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  1. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  2. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedermann Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers

  3. Association between Michelin tire baby syndrome and congenital panhyopituitarism in an Iranian girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Leila; Ghavami, Fakhredin

    2014-08-01

    Michelin tire baby syndrome is a rare syndrome, diagnosed clinically by multiple circumferential skin folds. Multiple noncutaneous anomalies have been described with this syndrome. We report a case of Michelin tire baby syndrome with congenital panhypopituitarism. To date, there is no report of association between these two disorders.

  4. Mothers' use of and attitudes to BabyCheck.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Hilary; Ross, Sue; Wilson, Philip; McConnachie, Alex; Watson, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A copy of BabyCheck was sent to 497 mothers shortly after the birth of their baby. Six months later they were sent a questionnaire asking about their use of and attitudes to, BabyCheck. Questionnaires were returned by 323 (65%) mothers; 215 (67%) of them reported reading BabyCheck, the majority found it easy to understand (74%) and agreed with the advice (67%). Eighty-four (26%) of the mothers who returned the questionnaires reported using BabyCheck when their baby was ill; of these, 71% agre...

  5. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  6. Generalized smooth muscle hamartoma with multiple congenital anomalies without the "Michelin tire baby" phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Elise C; Nazareth, Michael R; Rothman, Ilene L

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with generalized smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with many of the variety of congenital anomalies that have been reported in babies with multiple symmetric circumferential rings of folded skin known as Michelin tire baby (MTB) syndrome, but our patient did not show the MTB phenotype. This constellation of findings in the absence of the MTB phenotype has not been previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  8. A Rare Case of Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome in a Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, Kamleshun; Mejias, Stephanie G; Ramphul-Sicharam, Yogeshwaree

    2018-02-24

    Kunze-Riehm syndrome also known as Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS) is a rare genetic condition with a characteristic generalized folding of excess skin. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical symptoms. There are approximately only 30 cases reported in the literature and some cases were associated with non-cutaneous anomalies as well. Herein, we report a case of MTBS in a five-day-old male of Iraqi origin.

  9. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

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    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…

  10. Circumferential skin folds in a child: A case of Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palit Aparna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-month-old girl who presented with dermatitis was found to have multiple, symmetric, deep, gyrate skin folds involving her trunk and similar circumferential lesions on her extremities since birth. She had a characteristic round face with hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, thin, down-turned vermillion border of upper lip and short neck. Skin biopsy demonstrated increased smooth muscle fibers in the deeper dermis. A diagnosis of Michelin tire baby syndrome was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  11. A novel neonatal Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome with craniosynostosis and gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Akalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder and characterized clinically well defined multiple ring shaped skin creases. Our patient was born to onconsanguineous healthy parents as the third child of the family at 40 weeks of uneventful gestation with distinctive skin creases and gigantism. He was 4,950 g in weight (>90 percentile, 57.5 cm in length (>90 percentile, and had a head circumferences of 39.5 cm (>90 percentile at birth. The physical examination showed a rough face, brachicephaly and craniosynostosis. His vital and laboratory findings were within normal limits at birth. Cranial and renal ultrasonograms, Xray graphics and cytogenetic analyses were normal. Echocardiography revealed small patent ductus arteriosis and patent foramen ovale. In this report, we present a new case of Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome who is the first neonate associated with severe gigantism and craniosynostosis, in the literature. A review of the related literature has also been presented.

  12. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    measure heat from the casing. Tread surface temperature. Tread (surface) infrared temperature can be inconsistent since the measurements are...have any adverse effect on rubber products. b. Avoid areas that are wet, humid, oily, greasy, or in direct sunlight. Do not store tires in the...used, from sticking to the tire. Do not let soapstone accumulate in the tire. Inspect and clean the tire beads to remove corrosion or residual rubber

  13. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  15. Tire

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    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  16. Teenage pregnancy: a psychopathological risk for mothers and babies?

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    Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.

  17. Mindful with Your Baby : Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effects of a Mindful Parenting Group Training for Mothers and Their Babies in a Mental Health Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Aktar, E.; Rexwinkel, M.; Rigterink, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many mothers experience difficulties after the birth of a baby. Mindful parenting may have benefits for mothers and babies, because it can help mothers regulate stress, and be more attentive towards themselves and their babies, which may have positive effects on their responsivity. This study

  18. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Modiba

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  19. Using baby books to increase new mothers' safety practices.

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    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers' safety practices during their child's first 18 months. Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational book group, a noneducational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their children were 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (- 20% risk reduction; effect size = -.30). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (eg, putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book group (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or noneducational book group (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money, or hassle (eg, installing latches on cabinets). Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low-cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, or hassle. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  1. Michelin tire baby syndrome: a review of the literature and a proposal for diagnostic criteria with adoption of the name circumferential skin folds syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Ilene L

    2014-01-01

    The term Michelin tire baby (MTB), named for the cartoon mascot of the Michelin Tire Company, has been used to describe babies with multiple symmetric circumferential rings of folded skin. In those reported with this phenotype who had skin biopsies, pathology has shown nevus lipomatosis, smooth muscle hamartoma, degenerative collagen, and scarring. Others did not undergo biopsy or had normal skin. Many individuals with the MTB phenotype have had a variety of other congenital anomalies. I review the literature on MTB and the history of the designation Michelin tire baby Syndrome (MTBS). Because the term MTBS has been poorly defined or not defined at all, I propose strict criteria for diagnosis. In doing so, it is recommended that the syndrome be renamed to avoid further confusion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davim, Rejane Marie Barbosa; Enders, Bertha Cruz; da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.

  3. Statistical modeling of the mother-baby system in newborn infants with cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model could consider the influence of specific maternal psychoemotional and personality factors on a newborn with cerebral ischemia and develop a procedure to prevent negative consequences of postpartum depression in the mother-baby system.

  4. Reflections on a Time-Limited Mother-Baby Yoga Program at the Wee Ones Nursery

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    Pickholtz, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    This brief article discusses a yoga program offered to mothers and babies who were participating in a prison nursery. The author describes the goals and the sometimes unexpected effects of the program.

  5. #6: No Separation of Mother and Baby with Unlimited Opportunity for Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette, Crenshaw; Klaus, Phyllis H.; Klaus, Marshall H.

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the value of keeping mothers and their babies together from the moment of birth is discussed and presented as an evidenced-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. Babies held skin-to-skin with their mothers cry less often, breathe easier, and stay warmer than babies who are sepa...

  6. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  7. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  8. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  9. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  10. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  11. Preventing Perinatal Depression through Home Visiting: The Mothers and Babies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Deborah F.; Tandon, S. Darius; Edwards, Karen; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting (HV) programs serve women at high risk for developing postpartum depression because of factors such as poverty and low social support. Depression poses serious threats not only to mother-child attachment and healthy infant development but also to women's ability to engage with HV services and supports. The Mothers and Babies (MB)…

  12. Investigation and analysis of eight indicators about hepatitis B in 360 pairs of mother and baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Nian

    2004-01-01

    To explore the infectivity of predelivery women with different modes of hepatitis B virus infections to their fetuses, eight indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBcAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg, anti-HBe, PHSA-R and anti-HBc-IgM) in serum of mother and umbilical cord blood of baby were detected. By matched pairs the result s showed that there were 170 mothers whose serum was positive for more than one indicator. The positive rate was 47.2% altogether. 15 infections modes appeared. There were 18 mothers whose serum was positive for HBsAg. Of their baby, there were 16 whose umbilical card blood was positive for HBsAg. From mother to baby, the infection rate was 88.8%(16/18). There were two babies whose umbilical cord blood was positive for HBsAg, but the serum of their mother was only positive for anti-HBc. There was one case, the umbilical cord blood of baby was positive for HBsAg, but the serum of his mother was all negative for these eight indicators. (author)

