre as famílias com e sem depressão materna. Já nas interações diádicas, dentro de cada grupo de famílias, apareceram diferenças estatisticamente significantes no grupo sem depressão materna. Nas famílias com depressão materna, apenas a categoria estimulação cognitiva obteve significantemente maior incidência, indicando que, embora deprimidas, as mães conseguiam prover uma estimulação adequada para seus bebês. No conjunto, os dados sugerem que a depressão materna pode acarretar mudanças, ainda que sutis, no padrão familiar.This study examined the eventual differences in triadic (father-mother-baby and dyadic (mother-baby, father-baby and father-mother interaction in families with and without maternal depression, with one-year old babies, during a free-play session. Nineteen families participated in the study, 9 with maternal depression and 10 without. The triadic and the dyadic patterns of interaction were examined using a protocol with several categories. Contradicting the hypothesis of the study, there were no significant differences in the interactions among families with and without maternal depression. But when analyzing the dyadic interactions, in each group of families, there were some significant differences only in the group without maternal depression. In families with maternal depression, only the cognitive stimulation category

  12. Evoluções motoras e linguísticas de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento na perspectiva de mães Motor and language development of babies with delayed development from the mothers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiany Hekavei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a evolução do desenvolvimento motor e de linguagem em bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento a partir da perspectiva materna. Participaram do estudo seis mães de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento. A pesquisa foi realizada numa instituição com programa de intervenção precoce e em ambiente domiciliar. Foram feitas entrevistas com as mães, por meio de um roteiro semiestruturado. O modo de compreensão das mães, tanto do processo de desenvolvimento motor, quanto linguístico dos filhos, indicou uma evolução no desenvolvimento dessas crianças. Uma das provas disso, foi a forma como essas mães se referiram ao desenvolvimento das crianças, antes destas ingressarem no programa de intervenção precoce e no momento atual. Conhecer e valorizar as percepções trazidas pelos cuidadores e particularmente pelas mães, implica em ampliar o entendimento dos seus saberes e práticas. Estes valores, por sua vez, podem ser utilizados no sentido de favorecer todo o processo de desenvolvimento infantil.The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of motor and language development in developmentally delayed babies from the mother's perspective. Six mothers of developmentally delayed babies participated in the study. This study was conducted in an institution that had an early intervention program and in the home environment. Interviews with the mothers were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The way the mothers understood both their children's processes of motor and language development was indicative of an evolution in these children's development. The ways these mothers reported on the development of the children before they entered the early intervention program and at present is evidence to this effect. To know and to value the perception that caretakers have about their children has to do with broadening their understanding and practices. These values, in turn, can be

  13. Dificuldades maternas no processo de aleitamento materno de prematuros em uma UTI neonatal Las dificultades maternas en el proceso de amamantamiento materno de prematuros en una UTI neonato Mother's difficulties in breastfeeding premature babies in the neonatal ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Olívia Andreo Serra

    2004-08-01

    necesario capacitar los profesionales hospitalarios y implantar protocolos de intervención, con vistas a las experiencias y necesidades maternas y la articulación entre las acciones intrahospitalarias y interinstitucionales.This study aimed to describe the care and difficulties mothers face when breastfeeding their premature babies at a neonatal intensive care unit (ICU. Therefore, a qualitative approach was adopted. Data were obtained through structured interviews, which were recorded with five mothers of premature babies under 2,000g who were assisted at the neonatal ICU in Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. The results revealed five subthemes: maintaining milk production by milking, facing discomfort during the stay at the neonatal ICU, living with medical food procedures for premature babies, facing the fragility of the premature baby and the neonatal ICU environment and needing logistic support for breastfeeding. A lack of systematic interventions was observed to stimulate breastfeeding while mothers and their premature babies are in hospital. Hospital professionals need to be trained and intervention protocols have to be implanted, in view of the maternal experiences and needs and the articulation between intrahospital and interinstitutional actions.

  14. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    Decreased when: ▫ the mother and/or baby are on ART. ▫ the baby really does not have anything else to eat or drink. ... nutrient needs and so must eat more healthy foods than usual. • After delivery: ▫ check that the baby is suckling ... if the baby refuses but to seek advice. The baby may be sick or have a congenital problem.

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  18. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  19. Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. Results: One hundred and forty two ...

  20. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and... identification marking of the proper tire. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at...

  1. Intencionalidade comunicativa e atenção conjunta: uma análise em contextos interativos mãe-bebê Communicative intentionality and joint attention: an analysis in the context of mother-baby interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola de Sousa Braz Aquino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as manifestações de intencionalidade comunicativa em episódios interativos mãe-bebê, considerando-se as relações entre intencionalidade comunicativa, atenção conjunta e trocas intersubjetivas mãe-bebê. Participaram dessa pesquisa seis díades mãe-bebê aos seis, nove e doze meses do bebê, observadas em suas residências, numa situação de brincadeira livre, durante quarenta minutos em cada etapa. Através das análises das observações foram identificados marcos na trajetória evolutiva e diferentes configurações sociocomunicativas e de atenção conjunta nas díades. Verificou-se que as aquisições de comunicação intencional e os diferentes contextos de atenção conjunta redirecionaram o curso das interações, em cada idade. Este estudo contribui para a discussão relativa à cognição social infantil com ênfase nas relações entre atenção conjunta, comunicação intencional e aquisição da linguagem.The purpose of this study was to analyze the manifestation of communicative intentionality in motherbaby interactive episodes considering the relations between communicative intentionality, joint attention and mother-baby inter-subjective exchanges. This research involved the participation of 6 mother-baby dyads. Babies were six, nine and twelve months old and were observed in their houses in a free play situation for forty minutes in each observation period. Landmarks of the evolutionary trajectory were identified through observations, making it possible to verify intra-individual and inter-individual changes regarding the abilities evidenced by the dyad. The acquisition of intentional communication and the different interactive contexts of joint attention redirected the course of the interactions in each observed period. This study contributes to the discussion on infant's social cognition in the first year of life emphasizing the relations among joint attention, intentional

  2. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  3. Molecular characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in a mother-baby prospective cohort study: Implication for vaccine development and insights into vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunming; Wen, Guoming; Cao, Xuelian; Guo, Dan; Yao, Zhenjiang; Wu, Chuan'an; Ye, Xiaohua

    2018-04-05

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of GBS colonized in mothers and their infants so as to provide implication for vaccine strategies and confirm vertical transmission. A prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 1815 mother-neonate pairs. All GBS isolates from pregnant women and her infants were tested for serotypes, multilocus sequence types and virulence genes. The relationship between multiple molecular characteristics of GBS isolates was tested by the correspondence analysis, and the agreement between mother-neonate paired data in molecular characteristics was analyzed using Kappa tests. The predominant serotypes were III, Ia and V, and the most prevalent sequence types (STs) were ST19, ST17, ST10, and ST12. All isolates carried at least one pilus island (PI). The most common combination of PIs was PI-2b alone, followed by PI-1+PI-2a and PI-2a alone, and the most prevalent alpha-like protein (alp) genes were rib, epsilon and alphaC. Moreover, a strong relationship was noted between STs, serotypes, alp genes and PIs, including ST17 associated with serotype-III/rib/PI-2b, ST19 with serotype-III/rib/PI-1+PI-2a, and ST485 with serotype-Ia/epsilon/PI-2b. The rate of GBS vertical transmission was 14.1%, and the kappa test revealed good agreement in multiple molecular characteristics among GBS-positive mother-neonate pairs. Notably, the switching of molecular characteristics was found during vertical transmission. Our findings underscore the value of monitoring multiple molecular characteristics so as to provide implication for multivalent strategies and gain insights into GBS vertical transmission and vertical characteristic switching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Supporting mothers to bond with their newborn babies: Strategies used in a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellemes Phuma-Ngaiyaye

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was showed that nurses and midwives used different approaches to facilitate maternal–newborn bonding. The responses revealed two major themes: mother–newborn interaction and mother–nurse/midwife interaction. Mother–newborn interaction involved breastfeeding and maternal involvement in newborn care, whereas mother–nurse/midwife interaction involved effective communication and psychosocial support. Maternal–newborn bonding promotes a mother's successful transition into motherhood, nurses and midwives should actively initiate strategies facilitating early maternal–newborn bonding.

  5. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. Baby hatch

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Diana; Burova, Tina; Bengtsson, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Baby Hatch is an alternative adoption process. We have re-conceptualized an already existing concept for it to fit into Danish regulations. Additionally, we have created tangible communication materials in the form of a poster and brochure that will help us to communicate the concept in a focus group discussion setup. In this project, we will be analyzing the participants’ reception of the product campaign and an awareness campaign by using a theory that is introduced by Kim Schrøder, nam...

  8. Uptake and predictors of early postnatal follow-up care amongst mother-baby pairs in South Africa: Results from three population-based surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna; Cheyip, Mireille; Aynalem, Getahun; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Chirinda, Witness; Mogashoa, Mary; Kindra, Gupreet; Lombard, Carl; Goga, Ameena

    2017-12-01

    Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother-infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake. We analyzed data from three facility-based, nationally representative surveys (2010, 2011/12 and 2012/13) primarily designed to determine the effectiveness of the South African program to prevent MTCT. This analysis describes the proportion of infants achieving the WHO recommendation of at least 3 PNC visits. Interviews from 27 699 HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers of infants aged 4-8 weeks receiving their six week immunization were included in analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0 and weighted for sample ascertainment and South African live births. We fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to estimate factors associated with early PNC uptake. Over half (59.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.0-60.3) of mother-infant pairs received the recommended three PNC visits during the first 6 weeks; uptake was 63.1% (95% CI = 61.9-64.3) amongst HIV exposed infants and 58.1% (95% CI = 57.3-58.9) amongst HIV unexposed infants. Uptake of early PNC improved significantly with each survey, but varied significantly by province. Multivariable analysis of the pooled data, controlling for survey year, demonstrated that number of antenatal visits (4+ vs 12 weeks, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.23), place of delivery (clinic vs hospital aOR = 1.5, 1.3-1.6), and infant HIV exposure (exposed vs unexposed aOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.2) were the key factors associated with receiving recommended PNC visits. Approximately 40% of

  9. Relação de escolaridade, faixa etária e profissão de mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos Relationship of schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação do grau de escolaridade, faixa etária e a profissão das mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 190 mães de crianças entre 0 e 10 anos de idade, com idades de 20 a 45 anos que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas a respeito de profissão, nível de escolaridade e uso de chupeta e mamadeira de seus filhos RESULTADOS: não foi observada diferença significante entre o grau de escolaridade quanto ao uso de chupeta (p= 0,915. O uso de mamadeira foi significantemente maior nos filhos de mães com ensino superior (p= 0,0124. Não houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária das mães e a presença desses hábitos nos filhos (chupeta: p=0,427; mamadeira: p=0,427; e, entre mães que trabalham em casa e que trabalham fora de casa (chupeta: p=0,061; mamadeira: p=0,798. Não houve diferença entre mães que trabalham na área da saúde e em outras áreas (chupeta: p=0,339; mamadeira: p=0,455 CONCLUSÃO: as mães com nível superior de escolaridade oferecem significantemente mais mamadeira aos seus filhos, o que não ocorreu quanto ao uso de chupeta. Não foi observada diferença significante quanto ao uso de chupeta e mamadeira em relação à faixa etária e profissão de mães.PURPOSE: to evaluate the relationships among schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children. METHOD: 190 mothers with ages varying from 20 to 45 having children from 0 to 10 took part in this study. Mothers answered a questionnaire with questions regarding profession, schooling level and use of nipples and baby's bottles by their children. RESULTS: no significant differences were found between mothers having primary or secondary education and mothers with higher education regarding the use of nipples (p= 0.915. On the other hand, baby's bottle use was significantly higher among children of mothers with higher

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the health of all moms and babies. SIGN UP MARCH WITH US We're leading the fight ... the health of all moms and babies. SIGN UP [Skip to Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | Share ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the health of all moms and babies. SIGN UP MARCH WITH US We're leading the ... for the health of all moms and babies. SIGN UP [Skip to Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | ...

  13. Once Baby Arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if necessary, and prescribe the best treatment. Handling Baby's Food Safely... Protect your baby and young children by ... the safety button on the lid of commercial baby-food jars is down. If the jar lid doesn' ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so ... you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  17. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  18. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is organic baby food better for my baby? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Organic foods are grown or processed without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Feeding ...

  19. Reduced prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity among pregnant women born after the national implementation of immunoprophylaxis for babies born to hepatitis B virus-carrier mothers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Aya; Ohisa, Masayuki; Nagashima, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Chikako; Chuon, Channarena; Fujii, Toshiko; Akita, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Keiko; Kudo, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Junko

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity among birth year-stratified pregnant women in Hiroshima, Japan, and compare prevalence rates between women born before and after implementation of a national immunoprophylactic vaccination program for babies born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers in Japan. Pregnant women who gave birth at all delivery hospitals/clinics in Hiroshima prefecture between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011 were eligible. Lists collected from each institution included survey items such as age (pregnant woman's birth year) and HBsAg and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) test results, which were posted anonymously and non-consolidated from medical records. We calculated the HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence in our cohort according to the mothers' birth year. In 41 of 58 hospitals/clinics, 15 233 and 15 035 pregnant women underwent HBsAg and anti-HCV testing, corresponding to 59.6% and 58.9% of 25 546 births in the 2010 fiscal year, respectively. The overall HBsAg positive rate was 0.51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.63%), and an extremely low prevalence (0.10%; 95% CI, 0.00-0.25%) was observed among pregnant women born after 1986. However, the prevalence in this study was slightly higher than the nationwide value (0.31%) and the Chugoku region-specific value (0.46%) among first-time blood donors at Japanese Red Cross blood centers between 2001 and 2006. No significant difference in anti-HCV positivity was observed. Only two pregnant women born after the preventive program implementation were HBsAg-positive. Perinatal HBV transmission is estimated to be almost completely inhibited in the next generation. © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a single wheel and tire assembly, the wheel must be fitted with a... reaction. This nose tire load may not exceed 1.5 times the load rating of the tire. (c) When a landing gear...

