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Sample records for babies tired mothers

  1. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedermann Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers

  2. MotherToBaby

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    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 2 hours ago Pregnant? While you’ ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 11 hours ago Do you know ...

  3. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  4. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

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    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the workforce…

  5. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers that spend the time with their babies and had the early contact with the babies as well, and the control group consisted of 216 mothers that were detached from their babies. Puerpera were observed in the aspects of the uterus involution, post delivery hemogramme on the third day after the childbirth, sanitary napkin consumption and the hospitalization length. Results For the study group the following was significant: less of the bad uterus involution, less of the post delivery anemia measured in the hemoglobin values and in the number of erythrocytes, less of the sanitary napkin consumption and the shorter hospitalization length. Discussion The early contact and the time spent with their babies after the childbirth influence the less blood loss analyzed by post delivery hemogramme, better uterus involution, less of the sanitary napkin consumption analyzed in the first three days after the childbirth and the shorter hospitalization length. The positive component of the breastfeeding oxytocic reflex is probably responsible for these effects. Conclusion Puerpera benefit from the early contact and the time spent with their babies.

  6. Selling Out Mothers and Babies by Marsha Walker

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    Sandra M., Gossler

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring project reported in Marsha Walker's book, Selling Out Mothers and Babies, offers a qualitative assessment of formula companies' unethical marketing practices in the United States. The book presents extensive documentation on the questionable strategies of formula companies and how they avoid and circumvent recommendations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes.

  7. Cell Migration from Baby to Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, Gavin S.; Tan, Xiao Wei; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Fetal cells migrate into the mother during pregnancy. Fetomaternal transfer probably occurs in all pregnancies and in humans the fetal cells can persist for decades. Microchimeric fetal cells are found in various maternal tissues and organs including blood, bone marrow, skin and liver. In mice, fetal cells have also been found in the brain. The fetal cells also appear to target sites of injury. Fetomaternal microchimerism may have important implications for the immune status of women, influen...

  8. Circumferential skin folds in a child: A case of Michelin tire baby syndrome

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    Palit Aparna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-month-old girl who presented with dermatitis was found to have multiple, symmetric, deep, gyrate skin folds involving her trunk and similar circumferential lesions on her extremities since birth. She had a characteristic round face with hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, thin, down-turned vermillion border of upper lip and short neck. Skin biopsy demonstrated increased smooth muscle fibers in the deeper dermis. A diagnosis of Michelin tire baby syndrome was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  9. [Floppy baby with macrocytic anemia and vegan mother].

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    Schlapbach, L J; Schütz, B; Nuoffer, J M; Brekenfeld, C; Müller, G; Fluri, S

    2007-08-29

    We report the case of a 7 month-old girl that presented with acute anemia, generalized muscular hypotonia and failure to thrive. Laboratory evaluation revealed cobalamin deficiency, due to a vegan diet of the mother. The clinical triad of an acquired floppy baby syndrome with megaloblastic anemia and failure to thrive is pathognomic for infantile cobalamin deficiency. Neurological abnormalities are often irreversible and may be associated with delayed myelinization in the MRI. A normal cobalamin level in maternal serum and absence of anemia do not exclude subclinical deficiency. If cobalamin deficiency is suspected, e.g. in pregnant women on vegan diet, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion and plasma homocysteine levels should be determined and cobalamin substitution should be started at an early stage to avoid potentially irreversible damage of the fetus. PMID:18293883

  10. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers' Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices.

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    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  11. Babies, bottles, and bisphenol A: the story of a scientist-mother.

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee Quitmeyer; Rebecca Roberts

    2007-01-01

    A scientist and mother who studies bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastic baby bottles and cups, wrestles with the disconnect between scientific evidence that the chemical poses a special risk to children and current laws and regulations.

  12. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

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    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported. PMID:23477067

  13. Buying for baby: how middle-class mothers negotiate risk with second-hand goods

    OpenAIRE

    Waight, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mother as consumer as well as carer, this chapter considers mothers’ co-consuming practices related to used/second-hand baby goods purchased at nearly new sales. Citing second-hand consumption as an intimate and risky practice, the material negotiations and risk reduction strategies practiced by middle-class mothers as they engage in consuming second-hand baby items are discussed.

  14. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

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    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare; Michelle Thais Migoto; Talita Balaminut; Mauren Teresa Grubisich Mendes Tacla; Sarah Nancy Deggau Hegeto de Souza; Edilaine Giovanini Rossetto

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature bab...

  15. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  16. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

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    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  17. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  18. Baby Pictures: Family, Consumerism and Exchange Among Teen Mothers in the USA

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    Lustig, Deborah Freedman

    2004-01-01

    Like many parents in the US, teen mothers regularly have professional portraits taken of their children. This article, based on an ethnographic study of a diverse group of teen mothers in urban California, analyzes these baby pictures as representations of childhood, motherhood and family, and as material objects used in the construction of kin…

  19. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

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    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  20. A 10-year history of perinatal care at the Brockington Mother and Baby Unit Stafford.

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    Green, Debra J; Hofberg, Kristina; Carr, Caroline; Fanneran, Tina; Sumathipala, Athula

    2016-06-01

    Perinatal mother and baby units are an essential service for women suffering from perinatal mental illness by allowing the baby to stay with the mother whilst receiving inpatient mental health care. Such units enable the mother to develop a relationship with her baby in a safe and supportive environment whilst caring for her mental health needs and allow her to gain confidence in her role as a mother. This article presents the development of the Brockington Mother and Baby unit and its progressive advancement towards an exemplary service for women suffering from perinatal mental illness. The Brockington Mother and Baby unit (MBU) at South Staffordshire and Shropshire Healthcare Foundation Trust (SSSFT) is celebrating its 10th anniversary and is one of six MBUs accredited as excellent by the Royal College of Psychiatry (RCPsych). The unit is a member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Quality Care Network and thereby adheres to their national standard of care. This article describes the journey from a single lone worker in perinatal mental health to an exemplary service caring for women with perinatal mental illness during the first 12 months following the birth of their child. PMID:26439484

  1. Vigilant watching over: mothers' actions to safeguard their premature babies in the newborn intensive care nursery.

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    Hurst, I

    2001-12-01

    The critical ethnography described in this article explored how a diverse group of 12 mothers describe and interpret their experience of having a hospitalized premature baby, including the mothers' actions in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and conditions affecting their descriptions, interpretations, and actions throughout 448 hours of participant observation. A central feature of their experience encompassed a repertoire of actions to vigilantly watch over their babies in the NICU. The results of this study suggest that health care providers often interpreted mothers' actions differently than intended, which creates barriers to achieving family-centered care in the NICU. PMID:11785577

  2. Baby worries : A randomized controlled trial of mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This thesis had three aims. (1) To explore a new treatment method of baby worries or mother-infant relational disturbances; mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment (MIP). The exploration focused on clinical applicability and underlying theory. (2) To investigate a method of assessing infant functioning by a mother-report questionnaire on infant social and emotional functioning. (3) To compare outcomes of MIP treatments with the usual Child Health Centre care (CHCC) in...

  3. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

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    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103

  4. Autism/Broken Symbiosis: Persistent Avoidance of Eye Contact with the Mother. Causes, Consequences, Prevention and Cure of Autistiform Behavior in Babies through "Mother-Child Holding."

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    Stades-Veth, Joanna

    A case study is reported in which early "autistiform behavior" in a 4-week-old baby was reversed through intensive mothering. The baby, who had been developing normally, was bottlefed by "strangers" for 2 days and then began to avert her eyes from all people, an autistiform behavior which persisted and grew worse as the mother tried to…

  5. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

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    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  6. Evaluation of utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies with severe birth asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. A. A. Ugboma; C. N. Onyearugha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies delivered with severe birth asphyxia at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A case control study of the utilization of antenatal services by 97 mothers of newborns with severe birth asphyxia delivered at UPTH from 1st February to 31st October 2009 compared with mothers of newborns with normal Apgar scores was done. Relevant pregnancy, birth, family and social history was obtained by personal interviews and referral to case notes. Results:Significantly more of the mothers of babies with normal Apgar score booked early(4 months or less) and had up to 8 or more antenatal visits prior to delivery than mothers of asphyxiated babies 86 (88.6 % ) vs 68(70.2 %), P = 0. 002 ; 93 (95.7 % ) vs 68 ( 70. 2 % ), P = 0.001 respectively. Significantly more subjects 56 (57.7 % ) than the controls 45 (46.4 % ) were primiparous, P= 0. 04. Also, significantly more subjects 19 (19.5%) suffered delay prior to intervention in labour than the controls 5 (5.1 %),P= 0. 004. Conclusion: Primiparity, delayed booking, inadequate antenatal visits and late intervention in labour have been identified as significant contributors to severe birth asphyxia.

  7. When Baby Stops Breathing: Analysis of Mothers' Interviews.

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    Stiffler, Deborah; Cullen, Deborah; Stephenson, Evelyn; Luna, Gaye; Hartman, Taylor D

    2016-06-01

    Sudden unexplained infant death is responsible for 14% of Indiana's infant mortality. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe mothers' experiences when death of an infant occurred suddenly and unexpectedly. Field deputies or social workers interviewed mothers from central Indiana during the child-death team investigations. The Thematic Analysis Program from the Joanna Briggs Institute was used to analyze interview data. Sixteen de-identified interview cases were extracted, and a meta-aggregate method was conducted. The three synthesized themes were Extreme Emotional Shock, We Feel Like We're to Blame, and Working Toward Moving On. Understanding these phenomena from mothers' experience may assist in eliminating risks associated with infant deaths and inform nursing practice and policy. PMID:26655564

  8. Determinants of mother-baby relationship evaluated during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Teresa Pinto Esteves Maia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Mental health promotion is supported by a strong body of knowledge and is a matter of public health with the potential of a large impact on society. Mental health promotion programs should be implemented as soon as possible in life, preferably starting during pregnancy. Programs should focus on malleable determinants, introducing strategies to reduce risk factors or their impact on mother and child, and also on strengthening protective factors to increase resilienc...

  9. MERMAID BABY WITH MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES IN MONOCHORIONIC TWIN GESTATION IN DIABETIC MOTHER

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    Meenal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sirenomelia, also known as sirenomelia sequence, is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by fusion of the legs and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Infants with cyclopia or sirenomelia are born at an approximate rate of 1 in 1,100,000 births. We are presenting a report of a ra re case of Mermaid baby with multiple congenital anomalies in monochorionic twin gestatio n in a diabetic mother.

  10. MERMAID BABY WITH MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES IN MONOCHORIONIC TWIN GESTATION IN DIABETIC MOTHER

    OpenAIRE

    Meenal; Hiremath; Subhasini; Premaleela; Rajesh; Ravikannan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sirenomelia, also known as sirenomelia sequence, is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by fusion of the legs and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Infants with cyclopia or sirenomelia are born at an approximate rate of 1 in 1,100,000 births. We are presenting a report of a ra re case of Mermaid baby with multiple congenital anomalies in monochorionic twin gestatio n in a diabetic mother.

  11. Book review: Making ‘postmodern’ mothers: pregnant embodiment, baby bumps and body image

    OpenAIRE

    O'Branski, Megan

    2013-01-01

    "Making Postmodern Mothers: Pregnant Embodiment, Baby Bumps and Body Image." Meredith Nash. Palgrave Macmillan. November 2012. --- This book aims to provide a multi-disciplinary, empirical account of pregnant embodiment and how it fits into wider sociological and feminist discourses about gender, bodies, ‘fat’, feminism, and motherhood. The study draws on original qualitative data based on interviews with pregnant women, their partners, and maternity industry professionals. ‘Postmodern’ p...

  12. The pathways from mother's love to baby's future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Korosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with genetic factors, early-life experience governs the expression and function of stress-related genes throughout life. This, in turn, contributes to either resilience or vulnerability to depression and to aging-related cognitive decline. In humans and animal models, both the quality and quantity of early-life maternal care has been shown to be a predominant signal triggering bi-directional and enduring changes in expression profiles of genes including glucocorticoids and CRH (hypothalamic and hippocampal, associated with the development of resilient or vulnerable phenotypes. However, many crucial questions remain unresolved. For examples, how is the maternal-derived signal transmitted to specific neuronal populations where enduring (likely epigenetic regulation of gene expression takes place? What is the nature of this information? In other words, how do neurons know to ‘turn on’ epigenetic machinery? What are the direct functional consequences of altered gene expression? This review describes the voyage of recurrent bursts of sensory input from the mother (‘mother’s love’ to CRH-expressing hypothalamic neurons that govern the magnitude of the response to stress. In addition, the acute and enduring effects of both nurturing and fragmented maternal care on the structure, cellular signaling and function of specific hippocampal and hypothalamic neurons are discussed. The evolving understanding of the processes initiated by the early life experience of ‘mother’s love’ suggest novel molecular targets for prevention and therapy of stress-related affective and cognitive disorders.

  13. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

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    Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:26016557

  14. Mothers 'don't like it; never tried it': Blind Sensory Test of a Homemade Chicken Liver Baby Food, a Source of Iron, by Infants and their Mothers.

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    Campos, Viviani Jaques; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2015-08-01

    A homemade chicken liver baby food (CLBF) that meets infants' nutritional requirements was developed and its acceptance by children and their mothers determined. CLBF's nutritional content was determined by chemical analyses. A blind sensory test (ST) by 50 infants 7-12 months old and their mothers of CLBF and ground beef baby food (GBBF) was applied. Mothers' preferences for liver and beef, answers of an hedonic scale and infants' acceptance were investigated. CLBF met the nutritional requirements for infants. There were no significant differences in the ST between the CLBF and GBBF, either for infants or for their mothers. There was no correlation between mothers' like or dislike of liver and the ST scores. Infants tried and liked the CLBF that match dietary recommendations and could help prevent iron deficiency. Mothers, on the other hand, demonstrated an 'I don't like it; I never tried it' attitude. PMID:26116829

  15. Step 8: Encourages All Mothers, Families to Touch, Hold, Breastfeed, Care for Their Babies: The Coalition for Improving Maternity Services:

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    Storton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Step 8 of the Ten Steps to Mother-Friendly Care encourages all mothers and families, including those with sick or premature newborns or infants with congenital problems, to touch, hold, breastfeed, and care for their babies to the extent compatible with their conditions. The rationales for compliance with the step and systematic review are presented.

  16. When bad mothers lose good babies: understanding fetal and infant mortality case reviews.

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    Fordyce, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how the practices of the Fetal and Infant Mortality Review-Case Review Team (FIMR CRT) in "Florida City" constructs particular types of maternal and fetal subjects and how these narratives about fetal and infant death reflect particular discourses about "bad mothers" and "good babies." I argue that the very methods of the Florida City FIMR committee structure the types of conversations and, in effect, judgments that can be made about women who experience a fetal or neonatal death. In addition, I examine how many of these ideas resonate with the discourses around fetal rights that pervade contemporary abortion politics in the United States. PMID:24964721

  17. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ilknur Kahriman; Murat Topbas; Gamze Can

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a...

  18. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  19. Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into a special care baby unit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onubogu Uche C; Jaja Tamunopriye; Opara Peace I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Infants born to diabetic women have certain distinctive characteristics, including large size and high morbidity risks. The neonatal mortality rate is over five times that of infants of non diabetic mothers and is higher at all gestational ages and birth weight for gestational age (GA) categories. The study aimed to determine morbidity and mortality pattern amongst infants of diabetic mothers (IDMS) admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of University of Port Harcourt Te...

  20. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  1. The importance of a genetic link in mothers commissioning a surrogate baby in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, O

    2000-08-01

    Reproductive technologies have enabled genetic and gestational links between parents and children to become separate from social relationships and inter-personal ties within families. The meaning of family is discussed, by drawing on research with infertile women who become parents as the result of surrogacy. The complexities of family are highlighted by addressing the consequences of babies carried and delivered by women who are not the biological parents of the child, or by women who are the biological mother of the child but who relinquish their genetic material to another woman. In all, 29 women completed a questionnaire on various aspects of their infertility, surrogacy, and the importance of a genetic link. The study identified some characteristics of women who have become mothers as a result of surrogacy, and some of their reactions to this way of creating families. In general, women who could use their own genetic material tended to believe a genetic link was important. Those who could not use their own genetic material were less uniform in their beliefs about the importance of a genetic link. The cognitive dissonance observed in this population has implications for the future of reproductive technology assisting couples in becoming a family with or without genetic relatedness. PMID:10920116

  2. BIO - SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF MOTHERS OF LBW BABIES AND ASSOCIATION OF THEIR HEALTH KNOWLEDGE REGARDING LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES : A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY IN AN URBAN SLUM (DILAWARGANJ NEAR MGM MEDICAL COLLEGE, KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhaditya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in developing countries including India. The epidemiological observations depicted that infants weighing lesser than 2500 g are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier babies, closely associated with the fetal and neonatal mortality and morbid ity. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the relevant socio - demographic and biological determinants of Low Birth Weight babies and t o assess the degree of association between impact of health education and Low birth weight babi es. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from May - August 2013 in Dilawarganj, an urban slum, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, MGM Medical College, Kishanganj, Bihar. Study population comprised of wome n in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy belonged to DILAWARGANJ urban slum area. 100 mothers of low birth weight and normal birth weight babies at urban slum of Kishanganj (Among them 33 mothers had delivered LBW babies & 67 mothers had delivered normal babies were selected and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the socio - demographic factors that have been considered in the present study, it was observed that 51 .5% mothers belong to age group 20 – 29, 84.8% mothers from Muslim community, 66.67% mothers were illiterate, 69.7% mothers were multipara,75.76% mothers reside in a nuclear family 60.6% mothers were engaged in agricultural fields66.67% belong to lower and poor socio - economic group. It was also observed that 84.85% mothers do not consumes extra meals, 81.82% do not take adequate rest & sleep, 93.9% mothers take less than 100 IFA tablets, 69.7% mothers attend less than 3 ANC, 84.85% mothers practice exclusiv e breast feeding and 78.8% mother give vaccines to their babies. CONCLUSION: The study of LBW baby in

  3. Prognostic factors for success in the Kangaroo Mother Care method for low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Pratiwi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is closely related to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Management of LBW infants in developing countries remains limited, due to the low availability of incubators. The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method has been shown to be effective for newborns, especially LBW infants, in which skin-to-skin contact may be conducive for infants’ weight gain, thermoregulation, and heart rate stability.Objective To determine the prognostic factors for KMC success in LBW babies.Methods This cohort study included LBW infants at Dr. Kariadi General Government Hospital, Semarang, by a consecutive sampling method. Success of KMC was assessed by infant weight gain, as well as stabilization of temperature, heart rate, and respiration. Prognostic factors for KMC success that we assessed were birth weight, gestational age, KMC duration, age at KMC onset and maternal education level. Statistical analyses used were Chi-square and relative risk (RR tests.Results Of 40 LBW infants, 24 were successful in KMC. Birth weight ≥ 1500 grams (RR 0.4; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.73; P=0.001], gestational age ≥ 34 weeks (RR 0.94; 95%CI 0.46 to 1.89; P=1.00, KMC duration ≥ 65 minutes (RR 1.44; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.75; P= 0.215, high maternal education level (RR 1.25; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.04; P=0.408, and age at KMC onset >10 days (RR 2.69; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.32; P=0.003, were factors that related to the successful of KMC.Conclusion Age at KMC onset > 10 days was a prognostic factor for KMC success in low birth weight babies.

  4. Perceptions and actions of healthcare professionals regarding the mother-child relationship with premature babies in an intermediate neonatal intensive care unit: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Camila; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Makuch, Maria Y

    2014-01-01

    Background The mother-child interaction after delivery may be hampered when the newborn baby is hospitalized. The objective of the study was to understand perceptions and actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs), working in an intermediate neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), regarding mother-child relationship of hospitalized premature babies in the first weeks after delivery and the professionals’ support for the development of this relationship within an NICU environment. The psychoanaly...

  5. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and that…

  6. "It's Not All About My Baby's Sleep": A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Low-Income African American Mothers' Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Danielle N; Mindell, Jodi A; Reyes, Naomi R; Hart, Chantelle N; Herring, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Low-income African American mothers are at particular risk for poor postpartum sleep. This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers that exist to getting a good night's sleep among these high-risk mothers. Semistructured interviews with 18 low-income African Americans (3-6 months postpartum) were conducted. Most mothers described their own sleep quality to be poor, despite the fact that their babies' sleep improved substantially from the newborn period. Mothers kept themselves awake due to their own internal worry and anxiety, along with external factors that were largely independent of babies' sleep, including work and school commitments and the home environment. For the few mothers with good sleep quality, time management and family support were strong facilitators. Findings lay the groundwork for sleep improvement interventions. PMID:26488388

  7. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, C; Sarin, S K; Patra, S; Kumar, A; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Bhutia, K; Gupta, E; Mukhopadhyay, C K; Dutta, A K; Trivedi, S S

    2013-11-01

    infection with good immune response 28%. Women who were anti-HBe positive were a low-risk group, and their babies were most likely to remain free of HBV infection (occult or overt) and had good immune response to the vaccine. Maternal HBeAg-positive status and negativity for anti-HBe predicted not only overt but also any infection (both overt and occult) in babies. In addition, high maternal HBV DNA and treatment with vaccine alone were significant factors for overt HBV infection in babies. The current practice of administration of vaccine with HBIG at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers is not effective in preventing occult HBV infection in babies, which may be up to 40%. Because the most important risk factors for mother-to-baby transmission of HBV infection are the replicative status and high HBV DNA level in mothers; it will be worthwhile investigating the role of antivirals and HBIG administration during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. PMID:24168259

  9. The levels of vitamın B12, folate and homocysteine in mothers and their babies with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Erdal; Demir, Nihat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Üstyol, Lokman; Balahoroğlu, Ragıp; Kaba, Sultan; Karaman, Kamuran

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine (Hcy) in mothers and their babies, and to assess the association between these levels and neural tube defect (NTD). The study group included 92 baby-mother pairs, where the babies had NTD, and the control group included 102 pairs, where the babies had no NTD, from May 2012 to May 2015. Plasma vitamin B12, folate, and Hcy levels of the babies and mothers were measured, and compared with each other. NTD was diagnosed in 2.6% of our babies. The vitamin B12 levels in the mothers and the babies in the study group were determined as 166.2 ± 63.7 pg/mL and 240.3 ± 120.3 pg/mL, and in the control group as 1 9 0 ± 80.2 pg/mL and 299.5 ± 151.4 pg/mL, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of both the mothers' and the babies' vitamin B12 levels (p = 0.024 and p = 0.003, respectively). The plasma folate levels of the mothers in the study group (5.2 ± 3 ng/mL) were significantly lower than control group (6.4 ± 4.3 ng/mL, p = 0.032).The plasma Hcy level of the mothers in the study group (9.3 ± 3.8 μmol/L) was significantly higher than the control group (7 ± 3.8 μmol/L, p B12 levels are risk factors for NTD. Our results show that the risk for NTD can be decreased by fortification of mothers-to-be, particularly in rural areas with folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, which would lower the plasma Hcy level. PMID:26479326

  10. Comparison of the B vitamin composition of milk from mothers of preterm and term babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, J E; Zechalko, A; Murphy, J.; Brooke, O G

    1983-01-01

    Samples of milk were taken at intervals during lactation from 35 mothers of term and 26 mothers of preterm infants and assayed for 8 B complex vitamins. Both term and preterm milks varied widely in vitamin content between mothers. Mean concentrations of thiamin, vitamin B6, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid increased progressively over several weeks after parturition but vitamin B12 concentrations declined generally and riboflavin values showed little change. Preterm mi...