  13. Factors associated with breastfeeding intent among mothers of newborn babies in Da Nang, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Thi Kim; Tran, Hoang Thi; Thai, Thuy Thi Thanh; Foster, Kirsty; Roberts, Christine L; Marais, Ben J

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recognized as the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have explored perceived barriers to breastfeeding and factors associated with breastfeeding intent among mothers of newborn babies in Viet Nam. We conducted a study to assess breastfeeding initiation rates, intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more and perceived barriers to breastfeed among mothers of newborn babies in Da Nang, Viet Nam. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of mothers in the postnatal wards of Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children in central Viet Nam from 10 February 2017 to 24 February 2017, following implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) package. Of 286 mothers surveyed, 259 (90.6%) initiated breastfeeding; 203/258 (78.7%) within 1 hour (h) of birth. Most (207, 72.4%) mothers indicated intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more, but this was lower among mothers of preterm babies (82.2% versus 20.0%, p  < 0.001) and those without post-secondary school education (74.8% versus 55.6%, p  = 0.02). Amongst mothers struggling to establish breastfeeding, 18/27 (66.7%) had a Cesarean section. Planned non-exclusive breastfeeding was mostly (39, 60.9%) motivated by mothers' concern that their milk supply would be insufficient for their baby's growth requirements. Most mothers had good knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding and indicated strong decision autonomy. We documented high rates of early breastfeeding establishment and intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more. This probably reflects high levels of maternal education and successful implementation of the WHO ENC package. Mothers of premature babies may benefit from additional support.

  14. Changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Tania

    2017-11-01

    this paper explores changing messages about place of birth offered to women by Mother and Baby magazine, a UK publication aimed at a general readership DESIGN: the research uses an historical perspective to explore changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956-1992. It analyses the content and medium of the magazine through a narrative and semiotic approach. the UK between the mid-1950s and 1990s. The period was a time of significant change in the maternity services, at both a philosophical and organisational level with a move towards hospital rather than home birth and a dominant discourse which privileged medical models of care over social ones. producers and consumers of Mother and Baby magazine FINDINGS: Mother and Baby moved from an assumption of home birth to a focus on hospital birth, reflecting national changes in policy. The magazine moved from a social to a risk focused medical view of birth, with an emphasis on the safety of the baby and the sacrifice of the mother. These changes can be traced through both the organisation and the language of content between 1956 and 1992. However, home birth was always offered to readers as a viable, if increasingly niche, option. This reflected the magazine's need to appeal to its readers as consumers; both in consumption of the magazine and of maternity care. the evidence suggests that Mother and Baby magazine mirrored elements of the prevailing policy discourse around place of birth. However, it always gave space to other narratives. In doing so it reminds us of the complexity about how messages about labour and birth are told and received. It gives insight into ways in which the media lead and reflect change and the impact this might have on decision making by women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  16. Using baby books to change new mothers' attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J; Auger, Anamarie

    2012-02-01

    Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the US. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers' attitudes about their use of corporal punishment. Low-income, ethnically diverse women (n=167) were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed until their child was 18 months old. Findings from home-based data collection throughout this period suggest that educational baby books compared with non-educational baby books or no books can reduce new mothers' support for the use of corporal punishment (respective effect sizes=.67 and .25) and that these effects are greater for African-American mothers (effect sizes=.75 and .57) and those with low levels of educational attainment (high school diploma, GED, or less) (effect sizes=.78 and .49). Given their low cost and ease of implementation, baby books offer a promising way to change new mothers' attitudes and potentially reduce the use of corporal punishment with infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of mother-baby relationship evaluated during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Teresa Pinto Esteves Maia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Mental health promotion is supported by a strong body of knowledge and is a matter of public health with the potential of a large impact on society. Mental health promotion programs should be implemented as soon as possible in life, preferably starting during pregnancy. Programs should focus on malleable determinants, introducing strategies to reduce risk factors or their impact on mother and child, and also on strengthening protective factors to increase resilienc...

  18. Abortion denied--outcome of mothers and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, C

    1984-02-15

    A consistent argument favoring therapeutic abortions has been that mothers who are denied abortions will seek "illegal" help elsewhere, often in less than optimal conditions. Yet, a review of published reports on women who had been denied abortion and were followed up shows that 70.67% of the 6298 women completed their pregnancies and only 13.2% had an abortion elsewhere. Several studies have shown that the incidence of Complications of pregnancy is no greater in mothers denied abortion than in paired controls. The results of a prospective study by Laukaran and Van Den Berg showed a higher incidence of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, and a higher incidence of infection and hemorrhage during the puerperium in women who had been denied abortion. They concluded that maternal attitude and psychosocial stress had little effect on the progress of the pregnancy and labor. Published reports on the psychological effects on the children of women who had been denied abortion are few, mainly because longterm follow-up is required. In 1966 Forssman and Thuwe described the results of their study of 120 children whose mothers had been denied abortion. The children had been followed up until their 21st birthdays. The controls had been carefully paired. The proportion of children who had been placed in foster and children's homes was significantly higher among the "unwanted" children than among the controls (50% versus 18%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of drunken misconduct, crime, or "educational mental subnormality" between the 2 groups, but the incidence rates of delinquency and psychiatric consultation were 10% and 13% higher respectively among the unwanted children than among the controls. There have been virtually no objective studies on the psychologic and social well-being of women who have been denied abortion. The literature

  19. Mother and newborn baby: mutual regulation of physiology and behavior--a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, Jan

    2005-11-01

    This article reviews 30 years of work demonstrating that interactions between mother and newborn infant in the period just after birth influence the physiology and behavior of both. Close body contact of the infant with his/her mother helps regulate the newborn's temperature, energy conservation, acid-base balance, adjustment of respiration, crying, and nursing behaviors. Similarly, the baby may regulate--i.e., increase--the mother's attention to his/her needs, the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, and the efficiency of her energy economy through vagus activation and a surge of gastrointestinal tract hormone release resulting in better exploitation of ingested calories. The effects of some of these changes can be detected months later. Parallels to animal research and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  20. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  1. Reproductive history and involvement in pregnancy and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeus, Cecilia; Christensson, Kyllike

    2003-06-01

    to describe and compare sexual and reproductive history as well as reactions to the pregnancy and attendance in antenatal care, family classes and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers and fathers of babies born to average aged mothers. a descriptive comparative study using a structured questionnaire for data collection. eleven postnatal wards at the five obstetric and gynaecological departments in the Stockholm area. 132 fathers of babies born to primiparous teenage mothers (Group A) and the same number of fathers of babies born to primiparous women aged between 25-29 years (Group B) who were present in the postnatal wards. 43 of Group A compared to 17% of the Group B fathers had their first intercourse before 15 years of age. This early sexual debut was related to other health hazard, such as use of illicit drugs and cigarette smoking. The majority of the pregnancies in Group A were unplanned but most fathers reacted positively to the pregnancy and participated in the antenatal care. In contrast, only half of these fathers attended family classes. fathers of babies born to teenage mothers differed from fathers of babies to older mothers regarding reproductive background as well as involvement during pregnancy. The findings of this study challenge midwives to organise clinical practice in order to meet the specific needs of this group.

  2. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  3. [Leisure for mothers of high-risk babies: analysis of the experience in these women's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Brunherotti, Mariana Ribeiro; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Nogueira, Fernanda dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de; Leite, Adriana Moraes

    2004-01-01

    In view of the implementation of new care strategies for mothers of high-risk babies attended at neonatal units through a program involving play, recreation and educational activities, this study aims to analyze this experience according to these women's perspectives. A qualitative and descriptive study was conducted at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Seven mothers were interviewed who had attended at least three activity sessions in the program and signed an informed consent document. The interviews were taped and were guided by the following question: "Tell us about your experience in these group meetings". It was observed that the mothers described the activities as "...they are nice and help to establish ties" and "...they are good because we get some distraction", thus revitalizing them to cope with the stress from long hospitalization. They pointed out the opportunity to learn about some types of care for their children through games and educational films -- "They solve many of our doubts, especially for those who have pre-term babies", as well as the opportunity to do manual work -- "We learned how to embroider, which was something no one knew how to do". This activity resulted in the production of clothing for the child. It was concluded that the program contributed to the process of constructing a more integral and humanized care by focusing on the family and broadening the perspective on hospitals as places that also offer leisure.