  1. Gravidez após morte perinatal: sobre a relação da mãe com o bebê sobrevivente Pregnancy after perinatal death: concerning the relationship of mother with the survivor baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Vidal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a experiência emocional materna na gravidez e parto prematuro subsequente à perda perinatal, que é definida como sendo o óbito fetal ocorrido nas últimas semanas de gestação ou o do recém-nascido nas primeiras semanas após o parto. Faz parte do trabalho realizado durante o curso de doutorado em Saúde da Mulher (Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz que utilizou do método qualitativo de pesquisa em saúde para a construção de histórias de vida através das técnicas de entrevistas abertas, não diretivas, e observação participante. O trabalho de campo consistiu no acompanhamento da dupla mãe-bebê durante a internação e seis meses após a alta hospitalar. A amostra dos sujeitos selecionados foi realizada a partir do critério relativo ao acompanhamento por 24 horas de internações com duração igual ou superior a trinta dias. Este artigo se refere a uma das quatro histórias de vidas construídas. Resultados: produção de conhecimento sobre o estado de humor materno em mães de bebês prematuros após a alta hospitalar, através da identificação de reações emocionais características de um trabalho de luto específico ligado à perda perinatal em sua relação com as síndromes do "bebê de substituição" e da "criança vulnerável".The objective of this study was to investigate the maternal mood after pregnancy and premature childbirth after perinatal loss which is defined as the fetal death occurred in the last weeks of gestation or the newborn in the first few weeks after delivery. The study is part of the work executed during a phD course in Woman's Health (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Instituto Fernandes Figueira using the qualitative method of research in health for the construction of life histories by means of techniques of opened, non-directive interviews, and participant comment. The field work consisted in accompanying of the double mother-baby during

  2. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety based on strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). However, since a conventional foil strain gage has high stiffness, it causes the analyzed region to behave unnaturally. The present study proposes a novel rubber-based strain sensor fabricated using photolithography. The rubber base has the same mechanical properties as the tire surface; thereby the sensor does not interfere with the tire deformation and can accurately monitor the behavior of the tire. We also investigate the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  3. Intelligent Tires Based on Measurement of Tire Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a ‘safe’ reference value.

  4. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety using wireless strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-03-01

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  6. Akachan ni Kanpai! Celebrating the baby: Baby, family, culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    "Akachan ni Kanpai! Celebrating the Baby: Baby, Family, Culture" was the theme of the 11th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health (August 2008). It denotes every baby's right to be blessed from the beginning of life, whether the baby is healthy, ill, disabled, or born into unwelcoming social contexts. Across the world, modern families of the 21st century face increasingly stressful lives. Japan, with a rapid postwar social change, has yielded increasing cases of postnatal depression and abuse, alerting her to reevaluate amae, a cultural affinity for interdependency. Amae, as studied by Takeo Doi, originates in the mother--infant relationship and is carried through into adulthood characterizing Japanese mentality. The Japanese values for things simple, small, slow, and silent are typical in the art of haiku and Noh, but also render significant in infant mental health. Infants born under impossible conditions, such as those born extremely small and with congenital anomalies, survive through simple, sincere, sensitive care imbued with respect to their subtle signs. Their narratives of slow and steady progress from despair to a loving family context urge us to say "Akachan ni Kanpai" to countless infants worldwide whose voices are yet to be heard. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  8. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, David; Simkiss, Doug; Quenby, Siobhan; Davies, David; Kandala, Ngianga-bakwin; Kamwendo, Francis; Mhango, Chisale; O'Hare, Joseph Paul

    2012-10-25

    Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs) such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses). This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15). Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention). Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility) mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3-4 years) and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews) will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings from this trial will lead to a sustainable improvement in

  9. 2009 tire inflation and attitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This tire study was conducted to determine the current attitudes and knowledge levels of Canadian consumers in relation to tire inflation and tire maintenance. The aim of the study was to determine if Canadians have improved their tire inflation habits since 2003, when a study was conducted to set the benchmark for the level of tire inflation across Canada. The study was designed to replicate the earlier study in order to provide an accurate comparison with results obtained in 2003. The survey was conducted by engineering faculty and students trained by an automotive consultant to measure tire pressure and tire tread depth. Data on tire care attitudes and habits were obtained. Results of the study showed that in 2009, underinflated tires were approximately 3 PSI below recommended levels as opposed to the average of 4 PSI observed in 2003. The proportion of cars with at least 1 problem tire significantly decreased in 2009 when compared with results from the 2003 survey. Front tires tended to be more overinflated than rear tires. A slight improvement among overinflated tires was seen in 2009 when compared with results obtained in 2003. tabs., figs.

  10. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Profiles Among Subgroups of Unwed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Joseph M.; Turner, Robert Gerald

    1976-01-01

    To identify replicable homogeneous subgroups among three samples of unwed mothers a multivariate clustering technique was employed to analyze the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) responses of unwed mothers giving up their babies for adoption (Ns=122 and 127) and unwed mothers keeping their babies (N=47). Three personality…

  11. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos...

  12. The baby has not come: obstructed labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. This article is about how to recognize obstructed labour and deal with it in a way that preserves the life and health of mother and child. It is for midwives and others who work in maternity care and is based on our experiences in Yei, South Sudan. Obstructed labour means that the baby is too big to pass through ...

  13. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  15. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e- ... good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby ... Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, ... t be afraid to ask for help ; you may just need a little extra time and support ...

  1. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  2. Choosing Safe Baby Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attaches to the wall. Do not use the diamond-shaped, accordion-style gates. Your child can be ... raises the risk of SIDS. As the baby grows, guidelines recommend having the baby face out, rather ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby ... breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  6. Caring for Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding your baby. Breast milk is the best baby food. If your baby does not suck or latch ... solid food. Most doctors advise giving a premature baby solid food at 4 to 6 months after the baby’s ...

  7. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  8. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  9. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... easiest for changing diapers and cleaning baby up. Mittens for the baby's hands to keep them from ... Carlo WA. The newborn infant. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available MARCH WITH US We're leading the fight for the health of all moms and babies. SIGN UP MARCH WITH US We're leading the fight for ... moms and babies. SIGN UP [Skip to Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | Share Your Story Register | Sign ...

  11. Breastfeed Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In fact, giving babies things like rice cereal, baby food, or formula during the first 6 months can ... may help answer some of your questions. My baby really doesn't need other food or liquid for the first 6 months? Right. ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... opportunities Our corporate partners In Your Area Tools & Resources Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all ...

  13. The New Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Helen

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of a South African priest and his wife who are ashamed when their daughter tells them she is going to have a baby. They refuse to have anything to do with her when she is pregnant. However, when the baby comes, everything changes and they come to accept and love the baby. Large black and white…

  14. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellard David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses. Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15. Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention. Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings

  15. Feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge Sentimientos y expectativas de las madres en el alta hospitalaria del recién nacido prematuro Sentimentos e expectativas das mães na alta hospitalar do recém-nascido prematuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zuleide da Silva Rabelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge. METHODS: This descriptive study used Bardin's framework to collect data among 11 mothers of preterm babies from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Data were collected through interviews from December 2004 to January 2005. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: the moment of the discharge; mothers' knowledge and questions; mothers' preparation and orientation for discharge; and, mothers' desired orientation. CONCLUSION: Although mothers' experienced excitement and happiness at discharge, many reported being anxious and insecure on how to take care of their preterm babies.OBJETIVO: Investigar los sentimientos y expectativas de madres de recién nacidos prematuros en el momento del alta hospitalaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio con abordaje cualitativo, desarrollado con madres de recién nacidos prematuros internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista, en el período de diciembre/2004 a enero/2005. Los sujetos fueron 11 madres que vivenciaban el alta hospitalaria del hijo. La organización de los datos estuvo fundamentada en Bardin. RESULTADOS: Del análisis emergieron cuatro categorías: Momento del alta hospitalaria, Dudas maternas, Preparación y orientaciones para el alta, Orientaciones deseadas por las madres. CONCLUSION: Los sentimientos expresados por las madres fueron alegría, ansiedad e inseguridad en el alta hospitalaria del hijo.OBJETIVO: Investigar os sentimentos e expectativas das mães de recém-nascidos prematuros no momento da alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com mães de recém-nascidos prematuros internados numa Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, no período de dezembro/2004 a janeiro/2005. Os sujeitos foram 11 mães que vivenciavam a alta hospitalar do filho. A organiza

  16. The LHC babies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  17. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  18. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  19. Baby-led Weaning: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Elisa; Jenkins, Kielyn; Mathews, Maria; Roebothan, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    To date, baby-led weaning (BLW) has not been examined in a Canadian population. This research investigated common BLW practices and compared associated knowledge and perceptions of practicing mothers and health care professionals (HCPs). Sixty-five mothers practicing BLW and 33 HCPs were surveyed using 2 online questionnaires. Mothers were recruited through the Newfoundland and Labrador BLW Facebook page and HCPs via email at 2 regional health authorities. Mothers described BLW in terms of food shape and consistency (whole, solid); however, in practice, some mothers offered puréed foods such as infant cereals. More HCPs than mothers indicated choking, inadequate energy, and iron intake as concerns. Mothers relied on the Facebook page over HCPs for BLW information and support. Although all practicing mothers would recommend BLW to others, less than half (48.5%) of HCPs would support it in their practice. Mothers following BLW vary greatly in their experiences and adherence to BLW. They view the practice and its disadvantages very differently than HCPs. Although most HCPs were aware of BLW, few were familiar with specific practices. HCPs may benefit from a greater understanding of BLW to provide guidance to the growing number of mothers following this practice.

  20. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  1. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  2. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  3. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  4. Estudo pessoa-processo-contexto da qualidade das interações entre mãe-adolescente e seu bebê A person-process-context study of the quality of interactions between the teenage mother and her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bigras

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: entender os mecanismos de transmissão das dificuldades psicossociais, diante dos processos de interação entre a mãe-adolescente e filho. A hipótese é que a qualidade das trocas mãe-filho depende de fatores de riscos associados às características da mãe e características da criança. MÉTODO: OBSERvação direta da qualidade das trocas entre 97 adolescentes primíparas e filhos, de 4 meses de idade. As adolescentes estavam na faixa de 13-18 anos na 26ª semana de gravideze. As gestantes completaram questionários relativos à preparação à maternidade e história de abusos emocional. RESULTADOS: a falta de conhecimentos sobre o desenvolvimento e a natureza dos cuidados dispensados à criança está associada a trocas maternas insensíveis com a criança aos 4 meses. Observou-se um efeito de interação entre as características da mãe (conhecimentos da maternidade e abuso sexual antes do seu nascimento e o sexo do bebê. CONCLUSÃO: Estes efeitos de interação entre as características da mãe e de seu filho podem favorecer o ciclo de reciprocidade negativa que, com o tempo, interfere cada vez mais em relações interpessoais harmoniosas, mais freqüentemente observado quando os parceiros são reativos perante a adversidade, os quais estão em menor condições de pacificar as trocas.OBJECTIVE: To understand the transmission mechanisms of psychosocial difficulties prompted by teenage mother and baby interactions. The hypothesis is that the quality of the mother-child exchanges relies on linked with the characteristics of the mother, such as being abused and poor preparation for motherhood, as well as the characteristics of the child. METHOD: Direct observation of the quality of exchanges between 97 primipara adolescents and their four month old babies. The teens were 13-18 years old, in the 26th week of pregnancy, from four homes run by the Youth Center in Montréal and Rosalie-Jetté School. They completed questionnaires

  5. Mothers in the NICU: outsider to partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermann, Judith A; Wilson, Margaret E; Wilhelm, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    The emerging care delivery model for Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) is family-focused, developmentally supportive care. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe mothers' experience of becoming a mother while their infants were receiving care in the NICU. A qualitative research design was used. Interviews with 15 mothers whose infants were in a Level III NICU were analyzed using Spradley's domain analysis approach. Mothers developed from outsider to engaged parent along four continua: (1) focus: from NICU to baby; (2) ownership: from their baby to my baby; (3) caregiving: from passive to active; and (4) voice: from silence to advocacy. Mothers entered the continua at different points and moved at different rates toward "engaged parenting." The final stage, partnering, required active participation of nurses. Mothers' development evolved in predictable patterns. The results of this study can be considered in implementation and evaluation plans for NICUs moving to family-focused developmental care.

  6. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  7. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vomiting, and pale or bluish skin. Shaken baby injuries usually occur in children younger than 2 years old, but may be ... vomiting, and pale or bluish skin. Shaken baby injuries usually occur in children younger than 2 years old, but may be ...

  8. T P Nafeesa Baby

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. T P Nafeesa Baby. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 80 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 289-294 Research Articles. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field · K A Vijayalakshmi T P Nafeesa Baby.

  9. Resuscitation of Newborn Babies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    If the baby is still not breathing give inflation breaths – see Box 1. The heart rate usually responds to lung inflation. If there is no heart rate response, check for chest movement. About 95% of babies needing resuscitation will recover within a minute or two once air enters the lungs. • Re-assess. If the lungs are inflating (i.e. the.

  10. Baby Bath Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bath. Most parents start with the baby's face and move down to dirtier parts of the body. This keeps rinsed areas from getting soapy again. If your newborn has hair and you think it needs washing, go ahead. With your free hand gently massage a drop of mild baby shampoo into your ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's ... Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's ...

  12. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  13. Interação mãe-bebê em contexto de depressão materna: aspectos teóricos e empíricos Mother-baby interaction in the context of maternal depression: theoretical and empirical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Bitencourt Frizzo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo revisar a literatura sobre a interação mãe-bebê em situação de depressão materna. Em particular, buscou-se analisar os diversos fatores que podem mediar o impacto da depressão materna no desenvolvimento do bebê, dentre eles a idade da criança, o seu temperamento, a cronicidade do episódio depressivo materno e o estilo interativo da mãe deprimida. A literatura revisada revela que a depressão afeta não só a mãe, mas também o bebê e até mesmo o próprio pai, em vista da influência deste quadro no contexto familiar. Alguns estudos sugerem ainda que a presença do pai e a ausência de conflitos conjugais são fatores que podem amenizar os efeitos da depressão materna para o bebê.The aim of the present study was to review the literature on mother-infant interaction in the context of maternal depression. Particularly, it aimed to examine several factors that could mediate the maternal depression impact on infant development, such as the child's age and temperament, the chronicity of the maternal depression episode and the depressed mother's interaction style. The literature reviewed shows that depression affects not only the mother, but also the baby and even the father, because of its influence on the family context. Some studies also suggest that the father's presence, as well as, the absence of marital conflict , may buffer the maternal depression effects on the baby.

  14. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  15. Setting up Kangaroo Mother Care at Queen Elizabeth Central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a method of caring for preterm and low birth weight infants. It involves nursing ... baby in the KMC position, we found that the mother's usual. 'chitenje' was just as effective, and had the ..... under the mother's breast whilst the mother was sleeping and may have suffocated. The other case was ...

  16. Healthy Parenting Skills Program toward First-Time Father’s Skills on Caring for Newborn Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Khasanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is to examine the effects of skills training program named healthy parenting program on first time father skills. The skills are baby bath and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, burping and handling the baby, baby lullaby and replace baby clothes.Method: This is a quasi experiment study. Sampling technique is purposive sampling with 30 first time father with 0-28 days new born baby. Sample equally assigned into experimental and control groups. Subject in experimental group received healthy parenting skills program, while control group was given routine care only. The instrument is observation guideline. Wilcoxon and Man Whitney Test are used to analyze data.Result: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased from before the program (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes.Conclusion: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased over control group (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket skill, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes. Suggestions are the educational efforts by health-care professionals could beneficially be directed toward fathers throughout prenatal and postpartum periods. Health center in Indonesia should initiate class program directed to father in part of program in reducing neonates and post partum mothers health problems.