  11. Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into a special care baby unit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onubogu Uche C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants born to diabetic women have certain distinctive characteristics, including large size and high morbidity risks. The neonatal mortality rate is over five times that of infants of non diabetic mothers and is higher at all gestational ages and birth weight for gestational age (GA categories. The study aimed to determine morbidity and mortality pattern amongst infants of diabetic mothers (IDMS admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Methods This was a study of prevalence of morbidity and mortality among IDMs carried out prospectively over a two year period. All IDMs (pregestational and gestational admitted into the Unit within the period were recruited into the study. Data on delivery mode, GA, birth weight, other associated morbidities, investigation results, treatment, duration of hospital stay and outcome were collated and compared with those of infants of non diabetic mothers matched for GA and birth weight admitted within the same period. Maternal data were reviewed retrospectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results Sixty percent of the IDMs were born to mothers with gestational diabetes, while 40% were born to mothers with pregestational DM. 38 (74.3% were born by Caesarian section (CS, of which 20 (52.6% were by emergency CS. There was no significant difference in emergency CS rates, when compared with controls, but non-IDMs were more likely to be delivered vaginally. The mean GA of IDMs was 37.84 weeks ± 1.88. 29 (61.7% of them were macrosomic. The commonest morbidities were Hypoglycemia (significantly higher in IDMs than non-IDMs and hyperbilirubinaemia in 30 (63.8% and 26 (57.4% respectively. There was no difference in morbidity pattern between infants of pre- gestational and gestational diabetic mothers. Mortality rate was not significantly higher in IDMs Conclusions The incidence of macrosomia in IDMs was high but high rates of emergency CS was not

  12. Mineral content of the forearms of babies born to Asian and white mothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Congdon, P; Horsman, A; Kirby, P A; Dibble, J; Bashir, T

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant Asian women. The effect of maternal vitamin D deficiency on fetal skeletal mineralisation was assessed by measuring the bone mineral content of babies born to 45 Asian women, 19 Asian women who had received 1000 units of vitamin D during the last trimester, and 12 white women. The mean cord blood concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in the three groups were 5.9 +/- SE 0.9 nmol/l (2.4 +/- SE 0.4 ng/ml), 15.2 +/- 3.2 nmol/l (6.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml), and 3...

  13. Psychosocial Risk-Mothers and Their Babies: Opinions about Interaction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Studies focusing on mothers' own reports of their experience with intervention programmes are rare, so very little has been known about their evaluations of the programmes and what they have learned. The aim of the present study was to use interviews to evaluate these aspects of an intervention programme. The interviews were designed to capture…

  14. But I've already had a healthy baby: folic acid formative research with Latina mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers. PMID:18752460

  15. Older Babies - More Active Mothers?: How Maternal Labor Supply Changes as the Child Grows

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Sommerfeld

    2008-01-01

    Female labor market activity is dependent on the presence and the age of a child, but how do the determinants develop in magnitude and significance with the child's age? Using German SOEP data from 1991 to 2006 for mothers with young children, the change in maternal labor supply when the child is one, two, and three years old is explicitly addressed. According to the tobit regression results for precise working hours, maternal labor supply becomes increasingly responsive to economic incentive...

  16. New hadron discovered at Entrance B (mother and baby doing fine)

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2013-01-01

    Hadron: A heavy, strongly interacting particle. So say the dictionaries, and the definition seems entirely appropriate for the latest addition to a particular family that was passing CERN’s Entrance B on Monday afternoon en route for the Hôpital de la Tour.   The father of the baby (left) and the members of the CERN Fire Brigade and Medical Service dealing with the unexpected happy event. (Photo by D. Pagnani, CERN Fireman. The photo is reproduced by the CERN Bulletin with the agreement of the di Castro family.) The new "hadron" certainly showed the strength of its desire to interact with the world in arriving a little earlier than expected, causing its fraught parents to pull up the car and seek help at the first port of call. Luckily for them, that turned out to be CERN. Our medical service and ambulance personnel proved to be entirely up to the task. The fire brigade provided first aid, and was soon joined by the medical service, which ensured that mot...

  17. Periodontitis among poor rural Indian mothers increases the risk of low birth weight babies: a hospital-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Pulikkotil Shaju; Nath, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major public health problems in India. Hence, there is a need to identify risk factors that, when modified, will reduce the burden of unhealthy children on the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to determine whether periodontitis among mothers in the rural population of India is a risk factor for LBW babies. Methods A hospital-based case control study was conducted among 340 postpartum mothers. The cases consisted of 170 women who h...

  18. The effects of crack in pregnancy and babies of addicted mothers: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Oliveira Camargo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the significant increase in crack use in the Brazilian population, studies on this subject have appeared timidly as of the first decade of this century. The media is responsible for addressing the issue through its high penetration in society with a limited speech, that of exclusion. For this reason, studies by experts and researchers are needed. When speaking of the effects of crack in children, studies are even scarcer. The purpose of this article was to carry out a literature review to know what is being studied about the possible effects of crack use during pregnancy. To this end, a search was conducted at the following database: CAPES - Theses and Dissertations, MEDLINE, LILACS, and sites of public agencies related to health, using the descriptors “crack cocaine”, “fetus”, “newborn”, and “pregnancy”. The search occurred in 2012/2013 and publications from 2000 to 2013, written in Portuguese, Spanish and English were included. The sample consisted of three theses, seven dissertations, and 28 articles, chosen after reading the summary and further reading in full. It was possible to observe that there has been advancement in the interest for the area, although there are still gaps in relation to the issue arising in the field of anthropology, sociology and psychology, with prevalence of biological studies. We found that some damage may occur due to prenatal exposure to crack in children of addicted mothers, but the long-term effects cannot yet be proven, since factors external to drug use can also be directly related to these consequences.

  19. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  20. Feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge Sentimientos y expectativas de las madres en el alta hospitalaria del recién nacido prematuro Sentimentos e expectativas das mães na alta hospitalar do recém-nascido prematuro

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Zuleide da Silva Rabelo; Edna Maria Camelo Chaves; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso; Maria do Socorro Mendonça Sherlock

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge. METHODS: This descriptive study used Bardin's framework to collect data among 11 mothers of preterm babies from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Data were collected through interviews from December 2004 to January 2005. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: the moment of the discharge; mothers' knowledge and questions; mothers' preparation and orientation for discharge; and, mothers' desired orientat...

  1. Music for Mothers and Babies Living in a Prison: A Report on a Special Production of "BebeBaba"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Helena; Leite, Anabela; Faria, Cristina; Monteiro, Irene; Rodrigues, Paulo Maria

    2010-01-01

    "BebeBaba" is a project that combines education and artistic performance in a process that is centred on music, babies and their parents. We discovered that previous productions resulted in a very strong bonding among parents and babies, families and the community. In 2008 we implemented a special production in a prison in Oporto where mothers…

  2. Dose-effect on the mothers and babies attending the Programa de Apoyo Psicológico P/Materno-Infantil©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pons-Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the intervention dose-effect of the Parent Child Psychological Support Program© (Cerezo 1990 a program aimed at promoting protective adaptive system in children which is offered to all new-borns in a given catchment area. The program offers support to parents during the first 18 months of the baby's life. The program dose-effect is examined regarding the parents by examining the level of distress reported by them and with babies by examining the development of attachment using the Strange Situation test of Ainsworth et al. (1978. The study is based on 342 families who made between 2 and 4 visits to the Program before being evaluation post-intervention. The results indicate that at least 3 program sessions are required to produce a significant decrease in the distress scores for mothers, between pre and post evaluation. The proportion of children with secure attachment is greater when the family attends 3 or 4 times, compared to those who attend on 2 occasions. It was also noted that mothers of children with insecure attachment had higher scores on the maternal distress and other factors affecting parenting than mothers of children with secure attachment.

  3. Extended Households and the Life Course of Young Mothers: Understanding the Associations Using a Sample of Mothers With Premature, Low Birth Weight Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, P.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined whether the greater average schooling and employment, and lower parenting competence, of young mothers who reside with adult relatives reflect preexisting differences versus potential causal mechanisms. The sample included 554 young mothers (ages 13 to 25; nearly two thirds African American) from the Infant Health and…

  4. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

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    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has been widely used in the prevention of dental caries for a long time. To prevent dental caries, fluoride must be induced in low amount at high frequency. Inducing it through implantation process even make slow release of small concentration of fluoride. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the induction of monofluorophosphate (MFP implant into the white rat mothers affects the level of fluoride in the incisors of their young babies. Method: The objects of the research were twenty white rat mothers in two days of pregnancy which then were divided into four groups (n=5. First, those mothers have been induced with implant under their back skin until their born young babies in the age of 35 days (n=5. The level of fluoride in the incisors of those young babies then is measured with Potentiometer. The obtained data were finally analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test and continued by with LSD test (p=0.05. Result: The result of this research showed that the means of the fluoride level in the incisors of those babies divided into those four groups in series were about 11956.16±201.35 ppb (K, 27328.04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267.21±248.86 ppb (P2, and 18103.50±267.11 ppb (P3. The result of ANOVA test then showed that the induction of various MFP implant levels significantly affected the level of fluoride in the incisors of the babies. The mean differences among the treatment groups after being tested with LSD 0.05 were also significant. Conclusion: The finding confirm that the significant increasing of the optimal fluoride retention in the incisors of white rat babies can be achieved with the induction of fluoride with MFP ions implant in about 52.98 mg.Latar belakang: Pencegahan karies gigi menggunakan senyawa fluor telah banyak dilakukan dan berlangsung dalam jangka waktu lama. Pemberian fluor dalam jumlah rendah dan frekuensi tinggi merupakan pemenuhan kebutuhan pencegahan karies gigi. Pemberian dengan cara

  5. Mild gestational diabetes in pregnancy and the adipoinsular axis in babies born to mothers in the ACHOIS randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio Miles J; Willson Kristyn; Crowther Caroline A; Owens Julie A; Pirc Louise K; Robinson Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Mild gestational diabetes is a common complication of pregnancy, affecting up to 9% of pregnant women. Treatment of mild GDM is known to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and associated birth injuries, such as shoulder dystocia, bone fractures and nerve palsies. This study aimed to compare the plasma glucose concentrations and serum insulin, leptin and adiponectin in cord blood of babies of women (a) without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), (b) with ...

  6. Helping small babies survive: an evaluation of facility-based Kangaroo Mother Care implementation progress in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Aliganyira, Patrick; Kerber, Kate; Davy, Karen; Gamache, Nathalie; Sengendo, Namaala Hanifah; Bergh, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death in Uganda, accounting for 38% of the nation's 39,000 annual newborn deaths. Kangaroo mother care is a high-impact; cost-effective intervention that has been prioritized in policy in Uganda but implementation has been limited. Methods A standardised, cross-sectional, mixed-method evaluation design was used, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 11 health care facilities implementing kangaroo mother ...

  7. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  8. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  9. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  10. Mild gestational diabetes in pregnancy and the adipoinsular axis in babies born to mothers in the ACHOIS randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Blasio Miles J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild gestational diabetes is a common complication of pregnancy, affecting up to 9% of pregnant women. Treatment of mild GDM is known to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and associated birth injuries, such as shoulder dystocia, bone fractures and nerve palsies. This study aimed to compare the plasma glucose concentrations and serum insulin, leptin and adiponectin in cord blood of babies of women (a without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, (b with mild GDM under routine care, or (c mild GDM with treatment. Methods 95 women with mild GDM on oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT at one tertiary level maternity hospital who had been recruited to the ACHOIS trial at one of the collaborating hospitals and randomised to either Treatment (n = 46 or Routine Care (n = 49 and Control women with a normal OGTT (n = 133 were included in the study. Women with mild GDM (treatment or routine care group and OGTT normal women received routine pregnancy care. In addition, women with treated mild GDM received dietary advice, blood glucose monitoring and insulin if necessary. The primary outcome measures were cord blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin. Results Cord plasma glucose was higher in women receiving routine care compared with control, but was normalized by treatment for mild GDM (p = 0.01. Cord serum insulin and insulin to glucose ratio were similar between the three groups. Leptin concentration in cord serum was lower in GDM treated women compared with routine care (p = 0.02 and not different to control (p = 0.11. Adiponectin was lower in both mild GDM groups compared with control (Treatment p = 0.02 and Routine Care p = 0.07, while the adiponectin to leptin ratio was lower for women receiving routine care compared with treatment (p = 0.08 and control (p = 0.05. Conclusion Treatment of women with mild GDM using diet, blood glucose monitoring and insulin if necessary, influences the

  11. Observation on the clinical application effect of bedside mother-and-baby care model%母婴床旁护理工作模式的临床应用及效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲; 王玉杰; 刘铭; 梁文化; 高钿

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application effect of bedside mother - and - baby care model. Methods: 300 pairs of mothers and babies were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group (150 pairs in each group ). The bedside mother - and - baby care model was applied in the observation group and the conventional mother - and - baby care model was used in the control group. The satisfaction of puerperant, sense of safety, the grasp of knowledge about maternal care and the incidence of nosocomial infections were compared between the two groups. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the satisfaction of puerperant, sense of safety, the grasp of knowledge about maternal care between the two groups after the implementation of bedside mother - and - baby care model ( P < 0.05 ), but the incidence of nosocomial infections compared between the two groups was not significantly different. Conclusion: The puerperant can enjoy the family - style and individualized service through the implementation of bedside mother - and - baby care model, by which the puerperant s satisfaction with the nursing service will be improved and the comprehensive ability of nurses be enhanced. The bedside mother - and - baby care model can be used as a new nursing model to improve the quality of nursing care in the obstetrical department.%目的:探讨母婴床旁护理工作模式的临床应用效果.方法:将300对母婴随机分为观察组和对照组各150对,观察组实行母婴床旁护理模式,对照组实施传统的母婴护理模式.比较两组产妇对护理服务满意度、产妇安全感、母婴护理知识技术掌握情况及护士工作满意度、院内感染发生情况的差异.结果:观察组实施母婴床旁护理模式后产妇满意度提高、对母婴护理知识技术掌握程度提高,产妇更有安全感,护士工作满意度提高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组院内感染

  12. Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies: awareness and perceptions of existing breastfeeding and postpartum depression support among parents and perinatal health care providers in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai'i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai'i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai'i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along with a

  13. Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158813.html Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies ... HealthDay News) -- Babies born to mothers who had gestational diabetes may be more likely to carry excess fat ...

  14. Voz cantada e a constituição da relação mãe-bebê Singing voice and the constitution of mother/baby relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: refletir sobre uma faceta da constituição da relação mãe-bebê, que se fez presente no uso criativo da voz cantada da mãe, na comunicação com o seu bebê. PROCEDIMENTOS: o único sujeito desse estudo é uma mãe, que se submeteu a oito sessões de terapias corporais associadas à emissão da voz cantada, sempre dirigidas ao bebê; as sessões transcorreram com a possibilidade de expressão livre pela fala e gesto da mãe e a escuta do terapeuta. RESULTADOS: o quadro que a mãe apresentava em relação ao seu bebê, no início do tratamento, se encaixa na descrição de depressão pós-parto. Após as sessões, a mãe conseguiu estabelecer contato com seu bebê, de modo prazeroso; por meio da emissão da voz cantada, ela estabeleceu a primeira forma de comunicação e não mais apresentou o quadro de dor e perda da voz. CONCLUSÃO: a possibilidade de reconhecimento, do bebê por sua mãe, teve a corporeidade como aliada, na conjunção dos corpos da mãe e do bebê, o que favoreceu o estabelecimento de uma comunicação com sintonia de ritmos, por meio da entoação de música cantada, que levou à constituição do bebê enquanto pessoa integrada.BACKGROUND: to address one aspect of mother/baby relationship, that arises from the use of singing voice in their communicative process. PROCEDURE: the subject of this case study is a mother who undergoes eight sessions of body therapy (massage and exercises associated to the utterance of singing voice, always directed to the baby; the sessions offered the possibility of free expression through the mother's use of gestures and speech along with the therapist' listening. RESULTS: in the beginning of treatment, the reaction of the mother towards her baby fits precisely in postpartum depression description. After the sessions, she was able to keep a most pleasant contact with her baby; by means of the singing voice, she has got the first way of communication with her child and either pain or

  15. Why Are They Keeping Their Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Helen L.

    1975-01-01

    This article investigates the reasons why young single girls are keeping their babies far more often than they did a few years ago, and the role of the helping professions in dealing with these young mothers. (BW)

  16. Evoluções motoras e linguísticas de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento na perspectiva de mães Motor and language development of babies with delayed development from the mothers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiany Hekavei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a evolução do desenvolvimento motor e de linguagem em bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento a partir da perspectiva materna. Participaram do estudo seis mães de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento. A pesquisa foi realizada numa instituição com programa de intervenção precoce e em ambiente domiciliar. Foram feitas entrevistas com as mães, por meio de um roteiro semiestruturado. O modo de compreensão das mães, tanto do processo de desenvolvimento motor, quanto linguístico dos filhos, indicou uma evolução no desenvolvimento dessas crianças. Uma das provas disso, foi a forma como essas mães se referiram ao desenvolvimento das crianças, antes destas ingressarem no programa de intervenção precoce e no momento atual. Conhecer e valorizar as percepções trazidas pelos cuidadores e particularmente pelas mães, implica em ampliar o entendimento dos seus saberes e práticas. Estes valores, por sua vez, podem ser utilizados no sentido de favorecer todo o processo de desenvolvimento infantil.The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of motor and language development in developmentally delayed babies from the mother's perspective. Six mothers of developmentally delayed babies participated in the study. This study was conducted in an institution that had an early intervention program and in the home environment. Interviews with the mothers were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The way the mothers understood both their children's processes of motor and language development was indicative of an evolution in these children's development. The ways these mothers reported on the development of the children before they entered the early intervention program and at present is evidence to this effect. To know and to value the perception that caretakers have about their children has to do with broadening their understanding and practices. These values, in turn, can be

  17. Mermaid baby

    OpenAIRE

    N. Khan; Ismail, F.; I van de Werke; H Gongxeka

    2010-01-01

    We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia.

  18. Mermaid baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia.

  19. Dificuldades maternas no processo de aleitamento materno de prematuros em uma UTI neonatal Las dificultades maternas en el proceso de amamantamiento materno de prematuros en una UTI neonato Mother's difficulties in breastfeeding premature babies in the neonatal ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Olívia Andreo Serra

    2004-08-01

    necesario capacitar los profesionales hospitalarios y implantar protocolos de intervención, con vistas a las experiencias y necesidades maternas y la articulación entre las acciones intrahospitalarias y interinstitucionales.This study aimed to describe the care and difficulties mothers face when breastfeeding their premature babies at a neonatal intensive care unit (ICU. Therefore, a qualitative approach was adopted. Data were obtained through structured interviews, which were recorded with five mothers of premature babies under 2,000g who were assisted at the neonatal ICU in Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. The results revealed five subthemes: maintaining milk production by milking, facing discomfort during the stay at the neonatal ICU, living with medical food procedures for premature babies, facing the fragility of the premature baby and the neonatal ICU environment and needing logistic support for breastfeeding. A lack of systematic interventions was observed to stimulate breastfeeding while mothers and their premature babies are in hospital. Hospital professionals need to be trained and intervention protocols have to be implanted, in view of the maternal experiences and needs and the articulation between intrahospital and interinstitutional actions.

  20. Tire footprint studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  1. TIRE-ROAD NOISE : AN ANALYSIS OF THE TIRE VIBRATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallas, M

    1990-01-01

    Tire vibrations are partly responsable of acoustic nuisance related to tire-road contact noise. We analyse tire vibrations measured by an accelerometer fixed to the tire of a car, both by means of classical spectral analysis (Fourier transform) and by time-frequency analysis (Wigner-Ville distribution). We point out distinct behaviours when the tire is excited by the road texture or by the tire tread pattern.

  2. Relação de escolaridade, faixa etária e profissão de mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos Relationship of schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação do grau de escolaridade, faixa etária e a profissão das mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 190 mães de crianças entre 0 e 10 anos de idade, com idades de 20 a 45 anos que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas a respeito de profissão, nível de escolaridade e uso de chupeta e mamadeira de seus filhos RESULTADOS: não foi observada diferença significante entre o grau de escolaridade quanto ao uso de chupeta (p= 0,915. O uso de mamadeira foi significantemente maior nos filhos de mães com ensino superior (p= 0,0124. Não houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária das mães e a presença desses hábitos nos filhos (chupeta: p=0,427; mamadeira: p=0,427; e, entre mães que trabalham em casa e que trabalham fora de casa (chupeta: p=0,061; mamadeira: p=0,798. Não houve diferença entre mães que trabalham na área da saúde e em outras áreas (chupeta: p=0,339; mamadeira: p=0,455 CONCLUSÃO: as mães com nível superior de escolaridade oferecem significantemente mais mamadeira aos seus filhos, o que não ocorreu quanto ao uso de chupeta. Não foi observada diferença significante quanto ao uso de chupeta e mamadeira em relação à faixa etária e profissão de mães.PURPOSE: to evaluate the relationships among schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children. METHOD: 190 mothers with ages varying from 20 to 45 having children from 0 to 10 took part in this study. Mothers answered a questionnaire with questions regarding profession, schooling level and use of nipples and baby's bottles by their children. RESULTS: no significant differences were found between mothers having primary or secondary education and mothers with higher education regarding the use of nipples (p= 0.915. On the other hand, baby's bottle use was significantly higher among children of mothers with higher

  3. Building capacity for evidence generation, synthesis and implementation to improve the care of mothers and babies in South East Asia: methods and design of the SEA-ORCHID Project using a logical framework approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Short Jacki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of maternal and perinatal mortality remain high in developing countries despite the existence of effective interventions. Efforts to strengthen evidence-based approaches to improve health in these settings are partly hindered by restricted access to the best available evidence, limited training in evidence-based practice and concerns about the relevance of existing evidence. South East Asia - Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries (SEA-ORCHID was a five-year project that aimed to determine whether a multifaceted intervention designed to strengthen the capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improved clinical practice and led to better health outcomes for mothers and babies. This paper describes the development and design of the SEA-ORCHID intervention plan using a logical framework approach. Methods SEA-ORCHID used a before-and-after design to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted tailored intervention at nine sites across Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia, supported by three centres in Australia. We used a logical framework approach to systematically prepare and summarise the project plan in a clear and logical way. The development and design of the SEA-ORCHID project was based around the three components of a logical framework (problem analysis, project plan and evaluation strategy. Results The SEA-ORCHID logical framework defined the project's goal and purpose (To improve the health of mothers and babies in South East Asia and To improve clinical practice in reproductive health in South East Asia, and outlined a series of project objectives and activities designed to achieve these. The logical framework also established outcome and process measures appropriate to each level of the project plan, and guided project work in each of the participating countries and hospitals. Conclusions Development of a logical framework in the SEA

  4. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  5. Gravidez após morte perinatal: sobre a relação da mãe com o bebê sobrevivente Pregnancy after perinatal death: concerning the relationship of mother with the survivor baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Vidal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a experiência emocional materna na gravidez e parto prematuro subsequente à perda perinatal, que é definida como sendo o óbito fetal ocorrido nas últimas semanas de gestação ou o do recém-nascido nas primeiras semanas após o parto. Faz parte do trabalho realizado durante o curso de doutorado em Saúde da Mulher (Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz que utilizou do método qualitativo de pesquisa em saúde para a construção de histórias de vida através das técnicas de entrevistas abertas, não diretivas, e observação participante. O trabalho de campo consistiu no acompanhamento da dupla mãe-bebê durante a internação e seis meses após a alta hospitalar. A amostra dos sujeitos selecionados foi realizada a partir do critério relativo ao acompanhamento por 24 horas de internações com duração igual ou superior a trinta dias. Este artigo se refere a uma das quatro histórias de vidas construídas. Resultados: produção de conhecimento sobre o estado de humor materno em mães de bebês prematuros após a alta hospitalar, através da identificação de reações emocionais características de um trabalho de luto específico ligado à perda perinatal em sua relação com as síndromes do "bebê de substituição" e da "criança vulnerável".The objective of this study was to investigate the maternal mood after pregnancy and premature childbirth after perinatal loss which is defined as the fetal death occurred in the last weeks of gestation or the newborn in the first few weeks after delivery. The study is part of the work executed during a phD course in Woman's Health (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Instituto Fernandes Figueira using the qualitative method of research in health for the construction of life histories by means of techniques of opened, non-directive interviews, and participant comment. The field work consisted in accompanying of the double mother-baby during