  4. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  5. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  6. When disaster strikes -- caring for mothers and babies. Special feature -- mothers as refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In many countries, women are poorly nourished and have a high rate of reproductive morbidity. However, during war and other disaster situations, women and children become even more vulnerable. Most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people are women and children. Many women refugees are malnourished and during the emergency and exodus phases, many are starving. Severe malnutrition in a pregnant woman causes fetal malnutrition. Infants born to a malnourished mother are of low birth weight and will grow up malnourished if they stay in the same deprived environment as their mothers. Households headed by women tend to obtain the least food and the children of such households tend to be poorly nourished. Many of the problems and obstacles women face during peacetime and non-emergency situations are simply exacerbated during disasters and war. It may not be possible to head off disasters which result in massive social upheaval, but preparations can nonetheless be made to mollify conditions once disaster hits. Responsible organizations and agencies should research the situation and plan for the worst. This paper discusses how women lose social and economic power during periods of armed conflict, the often lack of even basic reproductive health care during armed conflict and emergencies, coping in an emergency, and living in a refugee camp.

  7. A baby with congenital hypothyroidism born to a hypothyroid mother who expressed undiagnosed thyroid stimulation blocking antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mock Ryeon Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adults, hypothyroidism caused by thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSB Ab is rare, and confirmed cases are even fewer, as TSB Ab levels are rarely assayed. However, this may create problems in babies, as the transplacental passage of maternal TSB Ab can cause a rare type of hypothyroidism in the infant. Prompt levothyroxine replacement for the baby starting immediately after birth is important. We describe a congenital hypothyroid baby born to a hypothyroid mother who was not aware of the cause of her hypothyroid condition, which turned out to be associated with the expression of TSB Ab. This cause was confirmed in both the infant and mother using a series of thyroid function tests and measurements of autoantibody levels, including TSB Ab. During periodic follow-up, the TSB Ab and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers became negative in the baby at 8 months of age, but remained positive in the mother. Evaluation of hypothyroidism and its cause in mothers during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.

  8. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  9. The Factors That Influence Mother's Behavior in Giving Food Complement of Breast Milk for Baby in Age 6 - 36 Month

    OpenAIRE

    Kristianto, Yonatan; Sulistyarini, Tri

    2013-01-01

    Food complement of breast milk is food that contain nutrient, giving to child in age 6–36 months to complete nutrient requirement. Giving that food is precisely influenced by mother's behavior who have baby. The objective of the research to prove the factors that influence mother's behavior in giving food complement breast milk to child in age 6–36 months.The design of the research was correlation. The population was all mother who have children in age 6–36 months at Posyandu Mawar I Karangre...

  10. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khine Wut Yee Kyaw

    Full Text Available Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU.A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months.Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2% were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART. Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI: 5.40 (1.66-17.53, 5.91(1.68-20.84, 2.27 (1.22-4.22 and 2.33 (1.16-4.69 respectively].Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to

  11. Fathers make a difference: positive relationships with mother and baby in relation to infant colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H

    2017-09-01

    Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post

  12. The meaning of rituals after a stillbirth: A qualitative study of mothers with a stillborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Fen; Hsu, Min-Tao; Hsieh, Yueh-Tzu; Cheng, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-03-01

    To explore the meaning of rituals that women and their families perform after a stillbirth. A cultural taboo in Taiwan prohibits discussing death; thus, parents of stillborn babies have no established public mourning or burial ceremonies to perform for their stillborn children. Stillbirths are often treated as if they had never happened. Qualitative descriptive study. In-depth interviews, which were transcribed and content analysed, were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 women discharged from two teaching hospitals in Taiwan after they had a stillbirth. Families engaged in rituals for two underlying reasons: to benefit the deceased child and the immediate family. The meanings of the rituals for the child are presented through three themes: (i) sending the baby's spirit to a safe place, (ii) protecting it from suffering and (iii) preparing it for a better reincarnation. The meanings of rituals for the families are presented through four themes: (i) releasing parental guilt by doing their best for the deceased child, (ii) cutting bonds with the child, (iii) avoiding additional misfortune should they mishandle the funeral and (iv) praying for a successful subsequent pregnancy. Death-related rituals are highly culturally diverse. This study fills a gap about Asian cultures. Participating in rituals permits a mother to do something for her deceased child, helps relieve her guilt and lets her cope with the stillbirth. Rituals after a stillbirth can help a woman recover from grieving and allow her to hope for a successful subsequent pregnancy. Health professionals should discuss with bereaved parents what rituals they would like to perform and then respect their decisions. A continuum of care and support that exists from the prenatal diagnosis through the stillbirth and beyond is recommended for parents and families during this difficult time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mothers 'don't like it; never tried it': Blind Sensory Test of a Homemade Chicken Liver Baby Food, a Source of Iron, by Infants and their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviani Jaques; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2015-08-01

    A homemade chicken liver baby food (CLBF) that meets infants' nutritional requirements was developed and its acceptance by children and their mothers determined. CLBF's nutritional content was determined by chemical analyses. A blind sensory test (ST) by 50 infants 7-12 months old and their mothers of CLBF and ground beef baby food (GBBF) was applied. Mothers' preferences for liver and beef, answers of an hedonic scale and infants' acceptance were investigated. CLBF met the nutritional requirements for infants. There were no significant differences in the ST between the CLBF and GBBF, either for infants or for their mothers. There was no correlation between mothers' like or dislike of liver and the ST scores. Infants tried and liked the CLBF that match dietary recommendations and could help prevent iron deficiency. Mothers, on the other hand, demonstrated an 'I don't like it; I never tried it' attitude. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of maternal attachment, self-efficacy, levels of depression, and anxiety in mothers who have babies diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Gonca; Özyurt, Ayhan; Ozturk, Taylan; Yaman, Aylin; Berk, A Tulin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the emotional stress and its effects on parental self-efficacy and mother-infant attachment in mothers whose babies were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study sample was consisted of voluntarily participating 82 mothers whose babies were first diagnosed with ROP, 83 mothers of preterm babies without ROP, and 85 mothers of term babies admitting for their routine visits. Sociodemographic data form maternal attachment scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and parental self-efficacy scale were applied to study participants, and the overall results of three groups were statistically compared. The sociodemographic features of three study groups were similar. Statistical significant differences were found in depression and state anxiety levels among study groups, while maternal attachment scale and trait anxiety level scores and parental self-efficacy scale total score were similar in study groups. Maternal depression and state-anxiety levels were tend to be higher in mother of children diagnosed with ROP and prematurity; however, there were no statistically significant differences between levels of mothers' of premature children with or without ROP. This is the first study in literature assessing the additional effect of ROP on the anxiety and depression levels of recent mothers, as well as mother-infant attachment and parental self-efficacy. Supporting of mothers having an infant with diagnosed ROP is crucial because of feeling themselves inefficient and responsible for all interventions applied to their babies.

  15. Maternal depression and father-mother-baby triadic interaction / Depressão materna e a interação triádica pai-mãe-bebê

    OpenAIRE

    Giana Bitencourt Frizzo; Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the eventual differences in triadic (father-mother-baby) and dyadic (mother-baby, father-baby and father-mother) interaction in families with and without maternal depression, with one-year old babies, during a free-play session. Nineteen families participated in the study, 9 with maternal depression and 10 without. The triadic and the dyadic patterns of interaction were examined using a protocol with several categories. Contradicting the hypothesis of the study, there were...