  17. Visión de las madres en el cuidado del hijo prematuro en el hogar Visão das mães no cuidado do filho prematuro em casa Vision of mothers in care of premature babies at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Castiblanco López

    2011-07-01

    e analisada segundo a entrevista e análises etnográficos de James Spradley. Participantes: oito mães de recém nascidos prematuros que compareceram para controle no Programa Mãe Canguru Integral, Hospital Universitário São Ignácio, entre novembro de 2007 e maio de 2008. Resultados: surgem duas questões: cuidados diretos ao recém nascido prematuro e o caminho até a adaptação. O cuidado direto ao recém nascido prematuro em casa implica para a mãe carregar, massagear, proteger do frio, alimentar à criança, manter a higiene, conservar a proteção do médio, dar amor, suprir oxigeno suplementar ao bebê quando o precisar e saber sobre os sinais da criança. O caminho para a adaptação materna está dirigido a um objetivo para as mães: "criar a criança". Elas expressam que as noites são muito difíceis e expressam seus sentimentos e finalmente descrevem a adaptação materna ao hábito. Conclusão: a visão das mães sobre o cuidado do recém nascido prematuro é universal: "cuidar muito da criança" e ficar sempre atenta; por outro lado, a conotação de cuidado é diversa porque cada mãe o cataloga, desde sua própria percepção, como cuidado extremo, básico, essencial e especial. Também as mães compartilharam crenças, valores, tradições e mitos.Purpose: To describe the significance of taking care of premature babies at home for mothers, from their cultural context. Design: qualitative ethnographic study based on Madeleine Leininger's theory. Sample: Information obtained from observation and 23 interviews to mothers at home was collected and analyzed in accordance to the interview and James Spradley ethnographic analysis. Participants: eight mothers of premature newborns attending control at the Integral Kangaroo Mother Program (Programa Madre Canguro Integral, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, between November 2007 and May 2008. Results: Two subjects arise: premature newborn care and the way to adaptation. Direct care to premature

  18. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  19. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.733 Tires. Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (a) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (b) Of a rating that... applied only at wheels with brakes. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at...

  20. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of the...

  1. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  2. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  4. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies younger than 3 months of age. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) Signs and symptoms can include fever, ... be recommended for travel to certain countries. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) 3 or 4 2 months, 4 ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get ... and tools to have healthier pregnancies. By uniting communities, we're building a brighter future for us ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story OUR CAUSE HEALTH TOPICS RESEARCH & PROFESSIONALS MEDIA GET INVOLVED DONATE Our mission Fighting ...

  7. Bringing Your Baby Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arrives later (perhaps after a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit ), or comes through an adoption ... heart rate, and you may be taught infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) . But whether your baby is full-term ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is ... little extra time and support to get started. Learn what you can do if you have breastfeeding ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | Share Your Story Register | Sign In Hi | Your dashboard | sign out Donate ... DONATE sign up sign in sign out account center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your ... milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why ...

  11. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies have to spend time in a hospital’s neonatal intensive care unit (also called NICU). This is ... air sacs in the lungs from collapsing. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) . This is bleeding in the brain. It ...

  12. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liquid detergents can rinse out easier than powder detergents, so might be better for sensitive skin.) Unless your baby has allergies , eczema/atopic dermatitis , or another condition causing sensitive ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in sign out account center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign ... March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story OUR CAUSE HEALTH TOPICS RESEARCH & PROFESSIONALS MEDIA GET INVOLVED DONATE ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® ... with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity research Birth defects research Infant ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  17. Babies Need Tummy Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  20. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility Sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en sistema de alojamiento conjunto Sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em sistema de alojamento conjunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.Estudio realizado con el objetivo de conocer los sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, realizándose entrevistas individuales con 33 madres acompañantes en el período comprendido entre febrero y abril de 2006, en una maternidad escuela de Natal / RN / Brasil. Los principales sentimientos referidos por esas madres resultaron en tristeza, culpa, decepción, frustración, inseguridad, miedo de tocar, asegurar o hasta incluso de perjudicar a sus delicados bebés mientras eran amamantados. No obstante eso, el vínculo creado por madres y bebés cuando los mismos reciben el alta de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal para el Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, se manifiesta en los sentimientos de realización y orgullo, los cuales son determinados por la satisfacción de la primera lactancia.Estudo teve o objetivo de conhecer os sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em Sistema de Alojamento Conjunto. Entrevistas individuais foram realizadas com 33 mães acompanhantes no período de fevereiro a abril de 2006, em uma maternidade-escola de Natal/RN/Brasil. Os principais

  1. Experimental review on interior tire-road noise models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Bekke, D.A.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P

    2010-01-01

    Exterior and interior tire-road noise is a common problem for car and tire manufactures. Exterior tire-road noise is bounded by UN-ECE R117 and EC R661/2009. Interior tire-road noise on the other hand is determined by market requirements. Since the beginning of the last century different model

  2. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z

    2009-05-01

    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P < 0.0001). Babies left in a non-findable location (34%) had a 5.19 (2.06, 13.11) higher odds of death compared with those to be found. Most babies (74%) were abandoned outdoors and only 9.7% were left with a memento. Few mothers, almost exclusively those of older babies, were found (37.1%). Of those found, 92% were located within 3 days of abandoning their baby. Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for

  3. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  5. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  6. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  8. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  9. When breastfeeding, how many calories should moms and babies consume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print When breastfeeding, how many calories should moms and babies consume? How many calories do I need to take in when I ... mothers wonder if they need to consume more calories (also called energy) during breastfeeding, but the answer ...

  10. 'Think Baby': online learning for student health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; Harris, Margaret; Kelly, Cat; Huppe, Irmgard

    2014-06-01

    'Think Baby' is an innovative online learning resource which has been developed to help student health visitors (and other specialist community public health nurses) build their skills in observing and assessing mother-infant interactions. The project's development and pilot work was funded by a small grant from the Higher Education Academy. It builds on the findings of the team's previous research, which found health visitors' initial training had left them ill-prepared to assess the intricacies of mother-infant relationships. The 'Think Baby' project sought to develop online training resources for student health visitors using video footage of mothers and babies to illustrate different types of interactions. A small group of student health visitors were engaged in reviewing and evaluating the materials and considering their acceptability. Once developed, the materials were piloted with student health visitors from three universities, community practice teachers and a health visitor academic, and they were then adapted for wider roll out. 'Think Baby' enables student health visitors to develop their core skills in assessment, which is really important in identifying when early help and support are needed for mothers and infants.

  11. Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological 1 mothers. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, ...

  12. Percepções de mães de prematuros acerca da vivência em um programa educativo Percepciones de madres de prematuros acerca de la vivencia en un programa de educación en salud Perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Magalhães Ferecini

    2009-06-01

    posibilidades de socializar el conocimiento con la familia; el Programa como espacio para la relajación y la escucha; y desarrollando el vínculo afectivo con otras madres y con la enfermera. CONCLUSIÓN: Frente a los resultados positivos de este estudio, se recomienda que los programas educativos de esa naturaleza y ampliados con la participación de otros miembros de la familia del prematuro sean implantados en otras unidades neonatales.OBJECTIVE: To identify the perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program using participant observation methodology. METHODS: Thirty-eight mothers of inpatient premature babies of a neonatal unit participated in the health educational program. The goal of the educational program was to provide mothers with the knowledge and skills to care for their premature babies. Paulo Freire's theory of education served as the framework for the study. An educational booklet and group activities were used to stimulate mothers' perceptions regarding the educational program. A thematic analysis was used to identify the perceptions of mothers regarding the educational program through participants' talk. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: The development of mothers' knowledge by participating in the educational program; the potential for mothers to share the acquired knowledge with family members; the education program as a medium and place for relaxing and listening; and the development of an affective bond with other mothers and the nurse. CONCLUSION: Given the positive results of this study, it is recommended that such educational programs in neonatal units expand to include the participation of other family members or premature babies as well.

  13. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  14. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Hajdú

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to reveal the behavioural similarities and differences between the two countries. To meet this aim, a questionnaire-based quantitative research was designed. The sample consists of 993 mothers (590 from Hungary and 403 from Romania with small children. Results show that there is a difference between Romanian and Hungarian mothers regarding the baby food buying habits. The profile of the mothers buying jarred baby food can be characterised by living in towns, with one or two children, and the propensity to give jarred baby food to their child is growing with their age. The mothers agree that the labels contain tiny, unreadable letters, disordered information, unknown expressions and bad translation. The Hungarian mothers pay more attention to the indication of allergen and to the ingredients list. The most important information cluster they seek on a label is related to product ingredients, the second is related to usage of baby food and the least important are the label design elements. The paper provides insightful results for the producers and policy-makers to improve the baby food label quality to help consumers to make better, healthier and safer food choices for their children.

  16. Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... approach which involves a thorough overhaul of our rigid social orientation which will create room for a conducive environment for child rights and social protection. Keywords: Baby Dumping, Child abandonment, Child Abuse, Child Right, Baby Boxes, Baby Factories, Human Trafficking, Social Protection, Stigma, Nigeria.

  17. PKU (Phenylketonuria) in Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health conditions > PKU (Phenylketonuria) in your baby PKU (Phenylketonuria) in your baby E-mail to a friend ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Phenylketonuria (also called PKU) is a condition in which ...

  18. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby's First Meal Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  19. The baby has not come: obstructed labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy MacKeith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to recognize obstructed labour and deal with it in a way that preserves the life and health of mother and child. It is for midwives and others who work in maternity care and is based on our experiences in Yei, South Sudan. Obstructed labour means that the baby is too big to pass through the birth canal. It can be associated with prolonged labour. Prolonged labour can sometimes be treated, resulting in a normal delivery but a woman in true obstructed labour should be delivered by Caesarean section.

  20. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  1. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  2. CASE REPORT Mermaid baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE REPORT. 66. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2010. Abstract. We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia. Case report. A 40-year-old woman ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  6. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. How Babies Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2018-01-01

    Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…

  8. Market analysis baby food Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Voronina; I.Z. Dolzhanskiy

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the development of baby food industry in Ukraine and abroad due the increased level of fertility, unmet needs of baby food products in the growing demand for intervention and strengthening foreign manufacturers. Special attention is paid to government regulation and legislation of the relevant Ukrainian market of baby food.

  9. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  10. Baby Naps: Daytime Sleep Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... won't harm your baby. It's common for babies to cry when put down for sleep, but most will quiet themselves if left alone for a few minutes. If the crying lasts longer than a few minutes, check on your baby and offer comforting words. Then give him or ...

  11. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  12. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section: Brand name owner means a person, other than a tire manufacturer, who owns or has the right to... manufacturer bearing the licensor's brand name. CT means a pneumatic tire with an inverted flange tire and rim... program. (a) Scope. This section requires tire manufacturers, tire brand name owners, and tire retailers...

  13. The ART of marketing babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  14. Construcción de una escala de observación del vínculo madre-bebé internado en UCIN: Resultados preliminares de la aplicación del protocolo de observación Construction Of An Observation Scale Of The Bond Mother - Baby Interned In NICU: Preliminary Results Of The Observational Protocol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la Escala de observación de vínculo madre-bebé internado en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales desarrollada hasta el momento, así como los resultados preliminares obtenidos de su aplicación. La escala de observación vincular en neonatología comprende 5 funciones: Función de Acercamiento, Corporal, Visual, Verbal y Postural. La muestra esta compuesta de 43 díadas. Las observaciones vinculares fueron realizadas en los servicios de Neonatología de tres Hospitales. Se presentan las frecuencias observadas y el análisis de los puntajes obtenidos, en relación a la detección de situaciones de riesgo vincular o de buen vínculo madre - bebé internado en incubadora. Se estimó su Sensibilidad (0.75, Especificidad (1, Valor predictivo positivo (1,Valor predictivo negativo (0.84 y el Total de predicciones correctas (0.89. Contar con un método de observación vincular permitirá potenciar el trabajo en atención primaria de la salud mental perinatal.In this article the Observation Scale of the bond mother - baby interned in Neonatal Intensive care Unit (NICU, and the preliminary results obtained in the administration, will be presented. The scale includes 5 functions: approach, corporal, visual, verbal and posture function. The observations took place in the NICU of three hospitals, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The frequencies of the communicative behaviours observed and the analysis of the punctuations, will be presented. In order to study the capacity of the scale detecting cases of "adequate bond mother -baby" and "risk in the bond" , we estimated the sensitivity (0.75, specificity (1, positive predictive value (1, negative predictive value (0.84 and total of correct predictions (0.89. The existence of a observational method for the bond will allow to enhance preventive interventions in the perinatal mental health area.

  15. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  16. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a three-dimensional (3-D) tire-pavement interaction model is developed using FEM to analyze the tire-pavement contact stress distributions at various rolling conditions (free rolling, braking/accelerating, and cornering). In additio...

  17. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  18. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...... breastfeeding mother should include facilitation of the transition to motherhood, learning to read the baby's cues, developing a sense of the right attachment at the breast, and building up the mother's confidence in her capability to care for the baby and produce a sufficient milk supply....

  19. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  20. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  1. Energy conservation from systematic tire pressure regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Joshua M. [Department of Physics, 106 Peirce Science Center, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion 16214, PA (United States)]. E-mail: jpearce@clarion.edu; Hanlon, Jason T. [Department of Physics, 106 Peirce Science Center, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion 16214, PA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The majority of US drivers do not consistently monitor the tire pressures in their vehicles. The 2000 TREAD Act, which requires automakers to gradually provide tire pressure monitoring systems for vehicles sold in the US will correct this problem for new vehicles. This law does not impact the problem in previously deployed vehicles, which have a turnover time of {approx}20 years. A solution is provided here to address under-inflated tires on the current 220 million vehicles and the concomitant wasted energy due to increased rolling resistance in the US automobile fleet. This communication reports on a preliminary study of tire pressures in randomly chosen vehicles, which were undergoing oil changes at a combined retail/auto-care facility. The study indicates that substantial benefits would accrue if car care facilities systematically offered complimentary tire pressure checks with oil changes including: (i) increased safety by decreasing all crashes and saving more than 100 lives per year, (ii) reduced petroleum consumption by over a billion gallons/year, which would (iia) provide over $4 billion in economic savings for US consumers that could in part be recouped in retail/auto-care facilities, (iib) reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 13.5 million tons and automobile pollution and (iic) enhance national security.