  6. The application of the core-health education of the VIP maternity mother-baby care%核心式健康教育在VIP产科母婴护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳侠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the most effective nursing method of the VIP maternity mother-baby care. Methods: One hundred and sixteen expectant mothers were randomly divided into the control group(55 cases) and the study group(61 cases). The control group were nursed with clinical nursing pathway, which education objects were expectant mothers and their relatives. The study group were nursed with the same pathway, which education objects were expectant mothers, relatives and Yuesao, and one of them was the core of health education by focusing education and guidance. Results:The health knowledge of expectant mothers and core caregivers and the compliance of expectant mothers and core and non-core caregivers were remarkably higher than those of the control group (P <0. 01) . Conclusions: Core health education can improve the knowledge levels and the compliance of nurses, promote the quality of nursing maternal and child and decrease the conflict of the different opinions and experinces of breeding, which can promote the establishment of relationship between parents and children and family harmony.%目的:探讨VIP产科母婴护理行之有效的健康教育方法.方法:对VIP产科产妇116例,随机分为观察组61例和对照组55例.对照组按健康教育路径实施,健康教育对象是产妇及家属;观察组同样按健康教育路径实施,健康教育对象是产妇、家属及月嫂,并根据产妇家庭情况,指定一位相对固定的母婴护理照护者(月嫂、爱人、妈妈或婆婆),作为健康教育对象的核心,进行重点宣教和指导.结果:观察组核心照护者和产妇健康知识掌握情况及核心照护者、产妇及非核心照护者健康知识依从性均明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:核心式健康教育在家庭产房中能明显提高健康教育知识的掌握程度及健康教育知识的依从性,从而有效促进母婴护理家庭照护质量,减少了家庭成员间因养育理念和经验不同所导致的

  7. Desmame precoce em prematuros participantes do Método Mãe Canguru Early weaning in premature babies participants of the Kangaroo Mother Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lages Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência e as causas de desmame precoce nos recém-nascidos pré-termo, participantes do Método Mãe Canguru em uma maternidade-escola em Alagoas. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário contendo questões objetivas com 33 genitoras dos recém-nascidos pré-termo/ lactentes, que estavam internos na enfermaria canguru e que compareceram aos retornos ambulatoriais, no período de fevereiro a junho de 2006. Periodicamente, foi realizada a análise dos prontuários dos bebês após a alta hospitalar, observando a manutenção do aleitamento materno, a ocorrência de desmame precoce e suas respectivas causas. Após os dados obtidos serem caracterizados com a utilização de técnicas de estatística descritiva, foram aplicados os testes de aderência de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Shapiro-Wilk e os testes de Mann-Withney e de correlação bivariada. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas para valores de p menores que 0,05 e o erro beta admitido foi de 0,1. RESULTADOS: Todos os bebês se encontravam em aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta hospitalar. O percentual de desmame foi de 27,3%, com maior ocorrência no terceiro mês de vida, constatado no período dos retornos. A causa de desmame precoce de maior prevalência está relacionada aos fatores sócio-culturais. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo revelou baixos índices de desmame precoce quando comparados aos percentuais observados em pesquisas realizadas no âmbito nacional. A maior causa de desmame precoce na população estudada está relacionada aos fatores sócio-culturais. Desta forma, o programa de atenção humanizada Método Mãe Canguru mostrou-se eficaz no que diz respeito ao incentivo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo.PURPOSE: To identify the early weaning prevalence and risk factors in preterm newborns participants of the Kangaroo Mother Care in a school-maternity in Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: Thirty-three mothers of preterm newborns that were at the Kangaroo Mother

  8. Studless Winter Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  9. Tire Road Friction Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; DO, MT; M'SIRDI, NK

    2005-01-01

    Two main approaches for tire road friction estimation : the "cause based" and the "effect based" are generally dealt with in the literature. The slip-based method seems to be the most promising and is, consequently, a very popular current subject. LCPC, a french research body in civil engineering has been working for several years on the relationship between road texture parameters and road surface condition (dry, damp, wet) and tire friction performance. In this framework, the two methods ha...

  10. Breastfeed Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know each other, and bond. Breastfeeding is a healthy choice for both moms and babies. Benefits for your baby Breast milk: Has just the right amount of protein, fat, sugar, and water to help your baby ...

  11. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  12. Depressed and Well Mothers' Emotion Interpretation Accuracy and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broth, Michelle Robbins; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Hall, Christine; Raynor, Lynne Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The inadequate parenting associated with mothers' depression may be related to mothers' problems in interpreting infants' emotional expressions. The relations between depressed and well mothers' accuracy at interpreting babies' facial expressions and the quality of the mothers' interactions with their infants were examined. In partial support of…

  13. Tire Maker’s Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Integrity and quality are vital for Kumho Tires to regain the Chinese market Kumho Tires Co.—one of China’s largest tire suppliers—used to enjoy a high profile in marketing, but it turned publicity-shy on the 14th Shanghai International Automobile

  14. Spitting Up in Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Spitting Up in Babies Why do babies spit up? Babies spit up when they've eaten too much or when they've swallowed too much air while feeding. Spitting up usually happens when babies burp. It can also ...

  15. How Your Baby Grows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once the baby moves down. But you may need to go to the bathroom more often because the baby is pressing on ... once the baby moves down. But you may need to go to the bathroom more often because the baby is pressing on ...

  16. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  17. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  18. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the...

  19. The Effects of Weathering Demonstrated by Maternal Age on Low Birth Weight Outcome in Babies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Mustapha, Bello; Bappariya, Jonathan Isah; Alfred, Numfor; Joel, Zwabragi

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights. Methods One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age ...

  20. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested. PMID:22113629

  1. Dynamics of baby Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, B.M.A.G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schroers, B.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1995-04-10

    Baby Skyrmions are topological solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional field theory which resembles the Skyrme model in important respects. We apply some of the techniques and approximations commonly used in discussions of the Skyrme model to the dynamics of baby Skyrmions and directly test them against numerical simulations. Specifically we study the effect of spin on the shape of a single baby Skyrmion, the dependence of the forces between two baby Skyrmions on the baby Skyrmions` relative orientation and the forces between two baby Skyrmions when one of them is spinning. ((orig.)).

  2. Feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge Sentimientos y expectativas de las madres en el alta hospitalaria del recién nacido prematuro Sentimentos e expectativas das mães na alta hospitalar do recém-nascido prematuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zuleide da Silva Rabelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feelings and expectations of mothers of preterm babies at discharge. METHODS: This descriptive study used Bardin's framework to collect data among 11 mothers of preterm babies from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Data were collected through interviews from December 2004 to January 2005. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: the moment of the discharge; mothers' knowledge and questions; mothers' preparation and orientation for discharge; and, mothers' desired orientation. CONCLUSION: Although mothers' experienced excitement and happiness at discharge, many reported being anxious and insecure on how to take care of their preterm babies.OBJETIVO: Investigar los sentimientos y expectativas de madres de recién nacidos prematuros en el momento del alta hospitalaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio con abordaje cualitativo, desarrollado con madres de recién nacidos prematuros internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista, en el período de diciembre/2004 a enero/2005. Los sujetos fueron 11 madres que vivenciaban el alta hospitalaria del hijo. La organización de los datos estuvo fundamentada en Bardin. RESULTADOS: Del análisis emergieron cuatro categorías: Momento del alta hospitalaria, Dudas maternas, Preparación y orientaciones para el alta, Orientaciones deseadas por las madres. CONCLUSION: Los sentimientos expresados por las madres fueron alegría, ansiedad e inseguridad en el alta hospitalaria del hijo.OBJETIVO: Investigar os sentimentos e expectativas das mães de recém-nascidos prematuros no momento da alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com mães de recém-nascidos prematuros internados numa Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, no período de dezembro/2004 a janeiro/2005. Os sujeitos foram 11 mães que vivenciavam a alta hospitalar do filho. A organiza

  3. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellard David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses. Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15. Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention. Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings

  4. DESIGN OF A PORTABLE AND ATTACHABLE BABY COT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOWAH BORIS NII-AKO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve congestion problems facing many hospitals in developing countries, baby cots are being eliminated and mothers are made to sleep on the same bed with their new-born babies; a practice known as co-sleeping. The work presented here seeks to reduce risks of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and suffocation associated with co-sleeping by employing the formal engineering design process to develop a portable, safe and cost effective baby cot. The cot is attachable to the mother’s bed, has four movement restrictors to regulate the movement of the baby within a given range and a hard surface mattress to ensure the safety of the baby. There are ventilation ports provided to keep the temperature within the cot comfortable. The design can be modified to be used by older babies and may be mounted on a collapsible stand where space limitations are not critical.

  5. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  6. Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Acne whiteheads and bumps (papules) typically involve the forehead ...

  7. Indicadores da preocupação materna primária na gestação de mães que tiveram parto pré-termo Indicators of primary maternal preoccupation in gestation of mothers which had preterm birth babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marocco Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preocupação materna primária (PMP é um conceito winnicottiano e se refere ao estado psicológico da mãe no qual sua sensibilidade em relação ao filho torna-se exacerbada. Tem início na gestação e estende-se às primeiras semanas após o parto. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar uma investigação sobre os indicadores da PMP na gestação de mães que tiveram bebês pré-termo. Participaram do estudo quatro mães com problemas clínicos na gestação, cujas idades variaram entre 22 e 28 anos, sendo todas casadas. Os bebês não apresentaram complicações clínicas sérias. Foi utilizado um delineamento de estudo de caso coletivo para o levantamento de indicadores da PMP com base em algumas categorias. A análise de conteúdo qualitativa revelou que a possibilidade do parto pré-termo parece ter intensificado a ansiedade dessas mães que estavam em processo de desenvolvimento da PMP. Porém observou-se que, com a assimilação de sua condição de saúde e da gestação, as participantes conseguiram desenvolver bons indicadores desse estado materno.Primary maternal preoccupation (PMP is a concept winnicottiano and refers to psychological state of the mother, when her sensitivity in relation to her baby becomes exacerbated. This state starts early in pregnancy, extending through the first weeks after birth. The aim of this study is to investigate indicators of PMP in the pregnancy of mothers who had preterm birth babies. Four mothers participated in the study. All mothers had clinical problems in pregnancies. Their ages were between 22 and 28 years old and all of them were married. The babies did not present serious clinical complications. A collective case-study design was used, based on some categories. Content analysis indicated similarities between the cases, showing that the possibility of preterm birth brought more distress to the mothers whom were in process of establishing primary maternal preoccupation. However, observed that

  8. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  9. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Emily K. Penner

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free...

  10. The LHC babies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  11. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  12. Sleeping with the baby.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Who sleeps with their baby, and why? More babies bed-share in the first few weeks of life than at any other age. On any given night between 20 and 25% of babies under 3 months of age spend some time sharing a bed with a parent and during their first 3 months up to 70% of babies in Euro-American households will have bed-shared once or more.2,3,4 When parents are interviewed about sleeping with their baby they give various reasons for doing so.5,6,7 Their answers express deeply r...

  13. Infant of a substance using mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  14. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  15. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  16. Estudo pessoa-processo-contexto da qualidade das interações entre mãe-adolescente e seu bebê A person-process-context study of the quality of interactions between the teenage mother and her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bigras

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: entender os mecanismos de transmissão das dificuldades psicossociais, diante dos processos de interação entre a mãe-adolescente e filho. A hipótese é que a qualidade das trocas mãe-filho depende de fatores de riscos associados às características da mãe e características da criança. MÉTODO: OBSERvação direta da qualidade das trocas entre 97 adolescentes primíparas e filhos, de 4 meses de idade. As adolescentes estavam na faixa de 13-18 anos na 26ª semana de gravideze. As gestantes completaram questionários relativos à preparação à maternidade e história de abusos emocional. RESULTADOS: a falta de conhecimentos sobre o desenvolvimento e a natureza dos cuidados dispensados à criança está associada a trocas maternas insensíveis com a criança aos 4 meses. Observou-se um efeito de interação entre as características da mãe (conhecimentos da maternidade e abuso sexual antes do seu nascimento e o sexo do bebê. CONCLUSÃO: Estes efeitos de interação entre as características da mãe e de seu filho podem favorecer o ciclo de reciprocidade negativa que, com o tempo, interfere cada vez mais em relações interpessoais harmoniosas, mais freqüentemente observado quando os parceiros são reativos perante a adversidade, os quais estão em menor condições de pacificar as trocas.OBJECTIVE: To understand the transmission mechanisms of psychosocial difficulties prompted by teenage mother and baby interactions. The hypothesis is that the quality of the mother-child exchanges relies on linked with the characteristics of the mother, such as being abused and poor preparation for motherhood, as well as the characteristics of the child. METHOD: Direct observation of the quality of exchanges between 97 primipara adolescents and their four month old babies. The teens were 13-18 years old, in the 26th week of pregnancy, from four homes run by the Youth Center in Montréal and Rosalie-Jetté School. They completed questionnaires

  17. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 570.9 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread on each tire shall be not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch deep. (1) Inspection procedure. Passenger car tires have tread depth indicators that become..., construction, and profile. (1) Inspection procedures. Examine visually. A major mismatch in tire...

  19. Supporting mothers: issues in a Community Mothers Programme

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Pat

    2001-01-01

    peer-reviewed This article describes a community support programme which implicitly challenges the assumption that the existence of a partner and local kin obviates the need to support women when they come home from hospital with a new baby. Implicit in the programme is the idea that support by mothers, of mothers, validates the activity of child care and is one way of facilitating the child's development. This programme was successful in terms of its perceived impact on both the providers...

  20. Feel the Tire - Tire Influence on Driver’s Handling Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Monsma, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    A key question in the development of a tire is "How can this tire improve vehicle handling?" Good handling tires contribute not only to active safety of vehicles, but also to the pleasure of driving. Handling performance is largely determined by the driver. Therefore, the final and most important handling assessment of tires is done by professional test drivers driving on a handling circuit and giving their subjective opinion. This provides the tire manufacturer with the important tire handli...

  1. Visión de las madres en el cuidado del hijo prematuro en el hogar Visão das mães no cuidado do filho prematuro em casa Vision of mothers in care of premature babies at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Castiblanco López

    2011-07-01

    e analisada segundo a entrevista e análises etnográficos de James Spradley. Participantes: oito mães de recém nascidos prematuros que compareceram para controle no Programa Mãe Canguru Integral, Hospital Universitário São Ignácio, entre novembro de 2007 e maio de 2008. Resultados: surgem duas questões: cuidados diretos ao recém nascido prematuro e o caminho até a adaptação. O cuidado direto ao recém nascido prematuro em casa implica para a mãe carregar, massagear, proteger do frio, alimentar à criança, manter a higiene, conservar a proteção do médio, dar amor, suprir oxigeno suplementar ao bebê quando o precisar e saber sobre os sinais da criança. O caminho para a adaptação materna está dirigido a um objetivo para as mães: "criar a criança". Elas expressam que as noites são muito difíceis e expressam seus sentimentos e finalmente descrevem a adaptação materna ao hábito. Conclusão: a visão das mães sobre o cuidado do recém nascido prematuro é universal: "cuidar muito da criança" e ficar sempre atenta; por outro lado, a conotação de cuidado é diversa porque cada mãe o cataloga, desde sua própria percepção, como cuidado extremo, básico, essencial e especial. Também as mães compartilharam crenças, valores, tradições e mitos.Purpose: To describe the significance of taking care of premature babies at home for mothers, from their cultural context. Design: qualitative ethnographic study based on Madeleine Leininger's theory. Sample: Information obtained from observation and 23 interviews to mothers at home was collected and analyzed in accordance to the interview and James Spradley ethnographic analysis. Participants: eight mothers of premature newborns attending control at the Integral Kangaroo Mother Program (Programa Madre Canguro Integral, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, between November 2007 and May 2008. Results: Two subjects arise: premature newborn care and the way to adaptation. Direct care to premature

  2. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  3. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, if you're hesitant to try baby nail scissors or clippers and your baby will stay still long enough to cooperate, you can use an emery board to file the nails down without the risk of giving your little ...

  4. Cosleeping and Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest. Don't sleep on couches, recliners, or rockers with a baby. Who Shouldn't Share a Bed With a Baby? If an infant and a parent are bed-sharing, keep the following people out of the sleep environment: other children — particularly toddlers — because they might not be aware ...

  5. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B. N. J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  6. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  7. Modeling tire deformation for power loss calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, D.; Rohde, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A combined thermo-mechanical model for calculating tire power loss has been developed at GMR. This paper presents the techniques for developing the realistic finite element models needed in both the thermal and deformation portions of the combined model. It also describes the techniques used in calculating deformed tire shapes. First, procedures are outlined for automatically generating a finite element discretization of a tire. Then, this discretization, together with information about the properties of tire materials, is used to develop a finite element model of the tire. This model is used in MSC NASTRAN to calculate compliances, i.e., the response of the tire to inflation and to unit loads applied at points on the tire surface. These compliances are then used in an algorithm which calculates the deformed shape of a tire loaded against the pavement surface. Sample results are presented to show the agreement between calculated and measured tire deformation.

  8. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility Sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en sistema de alojamiento conjunto Sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em sistema de alojamento conjunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.Estudio realizado con el objetivo de conocer los sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, realizándose entrevistas individuales con 33 madres acompañantes en el período comprendido entre febrero y abril de 2006, en una maternidad escuela de Natal / RN / Brasil. Los principales sentimientos referidos por esas madres resultaron en tristeza, culpa, decepción, frustración, inseguridad, miedo de tocar, asegurar o hasta incluso de perjudicar a sus delicados bebés mientras eran amamantados. No obstante eso, el vínculo creado por madres y bebés cuando los mismos reciben el alta de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal para el Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, se manifiesta en los sentimientos de realización y orgullo, los cuales son determinados por la satisfacción de la primera lactancia.Estudo teve o objetivo de conhecer os sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em Sistema de Alojamento Conjunto. Entrevistas individuais foram realizadas com 33 mães acompanhantes no período de fevereiro a abril de 2006, em uma maternidade-escola de Natal/RN/Brasil. Os principais

  9. Mothers’ experience of, and attitudes to, the use of infant formula for feeding babies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Furedi, Frank

    2005-01-01

    In British society, breastfeeding is offered cultural affirmation. Images of women breastfeeding their babies are prominently displayed in maternity wards and other healthcare settings. Magazines for pregnant women and new mothers promote breastfeeding to their readers, drawing attention in particular to its health benefits for babies. Advice books and manuals about baby care make it clear that breastfeeding is best. The aim of the study reported on here was to investigate the experience of w...

  10. Successful induced non-puerperal lactation in surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banapurmath, C R; Banapurmath, S; Kesaree, N

    1993-01-01

    Ten surrogate mothers seen between 1986-91 were encouraged to breast-feed their babies varying in age between 8 days to 5 months. All the 10 surrogate mothers had experienced pregnancy and child birth in the past. The lactational gap varied from 1 year to 16 years. Presence of milk was noted on 3rd to 8th day after attempting induced lactation in 5 mothers. No milk was seen on manual expression of the nipple even after 2 weeks in the other 5 surrogate mothers. Two mothers achieved complete breast-feeding and they fed their babies for 2 years. Three mothers could achieve partial lactation and these mothers fed for 1 year or more. All these 5 babies registered satisfactory growth. PMID:8157333

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  12. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 97-311, 96 Stat. 1619 (15 U.S.C. 1418); and delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50) ..., new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  13. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  14. Babies Need Tummy Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  15. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore ... bacteria and viruses that cause infection. Exclusive Breastfeeding: Feeding a baby only breast milk and no other ...

  16. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies younger than 3 months of age. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) Signs and symptoms can include fever, headache, stiff ... be recommended for travel to certain countries. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) 3 or 4 2 months, 4 months, (6 ...

  17. Construction of Tire Shreds Test Embankment

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Rodrigo; Yoon, Sungmin; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia

    2003-01-01

    According to recent research, it is estimated that there are more than 500 million tires stockpiled across the United States, and 270 million more are generated each year. A significant number of tires are left in empty yards and even dumped illegally. Tires have characteristics that make them not easy to dispose, and potentially combustible. For these reasons, there is a strong need to find beneficial ways to recycle or reuse tires. Civil engineering applications constitute one of biggest ma...

  18. Percepções de mães de prematuros acerca da vivência em um programa educativo Percepciones de madres de prematuros acerca de la vivencia en un programa de educación en salud Perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Magalhães Ferecini

    2009-06-01

    posibilidades de socializar el conocimiento con la familia; el Programa como espacio para la relajación y la escucha; y desarrollando el vínculo afectivo con otras madres y con la enfermera. CONCLUSIÓN: Frente a los resultados positivos de este estudio, se recomienda que los programas educativos de esa naturaleza y ampliados con la participación de otros miembros de la familia del prematuro sean implantados en otras unidades neonatales.OBJECTIVE: To identify the perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program using participant observation methodology. METHODS: Thirty-eight mothers of inpatient premature babies of a neonatal unit participated in the health educational program. The goal of the educational program was to provide mothers with the knowledge and skills to care for their premature babies. Paulo Freire's theory of education served as the framework for the study. An educational booklet and group activities were used to stimulate mothers' perceptions regarding the educational program. A thematic analysis was used to identify the perceptions of mothers regarding the educational program through participants' talk. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: The development of mothers' knowledge by participating in the educational program; the potential for mothers to share the acquired knowledge with family members; the education program as a medium and place for relaxing and listening; and the development of an affective bond with other mothers and the nurse. CONCLUSION: Given the positive results of this study, it is recommended that such educational programs in neonatal units expand to include the participation of other family members or premature babies as well.

  19. Challenging Our Assumptions: Helping a Baby Adjust to Center Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Enid

    2003-01-01

    Contends that assumptions concerning infants' adjustment to child center care need to be tempered with attention to observation, thought, and commitment to each individual baby. Describes the Options Daycare program for pregnant teens and young mothers. Presents a case study illustrating the need for openness in strategy and planning for…

  20. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management. PMID:9216257

  1. Wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1985-07-01

    The hysteresis loss theory of rolling resistance is developed for solid rubber wheelchair tires. The analysis is used to correlate test data for a clay-filled natural rubber and a polyurethane tire material. A discussion of tire rolling work, hysteresis loss factor measurement, and rolling loss measurement is presented. An example calculation of rolling resistance for a polyurethane tire is given in detail. The subject of solid rubber tire design is developed on the basis of recommended fatigue life theory and practice. It is shown that polyurethane tires have a useful fatigue life due to a high shear modulus at useful values of hardness. This characteristic of polyurethane, if exploited, is predicted to lead to a tire with a lower rolling resistance than other wheelchair tires available. The effect of surface roughness on rolling resistance is briefly discussed and some experimental results are listed. The purpose of this paper is to give the rehabilitation engineer the means for wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue life design and the methods to assess the tire characteristics when a tire design is modified or a new tire material is contemplated. Other important design factors, such as wear and chemical degradation, are not discussed, but references are suggested for information on these topics. As in most research and development projects, this study raises problems which need further work. For example, the fatigue properties of the rubber compounds employed in this application are not completely understood; this subject is planned for future investigation. PMID:3835263

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL VERSIONS AS A BASIS FOR EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND CONDUCTING ANY INVESTIGATION OF A MURDER OF A NEWBORN BABY BY THE MOTHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselkov K. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues relating to the construction of the typical initial investigative leads in the investi-gation of the murder of the mother of a newborn child, in planning the investigation of these crimes, as well as production on the basis of their investigative and other activities for the effective investigation of criminal cases in this category

  3. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  4. Mothers' Body Perception Biased to Obesity and its Effects on Nursing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yakura,Noriko; Kasagi,Tsunakiyo; Hiroe,Kaori

    1997-01-01

    Many women who have dieted in adolescence seem to become mothers without correcting their obesity-biased perceptions of the body. This study estimated the number of such mothers and analyzed the problems in their nursing: 1496 mothers to 790 babies aged 4 months and 706 children aged 18 months completed questionnaires addressing mothers' images of their own and their children's body, mothers' behaviors to reduce children's weight, their behavior patterns and mothers' experiences to reduce the...

  5. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  6. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  7. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to a ... be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he has ...

  8. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Colostrum: Your ...

  9. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Health Issues ...

  10. How Active Is Your Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > How Active is ...

  11. Market analysis baby food Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Voronina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the development of baby food industry in Ukraine and abroad due the increased level of fertility, unmet needs of baby food products in the growing demand for intervention and strengthening foreign manufacturers. Special attention is paid to government regulation and legislation of the relevant Ukrainian market of baby food.