  16. Skin care practices in newborn nurseries and mother-baby units in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, S; Golden, W C; Cohen, B A

    2017-06-01

    Skin provides several important homeostatic functions to the developing neonate. However, no consensus guidelines exist in the United States for skin care in the healthy term newborn. We performed a study of skin and umbilical cord care (including bathing practices, vernix removal and antiseptic cord application) in newborn nurseries and mother-baby units throughout the state of Maryland to determine practices in a variety of clinical settings and assess if uniformity in skin care exists. These data were then assessed in the context of a review of the current literature. We received responses from over 90% of nurseries across the state. In our cohort, practices varied widely between institutions and specific populations, and often were not evidence-based or were contrary to best practices discussed in the scientific literature. The frequent departures from evidence that occur regarding the aforementioned practices are likely due to a lack of consensus on these issues as well as limited data on such practices, further highlighting the need for data-driven guidelines on newborn skin care.

  17. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  18. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services under routine care conditions in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. METHODS: We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider's perspective. RESULTS: Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in

  19. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  20. Evaluating the Effect of MotherBaby Skin- to- Skin Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kalhor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of motherbaby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Motherbaby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.

  1. Demographic profile and pregnancy outcomes of adolescents and older mothers in Saudi Arabia: analysis from Riyadh Mother (RAHMA) and Baby cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Amel A; Wahabi, Hayfaa; Mamdouh, Heba; Kotb, Reham; Esmaeil, Samia

    2017-09-11

    To investigate the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes with special emphasis on adolescents and older mothers and to investigate the differences in demographic profile between adolescents and older mothers. This study is a secondary analysis of pregnancy outcomes of women in Riyadh Mother and Baby cohort study according to maternal age. The study population was grouped according to maternal age into five subgroups; mothers were married when conceived with the index pregnancy. Young mothers were less likely to be illiterate, more likely to achieve higher education and be employed compared with mothers ≥ 40 years. Compared with the reference group, adolescents were more likely to have vaginal delivery (and least likely to deliver by caesarean section (CS); OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, while women ≥40 years, were more likely to deliver by CS; OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.7. Maternal age was a risk factor for gestational diabetes in women ≥40 years; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1. Adolescents had increased risk of preterm delivery; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1 and women ≥40 years had similar risk; OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes show a continuum with the advancement of maternal age. Adolescents mother are more likely to have vaginal delivery; however, they are at increased risk of preterm delivery. Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes and CS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  3. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Moon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word baby depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word baby recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  4. Prevalence of Antibodies to Zika Virus in Mothers from Hawaii Who Delivered Babies with and without Microcephaly between 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen. ZIKV infection is linked to the development of severe fetal abnormalities that include spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, hydranencephaly, and microcephaly. ZIKV outbreaks have been recorded in the United States. We recently demonstrated the first congenital ZIKV infection in the United States. In this study, we investigated archived blood samples from six mothers who gave birth to babies with microcephaly and 12 mothers who gave birth to healthy babies in Hawaii between 2009 and 2012. We tested maternal blood for the presence of ZIKV IgM and IgG antibodies using commercially available human ZIKV IgM and IgG ELISA kits. Blood from one mother who delivered babies with microcephaly tested positive for ZIKV IgM antibody (16.6% and blood from three mothers tested positive for ZIKV IgG antibody (50%. ZIKV showed a trend toward significance with microcephaly. ZIKV IgG antibody positive mothers were more likely to deliver babies with microcephaly than mothers who were negative for ZIKV IgG antibodies (Odds ratio [OR] = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-147.9, p = 0.083. Similarly, ZIKV IgM antibody positive mothers were also more likely to deliver babies with microcephaly than mothers who were negative for ZIKV IgM antibody (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 0.2-195.1. These data provide further evidence of a link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly and suggests presence of ZIKV positive cases and associated microcephaly in the United States as early as 2009.

  5. Integrating the teaching-learning process of Occupational Therapy students and the care of mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study approaches the process of teaching-learning of a group of occupational therapy students to act in the care of mothers of babies at risk in the hospital context. It is linked to a community project, supported by the ‘Programa de Extensao Universitaria’. Objective: It aimed to qualify the students for understanding the risk rising, the initial mother-baby bond in the hospital environment, the monitoring of the child development and troubleshooting, as well as to see themselves as subjects of their own training. Method: Participants were six students, three teachers, 26 mothers and their 28 babies. The procedures had been developed in three articulated axles: practice, theoretical basis and invitation to reflection, each axle guided by one of three teachers. There were 65 meetings; 27 of the group of mothers, 11 of the group for theoretical overviews and 27 of the reflection group. Six students have completed their participation in the study, having achieved qualification for the care of occupational therapy to mothers of babies at risk during hospitalization and at home after discharge, as well as the co-responsibility with people and served family. All 26 mothers received care in the nursery; 25 of them in addition to the nursery, were treated at mothers group and 6 in addition to the nursery and the group, were visited at home. Conclusion: This study made it possible to contemplate two subjects with the same priority: the mother and her baby, as subjects of the attention and care of an occupational therapist and the student, as the subject of the attention and care of the teacher of occupational therapy.

  6. Knowledge and behavior of mothers about the way of suckling their babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi S. Sularyo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background A good and proper knowledge and behavior of mothers as to how they breast-feed their young is supposed to enhance the health of the community. Objective To find out the knowledge and behavior of mothers of under-fives about the technique of nursing and its related factors. Methods The study was perionned from September 20 to October 15, 1999 at Kelurahan Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. The respondents were 101 mothers owning under-fives, attained by the multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Questionnaires were used and observation was made only on mothers who were suckling their child during the interview. Results Mother's knowledge about the way of suckling was found unsatisfactory in 46.5% although 51.5% of mothers revealed a good behavior. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationships between factors such as age, educational level, occupation, family income and mother's activity with mother's knowledge and behavior about the way of nursing their child. Conclusions There was no significant relationship between mother's knowledge and behavior about breastfeeding. Other factors beyond this studied factors should be taken into account.

  7. Infant feeding practices of teenage mothers attending a well-baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Pillay

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the breastfeeding practices of urban, predominantly isiZulu speaking, South ... South Africa has a low exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate. The ... perceptions of teenage mothers around the benefits of.

  8. Bringing babies and breasts into workplaces: Support for breastfeeding mothers in workplaces and childcare services at the Australian National University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Javanparast, Sara; Craig, Lyn

    2017-03-01

    In 1999, two leading Australian academics challenged Australian universities to lead moves to better manage employees' maternity and breastfeeding needs, and 'bring babies and breasts into workplaces'. This paper addresses the question of how universities cope with the need for women to breastfeed, by exploring barriers facing women who combine breastfeeding and paid work at the Australian National University (ANU). Data were collected through online surveys in 2013 using mixed method, case study design, nested within a larger national study. Participants were 64 working mothers of children aged 0-2 years from the ANU community of employees and users of on-campus child care. Responses highlighted the ad hoc nature of support for breastfeeding at ANU. Lack of organisational support for breastfeeding resulted in adverse consequences for some ANU staff. These included high work-related stresses and premature cessation of breastfeeding among women who had intended to breastfeed their infants in line with health recommendations.

  9. ABO phenotypes and malaria related outcomes in mothers and babies in The Gambia: a role for histo-blood groups in placental malaria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loscertales, María-Paz; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Host susceptibility to P.falciparum is critical for understanding malaria in pregnancy, its consequences for the mother and baby, and for improving malaria control in pregnant women. Yet host genetic factors which could influence placental malaria risk are little studied and there are no

  10. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  11. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqun Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials.