  2. Shaken baby syndrome; Shaken-baby-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [German] Das Shaken-baby-Syndrom (SBS) oder Schuetteltrauma des Saeuglings beschreibt die Koinzidenz subduraler Haematome, retinaler Blutungen und prognostisch unguenstiger, diffuser Hirnschaeden durch heftiges Schuetteln eines Saeuglings. Die klinischen Symptome umfassen Irritabilitaet, Trinkschwierigkeiten, Somnolenz, Apathie, zerebrale Krampfanfaelle, Apnoe, Temperaturregulationsstoerungen und Erbrechen durch Hirndruck. Leichtere Symptome des SBS werden haeufig nicht diagnostiziert, die Dunkelziffer ist wahrscheinlich viel hoeher. Die Diagnose des SBS wird durch die typische Symptomkonstellation gestellt

  3. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rombaldo,Carla Fabiana Scatolim; Lisbôa,Antonio Carlos Luz; Méndez,Manoel Orlando Alvarez; Coutinho,Aparecido dos Reis

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  4. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz; Maria Rachel Russo Seydell

    2009-01-01

    The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber...

  5. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mothers' knowledge on essential newborn care at Juba Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... Objective: To identify the gaps in the knowledge and practices of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers at Juba. Teaching Hospital .... Baby is kept warm after delivery by: -Skin to skin contact. 128. 33.3. -Wrapping baby in a cloth. 347. 90.4. Duration between birth and first bath: -Hours. 169. 44.1.

  7. LAMELLAR ICHTHYOSIS (COLLODION BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramarta IGE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyosis are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorder of keratinization which affected the epidermis characterized by presence of visible scales on the skin surface in the absence of inflammation. It can occur as a disease limited to the skin or in association with abnormalities of other organ systems. Lamelar ihthyosis (LI is one of two mayor autosomal recessive ichthyosis with an incidence of approximately one in 300,000. The diagnosis is based on clinical and pathologic finding. Infection is the most common complication, while prognosis of LI is depends on severity and complication of the disease. A case of lamellar ichthyosis in 0 day Balinese female baby was reported. The skin of the body was thick, plate-like appearance, scaling on the entire body, some of the thick skin was ruptured on chest and extremities. There were eclabium on the mouth and ectropion on the eyes. Histopathology examination showed hyperkeratosis without perivascular infiltration lymphocyte. The baby was given breast feeding, antibiotic, hydrocortisone cream and olium olivarum. The prognosis of the baby is good.

  8. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged zero to four months: a community-based study of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Zekiye

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that affect exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged 0-4 months. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend feeding babies of 0-6 months exclusively with breast milk and starting complementary foods after the sixth month. In Turkey, however, a vast majority of babies 1-5 months of age (89.4%) are given complementary foods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in central Ankara province, with a sampling of 514 individuals who were selected using the convenience sampling method. Of the 514 mothers who participated in my research, 260 (50.6%) were found to be feeding their babies exclusively with breast milk; 77 (15.0%), with breast milk + water; 87 (16.9%), with breast milk + baby formula; 70 (13.6%), with breast milk + baby formula + other foods; and 20 (3.9%), baby formula + other foods. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis results, the mother's employment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.488; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.288-0.827) considerably reduced the incidence of complementary foods, while frequent crying of the baby (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.125-2.530) significantly increased the use of supplementary foods in infant nutrition. This study concluded that frequent crying of the baby increases the likelihood of giving the baby complementary foods. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently. Exclusive breastfeeding of babies aged 0-6 months is crucial for the development and growth of the baby and instrumental in reducing infant morbidities and mortalities. One factor that increases the likelihood of provision of complementary foods is frequent crying of the baby. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently.

  9. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... for the TFECIP is to provide consumers with a database that allows cross-comparisons of tire brands... includes the manufacturer's name, the brand name owner (if different than the manufacturer), the tire line... is often used to represent the finite element or mathematical model of a tire, rather than the name a...

  10. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542; Docket No. NHTSA-2008- 0121). The new consumer... efficiency rating system and consumer education program for replacement tires. The program would inform... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine...

  11. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012... Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Goodyear Aviation Tires, part number 299K63-1 (Brazilian made new tires only), installed on various...

  12. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  13. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  14. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  15. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  16. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  17. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    results and experimental data . Natural Freq. (Hz) Damping % Modes ABAQUS Test Error ABAQUS Test Error T0 47.54 47.20 0.72 0.023 0.021 9.52 T1 55.85...terrains (such as sandy loam) and tire force and moments, soil sinkage, and tire deformation data were collected for various case studies based on a...design of experiment matrix. This data , in addition to modal analysis data were used to validate the tire model. Furthermore, to study the validity

  18. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  19. Effect on Baby-Friendly Hospital Steps When Hospitals Implement a Policy to Pay for Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Y W; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Bai, Dorothy Li; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy M Y; Chan, Noel P T; Dodgson, Joan E

    2016-05-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative requires hospitals to pay market price for infant formula. No studies have specifically examined the effect of hospitals paying for infant formula on breastfeeding mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps. To investigate the effect of hospitals implementing a policy of paying for infant formula on new mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps and examine the effect of exposure to Baby-Friendly steps on breastfeeding rates. We used a repeated prospective cohort study design. We recruited 2 cohorts of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (n = 2470) in the immediate postnatal period from 4 Hong Kong public hospitals and followed them by telephone up to 12 months postpartum. We assessed participants' exposure to 6 Baby-Friendly steps by extracting data from the medical record and by maternal self-report. After hospitals began paying for infant formula, new mothers were more likely to experience 4 out of 6 Baby-Friendly steps. Breastfeeding initiation within the first hour increased from 28.7% to 45%, and in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding rates increased from 17.9% to 41.4%. The proportion of mothers who experienced all 6 Baby-Friendly steps increased from 4.8% to 20.5%. The risk of weaning was progressively higher among participants experiencing fewer Baby-Friendly steps. Each additional step experienced by new mothers decreased the risk of breastfeeding cessation by 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.95). After implementing a policy of paying for infant formula, breastfeeding mothers were exposed to more Baby-Friendly steps, and exposure to more steps was significantly associated with a lower risk of breastfeeding cessation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby's cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby's emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect baby's emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting baby's emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  1. Long-term effects of mother-infant psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a long-term follow-up study of mothers and infants with “baby worries” or mother-infant relational disturbances, who took part in a Randomized Controlled Trial when the children were, on average, five months of age. In that study, mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP) yielded, compared with routine care (CHCC; Child health centre care), effects on maternal depression, mother-infant relationships, maternal sensitivity, and, on a marginally significant level, maternal...

  2. Streptococcus group B positive mothers and neonatal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zisovska, Elizabeta; Pehcevska, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal vaginal swabs positive for Streptococcus group B (GBS) can cause severe infections in newborns. The aims of this study were: to identufy the rate of neonatal pneumonia in GBS positive mothers, GBS negative mothers, and mothers with unknown bacterial status. The positive predictive value of GBS positive status for neonatal plenumonia is only 23,5%, but the negative predictive value is 91%, which means that the GBS negative mothers have really low risk for having baby w...

  3. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  6. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  7. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    A method of noncontact, optical monitoring of the surface temperature of a tire has been devised to enable the use of local temperature rise as an indication of potential or impending failures. The method involves the use of temperature-sensitive paint (or filler): Temperature-sensitive luminescent dye molecules or other luminescent particles are incorporated into a thin, flexible material coating the tire surface of interest. (Alternatively, in principle, the luminescent material could be incorporated directly into the tire rubber, though this approach has not yet been tested.) The coated surface is illuminated with shorter-wavelength light to excite longer-wavelength luminescence, which is observed by use of a charge-coupled-device camera or a photodetector (see Figure 1). If temporally constant illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the intensity response of the luminescence. If pulsed illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the time or frequency response of the luminescence. If sinusoidally varying illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the phase response of the luminescence. Unlike a prior method of monitoring the temperature at a fixed spot on a tire by use of a thermocouple, this method is not restricted to one spot and can, therefore, yield information on the spatial distribution of temperature: in particular, it enables the discovery of newly forming hot spots where damage may be starting. Also unlike in the thermocouple method, the measurements in this method are not vulnerable to breakage of wires in repeated flexing of the tire. Moreover, unlike in another method in which infrared radiation is monitored as an indication of surface temperature, the luminescence measurements in this method are not significantly affected by changes in infrared emissivity. This method has been

  8. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  9. Polysomnographic evaluation of uninfected babies born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive mothers = Evaluación polisomnográfica de bebés no infectados nacidos de madres VIH-1 positivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila Melendez, Mario Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is a lymphotropic and neurotropic retrovirus. Thus, it causes immunological and neurological alterations particularly in children. In the neonatal period the maturational changes of the central nervous system occur rapidly, and their alteration can be reflected in processes such as the sleep-awake pattern. Objective: To evaluate sleep organization, EEG and respiratory pattern in newborns to HIV-1 positive mothers. Methods: 22 infants underwent polysomnography. Delta brushes number in REM and NREM sleep, duration of interburst interval and interhemispheric synchrony were used to calculate EEG maturation. Analysis of the sleep architecture was based on polysomnographic sleep percentage of REM, NREM and transitional sleep to total sleep time. Results: The difference between electroencephalographically calculated and clinically calculated conceptional age was less than two weeks. Percentages of REM and NREM sleep ranged from 39-64 and 30-58 with a median of 52.5 and 36.5 respectively. Concordance was lower in newborns who had high transitional sleep percentages, compared to that in newborns who did not have high such characteristic (p less 0.05. Discussion: Despite intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and to antiretroviral drugs we did not observe a significant effect on EEG maturation. The decreased concordance in newborns with high transitional sleep percentages would suggest an alteration in the maturation process, but this aspect itself is not sufficient to consider that intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and antiretrovirals affect the entire sleep architecture Future studies should clarify whether the decreased concordance between behavior and NREM sleep is replicable.

  10. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann

    2014-02-24

    Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the

  12. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aedes aegypti mosquitoes • A pregnant woman infected with dengue virus may infect her unborn baby or her newborn baby at birth » Harmful effects of dengue virus infection include death of the unborn baby, low ...

  13. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Home For Patients Search FAQs Having a Baby ( ... 2015 PDF Format Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially For Teens What is prenatal care? What ...

  14. Efficacy of Breastfeeding on Babies' Pain During Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkul, Münevver; Efe, Emine

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled experimental study was to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on the pain of babies during vaccination. The sample of the study consisted of 100 babies who complied with the sampling criteria between July and November 2012. The babies breastfed from their mothers 5 minutes before, during, and after the vaccine injections. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), duration of crying, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated before, during, and after the vaccine injections. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, chi-square, Cronbach's alpha consistency coefficient, independent sample t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The babies in the control group experienced severe pain and the babies in the breastfeeding group felt moderate pain during the vaccine injections (p vaccine injections. The breastfeeding group spent less time crying, and had lower heart rates and higher oxygen saturation values during vaccine injections Conclusion: Breastfeeding prevented increased heart rates, duration of crying, NIPS, falling oxygen saturation, and reduced pain during the invasive procedures in newborns more than control group.

  15. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  16. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... placenta grows in your uterus and supplies your baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. Some problems ... about what you can do to help your baby be healthy. As your child grows, make sure she eats healthy food, stays active and goes to all her health ...

  17. Healthy Smile for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot. Use a different spoon to taste your baby’s food. If your baby’s bottle nipple or pacifier falls ... foods like sugar, honey, or syrup. Give Your Baby Healthy Foods m Breast milk is best! Breastfeed your baby ...

  18. Monitoring your baby before labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000485.htm Monitoring your baby before labor To use the sharing features on ... what the results mean for you and your baby. Alternative Names Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- ...

  19. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  20. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BONDING ATTACHMENT ENHANCES POSTPARTUM MOTHER’S CONFIDENCE IN CARING HER BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Hidayati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bonding attachment is one of the methods to support an excessively interaction between mother and her’s baby. This interaction may facilitate a mother to be more confident to take care of the baby. Method: This study was used a quasy-eksperimental design which is the objective of this study was to examine the influence of facilitated bonding attachment to mother’s confidence to take care of her baby at early postpartum period in Amelia Pare Kediri Hospital. There were 90 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria and taken by using purposive sampling technique, divided into control group and intervention group. Data were collected by using questionnaire, then it were analyzed by using Chi Square and t-Test. Result: The result showed that nurse behaviour had significance effect on facilitated bonding attachment to mother/women self confidence to take care of her baby at early postpartum period (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that nurses behaviour who facilitated bonding attachment influenced mother’s confidence to take care of her baby at early postpartum periode. Then family center nursing care plan should applied in all of health care setting to promote family empower and to obtain bonding attachment since newborn. Moreover, nursing companion during the care is also important to facilitate mother’s ability to take care of the baby.

  2. Hospital efforts to improve breastfeeding outcomes: becoming baby-friendly in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannel, Rebecca; Bacon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    A key component of the Preparing for a Lifetime initiative to reduce infant mortality and improve infant outcomes in Oklahoma focuses on improving breastfeeding outcomes. The evidence is well-established on the short and long-term positive health impact of breastfeeding and lactation on both infant and mother. A new collaborative effort was launched in 2012 to support Oklahoma hospitals to achieve designation as a Baby-Friendly hospital, the Becoming Baby-Friendly in Oklahoma project. Baby-Friendly hospitals comply with the evidence-based Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and do not market formula products directly to patients. This article describes the progress of this statewide project.

  3. Percepção das mães sobre o cuidado do bebê de baixo peso antes e após implantação do Método Mãe-Canguru em hospital público da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Maternal perception of low birth weight babies before and following the implementation of the Kangaroo Mother Care in a public hospital, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Setsuko Toma

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: aumentar a compreensão sobre os diferentes modos que as famílias de baixa renda lidam com o nascimento de um bebê pré-termo, com vistas a aprimorar a implantação do Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC. MÉTODO: estudo qualitativo realizado em São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, em 2004, no qual foram entrevistadas 19 mães antes e 22 mães após implantação do MMC. O roteiro de entrevistas incluía questões abertas, das quais emergiram as informações sobre como as mães cuidaram de seus bebês de baixo peso, os arranjos domésticos e outras medidas a que recorreram. Para análise utilizou-se a abordagem da Grounded Theory. RESULTADOS: a necessidade de cuidar de outros filhos parece ser um dos principais limitadores para a opção ao MMC. Em comparação às mães entrevistadas antes da implantação do programa, as mães-cangurus eram mais jovens, mais escolarizadas, sem outros filhos, recebiam mais ajuda nas tarefas domésticas e relataram menos dificuldades na amamentação. CONCLUSÕES: a oferta do MMC em uma maternidade da periferia de São Paulo sugere efeitos positivos sobre a amamentação. A tendência à conformação de famílias nucleares dificulta a participação das mulheres no programa. Conhecer as limitações e possibilidades de cada família pode contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do processo de implantação.OBJECTIVES: increase the understanding of the different ways low income families deal with a preterm baby aiming at the improvement of the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC. METHOD: qualitative study performed in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, in 2004 with the interview of 19 mothers before and 22 mothers following the implementation of the KMC. The design of the interviews included open questions to obtain information on how mothers tended their low weight babies, household arrangements and other measures they resorted to. The Grounded Theory Method Approach was used for analysis. RESULTS: the need to care

  4. Os cuidados imediatos prestados ao recém-nascido e a promoção do vínculo mãe-bebê Los cuidados inmediatos prestados a los recién nacidos y la promoción del vínculo madre-bebé Immediate care given to newborns and promotion of mother-baby bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho dos Santos Cruz

    2007-12-01

    investigadas no consiguen percibir la interferencia de ese contacto inicial en el establecimiento del vínculo precoz en descorrimiento de innúmeros factores, entre ellos, los socioculturales.This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach aimed at understanding how mothers perceived the moment of childbirth and how the actions of the professionals contributed to facilitate their closeness to their babies. Twenty-five multiparous women in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro who had had low risk, normal labor deliveries were interviewed. The analysis of the reports revealed that immediate care given to babies away from their mother's view generates in mothers concern, a feeling of distance and fear of being separated from the baby. However, some women valued the interventionist assistance because they believe that this care is indispensable to ensure their child's physical integrity. Although they valued closeness to their babies in the immediate post-labor period, the surveyed mothers failed to notice the interference of this initial contact for the establishment of an early bond because of a number of factors, among them social-cultural ones.