  12. A vivência de mães de bebês com malformação La vivencia de madres de bebés con mala formación The experience of mothers of babies with malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Roecker

    2012-03-01

    , desencadenando cambios en su modo de vivir, pero a los pocos la madre demuestra superación y aprende maneras para enfrentar el problema y los prejuicios relacionados a la mala formación.The objective of the present study was to discover and understand the experience of mothers faced with the diagnosis and birth of babies with malformation. It was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative research study, performed with seven mothers in Maringá-PR, Brazil. Data were collected in April 2009 through previously scheduled semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using content analysis. The data showed that the different moments of the pregnancy-puerperium cycle involve various facts and emotions, which are nevertheless interconnected, including confirmation of malformation (usually during pregnancy, confirmed diagnosis at birth, and life with the baby after birth. It is concluded that the discovery and confirmation of malformation leads to crisis and denial of expectations in the mother and all family members, resulting in changes in their way of life. However, the mother gradually overcomes and learns ways to cope with the problem and prejudices associated with malformation.

  13. Your Growing Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely melt at the sound of her first “mama” or “dada.” No two babies are exactly alike. ... pincer grasp (thumb and forefinger) Say “dada” and “mama” Use exclamations, such as “oh-oh!” Try to ...

  14. Diapering Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or you could spread the bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections ). You might want to lift your baby's legs by the ankles to get a better reach. Don't forget the creases in the thighs and ... exposure to air often causes boys to urinate — on you, the walls, or ...

  15. The ART of marketing babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism. PMID:22106569

  16. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    support, and (3) at ease with choice of feeding, characterised by a thriving baby, trust in breastfeeding capability, and approval of feeding preference. Together these themes and subthemes constituted the overall theme: being on a breastfeeding–bonding trajectory. Conclusion Supporting the new...... breastfeeding mother should include facilitation of the transition to motherhood, learning to read the baby's cues, developing a sense of the right attachment at the breast, and building up the mother's confidence in her capability to care for the baby and produce a sufficient milk supply....

  17. [Nursing knowledge and attitude of day care personnel towards health promotion of babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S; Van Wyk, N; van der Westhuizen, C

    1998-09-01

    Currently it is more acceptable that women work. Besides women who are obliged to work to contribute to the income of their families, a large number of women work due to a need for social stimulation. While their mothers are at work during the day, the babies are left in substitute care out of necessity. Health promotion of babies is necessary and is the duty of the substitute caregiver. These women, however, do not always have the knowledge of, or positive attitude towards, health promotion. The purpose of this study, was to determine the knowledge and skills that the day mother should have in order to promote the health of babies (age 0-12 month). The qualititative research approach was used, within which a descriptive study had been done. A comprehensive literature study had initially been done regarding the health promotion of babies in substitute care. A programme had been compiled regarding the knowledge and skills that a day mother must possess in order to promote the health of babies. This program was then submitted to a group of selected experts for evaluation according to the Delphi technique. According to the data, it is quite clear that the day mother should be knowledgeable and skilled in order to satisfy the baby's physiological, security and affiliation needs as well as the need for appreciation and self-actualization. PMID:11040584

  18. Would you rather be a 'birth' or a 'genetic' mother? If so, how much?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J. G.; McNamara, H M; Montague, I A

    1994-01-01

    Judges face difficult choices when the birth and genetic mothers of a child are separate people who dispute maternal access; the views of the general population may help them. Fifty women were asked whether, if they were infertile and could have only one child, they would prefer to be birth mothers (to carry a baby which was not genetically theirs) or genetic mothers (to have another woman carry their genetic baby). Similarly, fifty men were asked about their preference for a partner's child....

  19. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sham Alice; Wong Emmy MY; Lee Irene LY; Wu Kendra M; Fong Daniel YT; Tarrant Marie; Lam Christine; Dodgson Joan E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding provides optimal and complete nutrition for newborn babies. Although new mothers in Hong Kong are increasingly choosing to breastfeed their babies, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low and duration remains short. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and weaning practices of Hong Kong mothers over the infant's first year of life to determine the factors associated with early cessation. Methods A cohort of 1417 mother-infant pairs was...

  20. Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhiti, M.; H. Trouzine; Asroun, A.

    2014-01-01

    Scrap tires are abundant and alarming waste. The aggregates resulting from the crushing of the waste tires are more and more used in the field of civil engineering (geotechnical, hydraulic works, light concretes, asphaltic concretes, etc.). Depending on the type of the used tires, dimensions and possible separations and treatment, the physical and mechanical characteristics of these aggregates might change. Some physical, chemical and direct shear tests were performed on three gradation class...

  1. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  2. TIre/road friction estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; VANDANJON, PO

    2006-01-01

    In board tire/road friction estimation is of current interest in two different framework : - optimization of driver assistance systems efficiency : antilock braking system, electronic stability program, adaptive cruise control, lane departure control, advanced automatic driving, etc., - driver instantaneous warning about the available friction and limits for his possible driving actions. This subject has been the objective of many research programs throughout the world. Four main methods have...

  3. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  4. Your Colicky Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world, or that some have undiagnosed gastroesophageal reflux (GER) . Other research suggests that colic may be an early form of migraine headache. It's also been found that infants of mothers who smoke are more likely to ...

  5. LAMELLAR ICHTHYOSIS (COLLODION BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramarta IGE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyosis are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorder of keratinization which affected the epidermis characterized by presence of visible scales on the skin surface in the absence of inflammation. It can occur as a disease limited to the skin or in association with abnormalities of other organ systems. Lamelar ihthyosis (LI is one of two mayor autosomal recessive ichthyosis with an incidence of approximately one in 300,000. The diagnosis is based on clinical and pathologic finding. Infection is the most common complication, while prognosis of LI is depends on severity and complication of the disease. A case of lamellar ichthyosis in 0 day Balinese female baby was reported. The skin of the body was thick, plate-like appearance, scaling on the entire body, some of the thick skin was ruptured on chest and extremities. There were eclabium on the mouth and ectropion on the eyes. Histopathology examination showed hyperkeratosis without perivascular infiltration lymphocyte. The baby was given breast feeding, antibiotic, hydrocortisone cream and olium olivarum. The prognosis of the baby is good.

  6. Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Bell, Silvia M.

    Several sets of evidence are offered to support the hypothesis that cognitive and social development are intimately interrelated, and that mother-infant interaction influences both. A mother's prompt responsiveness to her baby's signals tends to foster the development of varied and clear modes of communication and thus the development of one facet…

  7. [(Lack of) motivation of the puerperal mother to practice the Kangaroo Mother Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Gisele Perin; Monticelli, Marisa

    2007-03-01

    This article aims at describing the context of the development of the Mother-Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital, and discussing the reasons why some women/mothers do not seem stimulated to maintain skin contact with their premature babies. The methodology included three steps: reality problematization, literature review, and systematic reflection aiming at solving the identified problem. It was concluded that the perception of the neonatal team as to mother-newly born infant bond needs to be changed, in the sense of understanding that often the mothers' reaction are different from those expected by the health professionals. PMID:17658053

  8. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. PMID:26112352

  9. Medicamentos e amamentação: atualização e revisão aplicadas à clínica materno-infantil Medicines and breastfeeding: update and revision applied to mother and baby care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes Chaves

    2007-09-01

    medication". Recent material from textbooks and relevant papers were also used for this review. DATA SYNTHESIS: Medicines were classified according to the risk associated to lactation use. There is a lack of information about safety of a vast number of medicines by the nursing mothers. Amongst the medicines containing safety information for lactation use, most are considered safe and few are not recommended. Some drugs raise concerns regarding their effect in the reduction of milk production or in causing adverse effects in the breastfed infants. The use of stimulants of milk production is restricted to special situations, not common in the clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: The frequent need of medication during lactation must raise some concern due to the well-known relationship between its use and weaning. Medical prescription for nursing mothers should be evaluated by risks versus benefits analysis. Currently, the knowledge of pharmacological characteristics of the available medication and the continuous updating about this subject are important tools to choose the medication. A careful assessment allows generally compatibility between medical treatment and breastfeeding.

  10. Off to a good start: all you need to know about breastfeeding your baby

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the reasons why mothers and babies benefit from breastfeeding and explains how to breastfeed successfully. It covers issues including how breastfeeding works, positioning and attachment, how to know if breastfeeding is going well, expressing milk, breastfeeding and babies in special care, advice on breastfeeding and bed-sharing, dealing with common problems, fitting breastfeeding into your life, and going back to work.

  11. Off to a good start: all you need to know about breastfeeding your baby

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the reasons why mothers and babies benefit from breastfeeding and explains how to breastfeed successfully. It covers issues including how breastfeeding works, positioning and attachment, how to know if breastfeeding is going well, expressing milk, breastfeeding and babies in special care, advice on breastfeeding and bed-sharing, dealing with common problems, fitting breastfeeding into your life, and going back to work.

  12. Polysomnographic evaluation of uninfected babies born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive mothers = Evaluación polisomnográfica de bebés no infectados nacidos de madres VIH-1 positivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila Melendez, Mario Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is a lymphotropic and neurotropic retrovirus. Thus, it causes immunological and neurological alterations particularly in children. In the neonatal period the maturational changes of the central nervous system occur rapidly, and their alteration can be reflected in processes such as the sleep-awake pattern. Objective: To evaluate sleep organization, EEG and respiratory pattern in newborns to HIV-1 positive mothers. Methods: 22 infants underwent polysomnography. Delta brushes number in REM and NREM sleep, duration of interburst interval and interhemispheric synchrony were used to calculate EEG maturation. Analysis of the sleep architecture was based on polysomnographic sleep percentage of REM, NREM and transitional sleep to total sleep time. Results: The difference between electroencephalographically calculated and clinically calculated conceptional age was less than two weeks. Percentages of REM and NREM sleep ranged from 39-64 and 30-58 with a median of 52.5 and 36.5 respectively. Concordance was lower in newborns who had high transitional sleep percentages, compared to that in newborns who did not have high such characteristic (p less 0.05. Discussion: Despite intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and to antiretroviral drugs we did not observe a significant effect on EEG maturation. The decreased concordance in newborns with high transitional sleep percentages would suggest an alteration in the maturation process, but this aspect itself is not sufficient to consider that intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and antiretrovirals affect the entire sleep architecture Future studies should clarify whether the decreased concordance between behavior and NREM sleep is replicable.

  13. Surrogate mothers: the legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, T M

    1981-01-01

    Increasing numbers of couples have benefitted from, or may be considering use of, the surrogate mother procedure. In this procedure, a couple, usually a husband and wife, enters into a contract with a surrogate mother. Under the terms of the contract, the surrogate mother is artificially inseminated, bears a child, and relinquishes all rights regarding that child to the semen donor and his wife. In exchange for bearing a child, the surrogate mother often receives a fee. In light of such increased use of the procedure, the issue of whether or not the arrangement is legal has particular importance. Questions of legality involve possible violations of criminal baby-selling statutes. Issues of whether adoption is necessary and whether the child is legitimate also are inherent in the surrogate mother arrangement. This Note argues that these questions should be resolved in favor of finding no impediment to the use of the surrogate mother procedure, at least within certain guidelines. However, even in the absence of legal impediment, detailed contracts and thorough medical screening for genetic, physical and psychological problems would further eliminate ambiguities regarding liability. In addition, the Note concludes that legislation should be enacted to deal with the legal ambiguities of the surrogate mother arrangement. This legislation should regulate the parties that enter into such an arrangement and the rights and responsibilities of these parties. PMID:7332012

  14. [Knowledge of oral health and practices among mothers attending a mother-child dental care program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the assimilation of knowledge and preventive practices in oral health among the mothers of children assisted by a mother-child dental care program. The Preventive Program for Pregnant Mothers and Babies (PPPMB) is an extension project run by the Piauí Federal University (UFPI), whose goal is to make pregnant women and mothers of children from zero to 36 months old more concerned about habits fostering oral health. After a random selection of clinical record cards for children who had participated in this Program, letters were sent to their mothers. Feedback was received from 281 mothers, who responded through interviews that included questions on matters addressed by the Program. The findings indicate that mothers attending this Program were properly informed, adopting hygienic practices in their families that underpin the control and prevention of oral diseases. PMID:17680166

  15. Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bekhiti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are abundant and alarming waste. The aggregates resulting from the crushing of the waste tires are more and more used in the field of civil engineering (geotechnical, hydraulic works, light concretes, asphaltic concretes, etc.. Depending on the type of the used tires, dimensions and possible separations and treatment, the physical and mechanical characteristics of these aggregates might change. Some physical, chemical and direct shear tests were performed on three gradation classes of waste tire rubber powder. The tests results were combined with data from previous studies to generate empirical relationships between cohesion, friction angle and particle size of waste tire powder rubber. A cubic (third order regression model seems to be more appropriate compared to linear and quadratic models.

  16. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  17. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  18. What do parents think about enrolling their premature babies in several research studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C; Lau, R; Davis, P; Morse, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parents' opinions about enrolling their premature baby into several research studies in the few days after birth. Methodology: A questionnaire was given to parents of premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit who had been invited to join several studies (two to seven). Results: All 50 mothers and 42 of 48 fathers completed the questionnaire independently; 28% had been asked to join two studies, 32% three, 24% four, 14% five, and 2% six studies. There were 61 babies with mean (SD) gestational age 26.9 (1.6) weeks and birth weight 877 (249) g. Nearly three quarters (71%) of the parents thought it was very good for their baby to be in a hospital that was carrying out a lot of research. Most (93%) thought that their baby would get the same or better care in a study. Only 15% thought their baby was too small for research studies. Almost all (98%) wanted to be involved in the decision about their baby joining a study. Only 22% were worried about the number of studies; 10% would not enrol their baby in any studies, but 74% were willing for their baby to join two or more studies, and 10% would enrol in all the studies. Most (94%) believed that their baby's participation would improve care of future babies. Conclusions: Most of these parents were willing to join several studies. The majority were not worried about their baby participating in the studies. The profession needs to be aware that parents are supportive of neonatal research and participation in multiple studies. PMID:15846012

  19. May Babies and Posttenure Babies: Maternal Decisions of Women Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    This research explores the maternal and career progression decisions of different generations of women professors in Canada. Nineteen women, interviewed in-depth, reveal how they carefully plan childbearing and childrearing experiences around their demanding work schedules, by having May babies or posttenure babies. Results demonstrate the need…

  20. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies. Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI, mother’s age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal.

  1. Os cuidados imediatos prestados ao recém-nascido e a promoção do vínculo mãe-bebê Los cuidados inmediatos prestados a los recién nacidos y la promoción del vínculo madre-bebé Immediate care given to newborns and promotion of mother-baby bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho dos Santos Cruz

    2007-12-01

    investigadas no consiguen percibir la interferencia de ese contacto inicial en el establecimiento del vínculo precoz en descorrimiento de innúmeros factores, entre ellos, los socioculturales.This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach aimed at understanding how mothers perceived the moment of childbirth and how the actions of the professionals contributed to facilitate their closeness to their babies. Twenty-five multiparous women in a public maternity in Rio de Janeiro who had had low risk, normal labor deliveries were interviewed. The analysis of the reports revealed that immediate care given to babies away from their mother's view generates in mothers concern, a feeling of distance and fear of being separated from the baby. However, some women valued the interventionist assistance because they believe that this care is indispensable to ensure their child's physical integrity. Although they valued closeness to their babies in the immediate post-labor period, the surveyed mothers failed to notice the interference of this initial contact for the establishment of an early bond because of a number of factors, among them social-cultural ones.

  2. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested. PMID:2918486

  3. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  4. Tracking Your Baby's Weight and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Tracking Your Baby's ...

  5. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REPORTING OF INFORMATION... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires,...

  6. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199

  7. Maternal depression and filicide-case study of ten mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari

    2008-07-01

    This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood. PMID:18587626

  8. Neonatal diabetes in an infant of diabetic mother: same novel INS missense mutation in the mother and her offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Kurtoglu, Selim; Bastug, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Daar, Ghaniya; Memur, Seyma; Halis, Hulya; Günes, Tamer; Hussain, Khalid; Ellard, Sian

    2014-07-01

    Neonatal diabetes is defined as an uncontrolled hyperglycemic state occurring within the first 6 months of life. It is a rare disease with an incidence of 1 to 90,000-250,000. It is usually a disease of genetic origin in which insulin gene mutations play the main role in the disease process. A baby, born to a mother who had previously been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus at 14 months of age, had a high blood sugar level within the first few hours after birth and was subsequently diagnosed as having neonatal diabetes mellitus. Baby and mother were identified as having a novel heterozygous insulin missense mutation, p.C109R. Difficulties occurred in both follow-up and feeding of the baby. Without the addition of the mother's milk, an appropriate calorie milk formula and isophane insulin were used for the baby during follow-up. Multiple mechanisms are responsible in the pathogenesis of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Insulin gene mutations are one of the factors in the development of neonatal diabetes mellitus. If a resistant hyperglycemic state persists for a long time among babies, especially in those with intrauterine growth retardation whose mothers are diabetic, the baby concerned should be followed-up carefully for the development of neonatal diabetes mellitus. PMID:24566359

  9. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 331-335

  10. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 331-335

  11. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  12. Primary health care of the newborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228

  13. Baby-friendly hospital: how to sustain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsarn, P; Ngarmpiyasakul, C; Phongpanich, S; Pulkasisri, N

    1995-07-01

    The campaign for exclusive breast-feeding in a baby-friendly hospital at Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi was increased. The contributory factors was likely due to enforcement of early bonding and attachment, by rooming-in of infants in the materity ward. After cessation of comprehensive intervention exclusive breast-feeding dropped significantly but increased in predominant breast-feeding. This might be due to family influence with the suggestion to give water in addition to breast milk. Data shows that rooming-in is essential in the promotion of breast-feeding. A decreased of abandoned children indicates early bonding. To sustain a baby-friendly hospital, 10 steps to successful breast-feeding must be followed strictly. Intervention activities must be done continuously with cooperation of health providers at all levels. It is felt that breast-feeding should not be considered a maternal instinct but a new behavior that needs to be changed to a point that mothers adopt breast-feeding practices for 4 months after delivery. PMID:7658181

  14. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  15. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  16. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  17. Mother-twin interaction during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Josse, D; Tourrette, C

    1988-01-01

    The components of a research program focusing on early mother-twin interaction is described. Preliminary data obtained from a questionnaire at two months post term, cross-sectional observations at the age of one year, a follow-up study involving home observation and parental interviews from birth to the age of 3, point to the specificity of this triadic situation. During the first months of life, the burden of material tasks and the increase in baby care leave little time for starting a relationship based on pleasure or play. The impossibility of responding simultaneously to the needs of two babies and the difficulty of forming relationships on an individual basis foster early concerns for egalitarianism. The degree of physical resemblance between the babies creates the problem of differentiating them. To tell twins apart, mothers rapidly tend to rely on behavioral characteristics to which they attribute a genetic basis. In contrast, differences in development between the babies that introduce the eventuality of the dominance of one of the twins are often denied. In this highly specific situation, mothers arrive at personal solutions of adjustment over the first 3 years, manifest in a certain number of psychological and educational attitudes. Analysis of these maternal attitudes may help to shed light on some of the features of later psychoemotional development in twins. PMID:3239355

  18. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby ...

  19. [Shaken baby syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Kraus, C

    2016-05-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure. Milder forms of SBS often go undiagnosed and the number of unreported cases (grey area) is probably much higher. Up to 20 % of patients die within days or weeks due to SBS and survivors often show cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms, such as physical disabilities, impaired hearing, impaired vision up to blindness, epilepsy and mental retardation as well as a combination of these conditions; therefore, prevention is very important. PMID:27118366

  20. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres. PMID:22958027

  1. Effectiveness of an oral health program for mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, P.B.; Otero, S.A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leal, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The baby oral health program (bOHP) provides pregnant women and their future babies with oral care. AIM: To assess the bOHP effectiveness by comparing caries prevalence in infants enrolled and not enrolled in the oral health program (OHP). DESIGN: Mothers who had been invited to particip

  2. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Adriana Trezza; Alberto Néstor Scian

    2009-01-01

    Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker th...

  3. Use of Recycled Tire Rubber in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires weighing more than 3 million tons are generated each year in the United States. This is considered as one of the major environmental challenges facing municipalities around the world because waste rubber is not easily biodegradable even after a long period of landfill treatment. One of the solutions suggested is the use of tire rubber particles as additives in cement-based materials. Experiments under the laboratory environments commonly presented that the us...

  4. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Napida Hinchiranan; Prasert Reubroycharoen; Phakakrong Trongkaew; Thanes Utistham

    2011-01-01

    Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 , Degussa P-25) to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen co...

  5. Baby universes, fine tuning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recently popular 'theory of baby universes' put forward by Banks, Coleman and Hawking. We then derive the strong CP breaking coefficient θ-bar to be very small, in a similar manner to the derivation of the cosmological constant being zero. A solution for an old controversy concerning the entropy creation in black holes is also discussed. We finally confront the baby universe theory with random dynamics. We conclude that the theory of baby universes is so successful that the essential features are likely true and might have to go into a right theory even if with some troubles at first. (author)

  6. Prevention of shaken baby syndrome: Never shake a baby

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michelle GK; Bennett, Susan; King, W. James

    2004-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) represents injuries to the head, skeleton and eyes of a young child and is the leading cause of fatal or life-threatening child abuse. SBS is preventable. The dangers and consequences of shaking a baby are not well appreciated by the general public. Simple educational programs and community nursing support programs have been shown to be helpful. Inadequate physician training and knowledge in child maltreatment have also been identified as problems. This article outl...

  7. The Australian baby bonus maternity payment and birth characteristics in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001-2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20-24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6, mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4 or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4, mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6, mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8, and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5. Interestingly, births to private patients (-4.3%, 95%CI = -4.8,-3.7 and births in private hospitals (-6.3%, 95%CI = -6.8,-5.8 decreased following the policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas.

  8. The Effect of Giving Information to Baby’s Mother about Breastfeeding in Kendari

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmawati; Kameriah Gani; Rofiqoh Rofiqoh; Imanudin Imanudin; Rasmaniar

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains a variety of nutrients needed in the process of growth and development of infants. The nutritional value contained in breast milk is very high so it does not require any composition again from outside. Breast milk should be given in accordance with the will of the baby and mother. This study aimed to determine the effect of the information on the baby's mother to knowledge, attitudes, norms / culture, beliefs and actions of breastfeeding in Kendari. This study uses "quasy...