  12. Relationship between low birth weight of babies and antenatal care of mothers: A cross sectional study at a tertiary care hospital of Kishanganj, Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality thus an important public health concern. Aim To identify the maternal determinants associated with LBW of babies Setting M.G.M Medical college & L.S.K Hospital Kishanganj ,Bihar. Design Hospital based cross sectional study Study period January 2014 to March 2014 Methodology Institution based descriptive cross sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. All postnatal women (190 with singleton apparently healthy babies during the study period were selected for study. Birth weight of babies was recorded, mothers were interviewed and antenatal cards were reviewed. Result 34% of newborns were found to be low birth weight in our study. Statistically significant association was found between Low birth weight of babies and mother’s age, religion, literacy of mother, consumption of IFA tablets and regular ANC checkup during pregnancy. Conclusion The study suggests various maternal factors influence the birth weight of newborn babies and by improving antenatal care services both in coverage and quality we can reduce infant mortality in country.

  13. Clinical characteristics and mental health outcomes for women admitted to an Australian Mother-Baby Unit: a focus on borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Chris; Girke, Teresa; Tottman, Charlotte; Williams, Anne Sved

    2015-12-01

    To describe the clinical population of women admitted to a Mother-Baby Unit in Adelaide, South Australia and to evaluate changes during admission in both Axes I and II diagnoses of maternal mental health, and in mother-infant relationships. Both clinical and self-report assessments of maternal mental health were made at admission and discharge, and self-report comparisons of the mother-infant relationship. Depressive illnesses (46.2%) were found to be the most prevalent conditions leading to admission, with rates of psychosis (10.3%) and bipolar disorder (3.4%) being lower. A high incidence of borderline personality disorder (23.1%) was found clinically, with almost half the admitted women showing features of borderline personality disorder on a self-report measure at admission. Significant improvements in maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship were found at the time of discharge. Admission to this Mother-Baby Unit on mothers' self-report scales showed improvement in mothers' mental health and the relationship that they have with their infant. Given the high prevalence of borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation identified within the population, treatment implications and possible consequences for the infant are discussed for this client group. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. The effectiveness of baby books for providing pediatric anticipatory guidance to new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Bickman, Leonard; Saville, Benjamin R; Alvarez, Joann

    2010-05-01

    To assess whether embedding pediatric anticipatory guidance into books read to infants is an effective way to educate low-income, first-time mothers about injury-prevention and health-promotion practices. Primiparous women (N = 168) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational-book group; a noneducational-book group; or a no-book group. Knowledge of anticipatory-guidance topics regarding children from birth to 12 months of age (eg, injury prevention, parenting, nutrition) was assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy and again when infants were approximately 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational-book group scored consistently higher on knowledge than did those in the other 2 groups. Those in the educational-book group were found to have significantly higher knowledge scores than those in both the noneducational-book group (effect size [ES]: 0.3, P book group (ES: 0.3, P Books read by mothers to infants seem to be an effective way to provide anticipatory guidance to new mothers. However, future work is needed to determine if increased knowledge translates into safer and more developmentally appropriate parenting practices.

  15. New hadron discovered at Entrance B (mother and baby doing fine)

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2013-01-01

    Hadron: A heavy, strongly interacting particle. So say the dictionaries, and the definition seems entirely appropriate for the latest addition to a particular family that was passing CERN’s Entrance B on Monday afternoon en route for the Hôpital de la Tour.   The father of the baby (left) and the members of the CERN Fire Brigade and Medical Service dealing with the unexpected happy event. (Photo by D. Pagnani, CERN Fireman. The photo is reproduced by the CERN Bulletin with the agreement of the di Castro family.) The new "hadron" certainly showed the strength of its desire to interact with the world in arriving a little earlier than expected, causing its fraught parents to pull up the car and seek help at the first port of call. Luckily for them, that turned out to be CERN. Our medical service and ambulance personnel proved to be entirely up to the task. The fire brigade provided first aid, and was soon joined by the medical service, which ensured that mot...

  16. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  17. The use of salutogenesis theory in empirical studies of maternity care for healthy mothers and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Botella, Mercedes; Downe, Soo; Magistretti, Claudia Meier; Lindstrom, Bengt; Berg, Marie

    2015-03-01

    Health care outcomes used in service evaluation and research tend to measure morbidity and mortality. This is the case even in maternity care, where most women and babies are healthy. Salutogenesis theory recognises that health is a continuum, with explicit inclusion of well-being as well as illness and pathology. This offers the potential to reframe the outcomes and therefore, the focus of, maternity care research and provision. The aim of this study was to identify how salutogenesis has been defined and used in maternity care research undertaken with healthy women. A scoping review was undertaken, using a formal pre-defined search strategy. Inclusion criteria encompassed research papers relating to the maternity episode up to 1 year after birth, using salutogenesis or any of its associated concepts, focused on healthy women, and written in a language which any of the members of the group could understand. The search was undertaken in two phases (database inception--April 2011 and May 2011-February 2013). Included studies were subject to narrative analysis. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. They covered seven topics, spanning the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods. Only two papers employed both positive health orientation and explicit use of Antonovsky's theory. The remaining studies used discrete aspects of the theory. Salutogenic framing is rarely used in maternity care research with healthy participants. An increase in research that measures salutogenically orientated outcomes could, eventually, provide a balance to the current over-emphasis on pathology in maternity care design and provision worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing Parenting Capacity in Psychiatric Mother and Baby Units: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Julie; Lipsedge, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    This review aimed to improve infant risk assessments in the context of maternal mental illness by identifying key predictors of poor parenting outcomes. Inadequate parenting as a result of severe and persistent mental illness is a common reason for courts terminating parental rights. However, the current practice of parenting capacity assessments in the setting of perinatal psychiatry is fraught with risks and uncertainty. A well-recognised flaw in the assessment process is the lack of valid and reliable tools that have been specifically validated for assessing parenting capacity in mothers with a history of mental illness and the potential risk of harm to their infant. To date, there is only one instrument available. A systematic search of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase via the Ovid interface was conducted between September and December 2014. Citation snowball sampling was also used to identify further relevant studies. An additional search was performed in Google to access grey literature. A total of 38 citations were identified, of which 8 publications focusing on the populations of England, France and Belgium met the eligibility criteria of this review. Evidence from existing research suggests that poor parenting outcomes in maternal psychiatric illness are strongly associated with correlates of socio-economic inequalities. However, evidence regarding the long-term implications of such factors is weak as only one follow up study and no longitudinal studies were identified in this review. Our review suggests that the use of standardised empirically validated risk assessment tools would benefit the current practice of parenting assessments by improving the process by which collected information is analysed. This would enhance the accuracy of decision-making, and improve the safeguarding of the infant. Further research is needed on medium to long-term parenting outcomes, particularly regarding its relations to: the type of maternal psychiatric disorder; the quality

  19. Reaching mothers and babies with early postnatal home visits: the implementation realities of achieving high coverage in large-scale programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Sitrin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nearly half of births in low-income countries occur without a skilled attendant, and even fewer mothers and babies have postnatal contact with providers who can deliver preventive or curative services that save lives. Community-based maternal and newborn care programs with postnatal home visits have been tested in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Nepal. This paper examines coverage and content of home visits in pilot areas and factors associated with receipt of postnatal visits. METHODS: Using data from cross-sectional surveys of women with live births (Bangladesh 398, Malawi: 900, Nepal: 615, generalized linear models were used to assess the strength of association between three factors - receipt of home visits during pregnancy, birth place, birth notification - and receipt of home visits within three days after birth. Meta-analytic techniques were used to generate pooled relative risks for each factor adjusting for other independent variables, maternal age, and education. FINDINGS: The proportion of mothers and newborns receiving home visits within three days after birth was 57% in Bangladesh, 11% in Malawi, and 50% in Nepal. Mothers and newborns were more likely to receive a postnatal home visit within three days if the mother received at least one home visit during pregnancy (OR2.18, CI1.46-3.25, the birth occurred outside a facility (OR1.48, CI1.28-1.73, and the mother reported a CHW was notified of the birth (OR2.66, CI1.40-5.08. Checking the cord was the most frequently reported action; most mothers reported at least one action for newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Reaching mothers and babies with home visits during pregnancy and within three days after birth is achievable using existing community health systems if workers are available; linked to communities; and receive training, supplies, and supervision. In all settings, programs must evaluate what community delivery systems can handle and how to best utilize them to improve postnatal care