  5. Barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: (1) To determine the barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding in mothers who Hospital. (2). To determine if there is any statistical association between the time of initiation of breastfeeding and certain socio-demographic, obstetric, psychosocial and environmental factors in the mother-baby pairs.

  6. Attitudes of mothers and staff towards treatment and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies and children with multiple disabilities; paediatricians (including registrars) and nurses working in these units. Outcome measures. The preferences for developmental outcomes were compared between four groups: nurses, paediatricians, mothers of VLBW infants, ...

  7. Factors affecting HIV-infected mothers' ability to adhere to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement feeding are expected to have been informed of the state's commitment to provide free infant ... decided on replacement feeding for their babies once they were born, and that these were mothers with higher .... Logistic regression analysis (Table II) showed that mothers who did not adhere to their original formula ...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards mother to child transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is currently a major public health problem in Ethiopia and mother to child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infections. The transmission of HIV from infected mothers to babies could occur during antenatal period, as well as during delivery and breastfeeding (postnatal ...

  9. Can mothers who have swine flu continue to breastfeed? Yes!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Explain to the mother and other family members that the main way the flu virus is transmitted is by. 'droplets' from coughs and sneezes. So the family can reduce the risk of infecting each other (including mother and baby), and other people by: ▫ Washing hands with soap frequently and thoroughly, especially after sneezing.

  10. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  11. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Preventive HIV Vaccine? HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials HIV Prevention The Basics of HIV Prevention Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Post- ... Related Content Protecting Baby from HIV (infographic) AIDSource | HIV Prevention: Mother-to-Child Transmission MedlinePlus | HIV/AIDS and ...

  12. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  13. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear), has determined that... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability...

  14. Mothers Perception of Teething in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Mothers Perception of teething- Paul N.l, Fatoki OP crankiness and a mild rise in temperature5. •. Other noticeable features of teething include; chewing of the finger and toys to pacify the gum and some babies may refuse to eat due to the pain. 4 The pain associated with teething is thought to be due to the swelling of the ...

  15. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  16. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  17. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry Towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shota; Yoshitomi, Yasunari; Tabuse, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kou; Asada, Taro

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy) expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We per...

  18. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall height, and tire filling material. Simplified calculation model with spring-damper is derived from radial repeated compression test of used tire, which improves the calculation efficiency. Test and numerical simulation show that application of used tire cushion layer in rock shed can cushion rockfall impact and effectively reduce peak acceleration and the maximum impact force. Filling sand and gravel in tire can improve tire stiffness and energy absorption capacity but will decrease cushion effect due to its large density. With the same impact energy, light rockfall is more destructive than weight rockfall for used tire cushion layer.

  19. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  20. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  1. Mother-Infant Interaction: a Process of Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Mônica Arpini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the first experiences to the psychological constitution and that such constitution is based on parental relationships, this study aimed to comprehend the aspects that indicate health and well-being in the mother-baby relationship, focusing on the moments of breastfeeding, cry, communication and interaction of the dyad. The study was grounded on observation and an interview with the mothers. Results emerged from content analysis and highlight the presence of indicators of the Child Development Risks Index (IRDIs in the relationship of the dyad, evidencing mothers hold knowledge about their babies. Final considerations emphasize the importance of the mother-baby relationship and suggest the inclusion of Clinical Indicators of Risk regarding Child Development in services of primary health care.

  2. China's baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1988-01-01

    China's birthrate increased from 18 births/1000 population in 1985 to 21/1000 in 1986, after a decade of steady decline. In 1971, to avoid a projected population of 2.4 billion by 2050, Chinese leaders launched the "later-longer-fewer" campaign. Men and women were encouraged to postpone marriage until their mid- to late-20s, to allow 4 years between pregnancies, and to limit their families to 2 children. The standards were slightly more lenient in the rural areas. Together, the campaign was responsible for a reduction in the total fertility rate from 5.9 births/woman in 1970 to 2.7 births in 1979. Yet, due to the age structure of the population, with 39% of Chinese under age 15, even replacement-level fertility was bound to generate growth for decades. Consequently, in 1979, the post-Mao leadership inaugurated the "1-child" policy, a program designed to limit the Chinese population to 1.2 billion by 2000. Family planning has become a state sanctioned and monitored activity. The policy is implemented via public education, persuasion, peer pressure, and a series of incentives and penalties. In this context, the question arises as to what caused China's birthrate to rise. A major factor is the effect of the country's youth-dominated age structure. Following the Great Leap Forward (1958-60) and the prolonged accompanying famine, the birthrate increased markedly as couples conceived the children they had postponed. These baby boomers, born from 1962-64, now are having their own babies. About 1/3 of the 1986 increase in births may be accounted for by the ripple effect of this relatively large cohort finally reaching reproductive age. Further, the age of 1st reproduction has declined recently in response to the Marriage Law of 1980, which lowers the legal marriage age. Another influence has been a gradual yet significant relaxation in some of the basic tenets of the 1-child policy. In 1984, the government reaffirmed the critical importance of family planning but increased

  3. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  4. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a standardized growth chart (there are different charts for boys and girls). Whether your baby is large, small, or medium-sized, as long as this growth pattern stays consistent over time, chances are everything is ...

  5. Baby's Head Shape: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conservative and helmet therapy for positional cranial deformation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. In press. Accessed Dec. 19, ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/healthy-baby/art-20045964 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  6. [Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N

    2010-12-01

    Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Shaken baby syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [de

  8. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos ao Metódo Mãe-Canguru e a posição prona Physical responses of pre-term newborn babies submitted to the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method in Prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Dantas Olmedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O Ministério da Saúde recomenda e incentiva a Atenção Humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso utilizando-se o Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC nas unidades integrantes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar as respostas fisiológicas entre o MMC e a posição prona (PP, em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo de intervenção, realizado entre setembro e outubro de 2009, composto por 20 RNPT, de ambos os sexos, com idade gestacional entre 24 a 36 semanas, estáveis hemodinamicamente, sendo classificados como grupo I (MMC e grupo II (PP. Foram consideradas as variáveis: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (FR, saturação periférica de oxigênio (SatO2 e temperatura corporal (T. As mensurações foram realizadas por três dias consecutivos, antes e 60 min após a aplicação das técnicas. No grupo PP, a FR aferida antes foi significativamente maior do que a aferida após a intervenção, nos 1º e 3º dias (pThe Ministry of Health recommends and looks forward to the Humanized Attention of low weight newborn babies using the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method (MCM in Unified Health System units. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the physiological responses between the MMC and the Prone Position (PP in pre-term newborn babies (PNB. Intervention study, realized between September and October of 2009, was performed. It was formed by 20 PNB, both sexes, with gestational ages between 24 to 36 weeks, hemodynamic stable, classified as group I (MCM and group II (PP. The following variables were considered: heart frequency (HF, breathing frequency (BF, periphery saturation of oxygen (SatO2, and body temperature (T. All measurements were realized for three consecutive days, before and 60 min after applying the procedures. On the PP group, the HF checked before was meaningfully higher than the one checked after the procedure, on the first and third days (p<0.0001; p<0

  10. Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen; Peters, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely viewed as the optimal feeding method for infants among professional nursing and medical organizations. Its health benefits have been comprehensively studied and documented for both infants and mothers. Hospitals and birthing centers can strongly influence the outcomes for mothers who choose to breastfeed by establishing effective breastfeeding behaviors immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. The Baby-Friendly USA initiative outlines 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. Although these steps have been successfully supported in practice, they can be difficult to implement due to a variety of factors, including resistance to change. Specific steps generate more barriers to overcome than others--namely exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation or pacifiers, rooming-in for 23 out of 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact with a parent immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. Our hospital spent 5 years implementing Baby-Friendly practices to prepare for a successful site visit. In the process, barriers to key Baby-Friendly steps were overcome through creative approaches and strategic education for staff, physicians, and parents. The purpose of this article is to outline specific actions taken that assisted our hospital in its successful journey. Those actions and strategies will hopefully be of value to others in their journey toward designation.

  11. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in the state of Delaware. Pursuant to 49 U.S.C..., requests an agency decision to exempt Cooper as a replacement equipment manufacturer from the notification... car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  12. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ) (26.6, 35.5, 44.4, 62.1, and 79.9 kN) and four tire inflation pressures (s0) (552, 690, 758, and 862 kPa). The equipment used for measuring the 3D-contact stresses is described along with the testing procedure and the methodology followed during data...

  13. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  14. Lazer para mães de bebês de risco hospitalizados: análise da experiência na perspectiva dessas mulheres Ocio para madres de bebes de riesgo: análisis de la experiencia en la perspectiva de estas mujeres Leisure for mothers of high-risk babies: analysis of the experience in these women's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2004-10-01

    entrevistas grabadas tuvieron como cuestión norteadora "Hable sobre su vivencia en esas reuniones de grupo". Verificamos que las madres consideraron las actividades "...buenas que crian vínculo" y "...es bueno, porque uno se distrae"; revitalizando las para el enfrentamiento del estrés de la longa internación. Destacaron la oportunidad de aprender algunos cuidados con el hijo a través de juegos y películas educativas - "Saca nuestras dudas, principalmente de aquellas que tienen prematuros", y de realizar trabajos manuales -"Bordado, que nadie sabia, aprendió", que revertieron en vestuario para el hijo. Concluímos que el programa contribuyó con el proceso de construcción de una asistencia más integral y humanizada, teniendo como foco la familia, ampliando la visión del hospital encuanto un espacio también de ocio.In view of the implementation of new care strategies for mothers of high-risk babies attended at neonatal units through a program involving play, recreation and educational activities, this study aims to analyze this experience according to these women's perspectives. A qualitative and descriptive study was conducted at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Seven mothers were interviewed who had attended at least three activity sessions in the program and signed an informed consent document. The interviews were taped and were guided by the following question: "Tell us about your experience in these group meetings". It was observed that the mothers described the activities as "...they are nice and help to establish ties" and "...they are good because we get some distraction", thus revitalizing them to cope with the stress from long hospitalization. They pointed out the opportunity to learn about some types of care for their children through games and educational films - "They solve many of our doubts, especially for those who have pre-term babies", as well as the opportunity to do manual work - "We learned how to embroider, which was

  15. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... methods: Online: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments on the...)(F). \\2\\ See http://www.safercar.gov/Vehicle+Shoppers/Tires/Tires+Rating/Treadwear . To ensure the... time and there is an immediate need for testing, the agency is adding an alternate test course route...

  16. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  17. Passive wireless strain monitoring of tire using capacitance change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2004-07-01

    In-service strain monitoring of tires of automobile is quite effective for improving the reliability of tires and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). Since conventional strain gages have high stiffness and require lead wires, the conventional strain gages are cumbersome for the strain measurements of the tires. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new wireless strain monitoring method that adopts the tire itself as a sensor, with an oscillating circuit. This method is very simple and useful, but it requires a battery to activate the oscillating circuit. In the present study, the previous method for wireless tire monitoring is improved to produce a passive wireless sensor. A specimen made from a commercially available tire is connected to a tuning circuit comprising an inductance and a capacitance as a condenser. The capacitance change of tire causes change of the tuning frequency. This change of the tuned radio wave enables us to measure the applied strain of the specimen wirelessly, without any power supply from outside. This new passive wireless method is applied to a specimen and the static applied strain is measured. As a result, the method is experimentally shown to be effective as a passive wireless strain monitoring of tires.

  18. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  19. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  20. The Australian baby bonus maternity payment and birth characteristics in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001-2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20-24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6, mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4 or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4, mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6, mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8, and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5. Interestingly, births to private patients (-4.3%, 95%CI = -4.8,-3.7 and births in private hospitals (-6.3%, 95%CI = -6.8,-5.8 decreased following the policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas.

  1. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  2. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  3. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  4. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  5. Tire track geometry: variations on a theme

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachnikov, Serge

    2004-01-01

    We study closed smooth convex plane curves $\\Gamma$ enjoying the following property: a pair of points $x,y$ can traverse $\\Gamma$ so that the distances between $x$ and $y$ along the curve and in the ambient plane do not change; such curves are called {\\it bicycle curves}. Motivation for this study comes from the problem how to determine the direction of the bicycle motion by the tire tracks of the bicycle wheels; bicycle curves arise in the (rare) situation when one cannot determine which way...

  6. Community mothers' programme: extension to the travelling community in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, P; Molloy, B; Johnson, Z

    1997-06-01

    To see whether the community mothers' programme, using lay volunteer mothers to deliver a childhood development programme, could be extended successfully to the travelling community in Ireland. This was a prospective study of the travelling community; comparisons were made with results of a previous randomised trial of settled mothers. A regional health authority in Ireland. These comprised 39 traveller and 127 settled intervention mother/ infant pairs (randomised controlled trial (RCT) intervention); settled community mothers; 105 settled control pairs (RCT control). All mothers received standard support; traveller and RCT intervention groups also received the services of a community mother. The travellers' sociodemographic profile differed significantly from the other groups. At the end of the study, traveller and intervention children were exposed to more cognitive games and nursery rhymes. There were significant differences in the proportions who received all three shots of their primary immunisation schedule before 12 months of age and who received "three in one" vaccination, with traveller children doing least well. The diet of traveller children surpassed that of RCT controls in all food groups except fruit; they were less likely to begin cows' milk before 26 weeks of age. Traveller mothers' diet was superior to that of RCT control and similar to RCT intervention mothers. Traveller and RCT intervention mothers were less likely to feel tired, feel miserable, and want to stay indoors than RCT control mothers. The results of the community mothers' programme in the travelling community are encouraging; poor immunisation uptake remains a challenge.

  7. Visualization of tire vibration and sound radiation and modeling of tire vibration with an emphasis on wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    It is now known that tire/road interaction noise is the major contributor to exterior automobile noise and establishes the background noise level in many environments. Thus, the reduction of tire/road noise is a major environmental noise issue today....