  9. Feeding and care of low-birthweight babies in two rural communities in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A; Odebiyi, Adetanwa I; Aina, Olabisi; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to highlight the sociocultural beliefs and practices relating to the care and feeding of low-birthweight (LBW) babies in two rural communities in the south-west of Nigeria. Data from 60 mothers and their newborns and community care providers were collected using qualitative instruments. The 60 mothers [30 mothers of LBW and 30 of normal-birthweight (NBW) infants] were identified through key informants, snowball approach and information obtained from community healthcare providers. The mean weight at recruitment of the LBW and NBW babies studied was 1680 +/- 440 and 2990 +/- 450 g respectively. Only two of the 60 mothers in the study delivered in orthodox health facilities, because in most cases these facilities were unaffordable, inaccessible and incompatible with rural lifestyles/beliefs. Most of the mothers believed that exclusive breastfeeding was not adequate for the LBW babies, and so herbal mixtures believed to accelerate growth were given in addition to breast milk. The use of forced hand-feeding and feeding bottles was universal among the mothers of LBW babies in order to 'increase the volume of feeds the baby gets'. Herbal dressing was used for cord and anterior fontanel care, while the babies were kept warm by using extra clothing, lighted lanterns and shutting of the windows. Five (16.7%) LBW infants and 1 (3.3%) NBW baby died, while 12 (40%) LBW, compared with 4 (13.3%) NBW infants, were hospitalized during the study. The findings of this study serve to identify the cultural beliefs and values around the care of LBW infants. Interventions designed to improve neonatal survival must therefore, take cognizance of these beliefs, customs and practices, in order to ensure effective and proper care of the LBW infants. PMID:18171407

  10. Lazer para mães de bebês de risco hospitalizados: análise da experiência na perspectiva dessas mulheres Ocio para madres de bebes de riesgo: análisis de la experiencia en la perspectiva de estas mujeres Leisure for mothers of high-risk babies: analysis of the experience in these women's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2004-10-01

    entrevistas grabadas tuvieron como cuestión norteadora "Hable sobre su vivencia en esas reuniones de grupo". Verificamos que las madres consideraron las actividades "...buenas que crian vínculo" y "...es bueno, porque uno se distrae"; revitalizando las para el enfrentamiento del estrés de la longa internación. Destacaron la oportunidad de aprender algunos cuidados con el hijo a través de juegos y películas educativas - "Saca nuestras dudas, principalmente de aquellas que tienen prematuros", y de realizar trabajos manuales -"Bordado, que nadie sabia, aprendió", que revertieron en vestuario para el hijo. Concluímos que el programa contribuyó con el proceso de construcción de una asistencia más integral y humanizada, teniendo como foco la familia, ampliando la visión del hospital encuanto un espacio también de ocio.In view of the implementation of new care strategies for mothers of high-risk babies attended at neonatal units through a program involving play, recreation and educational activities, this study aims to analyze this experience according to these women's perspectives. A qualitative and descriptive study was conducted at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Seven mothers were interviewed who had attended at least three activity sessions in the program and signed an informed consent document. The interviews were taped and were guided by the following question: "Tell us about your experience in these group meetings". It was observed that the mothers described the activities as "...they are nice and help to establish ties" and "...they are good because we get some distraction", thus revitalizing them to cope with the stress from long hospitalization. They pointed out the opportunity to learn about some types of care for their children through games and educational films - "They solve many of our doubts, especially for those who have pre-term babies", as well as the opportunity to do manual work - "We learned how to embroider, which was

  11. Why Did Employment and Earnings Rise Among Lone Mothers During the 1980s and 1990s?

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Myers, Karen; Myles, John

    2006-01-01

    Employment rates and earnings among single mothers improved significantly after 1980, and by 2000, low-income rates reached new historic lows. Unlike married mothers, most of the gains among lone mothers were the result of the dynamics of population change and cohort replacement as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering their forties. Most of these gains, moreover, went to older lone mothers. The demographically driven gains of lone moth...

  12. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > A Healthy Mouth for Your Baby A Healthy ... you about other things such as a healthy diet and fluoride that can keep your child’s mouth ...

  13. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  14. MERMAID BABY IN TWIN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, alternatively known as mermaid syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly in which the legs are fused together, giving the appearance of a mermaid's tail. Till date less than 60 cases had been reported. We came across a twin pregnancy in which a normal female baby and another mermaid baby was delivered. The rarity and uniqueness of the syndrome prompted us to report the case.

  15. MERMAID BABY IN TWIN PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Alpana; Dipanwita; Sweta; Rachna; Gita

    2014-01-01

    Sirenomelia, alternatively known as mermaid syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly in which the legs are fused together, giving the appearance of a mermaid's tail. Till date less than 60 cases had been reported. We came across a twin pregnancy in which a normal female baby and another mermaid baby was delivered. The rarity and uniqueness of the syndrome prompted us to report the case.

  16. Test-tube Baby Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As China’s first test tube baby celebrates her 20th birthday,the country is moving to improve IVF procedures I feel just like a normal person,despite being a little bit hi-tech,"said China’s first test-tube baby Zheng Mengzhu at her birthday party in Beijing. Zheng,born on March 10,1988 in the No.3 Hospital affiliated to the Peking University of Medical Sciences,made a trip

  17. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    pasa por etapas antes de ver al bebé como suyo y confiar en sí. Posibilitar el toque en el hijo, comprendiéndola en su individualidad, singularidad que se mostró como un cuidado al recién nacido prematuro en su complexidad como ser-ahí.Study in the approach theorical-methodological heideggerian with the objective to reveal the meaning of being-mother that has the possibility to touch the premature baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. After approbation, was developed a phenomenological interview with nine women-mothers. The comprehensive analysis constituted eight units of significance, the hermeneutics allowed to reveal the existential movement of being-mother in the daily routine, in the ways of being of the inauthenticity and impersonality, moved by the talk, the ambiguity and fear, modes of occupation. By understanding how yours the possibility to have a premature baby, touch it gingerly and carefully, transits to an understanding in which no longer engages yourself, concerns yourself. By concerning yourself, the being-mother establishes the possibility of being-there-with-the-baby. Was possible to understand this way of being mother, in which pass by stages before seeing the baby like yours and to trust in yourself. Enable to touch the baby, understanding it in its individuality, uniqueness proved to be a care to the premature newborn in their complexity as being-there.

  18. Becoming a mother through culture

    OpenAIRE

    Urwin, Cathy; Hauge, Mona Iren; Hollway, Wendy; Haavind, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ‘Culture’ is often considered in terms of identifiable artefacts, rules and practices, with less attention given to how investment in these features comes about. Using data extracts from a case study of a young woman who is becoming a mother for the first time, we pay attention to how people react to cultural processes in terms of how they ‘feel’. We use our own affective and reflective responses to interviews and observational material about Azra’s experiences with feeding her baby within th...

  19. Baby Whale Saves Mother Beached on Patagonia Shore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑达桦

    2000-01-01

    黎明即起,浏览“网文”而得佳作,将文章存入收藏夹。下班回家,打开电脑,再读一遍。味道真好,似品茗,又似在寻幽探胜。 两头Southern Right Whale(南露脊鲸)误入礁石嶙峋的阿根廷的Patagonianshores,而遭搁浅,奄奄一息。当地的一渔民发现了分别长10米和14米的两条巨鲸,立即不停地用海水浇淋它们。自愿救助者闻讯而来,先后赶来40人。他们用海水浇淋鲸鱼,不停得干了10小时,直到涨潮。 此刻,奇迹发生了。小鲸鱼浸泡在海水中,已经能够自由游动。可是,它并不急于独自逃生!它返回母亲身边,用头捅它的母亲,用尾巴撞它的母亲,希望昏迷的母亲能够醒来。 同时,救助者还吃惊地发现,小鲸不时发出了一种响声,似乎在对着母亲呼唤:come on,don’t stay behind! 体重达40吨的母鲸在小鲸的不懈努力下,终于醒来。母子两条鲸鱼,并肩游动,消失在茫茫大海!

  20. Mother and Unborn Baby Care v. State, 11 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The State charged the defendant antiabortion organization with violation of the Texas Deceptive Trade Practices Act in advertising under abortion groups in the yellow pages. The Court upheld a lower court decision enjoining deceptive conduct, mandating certain disclosures, and assessing penalties. It rejected the defendant's argument that it was not involved in trade or commerce and, thus, was not subject to the Act. As support for its decision, the Court pointed to the defendant's advertising in the yellow pages and provision of pregnancy testing, counseling, financial assistance, aid in adoption procedures, and help in obtaining legal aid. PMID:12289590

  1. Shaken baby syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.)

  2. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  3. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. PMID:25293712

  4. A rare case of haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamee Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a rare case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN with Bombay phenotype mother. A retrospective study of a case with severe haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother was done. Blood grouping, antibody screening, and lectin study was done on the blood sample of the baby and mother to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from the hospital laboratory information system for the analysis. Blood group of the baby was A positive, direct antiglobulin test was negative. Blood group of the mother was confirmed to be Bombay phenotype, Hematological parameters showed all the signs of ongoing hemolysis and the bilirubin level was in the zone of exchange transfusion. Due to the unavailability of this rare phenotype blood unit, baby was managed conservatively. Anticipating the fetal anemia and HDN with mothers having Bombay phenotype and prior notification to the transfusion services will be of great help in optimizing the neonatal care and outcome.

  5. Breastfeeding self-efficacy among adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Bizerra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess breastfeeding self-efficacy among lactating adolescents. A quantitative study involving 172 lactating adolescents, conducted in 14 Basic Health Units in the northeast cities of Brazil. For data collection, we used a form and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale – Short Form. Data were analyzed with a statistical software. Results showed high breastfeeding self-efficacy (84%, with more adherence to the items: “Ensure that my baby is properly latched on for the whole feeding” (91%, and “Always recognize then my baby is finished breastfeeding” (93%, and less referent to feed the baby without using formula (18% and breastfeed in front of people (14%. We found high breastfeeding self-efficacy in adolescent mothers in our study, showing a new knowledge about this specific public, in general, related to breastfeeding vulnerability.

  6. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems. PMID:9096820

  7. Parents’ views on care of their very premature babies in neonatal intensive care units: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G. M.; Sawyer, A.; Rabe, H.; Abbott, J; Gyte, G; Duley, L; Ayers, S; Very Preterm Birth Qualitative Collaborative Group, .

    2014-01-01

    Background The admission of a very premature infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is often a difficult time for parents. This paper explores parents’ views and experiences of the care for their very premature baby on NICU. Methods Parents were eligible if they had a baby born before 32 weeks gestation and cared for in a NICU, and spoke English well. 32 mothers and 7 fathers were interviewed to explore their experiences of preterm birth. Although parents’ evaluation of c...

  8. Contribution of Knowledge on Breastfeeding among Mothers who Joined Mother Support Group Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The infant feeding decision is complex and involves the influence of psychological, social, and economic factors, and health care system. This study aimed to determine the contribution of knowledge on breastfeeding among nonworking mothers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 173 nonworking mothers with babies between 0-6 months who joined the mother support group (MSG program participated in this study. The results showed that knowledge has significant influence on breastfeeding practice among the non working mothers (beta= .21, p= .01. MSG may be a suitable method to promote breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers.

  9. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo; Antonio Carlos Luz Lisbôa; Manoel Orlando Alvarez Méndez; Aparecido dos Reis Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  10. The baby broker boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1986-06-01

    Annas comments on two 1986 court decisions involving surrogate motherhood: Surrogate Parenting Associates v. Kentucky and Smith v. Jones. In the first case, the Supreme Court of Kentucky ruled against the state's Attorney General in his attempt to revoke the charter of a company prompting surrogate arrangements. The court determined that the state's prohibition of child purchasing would not be violated if financial arrangements were worked out before conception and if the surrogate mother retained the right to cancel the contract up to the moment she relinquished her parental rights. In Smith v. Jones, a lower court judge in Michigan allowed an infertile ovum donor and her husband to be listed as the parents on a child's birth certificate, rather than the surrogate who had been artificially inseminated. Annas sees both decisions as accommodating the law to modern science, and as encouraging commercial surrogacy. PMID:3721847

  11. My mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2007-01-01

    @@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.

  12. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  13. Energy conservation from systematic tire pressure regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of US drivers do not consistently monitor the tire pressures in their vehicles. The 2000 TREAD Act, which requires automakers to gradually provide tire pressure monitoring systems for vehicles sold in the US will correct this problem for new vehicles. This law does not impact the problem in previously deployed vehicles, which have a turnover time of ∼20 years. A solution is provided here to address under-inflated tires on the current 220 million vehicles and the concomitant wasted energy due to increased rolling resistance in the US automobile fleet. This communication reports on a preliminary study of tire pressures in randomly chosen vehicles, which were undergoing oil changes at a combined retail/auto-care facility. The study indicates that substantial benefits would accrue if car care facilities systematically offered complimentary tire pressure checks with oil changes including: (i) increased safety by decreasing all crashes and saving more than 100 lives per year, (ii) reduced petroleum consumption by over a billion gallons/year, which would (iia) provide over $4 billion in economic savings for US consumers that could in part be recouped in retail/auto-care facilities, (iib) reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 13.5 million tons and automobile pollution and (iic) enhance national security

  14. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  15. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  16. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  17. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... tire shall remain intact on the rim, including while being tested under a load of 2,000 N (450 lbf) in accordance with the rim test, § 1512.18(j). Tubular sew-up tires, nonpneumatic tires, and nonmolded...

  18. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  19. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  20. Quality of maternal care: A comparison of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and full- term infants in regular care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alicia Carbonell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of an intervention program (Kangaroo Mother Care, KMC on maternal sensitivity in a sample of high-risk adolescent mothers. Two mother-infant groups were compared: adolescent mothers with their preterm baby in kangaroo care and adolescent mothers with their full-term baby in regular care. Naturalistic observations at the home environment were conducted to assess maternal quality of care. No significant differences were found between both groups of dyads. Results are in line with the notion that KMC seems to play a protective role for adolescent mothers and their premature babies, given the additional risk factor of prematurity when compared to the full term group. These preliminary findings are stimulating and support further inquiry into the effects of KMC on maternal sensitivity particularly in high-risk populations.

  1. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  2. Death without dignity for commercial surrogacy: the case of Baby M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1988-01-01

    The New Jersey Supreme Court's In re Baby M ruling is applauded for remedying the flawed opinion of the lower court by invalidating surrogate contracts, applying existing law to determine custody, and restoring the natural mother's parental rights. Portions of the decision highlighted are the court's rejection of the label "surrogate mother" and the claim that surrogacy promotes family building. The author analyzes the surrogacy contract's violation of existing adoption laws, the constitutional issues raised by the contract, the court's controversial ruling on custody, and responses to the opinion by commercial baby brokers. He concludes that legislation must be enacted now to prevent "full surrogacy," in which in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer render the gestational mother an incubator with no rights or interests in the child. PMID:3391765

  3. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  4. Baby Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  5. Pain Reduction and Treatment of Sore Nipples in Nursing Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cadwell, Karin; Turner-Maffei, Cynthia; Blair, Anna; Brimdyr, Kajsa; Maja McInerney, Zoë

    2004-01-01

    Health-promotion goals include increasing the duration of breastfeeding because of its irrefutable advantages to the mother and baby, society, and the environment. However, many mothers experience painful, sore nipples during breastfeeding and stop nursing before they intended (Livingstone & Stringer, 1999). The experimental trial described in this paper randomized 94 breastfeeding women with sore nipples into three treatment groups. Midwives practicing in hospitals in Latvia assessed the par...

  6. Mental health outcomes of mothers who conceived using fertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Raguz, Nikolett; McDonald, Sheila W.; Metcalfe, Amy; O’Quinn, Candace; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the proportion of women with self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms at four months postpartum between mothers of singletons who conceived spontaneously and mothers who conceived with the aid of fertility treatment. Methods The sample used for this study was drawn from The “All Our Babies Study”, a community-based prospective cohort of 1654 pregnant women who received prenatal care in Calgary, Alberta. This analysis included women utilizing fertility treatment and a...

  7. Teaching child-care skills to mothers with developmental disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, M A; Case, L.; Garrick, M; MacIntyre-Grande, W; Carnwell, J; Sparks, B

    1992-01-01

    The present study identified and remediated child-care skill deficits in parents with developmental disabilities to reduce their risk of child neglect. Eleven mothers with developmental disabilities who were considered by social service and child welfare agencies to be providing neglectful child care were found in baseline to have several important child-care skill deficits (e.g., bathing, diaper rash treatment, cleaning baby bottles) compared to nonhandicapped mothers. Parent training (consi...

  8. Dead-baby dreams, transfiguration and recovery from infant death trauma in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Maternal reactions to infant death in Northeast Brazil have been at the epicenter of anthropological debate since the 1980s. This ethnographic study of 45 death narratives by bereaved mothers collected from 1979-1989 in Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil, refutes existing claims of mothers' "selective neglect" and "indifference" towards sick babies and emotionally empty grief response. I argue that through dead-baby dreams--and their imaginary transfiguration-grieving mothers alleviate infant death trauma. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, definitive loss, and personal guilt-the social seeds of depression--are reframed to deny death's finality and exonerate mothers from crippling self-blame. By transfiguring lingering mental images of the tiny cold corpse, mothers remold the irreversibility and definitiveness of death, gaining a sense of control over its unpredictable "jolt." In the politically oppressive Northeast Brazil--where social justice remains "an illusion"--mothers dream to preserve their own mental sanity and to recover from death's cruel aftermath. Any interpretation of mourning behavior must be contextualized within the local moral world and its "assumed structure of reality" to avoid demoralizing grieving Brazilian mothers and compounding their suffering. "You see, the only thing a poor woman truly owns that no one can borrow, cheat, steal or rob from her … is her imagination!" (Dona Chiquinha grieving death of her 10 children, Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil). PMID:23988325

  9. The mother as hidden regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Panzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A human baby is born with a decidedly immature brain, and is absolutely dependent on an intense relationship with its mother (or primary caregiver for brain maturation. In the short term, maternal regulation contributes to a more joyful baby, while in the long term it leads to the internalisation and development of self-regulatory capabilities. The ability to regulate one’s own emotional states is based on the development of right orbitofrontal dominance of dual limbic circuits, i.e. the excitatory sympathetic ventral tegmental circuit, and the inhibitory parasympathetic lateral tegmental circuit. Thus the child will be able to calm down after nigh overwhelming emotions by activating the parasympathetic system, but also to bounce back after setbacks by activating the sympathetic system. The mother influences the parcellation of the two limbic systems and thus the permanent excitation-inhibition autonomic balance of its prefrontal regulatory system. Repeated unregulated emotional states in the practicing period from 12-18 months pave the way for various psychological and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. It is worrisome that many children pass through this critical time in nursery schools, where a shortage of adult staff may lead to the scenario where a child’s emotions are repeatedly not modulated, with dire consequences for the internalisation of its future self-regulating capabilities.

  10. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Ask our experts! Have a ...

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Ask our experts! Have a question? We've ...

  13. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Ask our experts! Have ...

  14. Mothers' Perceptions of Their NICU Experience 1 and 7 Months after Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Nancy E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 36 mothers of premature infants concerning their perceptions of their infants' care 1 and 7 months after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) found that mothers received information on their baby's health and routine care but did not receive information about developmental issues or such topics as transfer of…

  15. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  16. What Really Works to Help Baby Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study. However, he added, parents often worry that sleep training will distress their baby -- possibly with lingering consequences. " ... three months, the researchers found, babies in both sleep-training groups were falling asleep faster when their parents ...

  17. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  20. Wonderful Instant of Chinese Millennium Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    AS the new millennium arrived twenty-five photographers in various cities took photos of newly delivered babies, These valuable photos became the first chapter in the photo data bank featuring babies' photographs started on January 22. Though they were all the very first photos of these newly-born babies, the behavior of the babies was very different. Li Shuzhe in Beijing was the

  1. Breastfeeding-Friendly Erie County: Establishing a Baby Café Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Deborah J; Dennison, Barbara A; Restina, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Community-based lactation support groups help improve breastfeeding duration by offering practical peer and professional help and counseling through the sharing of information and experiences in a relaxed setting. The objective of this project, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was to establish at least 5 Baby Cafés in organizations that reach low-income women living in a high-need, racially/ethnically diverse, urban county with 1 of the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration in New York. The New York State Department of Health partnered with the P(2) Collaborative of Western New York and United Way of Buffalo & Erie County's Healthy Start Healthy Future for All Coalition to facilitate the recruitment of 11 community-based agencies in Erie County, New York, to provide and/or enhance breastfeeding support. Six organizations were funded to establish licensed Baby Cafés, which provided skilled, free-of-charge, drop-in lactation support and counseling to mothers at easily accessible locations. The organizations provided staff training and staffing at the Baby Cafés, established coordinated hours of operation between all locations, and jointly marketed their services. Collectively, the 6 Baby Cafés provided 11 drop-in sessions per week. During the 7-month start-up time, mothers/babies made 276 visits and they averaged 75 visits per month, representing at least 150 clients. After the funding ended, 5 organizations continued to support and staff the Baby Cafés whereas 1 organization added another Baby Café. Future evaluation is needed to determine their effect on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. PMID:26319111

  2. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  3. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  4. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  5. With Faith,Never Say Tired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳慧; AlisonTrahan

    2005-01-01

    When I was still a pupil, one day, I asked my father, “Dad, why don't you say that you are tired after working for a whole day in thefield?” He just smiled and said, “You will understand soon.”

  6. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  7. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  8. Vox Populi and Baby Doe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study analyzed written responses to Department of Health and Human Services from persons with disabilities, parents, and relatives. Respondents almost unanimously supported the proposed "Baby Doe" regulations. Content analysis revealed eight categories of support and additional information concerning the need for intervention and adoption…

  9. The First Color Tire of Doublestar-Dongfeng Tape-out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On November 16, the first color tire produced by Dou- blestar-Dongfeng Tire Co., Ltd. was taped out into the market, and military camouflage tires, color high-grade passenger car tires, color truck radial tires, color off-road tires and color per-sonality fashion tires were also taped out in the meantime, which have broken through the only market of black tires. Besides, the first color all steel tire of Double Star also made a successful test run experiment that traveled different kinds of roads and tens of thousands of kilometers.

  10. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艺海; 胡宝兰

    2002-01-01

    My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.

  11. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  12. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    OpenAIRE

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemina...

  13. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  14. Young mothers in care, contributing to the contemporary debate

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy has become a broad issue in contemporary society and has become a focus for concern for young women in or exiting the care system. The article draws on interviews with twenty-four young mothers in, or on the fringes of the care system. It highlights the thoughts and feelings of these young women, specifically looking at the relationships that they have with their mothers, the father of their baby and their social workers. The mothers' sources of support and their perceptions...

  15. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  16. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  17. Baby Fae: a beastly business.

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, T; Belliotti, R

    1985-01-01

    The Baby Fae experiment has highlighted the growing trend in medicine of using animal parts in the treatment of humans. This paper raises the question of the logical and moral justification for these current practices and their proposed expansion. We argue that the Cognitive Capacity Principle establishes morally justified necessary and sufficient conditions for the use of non-human animals in medical treatments and research. Some alternative sources for medical uses are explored as well as s...

  18. Medical use of baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby cyclotron established at Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium and its building were introduced. Production of compounds labelled with 11C, 13N, 15O, or 18F and the plan of medical use of accelerator isotopes were described. The usefulness of positron nuclear medicine and problems in its clinical use for the lung, the heart, the brain, and cancer were also described. Finally, measuring method of labelled compounds was introduced. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

  20. Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

  1. Baby universes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS2xS2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e-N) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments

  2. Characterization of the factors involved in the tire production process

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Vasco Moisés Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica This dissertation has the purpose of describing the tire production methods, production variations, quality issue, specification details and the how the tire will behave. It is noted that due to the nature of the internship in the Continental Group several details cannot be described in full detail to avoid publication of trade secret details. Tires are one of the most important components in the composition of an automob...

  3. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of noncontact methods to analyze the tire-surface contact interaction. This approach uses the tire test bench with the set of contact patch monitoring based on image processing procedures. The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processin...

  4. Effects of Different Tire Configurations on Tractor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Sarp Korkut

    2005-01-01

    The effects of tire ply constructions (radial and bias) and tire arrangements (singles and duals on rear the axle) on tractor performance were evaluated for 2 gear levels on 2 different fields covered with wheat stubble and having different soil types, clay and sandy-loam. For this purpose, the tractor's overall efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and slip values were determined using parameters measured in the study. The results showed that the use of radial tires provided some advan...

  5. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  6. Assesment of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Galila M Mokhar; Soha M Abd EI Dayem; Nermine H Sayed; Sohair abd El Maksod; Manal El Shamaa; Hani M El Mikaty

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To assess whether infants of diabetic mothers [pre pregnancy diabetics (PPD) and gestational diabetics mellitus (GDM)] have compromised arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in their plasma and the relationship with deficiency of the same compounds in their mothers. Methods:This study was conducted on 30 diabetic mothers (both PPD and GDM) and their infants. Twenty healthy infants and their mothers with age and sex matched were included as controls. All infant (of diabetic and non diabetic mothers) were subjected to assessment of APGAR Scoring, thorough history taking and anthropometric measures. Lipid profile components as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) were assessed in diabetic GDM and PPD and non diabetic mothers as well as in their babies. Results: High-density lipoproteir(HDL) level was found to be significantly lower in diabetic mothers (specially those with PPD) compared to non diabetic ones, whereas no significant difference was found between babies of the two groups. Also, the current study revealed that diabet-ic mothers (GDM and PPD) and their babies had significantly higher levels of PUFA precursors linoleic acids (LA) and alpha linoleic acids (ALA). PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) were found to be significantly lower in diabetic mothers (GDM and PPD) compared to non diabetic mothers, and same results were found in the babies of the two groups. Conclusion: Neonates with diabetic mothers (both GDM and PPD) have highly compromised plasma levels of AA and DHA PUFA, which affects the child well being by far, and produces hazardous multi-system complications on the long run.