  20. A pilot randomised controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme in mothers with postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Few interventions for Postnatal Depression (PND) have focused on parenting difficulties; the aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility and evaluate a parenting intervention (Baby Triple P) in women with PND. This was a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate and determine the feasibility of the newly developed Baby Triple P compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in women with PND. In all, 27 female participants aged from 18 to 45 years (mean age = 28.4 years, standard deviation (SD) = 6.1), with a primary diagnosis of major depression and an infant under 12 months (mean age = 6.2 months, SD = 3.2 months), were recruited from primary care trusts in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either eight Baby Triple P sessions in addition to TAU or TAU only. Outcomes were assessed at post-treatment (Time 2) and 3 months post-treatment (Time 3). Self-report outcomes were as follows: Beck Depression Inventory, Oxford Happiness Inventory, What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like, Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Brief Parenting Beliefs Scale-baby version. An assessor-rated observational measure of mother-infant interaction, the CARE Index and measure of intervention acceptability were also completed. Significant improvements from Time 1 to Time 2 and Time 1 to Time 3 were observed across both groups. Although women allocated to Baby Triple P showed more favourable improvements, the between-group differences were not significant. However, the intervention was highly acceptable to women with PND. A large-scale RCT is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. High baby birth weight and risk of hormone-associated cancer in mothers: the cancer-cardiovascular disease dichotomy and its possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M

    2013-07-01

    The idea of intrauterine or fetal factors being the cause of several prevalent noninfectious diseases in adults has recently gained the status of an axiom. One of the most thoroughly studied predictors is birth weight (BW). Although many published studies point at relations between BW and later adult morbidity or mortality, much less attention is paid to associations between baby BW and maternal morbidity. Available data suggest a sort of dichotomy in these relationships. Thus, cardiovascular risk is higher in mothers of babies with a reduced BW, while cancer risk, mainly of the breast and some other hormone-dependent cancers, is often higher among mothers of babies with a large BW (newborn macrosomia). This review addresses possible causes and endocrine mechanisms of this topic and suggests a 'particular' and 'general' solution for arising controversy. Emphasis is placed on a probable competition between chronic diseases (mainly, between female hormone-related cancer and cardiovascular pathology) within the concept of multiple causes of death. These associations should be remembered while studying the relation between offspring BW and maternal predisposition to hormone-associated cancers and other noncommunicable diseases.

  2. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  3. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has been widely used in the prevention of dental caries for a long time. To prevent dental caries, fluoride must be induced in low amount at high frequency. Inducing it through implantation process even make slow release of small concentration of fluoride. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the induction of monofluorophosphate (MFP implant into the white rat mothers affects the level of fluoride in the incisors of their young babies. Method: The objects of the research were twenty white rat mothers in two days of pregnancy which then were divided into four groups (n=5. First, those mothers have been induced with implant under their back skin until their born young babies in the age of 35 days (n=5. The level of fluoride in the incisors of those young babies then is measured with Potentiometer. The obtained data were finally analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test and continued by with LSD test (p=0.05. Result: The result of this research showed that the means of the fluoride level in the incisors of those babies divided into those four groups in series were about 11956.16±201.35 ppb (K, 27328.04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267.21±248.86 ppb (P2, and 18103.50±267.11 ppb (P3. The result of ANOVA test then showed that the induction of various MFP implant levels significantly affected the level of fluoride in the incisors of the babies. The mean differences among the treatment groups after being tested with LSD 0.05 were also significant. Conclusion: The finding confirm that the significant increasing of the optimal fluoride retention in the incisors of white rat babies can be achieved with the induction of fluoride with MFP ions implant in about 52.98 mg.Latar belakang: Pencegahan karies gigi menggunakan senyawa fluor telah banyak dilakukan dan berlangsung dalam jangka waktu lama. Pemberian fluor dalam jumlah rendah dan frekuensi tinggi merupakan pemenuhan kebutuhan pencegahan karies gigi. Pemberian dengan cara

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  5. Baby M: babies (and justice) for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1987-06-01

    A professor of health law criticizes the decisions of New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow which culminated in his awarding permanent custody of Baby M to her biological father, William Stern. Annas quotes from the In re Baby M decision and from the contract between Stern and his wife and surrogate mother Mary Beth Whitehead to support his contention that Sorkow "rendered a sermon filled with contradictions, double-standards, inapt analogies, and unsupported conclusions." He argues that legally Mrs. Whitehead could not have prospectively waived her right to rear a child she bore, that Sorkow was biased in favor of the "upper-middle-class Sterns," and that consideration should be given to returning Baby M to Mrs. Whitehead. He urges state legislatures to outlaw the sale of children, to affirm the legal status of the gestational mother, and to forbid a surrogate's relinquishment of parental rights until after her child's birth.

  6. "Coming Out" as Pregnant or Having a Baby While Attending School: Experiences and Challenges of Scottish Schoolgirl Mothers/Mothers-to-Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Concerns exist about schoolgirls disengaging from education, becoming pregnant, dropping out of school and having lower-level or fewer qualifications. Few studies have considered the experiences and challenges that schoolgirls who become mothers face when continuing in education. This article discusses the experiences and challenges of Scottish…

  7. [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E

    2012-06-01

    Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.

  8. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-10-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Early childhood transmission of hepatitis B prior to the first hepatitis B vaccine dose is rare among babies born to HIV-infected and non-HIV infected mothers in Gulu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremba, E; Van Geertruyden, J P; Ssenyonga, R; Opio, C K; Kaducu, J M; Sempa, J B; Colebunders, R; Ocama, P

    2017-05-19

    Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively. Socio-demographic and risk factors for HBV transmission were recorded. Mothers were tested for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-IgG) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBsAg-positive sera were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV viral load (HBVDNA). Babies were tested for HBsAg at presentation and at the last immunization visit. A sample of HBsAg-negative babies were tested for HBVDNA. Incident HBV infection was defined by either a positive HBsAg or HBVDNA test. Chi-square or fisher's exact tests were utilized to investigate associations and t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous differences. We recruited 612 mothers, median age 23years (IQR 20-28). 53 (8.7%) were HBsAg-positive and 339 (61.5%) were anti-HBc-IgG-positive. Ten (18.9%) of the HBsAg-positive mothers were HBeAg-positive. Median HBVDNA levels of HBV-infected mothers was 5.7log (IQR 4.6-7.0) IU/mL with 9 (17.6%) having levels≥10 5 IU/mL. Eighty (13.3%) mothers were HIV-infected of whom 9 (11.5%) were co-infected with HBV. No baby tested HBsAg or HBVDNA positive. Vertical transmission does not seem to contribute substantially to the high HBV endemicity in northern Uganda. The current practice of administering the first HBV vaccine to babies in Uganda at six weeks of age may be adequate in control of HBV transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is frozen embryo transfer better for mothers and babies? Can cumulative meta-analysis provide a definitive answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Abha; Pandey, Shilpi; Amalraj Raja, Edwin; Shetty, Ashalatha; Hamilton, Mark; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2018-01-01