  8. Medicalizing normality? Management of irritability in babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, K; Previtera, N; McCallum, R

    2000-08-01

    The aims of this project were to identify the scources and quality of the health advice provided to parents with irritable infants; to assess the efficacy of a residential programme in the diagnosis and management of irritable infants; and to assess the intermediate term outcome for such infants and their mothers. All mother-infant pairs admitted during a 3 month period to a residential setting with the primary concern of infant irritability were asked to participate in the study. Pre-admission and 3 month post-discharge health-care advice, investigations and treatment details were collected. Maternal mood at admission and 3 months post-discharge was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). On admission, infant medication for proposed cause of excess irritability was ceased, with parental consent, if it was appropriate and following full medical assessment. Individual case plans were designed by the admitting child health nurse in consultation with the mother. These included education as to normal infant behaviour, settling techniques, and establishment of routine; family issues were also explored. Fifty-one consecutive mother-infant pairs consented to participate and formed the cohort, 48 (94%) were available for follow-up interview 3 months post-discharge. The average age on admission was 13 weeks (range 4-28 weeks), 32 (62.7%) were male, 34 (66.7%) were first born and 45 (88.2%) lived with both their parents. A multiplicity of health professionals had been involved in the pre-admission care, and 48 of the infants had been or were currently on medication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and or colic. At the end of admission, diagnoses made were predominantly behavioural (22) and feeding problems (20). Nine infants were felt to have an organic cause for their irritability. Maternal mood improved significantly on EPDS from the time of admission (45 (86.2%) of mothers with scores > or = 12, mean score 16.5) to post-admission follow up (9

  9. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    pasa por etapas antes de ver al bebé como suyo y confiar en sí. Posibilitar el toque en el hijo, comprendiéndola en su individualidad, singularidad que se mostró como un cuidado al recién nacido prematuro en su complexidad como ser-ahí.Study in the approach theorical-methodological heideggerian with the objective to reveal the meaning of being-mother that has the possibility to touch the premature baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. After approbation, was developed a phenomenological interview with nine women-mothers. The comprehensive analysis constituted eight units of significance, the hermeneutics allowed to reveal the existential movement of being-mother in the daily routine, in the ways of being of the inauthenticity and impersonality, moved by the talk, the ambiguity and fear, modes of occupation. By understanding how yours the possibility to have a premature baby, touch it gingerly and carefully, transits to an understanding in which no longer engages yourself, concerns yourself. By concerning yourself, the being-mother establishes the possibility of being-there-with-the-baby. Was possible to understand this way of being mother, in which pass by stages before seeing the baby like yours and to trust in yourself. Enable to touch the baby, understanding it in its individuality, uniqueness proved to be a care to the premature newborn in their complexity as being-there.

  10. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2007-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight

  11. Baby-Boom, Baby-Bust and the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana BELLOU; Emanuela CARDIA

    2015-01-01

    The baby-boom and subsequent baby-bust have shaped much of the history of the second half of the 20th century; yet it is still largely unclear what caused them. This paper presents a new unified explanation of the fertility Boom-Bust that links the latter to the Great Depression and the subsequent economic recovery. We show that the 1929 Crash attracted young married women 20 to 34 years old in 1930 (whom we name D-cohort) in the labor market possibly via an added worker effect. Using several...

  12. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Screening for Postpartum Depression in Well-Baby Care Settings : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health problem frequently experienced by mothers in the first year postpartum. Early detection and treatment can help to reduce its negative effect on the development of the newborn child. Well-baby care (WBC) is a promising screening setting for

  14. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2004-01-01

    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  15. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  16. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... less than 90° to the centerline of the tread. Carcass means the tire structure, except tread and... following organizations: The Tire and Rim Association The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation Japan... Tire and Rim Association, the European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation, the Japan Automobile Tire...

  17. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... owner) who has manufactured for sale, sold, offered for sale, introduced or delivered for introduction... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... similar to a tire that the manufacturer has offered for sale in the United States. The report shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Cord separation means the parting of cords from adjacent rubber compounds. Cracking means any parting.... ER28NO08.009 S5.5.1Tire identification number. (a) Tires manufactured before September 1, 2009. Each tire must be labeled with the tire identification number required by 49 CFR part 574 on a sidewall of the...

  19. Research of dynamics of tire wear of trucks and prognostication of their service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KRAVCHENKO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependences of tire wear on the tire life are determined on the basis of the system measurements of residual tread depth in the actual operating conditions; the factors which influence the critical tire wear are analyzed. The prediction technique of the operation life and the tire changing is devised.

  20. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  1. Designer babies--why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  2. Utility of kangaroo mother care in preterm and low birthweight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers who practise KMC exhibit less maternal stress and fewer symptoms of depression, and have a better sense of the parenting role and more confidence in meeting their babies' needs than those who don't. Despite the apparent feasibility of KMC, currently, only a few preterm babies in low-income countries have

  3. Babies or No Babies: Communicating with Feminine Bodies in Mom Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handojo P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mom-Lit, or Mommy Literature, can be seen as a form of challenging the feminine body’s ideals and motherhood ideology. The article studies how the feminine bodies are represented in three Mom Lit: Baby Proof by Emily Giffin, Shopaholic and Baby by Sophie Kinsella, and Confessions of A Bad Mother by Stephanie Calman. The way the women describe different bodily experiences prompts questions and challenges to the ideal feminine body and womanhood, which are associated with motherhood. Using the review of Motherhood Ideology and the concept of Silent Body, this article takes a closer look on how the women in Mom Lit think and talk about their bodies. The analysis shows that Mom Lit presents silent body to relate with the childfree choice and offers different maternal body experience that is in contrast with the feminine body ideals. In the end, it can be concluded that Mom Lit constructs a new site of women’s liberation by being receptive and communicative to the body.

  4. Mother's Behaviour Towards the Prevention and Treating of Children Under Five Years Old From Diarrhea in Belawa Community Health Center Service Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ningsih, Haryati; Syafar, Muh; Nyorong, Mappeaty

    2014-01-01

    A mother's role is very important when baby suffers from diarrhea, because mother is the figure most responsible for the baby's growth. According to the data from the Health Department, in 2011 until 2012 there were 12.942 babies who suffered from diarrhea in Wajo Regency, South Sulawesi. This study implemented a qualitative method with phenomenology approach. Informants were selected using the purposive sampling method, which is a method to select informants based on certain criterias. 11 in...

  5. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  6. 29 BABY DUMPING AND EVOLVING BABY FACTORIES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    various purposes ranging from illegal international and domestic adoptions, rituals, slave labour or sexual exploitation (Huntley, 2013). This implies that more than economic factors (poverty), the social stigma which their condition carries is a more propelling factor influencing their resort to baby factories which supposedly ...

  7. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was published in PDF format in the WHO Report "Born Too Soon: the global action report on preterm birth" (ISBN 978 92 4 150343 30), which involved collaboration from more than 50 organizations. The article has been reformatted for journal publication and has undergone peer review according to Reproductive Health's standard process for supplements and may feature some variations in content when compared to the original report. This co-publication makes the article available to the community in a full-text format. PMID:24625233

  8. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  9. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G

    1999-01-01

    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's What's in ...

  11. Sick Baby? When to Seek Medical Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health When a healthy baby gets sick, don't panic. Understand when to ... 20, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/healthy-baby/ ...

  12. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? It is normal ... care provider during your prenatal visits. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  13. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  14. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  15. Thermal depolymerisation of waste tires by heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, F.; Beaufils, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The French Institute of Petroleum has developed a process of valorisation of waste tires into fuels. The process consists in treating the whole tires with heavy hydrocarbons which transfer the heat for reaching the required temperature and dissolve the oligomers resulting from devulcanisation and depolymerisation reactions. The tire is converted into moderate amount of gas and gasoline and mainly into heavy oil loaded with finely dispersed carbon black. Results have been obtained on a large size pilot plant making the process directly appliable to the industrial scale.

  16. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerned your baby has slowed growth or a drop in weight, the doctor may ask these questions: Has your ... Crawling, cruising, and walking will burn calories, so weight gain might not be as ... the spoon on the floor than eating? The world is a fascinating place, ...

  18. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…

  19. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  20. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time digesting cow's milk. Do not feed your baby any solid food until 4 to 6 months old. Your baby ... away or by not opening their mouth. Your baby begins showing interest in food when others are eating. When to Call the ...

  1. Breastfeeding self-efficacy among adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Bizerra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess breastfeeding self-efficacy among lactating adolescents. A quantitative study involving 172 lactating adolescents, conducted in 14 Basic Health Units in the northeast cities of Brazil. For data collection, we used a form and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale – Short Form. Data were analyzed with a statistical software. Results showed high breastfeeding self-efficacy (84%, with more adherence to the items: “Ensure that my baby is properly latched on for the whole feeding” (91%, and “Always recognize then my baby is finished breastfeeding” (93%, and less referent to feed the baby without using formula (18% and breastfeed in front of people (14%. We found high breastfeeding self-efficacy in adolescent mothers in our study, showing a new knowledge about this specific public, in general, related to breastfeeding vulnerability.

  2. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  3. A rare case of haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamee Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a rare case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN with Bombay phenotype mother. A retrospective study of a case with severe haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother was done. Blood grouping, antibody screening, and lectin study was done on the blood sample of the baby and mother to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from the hospital laboratory information system for the analysis. Blood group of the baby was A positive, direct antiglobulin test was negative. Blood group of the mother was confirmed to be Bombay phenotype, Hematological parameters showed all the signs of ongoing hemolysis and the bilirubin level was in the zone of exchange transfusion. Due to the unavailability of this rare phenotype blood unit, baby was managed conservatively. Anticipating the fetal anemia and HDN with mothers having Bombay phenotype and prior notification to the transfusion services will be of great help in optimizing the neonatal care and outcome.

  4. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  5. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children are harmed when their mothers work. A child’s development is influenced more by the emotional health of ... children for school, both socially and intellectually. The Importance of Quality Child Care Parents all wish for the best start ...

  6. Develop metrics of tire debris on Texas highways : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This research effort estimated the amount, characteristics, costs, and safety implications of tire debris on Texas highways. The metrics developed by this research are based on several sources of data, including a statewide survey of debris removal p...

  7. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  8. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  9. Anti-diphtheria immunity in Nigerian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Henry; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere; Oviawe, Osawaru; Sadoh, Wilson Ehidiamen

    2014-05-30

    Immunity to diphtheria has been noted to wane with age such that previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of females with characteristics comparable to those of Nigerian women of reproductive age have inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria. Thus, it is envisaged that Nigerian newborns may inherit inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria from their mothers. Cord blood and peripheral maternal blood samples were collected from 231 mother-infant pairs at delivery. Anti-diphtheria antibody titres were assayed using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Recruited babies were those born at term with normal birth weight. As much as 29.9% of both mothers and their babies had no protection (antibody titrediphtheria. Ninety (39.0% CI 33%,45%) mothers and 107 (46.3% CI 40%,52%) babies were inadequately protected (antibody titrediphtheria. The difference in the geometric mean antibody titres of mothers and babies was statistically significant (pdiphtheria. Vaccination of parturient women with booster doses of diphtheria toxoid vaccine is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Good Food for My Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Peggy Daly; Pizzo, Philip

    Prenatal and infant nutritional needs and eating patterns are described and illustrated (in picture-book style) in this brief story about a mother and her infant son. Balanced diets, vitamin supplements, breast feeding, weaning, and infant food preparation are discussed. Mothers are encouraged to breast feed because it is cheaper and "the…

  11. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  12. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Users’ Conference, Berlin, Germany. [9] Zegelaar, P.W.A.P., H. B., The In-plane Dynamics of Tyres on Uneven Roads. Vehicle System Dynamics, 1996: p...describe the distributed stiffness equation, Equation (9), and they are not affected by the number of tire segments chosen to discretize the system ...throughout this work. REFERENCES [1] Willumeit, H.-P, and Boehm F., 1995, “Wheel Vibrations and Transient Tire Forces”, Vehicle System Dynamics, 24, pp.525

  13. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  15. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  16. Mothers' experiences of sharig breastfeeding or breastmilk co-feeding in Australia 1978-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2009-03-01

    While the concept of breastfeeding in contemporary Western culture is of a mother breastfeeding her own baby or babies, others have replaced the mother as provider of breastmilk, for a variety of reasons, through most periods of human existence. Existing policies for the sharing of this bodily fluid, milk, appear to have been written without the benefit of a detailed examination of the actual experiences of the mothers and babies involved. This study attempts to fill this information gap by investigating the sharing of breastfeeding or expressed breastmilk by Australian women in a recent thirty-year period, 1978-2008. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers' experiences of sharing breastfeeding or human milk including: the circumstances in which this bodily fluid was freely shared; what screening process, if any, was used before the milk of another mother was accepted; the mothers' feelings about the experience; the reported attitudes of others; and the children's behaviour when put to the breast of someone other than the mother. The underpinning reason for the sharing of breastfeeding or breastmilk was the desire of mothers to provide human milk to their babies, exclusively, including while they were absent or temporarily unable to breastfeed. Most mothers were selective about those with whom they would share breastfeeding or breastmilk.

  17. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  18. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  19. Tire demand planning based on reliability and operating environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri Qarahasanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tires represent a critical spare part in mines. There is a shortage of medium and large tires. In addition, with increased mining activities and the creation of new mines, the demand for tires has increased significantly. Thus, it is particularly important for mining engineers to identify tire characteristics and correctly manage the spare part inventory. Spare parts management is critical from an operational perspective, especially in asset intensive industries, such as mining, as well as in organizations owning and operating costly assets. A knowledge of the tires’ behavior (historical data must be considered together with the operating environment conditions (covariates. This study uses multiple regression analysis based on Cox’s regression model to incorporate machine operating environment information into systems reliability analysis to estimate spare parts. It considers a proportional hazard model and a stratified Cox regression model for time independent and dependent covariates. Based on the results, the study develops a mathematical model for spare parts estimation at the component level for non-repairable parts (tires. It validates the outcomes using a case study of loader tires in Sungun mine in Iran. There is a significant difference in the results of spare parts forecasting and inventory management when considering and not considering covariates.