  7. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  8. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  9. PATTERN OF BABIES WITH CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS ADMITTED IN A TERTIARY NEWBORN CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saminathan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern of congenital malformation in the neonates admitted in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial government Hospital, Trichy. METHOD: 16,672 live birth babies delivered in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial government Hospital, Trichy were screened for external congenital malformation during the study period august 2011 to august 2013. Total of 232 neonates were diagnosed have congenital malformat ions. Radiological investigations was done to confirm internal anomalies in asymptomatic neonates. RESULTS: Study showed a prevalence of major con genit al malformation to be 13.9 / 1000 live births, neural tube defects being the commonest (25%. The inciden ce is significantly high in mother of age group >35 years, increasing parity, positive family history. Congenital malformation constitutes a significant proportion of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSION: Congenital malformations are higher in mothers age group of >35 increasing parity, maternal hyperglycemia and preterm babies. Periconceptional folic acid intake is important to prevent neural tube defects.

  10. LSRA STS Tire Test - on rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, in conjunction with other NASA centers, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used a Convair CV-990 airplane as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) to perform Space Shuttle tire tests. The results provided the Space Shuttle Program with data to support its flight rules and enabled it to resurface a grooved runway at Kennedy Space Center that had added unnecessary wear to the Space Shuttle tires. Tests were done using a unique fixture mounted in the center of the CV-990 fuselage, between the main landing gear. Landing gear systems from other aircraft could be attached to the test fixture, which lowered them to the runway surface during actual landings. The LSRA had the ability to reproduce the loads and speeds of the other aircraft, as well as simulate crosswind landing conditions in a safe, controlled environment. The video clip shows a landing on the concrete runway at Edwards, California on August 11, 1995, which concluded the Space Shuttle gear research program. As the Space Shuttle tire was lowered onto the surface, it was destroyed almost instantly. The rim scraped on the concrete, and stopped rolling as it became flat. It heated up and left a flaming trail of hot rubber and aluminum alloy particles. Notice how the fire quickly went out as the test gear was raised, indicating a safer condition than prevailed in a lakebed landing.

  11. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-01

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber. PMID:23145882

  12. Mother Says: My Baby´s Pain is my Pain La madre dice: el dolor de mi bebé es mi dolor A mãe diz: a dor do meu bebê é a minha dor

    OpenAIRE

    MUÑOZ DE RODRÍGUEZ LUCY; MUNÉVAR TORRES ROSA YOLANDA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: describe the mothers´ feelings and the social support they receive when their newborn is in pain.

    Methodology: short-scope qualitative study with ethnographic methodology. Twenty-two in depth interviews with 8 mothers, with an average between two and four each. The sample corresponded to the saturation of the information selected by relevance and adaptation; field notes and participant observat...

  13. Deuterium dilution method for determining the Breast milk intake of babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods for measuring the milk intake of breast fed babies are available. Most methods are time consuming, cumbersome and inaccurate. The report describes various methods used for Breast Milk intake measurement with emphasis on the D/sub 2/O dilution method. The methodology of the D/sub 2/O dilution method is now streamlined in this Inst. for measuring the milk intake of babies. Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods used to determine the breast milk intake of the infants are also included in the present report. For the D/sub 2/O dilution method, and oral administration of small dose of deuterium oxide (sup 2/H/sup 2/O) is given to the mothers after collecting pre-dose samples. The post dose samples of urine from the baby and saliva from the mother are collected at 24 hours intervals over a 14 days period. These samples are analyzed on isotope ratio Mass spectrometer. The D/H values obtained over a 14 days period are then extrapolated to calculate the milk intake of babies using the Microsoft Excel Computer programme designed for this purpose. (author)

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  15. Abstract efficacy of combined vaccine for the prevention of HBV transmission in highly viremic HBeAg+ mothers and the HBV markers' dynamic change of babies in follow-up%乙型肝炎病毒e抗原阳性孕妇所生婴儿联合免疫接种后乙型肝炎病毒血清学标志物的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江红秀; 韩国荣; 王翠敏; 岳欣; 王根菊

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察HBeAg阳性且HBV DNA高载量孕妇所生婴儿用乙型肝炎疫苗联合免疫接种后的母婴阻断效果及HBV血清学标志物的动态变化.方法 回顾性分析HBeAg阳性且HBVDNA≥106拷贝/ml孕妇127例,婴儿出生后即刻及第15天于臀大肌注射高效价乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白200 IU,出生时与第1、6个月于右上臂肌肉注射乙型肝炎疫苗20μg,随访其婴儿至12个月龄.用酶联免疫吸附法及荧光定量PcR检测婴儿出生时及第1、7、12个月时的HBV血清学标志物和HBV DNA载量,观察婴儿出生时HBV血清学标志物模式、母婴传播率、疫苗接种后的HBV宫内感染率、抗-HBs阳性保护率及HBV血清学标志物动态变化.结果 127例孕妇分娩婴儿均为单胎,出生时29例婴儿HBsAg为阳性,其中11例合并HBV DNA阳性,母婴垂直传播率为22.83%.随访至1个月,10例婴儿合并HBV DNA阳性从而发生HBV宫内感染,表现为HBsAg、HBeAg及抗-HBc均为阳性.2例婴儿HBsAg弱阳性,伴有抗-HBs滴度的产生,后续随访中均转阴,乙型肝炎宫内感染率为7.87%.非宫内感染婴儿出生时HBeAg及抗-HBc阳性率分别为96.58%和98.29%,免疫接种后婴儿HBeAg及抗-HBc逐步转阴,均未产生抗-Hbe.非宫内感染婴儿均产生有效乙型肝炎保护性抗体,乙型肝炎疫苗及高效价乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白联合免疫接种后,婴儿抗-HBs滴度从出生至12个月龄逐步上升,母源性HBeAg滴度逐步下降以至转阴.结论 乙型肝炎疫苗联合高效价乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白免疫接种能明显降低HBV母婴传播,增强婴儿乙型肝炎表面抗原保护性抗体,体内母源性HBeAg及抗-HBc亦随之降低甚至转阴.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of combined vaccination with 200IU dose of HBIG and 20 μg of anti-HBV vaccine for the prevention of HBV vertical transmission in babies dilivered by HBeAg + and highly viremic mothers and the HBV markers' dynamic changes in babies during

  16. Motherly Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Translated onto glass from copper plates As from Rembrandt or Brueghel or their heirs In whose busy depictions such an act Is incidental, some side-alley fact, Now placed here in the center by Millet -- This all too human scene, both rude and true: A mother wrinkling up her young son’s gown  Before he wets himself on backdoor steps Where his six-year-old sister, shrinking, stares At the wobbly colossus, wholly exposed. His soft hand grips his mother’s muscled wrist, Still nearer to the milked...

  17. Factors associated with having the first baby at an advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Anne Britt Vika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate characteristics of women and men who have their first baby at an advanced age, reasons for postponing childbirth, and consequences in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal age at first birth has increased in many modern societies; in both Sweden and Norway, first-time mothers are now about five years older, compared with the previous generation. This delaying of parenthood has been associated with an increased need for artificial repro...

  18. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  19. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  20. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  1. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  2. Predictors of Sensitivity in Mothers of 8-Month-Old Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alvarenga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigated the impact of maternal mental health, including postpartum depression, and of maternal-fetal attachment, on maternal sensitivity when babies were eight months old. The study included 38 mother-infant dyads. The women answered the SRQ-20 and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in the third trimester of pregnancy, and the BDI, for evaluation of postpartum depression in the first month following birth. Maternal sensitivity was examined through an observation of mother-child interaction when babies were eight months old. The multiple regression model considering the three factors explained 18.6% of the variance in sensitivity, and only maternal-fetal attachment was a significant predictor. The results indicate the importance of interventions to promote the bond of pregnant women with their babies, which may even minimize possible harmful effects of postpartum depression on mother-child interaction.

  3. Infant Sleeping Arrangements and Cultural Values among Contemporary Japanese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinaShimizu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined infant sleeping arrangements and parenting ethnotheories of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force would lead to a decline in mother-infant cosleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers’ comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, cosleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of cosleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant ethnotheories. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions.

  4. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE TIRE-COVER PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdniakova, O.; Statilko, M.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using tire-cover pyrolysis products as a fuel has been investigated. The technical operation factors of pyrolysis products have been determined. The comparative analysis of tire-cover utilization products and traditional fuels has been carried out.

  5. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  6. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2008... Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 75 FR 15894 (Mar. 30, 2010); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0036- 001. \\4... after the sale of a new vehicle at no cost to the consumer. According to Bridgestone, these tires...

  7. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposing a new consumer information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to a requirement in the Energy Independence and... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to...

  8. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... establishes the test procedures to be used by tire manufacturers in a new consumer information program to... Displays, 70 FR 18136 (April 8, 2005). \\4\\ Transportation Research Board Special Report 286, Tires and... testing, NHTSA will publish a new proposal for the consumer information and consumer education portions...

  9. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... 574.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... sidewall of each tire it retreads by permanently molding or branding into or onto the sidewall, in...

  10. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influence of bypass on tire noise and offer the tire designer a better approach to improve tire comfort ability. By virtual of numerical simulation method, the influence of bypass structure parameters, such as the width of junction pipe, the volume of resonance cavity, on tire noise were analyzed in this study. The result shows that the circumferential grooves with bypass not only bring down pipe resonance noise of circumferential grooves but also decrease far-field radiated noise of tire. Besides, with a certain resonant cavity, the width of junction pipeline between the circumferential grooves and the resonance cavity plays an important role in the improvement of tire noise. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  11. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(f) of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New... FR 28502). No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log onto the... cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and customers should consider the...

  12. Tire tread deformation sensor and energy harvester development for smart-tire applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kee S.; Liang, Hong; Yi, Jingang; Mika, Bartek

    2007-04-01

    Pneumatic tires are critical components in mobile systems that are widely used in our lives for passenger and goods transportation. Wheel/ground interactions in these systems play an extremely important role for not only system design and efficiency but also safe operation. However, fully understanding wheel/ground interactions is challenging because of high complexity of such interactions and the lack of in situ sensors. In this paper, we present the development of a tire tread deformation sensor and energy harvester for real-time tire monitoring and control. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based micro-sensor is designed and fabricated to embed inside the tire tread and to measure the tread deformation. We also present a cantilever array based energy harvester that takes advantages of the mechanical bandpass filter concept. The harvester design is able to have a natural frequency band that can be used to harvest energy from varying-frequency vibrational sources. The energy harvester is also built using with new single crystal relaxor ferroelectric material (1 - \\Vkgr)Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-\\Vkgr PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) and interdigited (IDT) electrodes that can perform the energy conversion more efficiently. Some preliminary experiment results show that the performance of the sensor and the energy harvester is promising.

  13. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  14. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby ...

  15. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  16. An innovative simplified MCH score for assessing the ideal babies in well baby shows of postpartum outreach programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmy, P N; Mittal, S

    1995-01-01

    In India, a simple scoring method was used to select winners at 18 well-baby shows over the last five years in low-income areas of Kotla Mubarakpur and Gautam Nagar, in the Rajeev Gandhi Resettlement Colony, in jhuggi jhopri clusters around the All Institute of Medical Sciences (AAIMS) in New Delhi, and in the Bangladeshi refugee colony (Kidwai Nagar). The parameters used to select ideal babies were parents' age at marriage and educational status, mother's age at first birth, number of living children in relation to marriage duration, immunization status of living children, birth interval, contraceptive use, and routine criteria on general health and hygiene. Winners were chosen among infants, toddlers (1-2 years), and preschool children (2-5). Health promotional activities, maternal and child health (MCH) services, and family planning (FP) services were featured at the health camps where the well-baby shows occurred. 60-90 children and 100-2000 couples participated in the well-baby shows. Health workers explained to parents of children with a poor score why their children had a poor score. At the health camps, parents adopted FP methods and had their children immunized, regardless of score, so as to improve their score for the next show and to win prizes. The well-baby scores improved over time (24.64-31.2 for Kotla Mubarakpur, 19-24.6 for Gautam Nagar, 20.9-22.4 for Rajeev Gandhi, 20.6-23.6 for AIIMS jhuggi, and 13.6-21.4 for Kidwai Nagar). A weekly clinic operating in Kotla Mubarakpur accounted for the high initial mean score. Gautam Nagar had only periodic health services. A weekly mobile health van provided services in the Rajeev Gandhi colony. Door to door contacts were conducted in the jhuggi jhopri clusters to promote MCH/FP services. The scoring method reinforced integration of MCH/FP services. It allowed local health workers to make rapid analyses and MCH decision making. It also served as a tool to monitor the efficacy of local MCH/FP services. PMID

  17. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  18. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  19. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  20. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  1. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming L. Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS, possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  2. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed < 100mm/sec and total width < 800mm. The measuring errors of width < +/- 0.5mm. While the thickness range is < 40mm. The measuring errors of thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  3. The Collapse Of Claudia’s Commitment Not To Have A Baby In Baby Proof

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmar, Atika

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the writer discusses about the collapse of Claudia’s commitment no to have a baby in Baby Proof (2007) by Emily Giffin (1972). With an interesting story about a modern woman named Claudia who has a commitment not to have a baby, but she hopes to get a husband that has same thought with her about having a baby. When Claudia was in senior high school, she once was in a relationship with her schoolmate, Charlie. However, the desire to have a baby is the one of the reason to end th...

  4. Grandmothers' familism values, adolescent mothers' parenting efficacy, and children's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  5. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Emergence among Breastfeeding Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers during a Single-Arm Trial of Triple-Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission: A Secondary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Timothy K; Rose Masaba; Craig B Borkowf; Richard Ndivo; Clement Zeh; Ambrose Misore; Juliana Otieno; Denise Jamieson; Michael C Thigpen; Marc Bulterys; Laurence Slutsker; De Cock, Kevin M.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Greenberg, Alan E.; Mary Glenn Fowler

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, about half a million children become infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly all these newly infected children live in resource-limited countries and most acquire HIV from their mother, so-called mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Without intervention, 25%–50% of babies born to HIV-positive mothers become infected with HIV during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. This infect...

  6. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  7. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  8. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  9. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Booger? Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A Text Size What's in ... first look at the newest member of your family. Expect your brother or sister to be small, ...

  10. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

  11. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  12. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Menticoglou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1 the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2 the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner.

  13. Childbearing characteristics of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, S J; Taffel, S M

    1985-01-01

    This study compares maternal and infant health and sociodemographic characteristics of U.S.-born and foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mothers and their babies, using data from the national vital statistics system and the 1980 National Natality Survey. While nearly half of all Hispanic mothers and Mexican and Puerto Rican mothers were born in the United States, less than 10 percent of Cuban and other Hispanic mothers were U.S. born. Compared with foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mo...

  14. An exploratory study of the ways in which mothers keep their infants occupied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The mother child relationship can help or hinder the social, emotional and intellectual development of the infant. Research has shown that the interaction between mother and child can affect the child’s cognitive development. Research has shown that mothers from the lower socio-economic groups do not stimulate their babies optimally and that this may affect the children negatively. In this study 86 underprivileged mothers from two different cultural backgrounds were asked to describe the ways in which they kept their infants occupied during the first year of their infants’ lives. The differences between the two groups are discussed and recommendations are made.

  15. Implementing and revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Randa; Casanovas, Carmen

    2009-06-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in the 1990s by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF as a global effort with hospitals, health services, and parents to ensure babies are breastfed for the best start in life. It is one of the Operational Targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding endorsed in 2002 by the Fifty-Fifth World Health Assembly and the UNICEF Executive Board. After about 18 years, great progress has been made, and most countries have breastfeeding authorities or BFHI coordinating groups. The BFHI has led to increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding, which are reflected in improved health and survival. Based on this progress, the Initiative was streamlined according to the experience of the countries and materials were revised. The new package consolidated all WHO and UNICEF materials into one package, reflected new research and experience, revisited the criteria used for the BFHI in light of HIV/ AIDS, reinforced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, provided modules for mother-friendly care, and gave more guidance for monitoring and reassessment. WHO and partners will continue to give support to BFHI implementation as one essential effort contributing to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:20496615

  16. Pediatric Nurse\\s Educational Role in an International Task: Maternal Education Experience on 0-6 Month Baby Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Suluhan; Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), for the baby\\s optimal growth and development, recommends all mothers all over the world feeding infants only breast milk for the first six months, initiating of additional nutrients after the sixth month, and suggests the need to continue to breastfeed for the first two years. The pediatric nurse works for Head of the Turkish delegation at the disposal of the Kosovo for a period of six months has decided to make a priority about an education on feeding in...

  17. Discarded tires: energy conservation through alternative uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Scrap tires that are not recycled through retreading constitute a serious solid-waste problem, but also offer energy-conservation opportunities through their use as: (1) solid fuel (displaced energy = 15,000 Btu/lb or 35 kJ/g); (2) derived fuel and chemical feedstock (11,000 to 23,000 Btu/lb or 25 to 53.5 kJ/g); (3) virgin rubber compound substitute in traditional rubber products (34,000 to 40,000 Btu/lb or 79 to 93 kJ/g); and (4) asphalt additive for paving applications (90,000 Btu/lb or 210 kJ/g). Both the energy of the displaced fuel and material and the energy consumed preparing the tires for the above uses have been included, where possible, in these estimates. Also provided is a summary of the available data on the cost and requisite scale of operation for the various end use processes.

  18. Analysis of Off-Road Tire-Soil Interaction through Analytical and Finite Element Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tire-soil interaction is important for the performance of off-road vehicles and the soil compaction in the agricultural field. With an analytical model, which is integrated in multibody-simulation software, and a Finite Element model, the forces and moments generated on the tire-soil contact patch were studied to analyze the tire performance. Simulations with these two models for different tire operating conditions were performed to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of an excavator tire. For ...

  19. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data. PMID:11376883

  20. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S;

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  1. Evidence for Vertical Transmission of HPV from Mothers to Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few large studies have evaluated concordance based on a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV types in oral and genital specimens of mothers and their recently born infants. This information is important in determining whether HPV vaccines administered prior to pregnancy may be useful for preventing vertical transmission. HPV DNA was positive in 30% of mothers and 1.5% of newborns. Maternal/newborn concordance (HPV+/+ or HPV−/− was 71%. Among HPV DNA+ mothers, only 3% of their infants were DNA+ and only 1 pair had the same HPV type. Among HPV− women, 0.8% of infants were HPV+. HPV DNA detected in hospitalized newborns reflects current infection transmitted to infants during pregnancy or delivery. None of the mother/baby HPV DNA+ concordance pairs detected viral types found in HPV vaccines suggesting that vaccination prior to pregnancy is unlikely to be efficacious in preventing vertical transmission.

  2. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D2O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D2O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D2O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D2O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D2O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author)

  3. Parents' knowledge and behaviour concerning sunning their babies; a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topsever Pinar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. Methods In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 ± 6.5 years and 8.3 ± 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%, housewives (81.4% with an educational level of ≥6 years (71.2%. Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%, diaper rash (5.9% and neonatal jaundice (12.7%. In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2% were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7% of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10–11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor ≥ 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Conclusion Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any.

  4. Breastfeeding Support in a Community Pharmacy: Improving Access through the Well Babies at Walgreens Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. PMID:25829476

  5. Suicidal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  6. Breastfeeding in Scotland: the impact of advice for mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Skafida, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    In the last two decades western societies have witnessed a new-found social and political interest in the promotion of breastfeeding. Scotland has recently passed legislation to make breastfeeding in public a right. However, breastfeeding remains controversial, and many mothers find it difficult or are reluctant to breastfeed. Research shows that breastfeeding is beneficial for babies and so is an important component in tackling health inequalities. This briefing outlines some of ...

  7. Suspended liminality: breastfeeding and becoming a mother in two NICUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulood Kayed Shattnawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents the results of an ethnographic study of breastfeeding and mothers’ experiences within two neonatal intensive care units (NICU. Methods: The data collection involved 135 hours of participant observation over a 6-month period and semi-structured interviews of 17 mothers. Results: Data analysis showed that the mothers faced many obstacles that prohibited them from practicing breastfeeding within the NICUs, which impacted on their experiences as mothers. Their experiences were revealed as a developing process as their feeling changed from fearful and terrifying toward becoming and feeling like a ‘real’ mother. Four distinct themes emerged; the first highlighted the crisis, which involved the mother's feelings of emotional instability, their strategies for coping such as not visiting the baby, and recognition of the NICU as a stressful environment. The second theme described issues relating to control and power. This involved the perception of having a lack of control and needing to seek permission, the use of language as a mechanism for control, and mothers being placed in a subordinate role. The third theme related to the separation, which included difficulties of acceptance, feeling like stranger and not being important, and the need for physical closeness. The final theme, becoming a mother, included issues such as the special moments, breastfeeding as a turning point, and practical and informational needs. Conclusions: A finding suggests that mothers, who deliver prematurely, may have their rite of passage into motherhood interrupted, resulting in them being placed in a position of suspended liminality.

  8. Features of Inner Position of Mother in IVF Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakupova V.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to explore the features of inner position of mother in women who had underwent IVF (in vitro fertilisation and how these features affect parenthood and child-adult relationships. The study involved 20 mother-baby dyads comprised of women who conceived naturally and 23 dyads comprised of women who had IVF (the infants were 6—12 months old. The mothers from the IVF group expressed more unconditional acceptance of their child and desire for body contact but were less likely to support the child’s initiative than the mothers from the first group. The features of parent-child relationships have a certain impact on the child’s development: the infants whose mothers are ready to support them are likely to be more active. The desire for close body contact is more expressed in those infants whose mothers touch, hug and carry them more frequently. The mothers from the IVF group perceive their parental duties in a positive way, but at the same time experience doubts in their parental competence and are likely to place excessive demands on themselves as mothers.

  9. Congenital Antral Web in Premature Baby

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, So-Hyun; Koo, Soo Hyun; Chung, Mi Lim; Jung, Yu Jin; Lim, Yun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Antral web is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in neonate. It is a 2-4 mm thin mucous membrane that can be found anywhere from 1 to 7 cm proximal to the pylorus. The baby was born at gestational age of 32+1 weeks with 1,880 g as 2nd baby of dizygotic twin. After birth, the baby had constant non-bilious vomiting without feeding while he didn't show abdominal distension or discoloration. The infantogram showed distended stomach with distal small bowel gas. Upper gastrointestinal serie...

  10. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment. PMID:18724637

  11. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission. PMID:17601001

  12. Preparing children for pregnancy and a new baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when the baby is napping or when another adult can watch the baby. Encourage your child to help with the baby. Know that this takes longer than doing it yourself. Your child can: Sing to the baby Help with diaper changes Help push the stroller Talk to the ...

  13. Mother's Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cécile Petit

    Full Text Available Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions.100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10 were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE.We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth.This study suggests that mothers' psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants' follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected.

  14. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Keerti Swarnkar; Jayanta Vagha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW) infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). KMC essentially...

  15. Maternal diet, LCPUFA status and prematurity in Indian mothers: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi S. Ranade; Rao, Shobha S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to exert functional benefits with regards to gestational length. The present study examined the association of maternal LCPUFA intake, specifically Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and Arachidonic acid (ARA), and plasma status at delivery with duration of gestation and risk of premature delivery in Indian mothers.Methods: In a cross-sectional nested case-control study, 191 mother-baby pairs [164 Full ...

  16. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    OpenAIRE

    Verma Arpana; Jackson Elaine; Michel Elaine; Agboado Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the...