    Initial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis (trend with time) of obstetric and perinatal complications in singleton pregnancies following the transfer of frozen thawed and fresh embryos generated through in-vitro fertilisation. Data Sources from Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials DARE and CINAHL (1984-2016) were searched using appropriate key words. Observational and randomised studies comparing obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies conceived through IVF using either fresh or frozen thawed embryos. Two independent reviewers extracted data in 2 × 2 tables and assessed the methodological quality of the relevant studies using CASP scoring. Both aggregated as well as cumulative meta-analysis was done using STATA. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Singleton babies conceived from frozen thawed embryos were at lower relative risk (RR) of preterm delivery (0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97) low birth weight (0.72; 95% CI 0.67-0.77) and small for gestational age (0.61; 95% CI 0.56-0.67) compared to those conceived from fresh embryo transfers, but faced an increased risk (RR) of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.56) large for gestational age (1.54; 95% CI 1.48-1.61) and high birth weight (1.85; 95% CI 1.46-2.33). There was no difference in the risk of congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality between the two groups. The direction

  11. Who's holding the baby? A prospective diary study of the contact patterns of mothers with an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia Therese; McVernon, Jodie; Shrestha, Niraj; Nathan, Paula M; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-09-20

    Models of infectious disease are increasingly utilising empirical contact data to quantify the number of potentially infectious contacts between age groups. While a growing body of data is being collected on contact patterns across many populations, less attention has been paid to the social contacts of young infants. We collected information on the social contacts of primary carers of young infants and investigated their potential for use as a proxy for contacts made by their infant. We recruited primary carers of infants under one year of age residing in two geographically, demographically and socioeconomically distinct local government areas of Melbourne, Australia - Boroondara and Hume - including a sub-group of Turkish-speaking participants. Participants recorded their own contacts in a paper diary and noted whether their infant was present or absent. Information collected included times at an address; description of location; and details on people contacted at the location. Descriptive summary measures and distributions of contacts by location type, intensity, day of contact and by age are reported. Of the 226 participants recruited, 220 completed diaries were returned. Participant contact patterns were similar across all groups, with respect to the types of locations, intensity and day of contact, with some variation in the number of unique daily contacts. The infant was present at around 85% of locations at which the primary carer contacted other individuals. The majority of contacts occurring when the infant was present were in Own Home (32%), Retail and Hospitality (18%) and Transport (18%) settings. The mean daily number of unique contacts by infants was estimated as 9.1, 8.7 and 6.5 in Boroondara, Hume (English) and Hume (Turkish), respectively, with a similar age distribution across each of our surveyed groups. Our demonstration that contact patterns of mothers with infants are reasonably robust to socioeconomic and cultural differences is a step

  12. Womb Rentals and Baby-Selling: Does Surrogacy Undermine the Human Dignity and Rights of the Surrogate Mother and Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clara

    2016-11-01

    The question of surrogacy has dominated much of the European human rights agenda over the last two years, at the time writing, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe hopes to adopt a resolution on surrogacy in the coming months. There is, however, danger in taking action at a supranational level to address the European 'surrogacy problem', without first honestly answering the question: does surrogacy undermine the human dignity and rights of the surrogate mother and child? This paper presents the case that surrogacy, by its nature, necessarily undermines the human dignity of both the woman and child born through such arrangements, and thus neither commercial nor altruistic surrogacy can ever be justified.

  13. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  15. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  16. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh E Keag

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016 reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death.Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017, supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and large (more than 1,000 participants prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%. One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies. Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies. Pregnancy after cesarean delivery was associated with

  17. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keag, Oonagh E.; Stock, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. Methods and findings Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large (more than 1,000 participants) prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%). One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries) were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies) and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies). Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies) and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies). Pregnancy after cesarean

  18. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keag, Oonagh E; Norman, Jane E; Stock, Sarah J

    2018-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large (more than 1,000 participants) prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%). One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries) were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies) and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies). Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies) and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies). Pregnancy after cesarean delivery was associated with

  19. Collodion baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaded S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare congenital disorder characterized by parchment like taught membrane covering the whole body. Other findings in our case include ectropion, eversion of lips, and flattening of nose and ears. Skin biopsy showed features consistant with the diagnosis of collodion baby. The child was treated with supportive measures like antibiotics, intravenous fluids, humidification, and application of emollients.

  20. Tire safety : everything rides on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on the following topics: basic tire maintenance; Uniform Tire Quality Grading System; fundamental characteristics of tires; and tire safety tips.

  1. Voz cantada e a constituição da relação mãe-bebê Singing voice and the constitution of mother/baby relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: refletir sobre uma faceta da constituição da relação mãe-bebê, que se fez presente no uso criativo da voz cantada da mãe, na comunicação com o seu bebê. PROCEDIMENTOS: o único sujeito desse estudo é uma mãe, que se submeteu a oito sessões de terapias corporais associadas à emissão da voz cantada, sempre dirigidas ao bebê; as sessões transcorreram com a possibilidade de expressão livre pela fala e gesto da mãe e a escuta do terapeuta. RESULTADOS: o quadro que a mãe apresentava em relação ao seu bebê, no início do tratamento, se encaixa na descrição de depressão pós-parto. Após as sessões, a mãe conseguiu estabelecer contato com seu bebê, de modo prazeroso; por meio da emissão da voz cantada, ela estabeleceu a primeira forma de comunicação e não mais apresentou o quadro de dor e perda da voz. CONCLUSÃO: a possibilidade de reconhecimento, do bebê por sua mãe, teve a corporeidade como aliada, na conjunção dos corpos da mãe e do bebê, o que favoreceu o estabelecimento de uma comunicação com sintonia de ritmos, por meio da entoação de música cantada, que levou à constituição do bebê enquanto pessoa integrada.BACKGROUND: to address one aspect of mother/baby relationship, that arises from the use of singing voice in their communicative process. PROCEDURE: the subject of this case study is a mother who undergoes eight sessions of body therapy (massage and exercises associated to the utterance of singing voice, always directed to the baby; the sessions offered the possibility of free expression through the mother's use of gestures and speech along with the therapist' listening. RESULTS: in the beginning of treatment, the reaction of the mother towards her baby fits precisely in postpartum depression description. After the sessions, she was able to keep a most pleasant contact with her baby; by means of the singing voice, she has got the first way of communication with her child and either pain or

  2. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  3. Activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways at the end of term are associated with inflammation and physio-somatic and depression symptoms, while predicting outcome characteristics in mother and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Matsumoto, Andressa Keiko; Nogueira, André de Souza; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Carvalho, André F; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Moreira, Estefania Gastaldello; Maes, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls. Pregnancy is accompanied by significantly increased AOPP and NOx, and lowered TRAP, -SH and LOOH. Increased O&NS and lowered LOOH and -SH levels are associated with prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, pain, dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal symptoms). Increased AOPP and NOx are significantly associated with lowered -SH, TRAP and zinc, and with increased haptoglobin and C-reactive protein levels. Increased O&NS and lowered TRAP and PON 1 activity, at the end of term predict mother (e.g. hyperpigmentation, labor duration, caesarian section, cord length, breast milk flow) and baby (e.g. sleep and feeding problems) outcome characteristics. Pregnancy is accompanied by interrelated signs of O&NS, lowered antioxidant defenses and activated neuro-immune pathways. Increased O&NS at the end of term is associated with perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms and may predict obstetric and behavioral complications in mother and baby. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Baby Boomers' intergenerational relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L; Pillemer, Karl A; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J Jill

    2012-04-01

    As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65-75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42-60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3-5 years from 1985 to 2005. These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers' personal values, family members' needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future.

  5. Mermaid baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia.

  6. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.