  20. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  1. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  2. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  3. Feeding by numbers: an ethnographic study of how breastfeeding women understand their babies' weight charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Fiona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weighing breastfed babies has been the subject of some controversy as the previous international growth chart was largely based on data from infants fed infant formula. The concern that professionals may be misled by the charts into suggesting to mothers that they supplement unnecessarily was a major impetus for the World Health Organization's investment in a new growth chart. Evidence of interpretation in practice has been scant. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a town in the Northwest of England to investigate this issue. In the first phase, women and health visitors were observed in the well-child clinic during clinic sessions and breastfeeding group meetings. In the second phase, longitudinal interviews with 14 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed up to three times in the first six months after the birth of her baby, with a total of 35 interviews. Results Mothers and health visitors focussed on weight gain with frequent weighing and attention to even minor fluctuations of the plotted line being evident. Women felt it important to ensure their baby's weight followed a centile, and preferred for this to be the fiftieth centile. Interventions included giving infant formula and solids as well as changing what the mother ate and drank. Women also described how they worried about their baby's weight. Little effective support by health professionals with breastfeeding technique was observed. Conclusion Babies were weighed more often than officially recommended, with weighing and plotting being at the core of each clinic visit. The plotted weight chart exerted a powerful influence on both women's and health visitors' understanding of the adequacy of breastfeeding. They appeared to rate the regular progression of weight gains along the chart centiles more highly than continued or exclusive breastfeeding. Thus weighing and visual charting of weight constituted a form of surveillance under the medical gaze

  4. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  5. A frequently asked question: Is it normal not to feel my baby's movements yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Hatice; Büke, Barış

    2017-10-24

    This study aims to investigate average gestational week in which mothers feel their baby's movements for the first time, and the maternal-fetal factors affecting this time. A total of 423 pregnant women between 11 and 25 weeks of gestation were included in this prospective study. The patient cohort was divided into three subgroups according to the gestational week in which fetal movements were felt for the first time by the pregnant women. The women who felt the first movement before 25th percentile value constituted Group 1; between 25th and 75th percentile value constituted Group 2; and beyond 75th percentile value constituted Group 3. These three groups were then compared in terms of maternal age, parity, body mass index (BMI), tea and coffee consumption during pregnancy, smoking, educational status, accordance of mother to regular pregnancy follow-ups, placental site, and gender of the baby. These three groups were statistically and significantly different regarding the above mentioned determinants except for mothers' tea and coffee consumption, smoking, and gender of the baby (p perception of first fetal movements in both a positive and negative manner. Although it is hard to define an exact time for each individual, an approximate time according to our data can be given to a mother, which considers an affecting factor on the basis of average gestational week. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  6. Life with a new baby: how do immigrant and Australian-born women's experiences compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula; Small, Rhonda; Watson, Lyndsey F; Brown, Stephanie

    2010-08-01

    Little is known about immigrant mothers' experiences of life with a new baby, apart from studies on maternal depression. Our objective was to compare the post-childbirth experiences of Australian-born and immigrant mothers from non-English speaking countries. A postal survey of recent mothers at six months postpartum in Victoria (August 2000 to February 2002), enabled comparison of experiences of life with a new baby for two groups of immigrant women: those born overseas in non-English-speaking countries who reported speaking English very well (n=460); and those born overseas in non-English-speaking countries who reported speaking English less than very well (n=184) and Australian-born women (n=9,796). Immigrant women were more likely than Australian-born women to be breastfeeding at six months and were equally confident in caring for their baby and talking to health providers. No differences were found in anxiety or relationship problems with partners. However, compared with Australian-born women, immigrant mothers less proficient in English did have a higher prevalence of depression (28.8% vs 15%) and were more likely to report wanting more practical (65.2% vs 55.4%) and emotional (65.2% vs 44.1%) support. They were more likely to have no 'time out' from baby care (47% vs 28%) and to report feeling lonely and isolated (39% vs 17%). Immigrant mothers less proficient in English appear to face significant additional challenges post-childbirth. Greater awareness of these challenges may help to improve the responsiveness of health and support services for women after birth.

  7. [Unwed mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofayat, M

    1978-01-01

    The problem of unwed mothers is becoming a crucial one in most African countries. The great majority of unmarried adolescents are forced to quit school, and they very often become prostitutes. The problem has several causes; exodus from rural areas, rapid change of attitudes toward sexuality, lack of sex education, sudden disappearance of certain cultural traditions. It would be necessary to create centers where unwed mothers can stay, learn a job, or continue their studies, and, especially, it would be advisable to promote the insertion of young people in traditional jobs in their own villages.

  8. Still nursing at 6 months: a survey of breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Amy L; Donovan, Kathleen; Lozano, Emily A; Massucci, Diane J; Wohlgemuth, Fran

    2014-01-01

    To learn about the duration of breastfeeding and to describe the variables influencing breastfeeding practices of mothers who gave birth at a suburban community hospital. An Institutional Review Board approved this descriptive anonymous survey with 20 questions concerning patients' characteristics and experiences with breastfeeding, which was developed based on current literature. The survey was distributed to mothers through Survey Monkey via email 6 months after birth. The survey link was sent to 806 mothers, with a response rate of 50%. Over 59% were still breastfeeding at 6 months. Mothers who initiated skin-to-skin contact in the first hour had a higher rate of breastfeeding during this time frame compared to mothers who did not perform skin-to-skin contact. Women who had cesarean births and women who were primiparas reported a higher use of formula while in the hospital, and breastfed for a shorter duration. The primary reasons for stopping breastfeeding were low milk supply, returned to work, and baby did not latch and nurse well. This study adds to the knowledge base of what practices influence rates and duration of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of a baby's life. The information could enhance the care provided to mothers and babies through improving lactation programs and thereby increasing breastfeeding success rates.

  9. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  10. Factors Influencing Fertility Choices Among HIV Infected Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya has borne the major brunt of HIV/AIDS for close to two decades. The problem being exacerbated among childbearing mothers as the probability of giving birth to HIV infected baby is heightened. Availability of safe and effective contraceptive and high quality reproductive health counseling can help a woman practice ...

  11. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  12. Young Mothers, First Time Parenthood and Exclusive Breastfeeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    life. 4. , early introduction of supplementary fluids is common globally. 5, 6 . Mothers in developing countries engage in mixed feeding for a number of reasons. 7, 8,9,10 . In Nigeria, none of ... key stage (entering the parent role) in a woman's life that may have .... Some babies do not get satisfied on breast milk only and may ...

  13. Mothers' recognition of newborn danger signs and health seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mothers were asked to identify danger signs of neonatal illness from a list of symptoms, to indicate which of the listed symptoms their babies experienced, to state what actions were taken in ... Unconsciousness and excessive crying were thought to be caused by evil spirits and consultations sought with faith healers.

  14. Mothers' experiences of premature birth | James | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature birth is an obstetrical emergency that is a global concern. Preventing complications and saving the baby's life before, during and after the premature birth has been noted to be the main goal of healthcare practitioners. It has been found through studies that the delivering mother who is at the centre of the ...

  15. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  16. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  17. 77 FR 65050 - Continental Tire North America, LLC, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Continental brand Extremecontact DWS model passenger car tires manufactured from March 2009 to October 2009 at... size codes for this tire model to have the same meaning and that either the full TIN or the partial TIN...

  18. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tire shall have a size designation, recommended maximum load rating, or maximum permissible inflation... labeling. S6.1Each manufacturer of a retreaded tire shall certify that its product complies with this...

  19. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  20. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    .... of Dawang Town, Shangrao, China; MHT Luxury Alloys of Rancho Dominguez, California; Wheel Warehouse... Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of Batesville, Mississippi; Unicorn Tire Corp. of Memphis...

  1. Optimal tread design for agricultural lug tires determined through failure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lug tires, commonly used in tractors, must provide safe and stable support for the body of the vehicle and bear any additional load while effectively traversing rough, poor-quality ground surfaces. Many agricultural lug tires fail unexpectedly. In this study, we optimised and validated a tread design for agricultural lug tires intended to increase their durability using failure analysis. Specifically, we identified tire failure modes using indoor driving tests and failure mode effects analysis. Next, we developed a threedimensional tire model using the Ogden material model and finite element method. Using sensitivity analysis and response surface methodology, we optimised the tread design. Finally, we evaluated the durability of the new design using a tire prototype and drum test equipment. Results indicated that the optimised tread design decreased the tire tread stress by 16% and increased its time until cracking by 38% compared to conventional agricultural lug tires.

  2. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  3. Text4baby: Development and Implementation of a National Text Messaging Health Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Meehan, Judy; Jordan, Elizabeth; Stange, Paul; Cash, Amanda; Meyer, Paul; Baitty, Julie; Johnson, Pamela; Ratzan, Scott; Rhee, Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Text4baby is the first free national health text messaging service in the United States that aims to provide timely information to pregnant women and new mothers to help them improve their health and the health of their babies. Here we describe the development of the text messages and the large public–private partnership that led to the national launch of the service in 2010. Promotion at the local, state, and national levels produced rapid uptake across the United States. More than 320 000 people enrolled with text4baby between February 2010 and March 2012. Further evaluations of the effectiveness of the service are ongoing; however, important lessons can be learned from its development and uptake. PMID:23078509

  4. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  5. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  6. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  7. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during the...

  9. Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    DEFORMABLE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO ANCF TIRE MODEL Hiroki Yamashita Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering...for application to the modeling of fiber-reinforced rubber (FRR) structure of the physics-based ANCF tire model. The complex deformation coupling...cornering forces. Since a tire consists of layers of plies and steel belts embedded in rubber , the tire structure needs to be modeled by cord- rubber

  10. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  11. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  12. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Bridgestone brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and March 17, 2012, do not fully comply with... brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011, and March 17, 2012. Only 97 of the affected tires are no... greater than 15 pages in length, although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the...

  13. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured... brand standard load tires manufactured in Mexico by Cooper's affiliate, Corporaci[oacute]n de Occidente... necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are submitted in hard copy form, please ensure that two...

  14. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden..., although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are...

  15. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... and Reports. \\1\\ Pirelli Tire LLC is a manufacturer and importer of replacement equipment that is... Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 1, 2007, and February 26, 2009, do... Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 1, 2007, and February 26, 2009, in the...

  16. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... construction from conventional tires. * * * [with] a higher inflation pressure (60 psi), different dimensions... measure the tire's growth under inflated conditions and to determine if it is within allowable growth limits. If a tire exceeds allowable growth limits in the physical dimensions test, that indicates that...

  17. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of

  18. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  20. Improvement of road traffic safety with tire information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournet-Fayat, P. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Pushed by the US NHTSA TREAD Act, the demand for tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) has been rapidly increasing for the past few years. However, the TPMS contribution to traffic safety improvement is not limited to the North American market, but also applies to the European market. 4 years after starting TPMS activities, Siemens VDO has become a market leader, offering scalable system solutions to OEMs all around the world and actively preparing the introduction of innovative functionalities linking the tires to chassis systems. This lecture will introduce: (a) the benefits and motivations for TPMS, (b) scalable solutions adapted to customer needs, (c) the market evolution towards the intelligent tire for better traffic safety. (orig.)

  1. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  2. Deuterium dilution method for determining the Breast milk intake of babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Bilal, R.; Latif, Z.

    2000-11-01

    Various methods for measuring the milk intake of breast fed babies are available. Most methods are time consuming, cumbersome and inaccurate. The report describes various methods used for Breast Milk intake measurement with emphasis on the D/sub 2/O dilution method. The methodology of the D/sub 2/O dilution method is now streamlined in this Inst. for measuring the milk intake of babies. Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods used to determine the breast milk intake of the infants are also included in the present report. For the D/sub 2/O dilution method, and oral administration of small dose of deuterium oxide (sup 2/H/sup 2/O) is given to the mothers after collecting pre-dose samples. The post dose samples of urine from the baby and saliva from the mother are collected at 24 hours intervals over a 14 days period. These samples are analyzed on isotope ratio Mass spectrometer. The D/H values obtained over a 14 days period are then extrapolated to calculate the milk intake of babies using the Microsoft Excel Computer programme designed for this purpose. (author)

  3. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  4. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  5. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  6. Neither father nor biological mother. A qualitative study about lesbian co-mothers' maternity care experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti

    2015-10-01

    To explore lesbian co-mothers' maternity care experiences and their implications for the caring encounter. A qualitative interview study with data from a convenience sample of eleven Norwegian comothers was conducted. Systematic text condensation was used for data analysis. Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, while lesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biological mother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what their partners went through but they had to find other ways of mothering than if they had given birth themselves. Co-mothers addressed themselves with different terms and perceived some concepts as unnatural or excluding. Parental identity was defined by their relationship to baby, and the term "co-mother" was perceived as a bureaucratic concept. For lesbian co-mothers, being recognized in maternity care implies that they are valued for the qualities that separate them from other user groups on a personal level. On a societal level, being recognized is related to acknowledgement of inventive ways of doing family. Everyday signs of recognition may prevent moral violation, and by paying particular attention to use of language, staff can help co-mothers feel acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhlis Mokhtar; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Muhammad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  8. MONITORING BABY INCUBATOR SENTRAL DENGAN KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Sulistyo Utomo

    2018-04-01

    180m. Pengujian suhu ruang baby incubator menggunakan termometer sebagai perbandingan dengan nilai suhu yang dibaca pada alat. Dari pengukuran diperoleh tingkat perbedaan 0% pada suhu 30oC dan 2,8% pada suhu 37oC.   Kata kunci: baby incubator, sistem monitoring sentral, microsoft visual studio, arduino.

  9. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be very helpful. So can sibling classes (ask your hospital if it offers them). Try to tell your child before he hears about the new ... role to play in caring for the baby. Tell her she can hold the baby, although she must ask you first. Praise her when she is gentle ...

  10. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen in your baby’s blood by using a sensor attached to his finger or foot. This test is used to screen babies for a group of heart conditions called critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Your baby gets this test before he ...

  11. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play peek-a-boo with you. They're just getting adjusted to the world. In time, your baby sister or brother will be able ... good time to ask your mom or dad to spend a little time together — just the two of you. When a new baby ...

  12. Three-parent baby: is it ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neha; Garg, Suneela

    2017-11-14

    The UK was the first country to legalise mitochondrial donation in October 2015. In 2016, the first three-parent baby was born in Mexico and the US Food and Drug Administration declared that further research on mitochondrial donation is ethically permissible. It has now become an important issue, raising as it does, the spectre of "genetically modified designer babies".

  13. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  14. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  15. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  16. Giant lower oesophageal ulcer Bushman baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-26

    Feb 26, 1983 ... Giant lower oesophageal ulcer. Bushman baby. A case report. J. J. HEYDENRYCH, A. D. KEET. •. ID a. Summary. The case of a giant, penetrating lower oesophageal ulcer in a 14-month-old Bushman baby is reported. ... crying precluded a thorough systematic examination. Food was immediately rejected.

  17. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  18. Parent-led or baby-led? Associations between complementary feeding practices and health-related behaviours in a survey of New Zealand families

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Sonya L; Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine feeding practices and selected health-related behaviours in New Zealand families following a ?baby-led? or more traditional ?parent-led? method for introducing complementary foods. Design, setting and participants 199 mothers completed an online survey about introducing complementary foods to their infant. Participants were classified into one of four groups: ?adherent baby-led weaning (BLW)?, the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6?7?months; ?self-identified ...

  19. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Menticoglou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1 the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2 the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner.