  17. Where have all the babies gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-15

    Critical comment is provided on the phenomena of couples postponing childbearing in Singapore. In spite of a media campaign to promote childbearing and tax incentives, women are choosing to be DINKS, couples with double incomes and no kids. Women's reasons for not having children are to enjoy more freedom and a better material life and maintain a career. Seet Ai Mee, the junior minister of community development, in 1990 spoke in a public address about women's lack of belief in marriage and the loss of independence and career prospects when children come along. Official concern is based on the rising median age of childbearing which has gone from 23.4 years in 1970 to 27.7 years in 1991. A continuing trend would put women 30 years old at the age of 1st childbearing in the year 2000. 1 of 5 women presently do not have children. 2.9% fewer babies were born in the 1st 10 months of 1991 compared with 1990. The Director of the Population Planning Unite believes that the campaign has been successful in promoting coupling, but not procreation. Examples are given of 4 women who chose not to have children. 1 was a 26-year old university graduate who was a product manager. She is married and thinks that the ad campaign is not appropriately geared to an educated population. Romance and hard sell are out of place. Another psychotherapist expressed the opinion that women wanted a house a car before having children, and later age at childbearing was desired because the desire was to a small family anyway. Freedom has a greater value over the desire for children. A 30-year old writer finds women with children boring, and later age at childbearing means greater maternal maturity. Several examples are given of women who desire an earlier start on childbearing because of the demands placed on older mothers. The director of a counseling and care center defines DINKS as educated higher income people who want a career, personal goals, travel, and other things. There should not be a

  18. Determination of the mothers' milk storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sercekus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Breast milk storage conditions, is an important issue alongside the protection of substantiality and immunological content of milk in terms of preventing the development of microorganisms. The purpose of this research was to determine breast milk storage applications of mothers. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. Ten health care centers were taken for the study scope in Denizli. The study sample consisted of 77 mothers who stored breast milk. Results: 49.4% of the mother's stores their milk at room temperature, 76.6% of them stores in the refrigerator, 59.7% of them stores it in the deep-freezer. % 41.6 of women use plastic milk storage bags to store milk, 57.1% of them write date on the storage container, 37.7% of them boil in order to clean the containers, 51.9% of them clean containers after each use. Conclusion: It was found incorrect applications, which can adversely affect baby's health, at the selection of storage containers and cleaning, storage location, duration and thawing the frozen milk stages in this study. Important tasks fall to the healthcare personnel while teaching mothers the right applications for the storage of milk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 483-488

  19. Parent Misidentification Leading to the Breastfeeding of the Wrong Baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because there are clear benefits to breast milk over formula for infants, the goal of the World Health Organization is to increase breastfeeding rates. As more women are breastfeeding and providing breast milk to newborns in hospitals, there is increased risk for administration error. CASE REPORT A hospitalized preterm infant was breastfed by the wrong mother when the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurse failed to properly identify the mother. An infectious disease workup done on the donor mother was negative, but the recipient infant was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Since the donor mother who accidentally breastfed the wrong infant was CMV-negative, the baby in our case had likely been exposed to CMV from his biological mother. The attending physician apologized to all of the family members involved, but the father of one infant continued to express anger. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental breastfeeding in a hospital setting to be described in the literature. Parental misidentification and a language barrier led to the error. An infectious disease workup did not find any evidence of disease transmission from this event. Increased attention to minimize breast milk errors is needed. Despite a long history of wet nursing, unregulated breast milk sharing and cross nursing is not recommended. Instead, if a mother cannot provide breast milk herself, pasteurized donor breast milk from breast milk banks is encouraged. PMID:27515898

  20. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  1. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap There are two vaccines ...

  2. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  3. Is My Baby Getting Enough Milk?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding in one word Common questions about breastfeeding and ...

  4. Is My Baby Getting Enough Milk?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Is my baby ...

  5. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... five months of age. Infants and children with congenital heart disease and congestive heart failure or cyanosis (blueness) tend ... feeding tube placed into the nose. Babies with congenital heart disease typically do best when fed more often and ...

  6. Is My Baby Getting Enough Milk?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my ... email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Is my baby getting enough milk? Pediatrician Sahira ...

  7. Visiting your baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to be on a breathing machine (respirator). Bonding with Your Baby in the NICU It is ... Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  8. Breastfeeding your ill or premature baby

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This booklet provides information about the benefits of breastfeeding for ill or premature babies in intensive care, as well as advice on how to express milk, maintain a good supply of milk and correct storage of breast milk.

  9. Conservative care of the newborn baby.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton, N R

    1980-01-01

    A method of managing ill and premature babies with little disturbance is described. The results of such care during 1969-76 compare favourably with those achieved by more intensive and active intervention.

  10. Surrogate Motherhood II: Reflections after "Baby M."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)

  11. Is My Baby Getting Enough Milk?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding ...

  12. Is My Baby Getting Enough Milk?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  13. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

  14. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  15. The Knowledge and Attitudes of Mothers about Infant Nutrition in Iğdır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yetim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Errors in complementary feeding may lead to important problems in child’s physical and mental development. In this study, we aimed to investigate feeding practices, attitudes and knowledge of mothers with infants aged 20-36 months, who attended the outpatient departments. Materials and Methods: Research was performed in the center of Iğdır and the town of Iğdır called Tuzluca. Two hundred three mothers with children aged 20 to 36 months that attended Iğdır and Tuzluca State Hospitals between June-July 2012 constituted the study population. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was administered. Questions were asked in detail by a physician. Results: Seventy percent of mothers had breastfed their babies within 1 hour after birth, 92% within 1-24 hours. All mothers thought that breastfeeding was the best for their babies. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 17.0±8.0 months, complementary feeding was started at 6.4 months. Twenty two mothers began to give complementary foods to their babies before 6 months, 51% at 6 months, 15.7% between 6-9 months, and 11% at 9 months and later. The first choice as a complementary food was homemade yogurt (67% and the second was yoghurt from market (47%. Vegetables and fruit puree were not among the first choices of complementary foods. Sixty three percent of mothers received information from people around (mother, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, neighbor, etc., 31% of from health personnel in the family health centers. Conclusions: Mothers in Iğdır and Tuzluca seemed to need counseling about complementary feeding. Health workers with current and practical knowledge should give accurate information to mothers.

  16. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  17. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... by the rim flange....

  18. Any Chance Left for China's Large Engineering Tire Producers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The service the large engineering tire producers offer is to satisfy the lowest transport cost, moving the maximum volume of minerals at the lowest environmental costs and in the shortest period of time.

  19. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  20. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  1. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  2. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. PMID:20060280

  3. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  4. Epidemiology and etiology of strokes in babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Lvova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes an update on the morbidity, mortality, and a risk for recurrence of stroke occurring in babies. It shows a variety of conditions and syndromes which may be responsible for stroke in infancy. Babies with the signs of intrauterine infection and congenital heart disease, the carriers of major thrombophilia gene mutations, may be regarded as a risk group.

  5. The Frequency of Giving Birth to Babies with Congenital Malformation and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM : It has been aimed with this study to identify the level of delivering baby with congenital malformations and affecting factors at women who had given birth at least once in Burdur. METHODS: According to provincial health directorate, the number of women who was pregnant on 30 June 2010 is 1,532, and 958 of these women have experienced at least one pregnancy previously. The universe of this conducted cross-sectional type research has been comprised of 958 women who had experienced pregnancy once at least. A sample was not selected in the study; it was aimed to reach the whole of universe. The data have been gathered, after getting necessary permissions, between the dates of 15 March and ndash; 21 June 2010 with a questionnaire and face to face. The data were analyzed in SPSS 10,5 package program. RESULTS: Congenital malformation prevalence in Burdur is 4,2%. Delivering babies with congenital malformation is 2,5 times (OR:1,1 and ndash;5,4 more in mothers 35 years of age or older with reference to 34 years of age and younger mothers. Delivering babies with congenital malformation is 2,9 times greater (OR:1,4 and ndash;5,7 in fathers whose education level are primary and under with reference to fathers whose education level are secondary and higher; 8 times greater (OR:2,2 and ndash;21,3 in mothers who had stillbirths with reference to mothers who had not stillbirths; 3,4 times greater (OR:1,0 and ndash;11,5 in mothers whose children died before the age of 5 with reference to mothers whose children not died before the age of 5. CONCLUSiON: In conclusion, congenital malformation prevalence is similar with the data of Turkey. For prevention of congenital malformations prenatal care as sufficient number and quality should be provided to the mothers who were over 35 years and above, child death below 5 years or had stillbirths and had educatiol level as primary education or less. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 445-450

  6. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaf, H.; H. Trouzine; M. Hamhami; Asroun, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria). Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unlo...

  7. Foreign Direct Investment Location Strategies in the Tire Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyohiko Ito; Elizabeth L Rose

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the nature of international competition among multinational firms in the tire industry. Using the frameworks of the theories of oligopolistic reaction and foreign direct investment, we find that the firms' investment patterns are related to the number and identities of competitors, host country characteristics, and foreign experience. Global tire companies from several nations demonstrate oligopolistic reaction behavior.© 2002 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2002) ...

  8. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a... tires of its size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a width within... Register citations affecting § 575.104, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  9. Influence of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hazardous oily wastes generated from ships was converted to useful fuel. • Fuel characteristic of oil derived scrap tire was improved. • Co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes showed an environmental alternative to direct combustion. - Abstract: The co-pyrolysis of scrap tires with oily wastes from ships (bilge water oil and oily sludge) was studied to investigate the effect of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire. Co-pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor in the absence and the presence of catalyst at 500 °C. The catalysts used in the pyrolysis were a commercial refinery catalyst and an industrial by-product containing iron. The fuel characteristics and chemical compositions of pyrolysis products were characterized by means of chromatographic, spectroscopic and standard ASTM methods. Although, the oily wastes did not affect the product yields from the pyrolysis of scrap tire, they improved the fuel characteristics of scrap tire derived oils. The fuel characteristics of co-pyrolysis oils (except flash point and sulfur content) had similar fuel characteristic with the commercial diesel. It was also found that the amounts of metal impurities in all pyrolytic oils were smaller than 0.3 ppm, which was a significantly low amount compared with those in the original oily wastes. Gross calorific values of pyrolysis gases were found to be in the range of 20.4–26.4 MJ Nm−3. It was concluded that co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes could be an environmentally friendly way for the conversion of disposable and hazardous wastes such as scrap tires, bilge water oil and oily sludge into fuels

  10. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in de...

  11. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming L.; James Gregory McDaniel; Qi Wang

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concep...

  12. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Jian Yang; Shizhou Ying

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influe...

  13. Hepatitis B markers in mothers and its transmission in newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the frequency of hepatitis B markers in pregnant females and estimate rate and potential risk factors for transmission to newborn. Place: Department of pediatrics and gynecology and obstetrics, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital, and Sobraj Maternity Home, Karachi. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and forty-five pregnant females admitted at term between September 1993 to April 1999 were screened for HbsAG and HbeAg using a rapid immuno chromatographic test (ICT), on whole blood. Venous blood samples were collected simultaneously from all these patients and every fifth specimen was analysed by ELISA method. Babies of mother with Hbs or Hbe Antigenemia were also tested at birth for both the antigens. The risk factors studied included maternal age, parity history of previous abortion, transfusion, operation, drug addiction and liver diseases in the family. Results: Eight out of 245 mothers tested (3.26%) were positive for HbsAg and one out of eight mothers (12.5%) positive for HbsAb and HbeAg by ICT method. Results of 52 samples re-tested by ELISA were comparable with ICT. All babies born to mother with HBV infection were negative for these markers. Increasing maternal age, number of pregnancies, repeated injections and addition emerged as significant risk factors. Conclusion: Vertical transmission in the early prenatal period is either minimum suggesting horizontal transmission in majority of children infected through mother or delayed sero-conversion in babies infected through prenatal route. This requires a prospective longitudinal study to measure the outcome. (author)

  14. Air-coupled ultrasonic NDE of automotive tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Du, Jikai; Lucas, Ian

    2005-05-01

    Evaluating the elastic properties of rubber is important for improving tire performance. Here, new ultrasonic techniques and results are reported for both soft rubber and real tire materials. First, on soft rubber, immersion C-Scan images revealed high attenuation and non-uniform grain size distribution. Through the application of new broadband, high power, high resolution transducers, air-coupled ultrasound succeeded in traveling through the soft rubber showing the efficiency of the new air coupled technique for imaging and evaluation of rubber materials. Secondly, sections of three tires were tested: (1) new, (2) 3 year-20,000 miles, (3) a 5 year-40,000 miles. Each tire section consists of three layers made of different rubber materials, separated by wire mesh. Because of the complexity of the tire"s structure and its high attenuation, evaluation of all three layers, but especially the middle layer, is difficult. High power tone-bursts at 1 MHz were applied to a high impedance immersion transducer. Layer reflections could be separated such that the middle layer and the wire belts at the interfaces could be interrogated. This report will detail our new techniques and provide examples for the results obtained.

  15. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  16. At-Risk Factors for the Adolescent Mother and Her Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Max

    1976-01-01

    The increased number of crises in adolescent pregnancies may be related to the adolescents' incomplete education and emotional development, ambivalence, unsettled life situation, and lack of experience. Complications include premature birth, giving up the baby for adoption, malnutrition, decreased stimulation, and divided mothering. (Author/MV)

  17. Model of Independency Mother in Caring for Preterm Infant Based on Experiential Learning Care (ELC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudah, Noer; Nursalam; Meriana; Sulistyono, Agus

    2015-01-01

    The role of parents has done less during the preterm infant care in hospitals caused dependence in caring for the baby. The objective of the research was to development a model of independence of the mother in the care of preterm infants with experiential learning approach based theory of goal attainment. Research's design used analytic…

  18. La madre dice: el dolor de mi bebé es mi dolor A mãe diz: a dor do meu bebê é a minha dor Mother Says: My Baby´s Pain is my Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA YOLANDA MUNÉVAR TORRES

    2010-10-01

    do mundo da mãe e os fatores da estrutura social que inclui a relação familiar influirão nos significados, expressões e modos de cuidar de seu filho com dor de acordo com seu entorno cultural. Conseqüentemente, o mundo do recém-nascido inclui a mãe e requer enfermagem e intervenção de cuidado para os dois, respeitando seus sentimentos, valores, crenças, costumes e práticas de cuidado natural.Objective: describe the mothers´ feelings and the social support they receive when their newborn is in pain. Methodology: short-scope qualitative study with ethnographic methodology. Twenty-two in depth interviews with 8 mothers, with an average between two and four each. The sample corresponded to the saturation of the information selected by relevance and adaptation; field notes and participant observations were used. Data were analyzed according to the James Spradley´s methodology. Results: the main topic was "The newborn´s pain is known, felt and relieved by mothers with family support". The first sub-topic (already published: "Mothers know and relief their newborn´s pain", and the second: "The mother feels her newborn´s pain and looks for support in her family"; comprises two domains: Concern, pain and love are maternal feelings in face of the newborn´s pain. The family and relatives are types of support to the mother. Conclusions: the newborn´s pain and the lack of awareness about the cause and the proper manner to relief the pain cause stress in the mother and strengthen the mother-child relation, as she believes to endure the same pain than her child´s, who demands protection and care as relief response, a priority action for their own feelings and needs. Hence, the mother wishes to be taken care of as a suffering human being. This requires relatives and people to give emotional support in the way of company and trust, and information whenever guidance, advice, or help in making decisions is needed taking into account the cultural context. These

  19. The Effect of Giving Information to Baby’s Mother about Breastfeeding in Kendari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk contains a variety of nutrients needed in the process of growth and development of infants. The nutritional value contained in breast milk is very high so it does not require any composition again from outside. Breast milk should be given in accordance with the will of the baby and mother. This study aimed to determine the effect of the information on the baby's mother to knowledge, attitudes, norms / culture, beliefs and actions of breastfeeding in Kendari. This study uses "quasy Experiment", ie pre-test and post-test with control group design. A sample of 80 women who were divided into four groups with the class of modification module while control class with KIA books, the group uses only modification module and the control group with KIA book. Questionnaire data collection of interviews and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test and Kruskal. The results showed that the change in practice breastfeeding and complementary feeding into a good deal on one group than the other group. Improvement score of knowledge, attitudes, norms, beliefs, breastfeeding, and solids in group 1 was higher than group 2, group 3 and group 4. The study concluded there are influence of giving information about breast milk against changes in knowledge (p = 0.000, attitude (p = 0.000, the norm (p = 0.000, confidence (p = 0.000, breastfeeding (p = 0.000. There is a difference of knowledge (p = 0.000, attitude (p = 0.001, confidence (p = 0.001, breastfeeding (p = 0.027 between groups, where the effectiveness of class baby`s mothers with a module modification is higher than the class of baby`s mothers with KIA book in changing the practice of breastfeeding.

  20. What is my Baby Like? Representations Concerning the Baby in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pedreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate if during the third trimester of pregnancy fantasies emerge in the baby representations based on the information that pregnant women have on their real babies through ultrasound techniques.MethodA qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on a sample of 30 pregnant Portuguese women, whose average age is 32 years old, was developed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-directive interview entitled "Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy – Revised Version" (IRMAG-R, Ammaniti & Tambelli, 2010 were employed.ResultsBaby representations are immersed in a fantasy dimension, which means that the imaginary baby is quite present in this phase of pregnancy. Pregnant women mainly attribute psychological characteristics to the babies, rather than physical characteristics. Regardless of the type of characteristics analysed, the preference for these characteristics emerges based on their wishes. Secondly, characteristics of the parents may also emerge. Fetal movements and information from ultrasound have no significant influence on the characterization of the baby.ConclusionDespite the development of ultrasound techniques, the imaginary baby defines parents representations about the baby on the third trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, a new understanding of how pregnant women experience the transition to the postnatal phase has to be considered.

  1. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

  2. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  3. Improving access to primary care for Aboriginal babies in Western Australia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAullay, Daniel; McAuley, Kimberley; Marriott, Rhonda; Pearson, Glenn; Jacoby, Peter; Ferguson, Chantal; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Sibosado, Selina; Henry, Barbara; Doherty, Dorota; Edmond, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a decade of substantial investments in programs to improve access to primary care for Aboriginal mothers and infants, more than 50 % of Western Australian Aboriginal babies are still not receiving primary and preventative care in the early months of life. Western Australian hospitals now input birth data into the Western Australian electronic clinical management system within 48 hours of birth. However, difficulties have arisen in ensuring that the appropriate primary care ...

  4. Pediatric Nurse\\s Educational Role in an International Task: Maternal Education Experience on 0-6 Month Baby Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Suluhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO, for the baby\\s optimal growth and development, recommends all mothers all over the world feeding infants only breast milk for the first six months, initiating of additional nutrients after the sixth month, and suggests the need to continue to breastfeed for the first two years. The pediatric nurse works for Head of the Turkish delegation at the disposal of the Kosovo for a period of six months has decided to make a priority about an education on feeding infants (0-6 months as a result of a meeting with local health professionals and mothers. It is aimed to improve the level of knowledge about breastfeeding techniques and importance of breastfeeding of the mothers who have a 0-6 month old baby in Kosovo Mamusa Family Health Center. Besides the tasks where I\\ve been doing as a representative of the Turkish Armed Forces in Kosovo, it is an exciting experience in such a personal and professional sense to identify needs of people, plan and implement an education. The health care team assigned to work in the international arena, served especially to keep abreast of the needs and problems of people and work to fulfill the task of interacting with them. It is suggested to make cooperation with the local health care team to identify the issues of health education needs, to make, maintain and evaluate the planned education. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 265-268

  5. A Pilot Study to Examine the Feasibility and Acceptability of Researching the Effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care on Low Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Alnajjar, Hend

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW) infants, and in response to problems of serious overcrowding in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). KMC essentially uses the mother as a natural incubator. According to this principle, L...

  6. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  7. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  8. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  9. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  10. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  11. Evaluation of wheelchair tire rolling resistance using dynamometer-based coast-down tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarciak, Andrew M; Yarossi, Mathew; Ramanujam, Arvind; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rolling resistance of four common manual wheelchair tires (two pneumatic and two airless solid) and the solid tires used on a commercially available force- and moment-sensing wheel. Coast-down tests were performed with a wheelchair positioned on a two-drum dynamometer. Within each of three load conditions, tire type had a significant effect on rolling resistance (p tires had smaller rolling resistances and were less affected by load increases than the solid tires. Within the two tire types, higher air pressure or firmness and lower profile tread corresponded to less rolling resistance. Wheelchair users, clinicians, and researchers must consider the effect of tire type on wheelchair rolling resistance when selecting a manual wheelchair tire. PMID:20104415

  12. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  13. Mum to mum : an evaluation of a community-based health promotion programme for first-time mothers in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hanrahan-Cahuzak, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the Dutch Mothers Inform Mothers (MIM) programme. In that programme a visiting mother meets with a first-time mother in her home on a monthly basis to discuss the caring and rearing of her infant. The first-time mothers went also to the well-baby clinics in their locality where they discussed topics in the areas of psychosocial, cognitive and physical development, language, play and safety. The programme lasted for 18 months.Aim/objectives To evaluate the MIM p...

  14. Implications of non-carcinogenic pah-free extender oils in natural rubber based tire compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Petchkaew, Anida

    2015-01-01

    The oils are generally added in the rubber compounds to improve processing properties, low temperature properties, dispersion of fillers, and to reduce cost. The conventionally widely used oils in tire compounds are Distillate Aromatic Extract (DAE) oils, which contain a high concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs that can be released from tires by tire wear are harmful to health and environment, so safe process oils are needed to replace aromatic oil in tire compounds...

  15. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    CERN Document Server

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as all currently known baby Skyrme models must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons whilst at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  16. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  17. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. PMID:24238304

  18. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  19. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  20. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  1. Mothers' Lifestyle Characteristics Impact on Her Neonates' Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Nath Das

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epidemiological research often seeks to identify a causal relationship between the risk factors and the disease. Earlier researches suggest that mother age, her weight at last menstrual period, race, the number of physician visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, may affect on her neonate birth weight. Mechanisms of mother lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are intricately complicated. These mechanisms, however, can be easily interpreted through an appropriate mathematical relationship. The present study aims to identify the factors of mother's lifestyle characteristics which have statistical significant effects on her neonate birth weight based on statistical (or probabilistic modeling. Materials and Methods: The present study is based on the secondary data collected at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts during 1986. It was a routine data set. There was not any specific setting. Study subjects were 189 mothers, 59 of which had low birth weight babies and 130 of which had normal birth weight babies. Joint generalized linear log-normal statistical modeling of mean and variance is used. Results: The present analysis identifies that mother age (p= 0.063, her weight at last menstrual period (p= 0.019, race (p= 0.017, p= 022, smoking status (p= 0.014, history of premature labor (p= 0.008, history of hypertension (p= 0.031, 0.039 and presence of uterine irritability (p= 0.002 are statistically significant on her neonate birth weight. It has been detected that the variance of neonatal birth weight is non-constant, which invites the present study. Conclusion: Impacts of mother's lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are explained based on mathematical relationships. This analysis supports many earlier research findings. However, the present analysis also has identified many additional casual factors that have explained the mean and variance of neonatal birth weight, which was not reported by the

  2. Aulice to Build 1,200,000 Units/Y All- steel Tires Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zao

    2012-01-01

    To adapt to the rapid development of automobile industry and to meet the market demand on high- performance tires, upon investigation, Hubei Aulice Tire Co., Ltd. intends to build all-steel radial tire production project with the output of 1,200,000 units per year.

  3. One baby in six a foreigner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Foreign workers are a growing phenomenom in the Federal Republic of Germany. Every 6th baby born in the country is of foreign extract, and considering the adverse circumstances of many foreigners in the country, the timing of the baby's birth is probably unplanned. PRO Familia is a family planning organization concerned with the plight of foreigners in the country. Although the organization's activities in this field have been limited to foreign language pulbications (concerning contraceptive methods) and radio broadcasting, it is making concerted efforts to include foreigners in their family planning services. PMID:12178327

  4. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  5. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... youth volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are ... formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle- ...

  6. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  7. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  8. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief ...

  9. Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158486.html Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost Small ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can listening to music boost your baby's brainpower? Maybe, at least in ...

  10. Go4Life: Fitness for Baby Boomers On Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Go4Life Go4Life: Fitness for Baby Boomers On Up Past Issues / Spring ... Inner Harbor. Photo: Exercise is Medicine The Go4Life Fitness Campaign for baby boomers and other older adults ...

  11. When your baby or infant has a fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000319.htm When your baby or infant has a fever To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. The first fever a baby or infant has is often scary for parents. Most fevers are ...

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities ... to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need ...

  13. When Your Baby Is Born with a Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken directly to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for further treatment. The obstetrics (OB) team will ... medical team caring for your baby in the NICU to communicate with you about your baby's condition. ...

  14. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her ...