  20. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1) the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2) the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner. PMID:27493815

  1. An innovative simplified MCH score for assessing the ideal babies in well baby shows of postpartum outreach programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmy, P N; Mittal, S

    1995-01-01

    In India, a simple scoring method was used to select winners at 18 well-baby shows over the last five years in low-income areas of Kotla Mubarakpur and Gautam Nagar, in the Rajeev Gandhi Resettlement Colony, in jhuggi jhopri clusters around the All Institute of Medical Sciences (AAIMS) in New Delhi, and in the Bangladeshi refugee colony (Kidwai Nagar). The parameters used to select ideal babies were parents' age at marriage and educational status, mother's age at first birth, number of living children in relation to marriage duration, immunization status of living children, birth interval, contraceptive use, and routine criteria on general health and hygiene. Winners were chosen among infants, toddlers (1-2 years), and preschool children (2-5). Health promotional activities, maternal and child health (MCH) services, and family planning (FP) services were featured at the health camps where the well-baby shows occurred. 60-90 children and 100-2000 couples participated in the well-baby shows. Health workers explained to parents of children with a poor score why their children had a poor score. At the health camps, parents adopted FP methods and had their children immunized, regardless of score, so as to improve their score for the next show and to win prizes. The well-baby scores improved over time (24.64-31.2 for Kotla Mubarakpur, 19-24.6 for Gautam Nagar, 20.9-22.4 for Rajeev Gandhi, 20.6-23.6 for AIIMS jhuggi, and 13.6-21.4 for Kidwai Nagar). A weekly clinic operating in Kotla Mubarakpur accounted for the high initial mean score. Gautam Nagar had only periodic health services. A weekly mobile health van provided services in the Rajeev Gandhi colony. Door to door contacts were conducted in the jhuggi jhopri clusters to promote MCH/FP services. The scoring method reinforced integration of MCH/FP services. It allowed local health workers to make rapid analyses and MCH decision making. It also served as a tool to monitor the efficacy of local MCH/FP services.

  2. Uncontacted tire explosion causing trauma to bilateral lower extremities: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is uncommon for tire explosion related injuries on the lower extremity. The bilateral lower extremities were injured by tire explosion when the patient was seated in a bus. She sustained an open fracture with partial bone loss in the right calcaneus (a comminuted fracture in the right ankle joint and a closed comminuted fracture in the left tibia and fibula. This damage was caused by uncontacted tire explosion, thanks to a thick floor between the exploded tire and the patient's feet. This type of injury on lower extremity caused by uncontacted tire explosion was uncommon.

  3. PREBIOTICS, INULIN AND BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125

  4. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  5. Illness perceptions in mothers with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Tineke; Wittkowski, Anja; Wieck, Angelika

    2013-07-01

    to examine perceptions of mothers experiencing postpartum depression utilising the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), to explore relationships between illness perceptions, depression severity and perceptions of maternal bonding, and to assess the psychometric properties within this population. longitudinal correlational design. North West of England, UK. 43 mothers, who screened positive for postpartum depression (mean age 29.36 years) with babies whose mean age was 4 months. participants were recruited through health services. Participants completed the IPQ-R and measures of depression severity and maternal bonding. Illness perceptions and depression severity were assessed at 2 time points, 4 weeks apart. mothers endorsed IPQ-R subscales of cyclical timeline, consequences, emotional representations, treatment and personal control. IPQ-R subscale scores and depression severity correlated significantly at Time 1. Initial IPQ-R subscale scores, however, were not associated with and accounted for little variation in depression severity at Time 2. IPQ-R identity and consequence subscales positively correlated with perceived bonding difficulties. the IPQ-R was shown to be a reliable measure of illness perceptions in mothers experiencing postpartum depression. The maternal illness perceptions endorsed in this study have implications for clinical practice. Interventions aimed at developing a more coherent understanding of depression may enhance beliefs of personal control over symptoms, reduce the number of perceived symptoms and associated emotional distress. Educating mothers regarding the benefits of interventions may be important in increasing the number of mothers accessing support for postpartum depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A System to Measure Both Inner and Outer Car Tire Temperatures ``in situ''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštial, P.; Mokryšová, M.; Šišáková, J.; Mošková, Z.; Rusnáková, S.

    2009-02-01

    In the paper, a system for the complex analysis of the internal and external tire temperatures and pressure of sporty tires is presented. Tests were performed on the test circuit of a tire producer. The CTPA 05 measuring system (complex temperature-pressure analyzer) enables simultaneous measurements of the internal temperature and pressure in a passenger or sports tire. The experimentalist determines that the CTPA 05 can be used to measure independently the external temperature of the overcoat on the front wheel driving tires at three points. Measurements of both the internal tire temperature and pressure, as well as of the external tire temperature, are collected together with GPS (global position system) data. The system of measurement is fully automatic and contactless. The obtained results are in very good agreement with those obtained by independent methods.

  7. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  8. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  9. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  10. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English...

  11. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    convection, and radiation, are taken into account. The geometry and meshing information are imported in the format of Nastran from Hypermesh. The...Unclassified Page 4 of 13 The three-dimensional (3D) tire geometry is created by Hypermesh, and then exported as Nastran format including

  12. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  13. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  14. AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE WEAR OF TRUCK TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An experimental device and methodology for tire wear investigation are presented. An indirect method for wear evaluating is used. The experimental results in cases of straight motion with and without side slip are obtained. The distribution of wearing on tread pattern wide is evaluated in different running conditions.

  15. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  16. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  17. Using Baby Books to Increase New Mothers’ Safety Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers’ safety practices during their child’s first 18 months. Patients and Methods Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: an educational book group, a non-educational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their child was 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Results Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (effect size = −0.30; 20% risk reduction). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (e.g., putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or non-educational book groups (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money or hassle (e.g., installing latches on cabinets). Discussion Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, and hassle. PMID:21272822

  18. Maternal intake of Natto, a Japan's traditional fermented soybean food, during pregnancy and the risk of eczema in Japanese babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Naoko; Shimojo, Naoki; Suzuki, Yoichi; Ochiai, Shingo; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Arima, Takayasu; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kohno, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    There are reports that the maternal diet during pregnancy may affect development of babies' eczema. We sought to investigate the association between the maternal diet during pregnancy and the risk of eczema in infancy in Japan. A birth cohort was set up at 2 hospitals in Chiba city. Dietary habits concerning fish, butter, margarine, yogurt and natto during pregnancy was obtained from mothers just after delivery. The intake frequencies of these foods were classified into four groups: 1) daily, 2) 2-3 times a week, 3) once a week and 4) once a month or less. Diagnosis of eczema at 6 months of age was made by the presence of an itchy rash that persisted more than two months. Valid data on 650 mother-baby pairs were obtained. No relationship between frequencies of the maternal intake of fish, margarine and yogurt during pregnancy and the onset rate of the babies' eczema were observed. For butter consumption, the incidence of babies' eczema was significantly higher in the group with daily intake than in those with an intake 2-3 times a week or less (p = 0.044). For natto, incidence of babies' eczema was significantly lower in the group with everyday intake than those eating it 2-3 times a week or less (p = 0.020). High frequency intake of natto during pregnancy possibly reduces the incidence of eczema in children at 6 months of age.

  19. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  20. Design and development of wireless baby monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Jen, Yi-Kuo Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Philips DAP SCD510, SCD520, SCD530, and SCD540 1.8GHz/1.9GHz DECT Digital Wireless Baby Monitors are part of the next generation digital baby monitor products that emphasize on small form factor, innovative feature set, and cost effective bill of materials. New product features include wideband audio, ambient relative humidity measurement, and carbon monoxide detection. The objectives of this project are to design and develop these four baby monitor products and begin mass production for ...

  1. Knowledge and Behaviors about Breast Milk and Breastfeeding on Mothers who have 0–24 Months Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diren Kaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is done to mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, for determining the mothers’ knowledge, attitude about breastfeeding and breast milk. METHOD: This descriptive type study was practiced with a questionnaire form which is including 44 questions by the 453 mothers who has 0–24 month children applied to the Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic for consultation. RESULTS: The age mean of the mothers comprised in the research is 28.04±5.49 years old. %56.5 of mothers have got information about breast milk and breastfeeding before birth. Course of to get information was %64.0 in postpartum time. %80.6 of mothers have give breast milk as first nutriment to their babies. %49.9 of mothers have suckled their babies in first hour after the birth. %90.9 of mothers said that they have give the colostrum to their babies. Babies breastfeeding time average was 6.66±5.37 months. Breastfeeding time average is low because of babies low age average. In study; %65.3 of babies are nourished with breast milk in first month and this rate as %60.0 in fourth month. This rate has decreased to %28.0 end of the sixth month. CONCLUSION: Consequently the mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, percent of feeding with breast milk after the birth is high. However the percent of nursing with only breast milk is low in first six month and percent of starting to additional nourishment is high in early period. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2009; 8(6: 479-484

  2. Effect of Kangaroo mother care on vital physiological parameters of the low birth weight newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanamayi Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g, which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min, heart rate (HR/ min, and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO 2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO 2 were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.

  3. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  4. Protecting and improving breastfeeding practices during a major emergency: lessons learnt from the baby tents in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Golden, Kate; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Moreaux, Marjolein D; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Koo, Leslie; Boyd, Erin; Beauliere, Jean Max; Lesavre, Celine; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2013-08-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced about 1.5 million people, many of them into camps for internally displaced persons. It was expected that disruption of breastfeeding practices would lead to increased infant morbidity, malnutrition and mortality. Haiti's health ministry and the United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with local and international nongovernmental organizations, established baby tents in the areas affected by the earthquake. The tents provided a safe place for mothers to breastfeed and for non-breastfed infants to receive ready-to-use infant formula. Such a large and coordinated baby tent response in an emergency context had never been mounted before anywhere in the world. Baby tents were set up in five cities but mainly in Port-au-Prince, where the majority of Haiti's 1555 camps for displaced persons had been established. Between February 2010 and June 2012, 193 baby tents were set up; 180 499 mother-infant pairs and 52 503 pregnant women were registered in the baby tent programme. Of infants younger than 6 months, 70% were reported to be exclusively breastfed and 10% of the "mixed feeders" moved to exclusive breastfeeding while enrolled. In 2010, 13.5% of registered infants could not be breastfed. These infants received ready-to-use infant formula. Thanks to rapid programme scale-up, breastfeeding practices remained undisrupted. However, better evaluation methods and comprehensive guidance on the implementation and monitoring of baby tents are needed for future emergencies, along with a clear strategy for transitioning baby tent activities into facility and community programmes.

  5. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  6. Predictors of Sensitivity in Mothers of 8-Month-Old Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alvarenga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigated the impact of maternal mental health, including postpartum depression, and of maternal-fetal attachment, on maternal sensitivity when babies were eight months old. The study included 38 mother-infant dyads. The women answered the SRQ-20 and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in the third trimester of pregnancy, and the BDI, for evaluation of postpartum depression in the first month following birth. Maternal sensitivity was examined through an observation of mother-child interaction when babies were eight months old. The multiple regression model considering the three factors explained 18.6% of the variance in sensitivity, and only maternal-fetal attachment was a significant predictor. The results indicate the importance of interventions to promote the bond of pregnant women with their babies, which may even minimize possible harmful effects of postpartum depression on mother-child interaction.

  7. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  8. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  9. Auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) profile of low birth weight babies- a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Krishnan, Viji; Zachariah, Philip

    2007-12-01

    supplements in this group. Calcium and iron levels were suboptimum at birth and calcium levels remained suboptimum even at the end of 2 years in all three subsets including controls in this non-affluent group. Currently available interventions may prevent the occurrence of overt clinical nutrient deficiencies, but do not ensure optimum growth, even among normal birth weight babies as some of these babies were seen to slip into the pool of malnutrition subsequently. Specialized nutritional surveillance and supplements are recommended for LBW babies to promote optimum growth and prevent subclinical nutrient deficiencies. Infant feeding practices should be strengthened and integrated with the existing health care programs to reach all the beneficiaries. Along with the existing special supplementation programs like iron folic acid, vitamin A, iodine etc., calcium supplementation should also be considered. It is also essential to concentrate on the girl child, the adolescent girl, prospective mother and prenatal mother to ensure optimum nutrition and nutrient

  10. Doing the Right Thing for Women and Babies: Policy Initiatives to Improve Maternity Care Quality and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Maureen P; Jolivet, Rima

    2009-01-01

    When defined within the context of maternity care, the Institute of Medicine's six aims for health-care quality improvement provide a framework for Childbirth Connection's Maternity Quality Matters Initiative, a multipronged program agenda intended to foster a maternity care system that delivers care of the highest quality and value in order to achieve optimal health outcomes and experiences for mothers and babies. These aims also provide childbirth educators and others in the maternity care community with an ethical framework for efforts to serve childbearing women and families and ensure the best outcomes for women, babies, and families. PMID:19436596

  11. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  12. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  13. Investigation of the Effect of Training on Promoting Breast-feeding at Baby-Friendly Hospital Case Study; Tohid Hospital in Jam, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Nickkhaha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched in 1989 by World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund for the promotion of breastfeeding. This program was implemented in many departments of gynecology and obstetrics and resulted in reduced malnutrition, infection, morbidity and mortality in children. This program has introduced 10 specific steps to support successful breastfeeding. For instance, in the fourth step, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are promoted since the time of birth, and in the fifth step, mothers are instructed on how to breastfeed or persist in breastfeeding. In these ten steps, mothers are trained in various fields. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data at baby-friendly hospitals. To assess the difference between multiple nominal variables, variance analysis was performed, using SPSS version 17. Results: Based on the analysis, mothers' awareness of the benefits of breast milk and breastfeeding was 83% in a baby-friendly hospital. Also, their awareness of proper breastfeeding was estimated at 78.5%. In addition, mothers' knowledge about the frequency of breastfeeding was 70%. Conclusion: Given the role of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in training mothers on the importance of breastfeeding and its persistence in future, careful monitoring of these hospitals, breastfeeding support services and breastfeeding training by midwives at healthcare centers are of great importance.

  14. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N

    2013-01-01

    provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother......In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different...... situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including...

  15. Sickle Cell Disease and Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of hemoglobin) from the other parent. Hemoglobin S-beta thalassemia. This condition is caused when a baby gets ... from one parent and a gene change for beta thalassemia from the other parent. How do you know ...

  16. Benzocaine and Babies: Not a Good Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Benzocaine and Babies: Not a Good Mix Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... children are more at risk, it’s still a good idea to talk to your health care professional ...

  17. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... busy one. Along with considering baby names and buying a crib, choosing the right health care provider ... less extensively trained in children's health care. These feelings are largely unwarranted. The presence of PNPs in ...

  18. Your Baby's Development: The Third Trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall off. You may see some of the leftover hair after your baby is born. Most of ... Categories: Family Health, Pregnancy and ChildbirthTags: Obstetrical, Pregnant Women, prenatal care October 1, 2009 Copyright © American Academy ...

  19. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... even knowing they have the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap Two vaccines in the ...

  20. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their coughs and sneezes, which increases your baby's risk of catching a cold. Time of year. Both children and adults are more susceptible to colds from fall to late spring. Complications Acute ear infection (otitis ...