  15. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feeding your baby Feeding your baby Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  16. Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158486.html Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost Small ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can listening to music boost your baby's brainpower? Maybe, at least in ...

  17. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  18. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  19. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one ... or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one ...

  20. It Is Important to Have Your Baby's Hearing Screened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness It's Important to Have Your Baby's Hearing Screened On ... your baby is 6 months old. Why is it important to have my baby’s hearing screened early? ...

  1. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... you can make a difference and let your friends know you are helping end premature birth. Become ...

  2. Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Home For ... Grows During Pregnancy FAQ156, June 2015 PDF Format Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How ...

  3. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... share stories Become inspired by stories from the families at the heart of our mission or share ...

  4. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... causes of premature birth and ways to prevent it. You can help . Close X Home > Baby > Feeding ...

  5. Perceived and performed infant care competence of younger and older adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, M Loretta; Ateah, Christine; Woodgate, Roberta; Moffatt, Michael E K

    2002-01-01

    The investigators examined differences in perceived and performed infant care competence for younger (less than 17 years of age) and older (17 to 19 years of age) adolescent mothers. Associations were tested between perceived infant care competence measured at several time points and performed mothering at 12 to 18 months infant age. A convenience sample of 78 adolescent mothers was recruited from two major teaching hospitals in Winnipeg, Canada. The Infant Care Questionnaire (ICQ), a self-report measure of infant care ability, was completed during the 3rd trimester and the 1st and 4th postnatal weeks. Performed mothering was assessed with Caldwell's HOME scale administered in the adolescent mother's home when the infant was 12 to 18 months old. Significant increases in competence perceptions over time were demonstrated for both ICQ subscales, the Mom&Baby, F(2, 47) = 22.73, p = 0.000, and Emotionality, F(2, 47) = 43.16, p = 0.000. This increase in infant care competence mirrors the maternal role competence trajectory reported in studies with older mothers. While no significant age group differences were found for Mom&Baby or Emotionality, older adolescent mothers were rated significantly higher on one of the HOME subscales, Variety in Daily Stimulation, t(n = 45), = 2.12, p =.04, and a second approached significance, Responsiveness, t(n = 45) = 1.86, p =.07. Pearson correlations between the Mom&Baby and Emotionality and the HOME subscales, Responsiveness and Environment, ranged between -0.30 and -0.37. Future research is required to further explain the negative correlations between perceived and performed infant care competence, establish clinical validity of self-report methods with adolescent mothers, and assess the influence of social, cultural, and economic factors not considered in this study. PMID:12060517

  6. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  7. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoje Chukwuemeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80% babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3 at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5 when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1 whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1. Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19 more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58. A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25% were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7% were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67% could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with

  8. Relationship of Characteristics of Baby’s Mother with the Low Birth Weight in Regional General Hospital in Sorong

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Naa; Rantetampang, A. L; Bernard Sandjaja

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate of low birth weight is part of a reflection of the public health status. Low birth weight babies are born with birth weight less than 2,500 grams regardless of pregnancy. The aim of research to determine the relationship characteristic of mothers of infants with LBW. This type of research is observational analytic with cross sectional design. Collecting data through observation sheet on record medic mothers who gave birth in hospitals 2014, in Sorong, West Papua Province in...

  9. Mothers and children nutritional status and food habits in the city of Vientiane as related to the level of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Bénéfice, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Vientiane city is experiencing rapid urban and economic growth. How these changes are impacting on the nutritional status and health of mother and babies? In order to answer these questions a nutritional study was set up in 2007. Material and methods A repeated measurement design was chosen, beginning in 2007 and finishing in December 2009. A sample of 160 young mothers, who had given birth in 2007 and belonging to 3 different urban strata of the city, was enrolled. Women completed ...

  10. Peer education is a feasible method of disseminating information related to child nutrition and feeding between new mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether peer education based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour is a feasible method to share and disseminate nutrition and feeding information between mothers of babies and toddlers. Methods The Peer Educator Nutrition Training (PeerENT) study was a feasibility study. Participants were recruited from an existing cohort of mothers of six month to two year olds. An online survey tool was used to collect and collate data, which was then analysed using STATA statis...

  11. Body Composition Is Normal in Term Infants Born to Mothers With Well-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Cheryl P.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA1c ...

  12. Parents’ expectations of staff in the early bonding process with their premature babies in the intensive care setting: a qualitative multicenter study with 60 parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Sonia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first weeks of hospitalization, premature babies and their parents encounter difficulties in establishing early bonds and interactions. Only a few studies have explored what caregivers can do to meet parents' needs in relation to these interactions and help optimize them. This study sought to explore parents' perception of these first interactions and to identify the actions of caregivers that help or hinder its development. Methods Prospective study, qualitative discourse analysis of 60 face-to-face interviews conducted with 30 mothers and 30 fathers of infants born before 32 weeks of gestation (mean ± SD: 27 ± 2 weeks of gestational age, during their child's stay in one out of three NICUs in France. Interviews explored parental experience, from before birth up to the first month of life. Results Data analysis uncovered two main themes, which were independent of parents' geographical or cultural origin but differed between mothers and fathers. First, fathers described the bond with their child as composed more of words and looks and involving distance, while mothers experienced the bond more physically. Secondly, two aspects of the caregivers' influence were decisive: nurses' caring attitude towards baby and parents, and their communication with parents, which reduced stress and made interactions with the baby possible. This communication appeared to be the locus of a supportive and fulfilling encounter between parents and caregivers that reinforced parents' perception of a developing bond. Conclusions At birth and during the first weeks in the NICU, the creation of a bond between mothers and fathers and their premature baby is rooted in their relationship with the caregivers. Nurses' caring attitude and regular communication adapted to specific needs are perceived by parents as necessary preconditions for parents' interaction and development of a bond with their baby. These results might allow NICU staff to

  13. Parents’ expectations of staff in the early bonding process with their premature babies in the intensive care setting: a qualitative multicenter study with 60 parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the first weeks of hospitalization, premature babies and their parents encounter difficulties in establishing early bonds and interactions. Only a few studies have explored what caregivers can do to meet parents' needs in relation to these interactions and help optimize them. This study sought to explore parents' perception of these first interactions and to identify the actions of caregivers that help or hinder its development. Methods Prospective study, qualitative discourse analysis of 60 face-to-face interviews conducted with 30 mothers and 30 fathers of infants born before 32 weeks of gestation (mean ± SD: 27 ± 2 weeks of gestational age), during their child's stay in one out of three NICUs in France. Interviews explored parental experience, from before birth up to the first month of life. Results Data analysis uncovered two main themes, which were independent of parents' geographical or cultural origin but differed between mothers and fathers. First, fathers described the bond with their child as composed more of words and looks and involving distance, while mothers experienced the bond more physically. Secondly, two aspects of the caregivers' influence were decisive: nurses' caring attitude towards baby and parents, and their communication with parents, which reduced stress and made interactions with the baby possible. This communication appeared to be the locus of a supportive and fulfilling encounter between parents and caregivers that reinforced parents' perception of a developing bond. Conclusions At birth and during the first weeks in the NICU, the creation of a bond between mothers and fathers and their premature baby is rooted in their relationship with the caregivers. Nurses' caring attitude and regular communication adapted to specific needs are perceived by parents as necessary preconditions for parents' interaction and development of a bond with their baby. These results might allow NICU staff to provide better support to

  14. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  15. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato Ortega, Belén

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550 °C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C5–C24 compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼43 MJ kg−1) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuel...

  16. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  17. Who safeguards mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sara

    2014-11-01

    While routine screening for group B streptococcus is not recommended in the UK, women are sometimes coincidentally found to be carrying these bacteria during investigations of symptoms in pregnancy. If such women decide to decline intravenous antibiotics for themselves in labour, they can seek support from midwives in appropriate roles. But once the woman's baby is born, the situation changes somewhat, as the legal context changes and the issue of safeguarding may be raised. This article considers the issues that arise in such scenarios and raises questions about who is there to support women who experience pressure to consent to their healthy newborn baby having prophylactic intravenous antibiotics. PMID:25582006

  18. Now That's a Good Baby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Goodbabys children's products have made their way into 400 million homes around the world. Forbes Magazine says that the company holds one third of the stroller market in the U.S., and more than half of its marjkets for kids' bicycles, baby chairs, play pens. cradles.and other children's products.

  19. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  20. Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)

  1. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.

  2. Programs for Babies in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatow, Kathleen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines programs for babies, i.e., children under two years of age, that are offered by public libraries. Highlights include separate storytimes; inclusion in family or older children's storytimes; welcome packets for parents of newborns; and the benefits of bringing children and parents into the library. (LRW)

  3. Me? Have Another Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  4. Me? Have a Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  5. Depression and Neglect of a Girl Child Due to Baby Boy Pressure of the Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a condition of a major depressed mother who had three daughters and evidently neglect her daughters because of the pressure by the society and her relatives is presented. Our case is a 28-years old housewife with secondary school degree. She was admitted to our clinic with the symptoms of anhedonia, fatigue, unwillingness, crying and suicidal thoughts. She was hospitalized to psychiatric service with diagnosis of major depression because of the obvious symptoms of suicidal plans and motor retardation. It was understood that the last depression episode was experienced by her two years ago when she learned her child's sex form the gynecologist during her pregnancy. She stated that her husband's family wanted baby boy and blamed herself because she had failed to do so. Then, she started to neglect her girls after that time. She also stated that her care was reduced during her pregnancy and even she started to dress her children finer at cold weather and did not cover them at cold nights and did not give their medications to make them more and more ill. Also, said and ldquo;I wish my daughters die and I have a baby boy and rdquo;. Sex discrimination reduces the care that should be shown to girls. Our case wanted to harm her children because of the sex discrimination and ignored her daughters with the hope of having a baby boy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 79-83

  6. Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time%Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Augu'st 28, "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Market Conference was held by Double Coin Group (Anhui) Warrior Tires Co., Ltd. in Shanghai with a subject of " Wonderful Combination to Start the Fu- ture". Warrior tires came into the market, which changed the pattern of the Chinese medium and high-end passenger car tire market dominated by foreign brands, mark- ing the beginning of the national brand to stand on the international medium and high-end passenger car tire market.

  7. Supporting breastfeeding mothers on children's wards: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narramore, Naomi

    2007-02-01

    Just under half of all six-week-old babies in the U.K. are breastfed, and just under a quarter are still being breastfed at six months old so it is likely that children's nurses will frequently encounter breastfed babies on children's wards. Support for breastfeeding has traditionally been left to midwives but Department of Health guidance requires that all relevant staff have training in this practice. Children's nurses need to understand the principles and practice of breastfeeding support including correct positioning and attachment, prevention and management of breastfeeding problems, mothers' needs and safe use of breast pumps. Breastfeeding should be part of the curriculum for children's nursing courses, including practical sessions to observe breastfeeding support in the clinical setting. Children's nurses should be aware that literature and learning resources written for midwives might be appropriate for them to access to increase their understanding in this important area of practice. PMID:17326552

  8. Some origins of the 'difficult' child: the Brazelton scale and the mother's view of her new-born's character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, R; Penman, R; Milgrom-Friedman, J; Baker, K

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-two mothers and their new-born babies were studied in order to consider, in a limited way, the manner in which a mother comes to attribute personality traits to her infant. The child's expected 'difficulty' was rated by means of a standardized inventory. In addition, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the mother, and her baby was examined by means which have been described by Brazelton. The circumstances of birth were taken from hospital records. Mothers who did not expect the child to be difficult showed a 'general flexibility' which probably related to coping ability. Babies who were seen as unlikely to be difficult had high scores on 'state control' and 'physiological response to stress'. These measures include ratings for habituation and seem to reflect an efficient means of dealing with stimuli. These infantile factors did not correlate with the maternal one, suggesting that a genetic explanation of the findings was not likely. The effect of the circumstances of birth was not strong, but medication level seemed important. The transcripts of the mothers' interviews were consistent with the view that the mother's assessment of her infant's character was not only influenced by a fine observation of the infant's behaviour but also by something like 'projective identification'. The transcripts also suggested that mechanisms which have been seen as important in the development of identity in adolescence may be operating from the first days of life. PMID:7059536

  9. Harlequin Infant Born to a Varicella Infected Mother: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Meyyappa Devan; Ch Toi, Pampa; Plakkal, Nishad; Ayyanar, Pavithra

    2015-01-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis is a rare, severe form of congenital ichthyosis characterised by distinct physical appearance of the infant. It has occurrence of 1 in 1 million births and over 100 cases have been reported so far. It is caused by mutation in ABCA12 gene involved in lipid transport leading to profound thickening of stratum corneum. The mainstay of management relies on supportive care & administration of retinoid derivatives. Outcome is usually fatal and most of the babies die during neonatal period. In this article, we report a case of harlequin baby born of non-consanguineous marriage with history of chicken pox in the mother during first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26083791

  10. Advanced Analytical/Physics Tools to Characterize Tire Materials and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerspacher, Michel

    2001-10-01

    Tires are assembled with common materials like polymers, fillers, reinforcing fibers and various chemicals which are used to cure the rubber compound, and also, to protect the finished tire from oxydative degradation. This is certainly more related to chemistry than to physics. Nevertheless, a finished tire on the road is becoming a fascinating object of physics if one wants to understand its behavior. Indeed, it is its viscoelastic nature which confers to the tire its unique capabilities. The lecture will be centered on the usage of physical methods, not only to study the visco- elasticity of the composite, but also the nature of the interactions between the materials composing the tires. It will be shown that the usage of physics has tremendously helped to better understand the tire and also participated in developing new generations of tires.

  11. A novel wireless piezoelectric tire sensor for the estimation of slip angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a simple approach for the analysis of tire deformation and proposes a new piezoelectric tire sensor for physically meaningful measurements of tire deformations. Tire deformation measurements in the contact patch can be used for the estimation of slip angle, tire forces, slip ratio and tire–road friction coefficient. The specific case of a wireless tire deformation sensor for the estimation of slip angle is taken up in this paper. A sensor in which lateral sidewall deformation can be decoupled from radial deformation is designed. The slope of the lateral deflection curve in the contact patch is used to calculate slip angle. A specially constructed tire test rig is used to experimentally evaluate the performance of the developed sensor. Results show that the developed sensor can accurately estimate slip angles up to values of 5°

  12. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  13. Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year%Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDing; Yan Ding

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Russian JSC Cordiant published an analysis report on Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012. In this report, the gross sales volume of all kinds of tires in Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012 were 30.6 million u- nits calculated by substance and RUB 130.9 billion calculated by currency, which increased by 19% and 21% compared with that of the same period of last year respectively. See Table 1 and Table 2 for the gross sales volume changes in Russian auto tire market calculated by substance and currency re- spectively.

  14. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar sharma

    2014-01-01

    NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1). The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2). Baby have initial symptom...

  15. Why are babies born before arrival at health facilities in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka A. Alabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Babies born before arrival at a health facility have a higher risk of neonatal death and their mothers a higher risk of maternal death compared with those born in-facility. The study explored the reasons for mothers giving birth before arrival (BBA at health facilities and their experiences of BBA.Methods: A qualitative research design was used. Individual and focus group interviews of BBA mothers and of nurses were undertaken at a community health centre and a district hospital in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality.Results: Reasons for BBA included a lack of transport, a lack of security at night that deterred mothers from travelling, precipitate labour, failure to identify true labour, and a lack of waiting areas at health facilities. Traditional and cultural beliefs favouring childbirth at homeand nurses’ negative attitudes during antenatal care and labour influenced mothers to go to health facilities when in advanced labour. Mothers were aware of possible complications associated with BBA.Conclusion: Socio-economic, individual, cultural and health system factors influence the occurrence of BBA. Relevant parties need to address these factors to ensure that all babies in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality are delivered within designated health facilities.

  16. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N;

    2013-01-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different...... provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother...... breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up....

  17. Childcare Choices and Voices: Using Interpreted Narratives and Thematic Meaning-Making to Analyse Mothers' Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools Meryl

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology of a study that asked what factors English mothers of very young babies consider when making employment decisions and childcare choices, and sought their views on the idea of carers in day care settings "loving" their children. After a characterisation of life historical study, a four-staged process…

  18. Will the "Good" [Working] Mother Please Stand Up? Professional and Maternal Concerns about Education, Care and Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to understand the factors that women are likely to take into consideration when making employment decisions and childcare choices while their babies are young, and to identify their choices, beliefs and dilemmas: the focus is on the experiences of working mothers in England. These choices are problematised in the…

  19. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  20. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  1. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229... in width. (c) A broken rim, if the tread, measured from the flange at a point five-eighths inch above... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  2. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  3. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  4. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Confidential Business... 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and concluded that no additional consultation with States, local... Tire Quality Grading Standards AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  5. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  6. Universal and targeted early home visiting: perspectives of public health nurses, managers and mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Aston

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Early home visits provided by public health nurses (PHNs around the world have been proven to positively impact physical, social, emotional and mental health outcomes of mothers and babies. Most of the research has focused on home visiting programs delivered by public health nurses and lay home visitors to support at risk or targeted mothers. Little research has been conducted to examine universal home visiting programs for mothers who are perceived to be lower-risk. The purpose of this research was to explore how universal and targeted early home visiting programs for mothers and babies were organized, delivered and experienced through the everyday practices of PHNs, mothers, and managers in one city in Atlantic Canada. Feminist post-structuralism was used to collect and analyze data through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 16 PHNs, 16 mothers and 4 managers. Personal, social and institutional discourses of program delivery were examined using discourse analysis. Four main themes of the study include: i understanding targeted and universal programming; ii health outcomes; iii building relationships; and iv exploring a new surveillance. This article will discuss the first theme; understanding targeted and universal programming.

  7. Group of mothers of hospitalized premature newborns: experience of Occupational Therapy intervention in hospital context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalization of newborns implies fragility for the infants and their families, because they are exposed to the stress and tensions of this delicate moment. The support offered to the family, especially to mothers of hospitalized infants, may reflect in the future care provided to these children, strengthening the bond and creating a favorable environment for their healthy evelopment. The objective of this study is to report the experience of occupational therapy in a group of mothers of hospitalized neonates. The aim of this activity was to provide information and guidance on the care and interaction of these mothers with their hospitalized babies. This practice was developed through an Extension Project in Occupational Therapy carried out in a hospital of a countryside city of the state of São Paulo. The Group of Mothers was joined weekly, and dynamics of artisanal, plastic and artistic activities were offered based on the demands observed or reported verbally by the mothers in meetings at the baby nursery before the group was joined. As a result of these group meetings, improvement of the emotional condition of the mothers was observed in the day they participated in the group. We believe that this project can not only facilitate the access to information and guidance to this population, but also minimize the stress experienced by families in the hospital context, which is strange and adverse to a natural birth condition.

  8. Mothers without Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    A national survey of 517 mothers without custody of at least one child revealed a great range in their reactions to their nontraditional role. Although many mothers reported feeling guilty and uncomfortable, a significant number felt well adjusted, and these two groups are contrasted. Offers practice implications for social workers. (Author)

  9. Single Mother's Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  10. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child. PMID:26474475

  11. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  12. BREASTFEEDING AND CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING UNDER 5 CLINIC OF A GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding and contraception are important determinants of child mortality and morbidity. These practices vary in different communities due to different socio-cultural factors. Breast feeding practices influences health of the child and incidence of infections. OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the socio demographic characteristics among mothers attending under 5 clinic. 2. To determine the breast feeding practices among mothers. 3. To determine the association between ARI and ADD with breastfeeding. 4. To determine the contraceptive practices among the mother. METHODOLOGY: This Cross-sectional study was conducted at a government tertiary care teaching hospital, Karnataka for a period of 6 months. The data was collected from the mothers by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire in the local language (Kannada. RESULTS: Of the total 2932 mothers, 46.1% mothers had breast-fed their babies within one hour of delivery, 9.2% had given pre-lacteal feeds and colostrum was not fed to 7.9% of the babies. The difference in the incidence of ARI and ADD between the children who were exclusively breastfeed and the children who were not exclusively breastfed was significant. Contraception was practices by 10.8% of the mothers. CONCLUSION: The immunization clinic offers an opportunity to enquire the mother about the breast feeding practices and advise about the importance of exclusive breast feeding. It also provides an opportunity for questioning and offering advice about contraception.

  13. Patterns of depression among adolescent mothers: Resilience related to father support and home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Kotake, Chie; Raskin, Maryna; Bumgarner, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of maternal depression are a major public health concern, both for mothers and for their children. Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescent mothers, little is known about the patterns of adolescent mothers' depression in the early parenting years. The present study examined mothers' depression during the first 2 years following childbirth in a sample of 428 young mothers (20 or younger at first childbirth) who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting parenting support program. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Mothers were classified into groups based on whether their depressive symptoms were below or above the cutoff for clinically significant symptomatology. Depression groups (stable nondepressed, stable depressed, remitted depression) were associated with variations in mothers' satisfaction with support from the baby's father and enrollment in the home visiting program. Maternal depression was more likely to remit when mothers were satisfied with father support; assignment to the home visiting program was associated with mothers remaining mentally healthy. Results have clinical and policy implications for prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26460697

  14. Development and applicability estimation of the tire contact pressure measurement system; Tire secchiatsukei no kaihatsu to oyosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Y.; Amago, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuma, S.; Mori, N. [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Aichi (Japan); Nagae, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Yasuoka, M. [Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    A pressure sensor more reliable than the conventional types and a tire pressure measurement system using a plurality of sensors of the said reliable type have been developed. The sensor is an inverted T in shape, the upper surface of the vertical beam thereof receives the pressure, and the two ends of the horizontal beam are fixed. The load per unit area imposed on the pressure receiving surface is separated into three components, the X and Y components in the tangential direction are sensed by the vertical beam while the Z component in the vertical direction is sensed by a distortion gauge attached to the horizontal beam. For the measurement of the contact pressure distribution for the entire contact surface, a measuring device was developed, comprising a multiple point contact pressure gauge with 30 sensors of the reliable type discussed here embedded therein, a tire rolling tester, and a data processing unit. A tire wear estimation test was conducted using this pressure sensor and a contact probe type slip sensor, and it was found that a tire of a greater friction energy ratio is easier to experience abnormal abrasion and that the new pressure sensor is useful in estimating abnormal abrasion. Further, it was indicated that the present measuring device is applicable to the analysis of the mechanism wherein shaft force results from contact pressure on the soil. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  16. Cooling system for baby EBM scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat exchange of the scanning window of baby EBM is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of the window material structure. As the titanium foil which was used as the scanning window, the maximum temperature accepted for the foil should be 200 degree C. This paper will discuss a simple method of Bernoulli principle to obtain the correct air blower capacity in order to reduce the heat of the scanning window of Baby EBM. It was found that the required air pressure and air speed of the blower are 2613.6 Pascal and 237.6 m3/h respectively for the electron accelerator of 0.14 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current. (Author)

  17. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  18. Marketingová podpora produktu Baby Well.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahradníková, Adéla

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines a form of marketing communication, which is referred to as bellow-the-line (BTL). It's arranged chronologically according to the individual steps, which were taken in the course of the project. It observes the environment of an advertisement agency, which has the task of implementing a sales promotion for PG Corporation. This is client who functions in the children segment of the market with their brand Baby Well. Thus in the first part is a brief introduction of...

  19. Baby Corn Business under Contract Farming System.

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpimol Tongthammachat; Visit Limsombunchai

    2008-01-01

    This study compares costs and returns between contract and non-contract farmers on baby corn production and to compares a company’s procurement costs through contract versus non-contract (open market) channels. A survey of 60 farmers in Kanchanaburi and Nakornpathom was conduced for the data of crop year 2005/2006 using questionnaires. The results indicated that the socio-economic situations, problems, and obstacles of both groups were not different. The comparisons of costs and returns betwe...

  20. Preparing kids for the new baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, G B; Robinson, P

    1998-03-01

    Sibling prenatal classes are a natural extension of nursing's interest and expertise in childbirth preparation for expectant couples. From parents' perspective, these classes have the potential to decrease sibling rivalry and facilitate parental coping with older children's concerns about a new baby. From a nurse educator's perspective, sibling prenatal classes offer a rich learning experience for students by providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge about pregnancy and birth with communication skills and child development knowledge. PMID:9633319