  7. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Loan P; Whaley, Shannon E; Gradziel, Pat H; Crocker, Nancy J; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Harrison, Gail G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, assessed preference for cash value vouchers (CVVs) for fruits and vegetables vs jarred baby foods, and examined whether preferences varied among selected ethnic groups. A survey of California WIC participants and statewide redemption data were used. Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV for fruits and vegetables and jarred baby foods, with statistically significant variation across ethnic groups. About two thirds of all participants reported a preference for CVVs for fruits and vegetables over jarred baby foods. Redemption data indicated declining redemption rates for jarred fruits and vegetables with increasing age of the infant across all ethnic groups. Although the addition of jarred fruits and vegetables to the food package for infants ages 6-11 months was well received, many caregivers want the option to choose between jarred foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  8. How to Keep Your Sleeping Baby Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first hour. After that, or when the mother needs to sleep or cannot do skin-to-skin, babies should ... Back is Best New Crib Standards: What Parents Need to Know Safe Sleep for Babies (Video) The Healthy Children Show: Sleep ( ...

  9. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  10. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  11. A life uncertain - My baby's vulnerability: Mothers' lived experience of connection with their preterm infants in a Botswana neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Rosinah K; Barlow, Hilary; Mayers, Pat M

    2016-08-30

    Preterm and low-birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P). Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother-infant attachment.

  12. Comparison of the fatty acid composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered healthy full-term babies, preterm babies and full-term small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobiński, R; Mikulska, M; Mojska, H; Simon, M

    2013-09-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk throughout the period of lactation is fairly well understood. What is not known, however, is the FA composition of breast milk at the interface of physiology and pathology of pregnancy. We therefore decided to analyse and compare the differences in the FA composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered small for gestational age (SGA) neonates born at term; infants delivered at 35-37 weeks of gestation, that is 'late preterm'; and that of mothers who gave birth to appropriate for gestational age neonates (AGA). The FAs were analysed by HPLC equipped with MS detector. We found differences in the percentage share of the studied FA pool regarding levels of capric, lauric and gadoleic acids. Comparing transitional and mature milk, the greatest diversity was seen in the group of mothers of AGA neonates and the least was noted in the group of mothers of SGA neonates. Both 'late prematurity' and reduced neonatal weight of children born at term affect the FA composition of breast milk. Even a small degree of fetal malformation alters the composition of breast milk, which is probably related to the child's needs and condition.

  13. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  14. Evoluções motoras e linguísticas de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento na perspectiva de mães Motor and language development of babies with delayed development from the mothers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiany Hekavei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a evolução do desenvolvimento motor e de linguagem em bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento a partir da perspectiva materna. Participaram do estudo seis mães de bebês com atraso de desenvolvimento. A pesquisa foi realizada numa instituição com programa de intervenção precoce e em ambiente domiciliar. Foram feitas entrevistas com as mães, por meio de um roteiro semiestruturado. O modo de compreensão das mães, tanto do processo de desenvolvimento motor, quanto linguístico dos filhos, indicou uma evolução no desenvolvimento dessas crianças. Uma das provas disso, foi a forma como essas mães se referiram ao desenvolvimento das crianças, antes destas ingressarem no programa de intervenção precoce e no momento atual. Conhecer e valorizar as percepções trazidas pelos cuidadores e particularmente pelas mães, implica em ampliar o entendimento dos seus saberes e práticas. Estes valores, por sua vez, podem ser utilizados no sentido de favorecer todo o processo de desenvolvimento infantil.The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of motor and language development in developmentally delayed babies from the mother's perspective. Six mothers of developmentally delayed babies participated in the study. This study was conducted in an institution that had an early intervention program and in the home environment. Interviews with the mothers were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The way the mothers understood both their children's processes of motor and language development was indicative of an evolution in these children's development. The ways these mothers reported on the development of the children before they entered the early intervention program and at present is evidence to this effect. To know and to value the perception that caretakers have about their children has to do with broadening their understanding and practices. These values, in turn, can be

  15. The factors influencing young mothers' infant feeding decisions: the views of healthcare professionals and voluntary workers on the role of the baby's maternal grandmother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Kate

    2014-04-01

    Increasing rates of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is important to ensure that infants achieve "optimal growth, development, and health" and could generate over £40 million in annual savings for the National Health Service. Interventions targeting young mothers are recommended because of low breastfeeding rates. Women's mothers have been identified as potential influences on whether women choose to breastfeed. This study explored health, social, and voluntary care professionals' perceptions of young mothers' attitudes to breastfeeding and the role of maternal grandmothers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine professionals working with young mothers. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data and identify key themes. Professionals felt that prevalent attitudes among young mothers who bottle fed were that breastfeeding is embarrassing, deviant from the social norm, and detrimental to their social life and relationships but that women understand the health benefits. Grandmothers were identified as important influences on some women, and, in particular, concerns were raised that grandmothers sometimes undermined intentions to breastfeed by offering to bottle feed infants. However, potential problems with involving grandmothers in breastfeeding promotion strategies were identified, and more pressing issues were raised, particularly inadequate postnatal support for young mothers. Professionals recognize grandmothers as an important influence and source of support for many mothers but identified other priorities for interventions, particularly improving the level of support in postnatal care. Their ultimate focus is to build positive relationships with women and empower them to make informed decisions.

  16. Baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  17. Studless Winter Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  1. Bringing Your Baby Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  3. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  4. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  5. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  6. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  7. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  8. Through babies' eyes: Practical and theoretical considerations of using wearable technology to measure parent-infant behaviour from the mothers' and infants' view points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Skinner, A; Bornstein, M H; Radford, A N; Campbell, A; Graham, K; Pearson, R M

    2017-05-01

    To explore the utility of first-person viewpoint cameras at home, for recording mother and infant behaviour, and for reducing problems associated with participant reactivity, which represent a fundamental bias in observational research. We compared footage recording the same play interactions from a traditional third-person point of view (3rd PC) and using cameras worn on headbands (first-person cameras [1st PCs]) to record first-person points of view of mother and infant simultaneously. In addition, we left the dyads alone with the 1st PCs for a number of days to record natural mother-child behaviour at home. Fifteen mothers with infants (3-12 months of age) provided a total of 14h of footage at home alone with the 1st PCs. Codings of maternal behaviour from footage of the same scenario captured from 1st PCs and 3rd PCs showed high concordance (kappa >0.8). Footage captured by the 1st PCs also showed strong inter-rater reliability (kappa=0.9). Data from 1st PCs during sessions recorded alone at home captured more 'negative' maternal behaviours per min than observations using 1st PCs whilst a researcher was present (mean difference=0.90 (95% CI 0.5-1.2, p<0.001 representing 1.5 SDs). 1st PCs offer a number of practical advantages and can reliably record maternal and infant behaviour. This approach can also record a higher frequency of less socially desirable maternal behaviours. It is unclear whether this difference is due to lack of need of the presence of researcher or the increased duration of recordings. This finding is potentially important for research questions aiming to capture more ecologically valid behaviours and reduce demand characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in a mother-baby prospective cohort study: Implication for vaccine development and insights into vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunming; Wen, Guoming; Cao, Xuelian; Guo, Dan; Yao, Zhenjiang; Wu, Chuan'an; Ye, Xiaohua

    2018-04-05

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of GBS colonized in mothers and their infants so as to provide implication for vaccine strategies and confirm vertical transmission. A prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 1815 mother-neonate pairs. All GBS isolates from pregnant women and her infants were tested for serotypes, multilocus sequence types and virulence genes. The relationship between multiple molecular characteristics of GBS isolates was tested by the correspondence analysis, and the agreement between mother-neonate paired data in molecular characteristics was analyzed using Kappa tests. The predominant serotypes were III, Ia and V, and the most prevalent sequence types (STs) were ST19, ST17, ST10, and ST12. All isolates carried at least one pilus island (PI). The most common combination of PIs was PI-2b alone, followed by PI-1+PI-2a and PI-2a alone, and the most prevalent alpha-like protein (alp) genes were rib, epsilon and alphaC. Moreover, a strong relationship was noted between STs, serotypes, alp genes and PIs, including ST17 associated with serotype-III/rib/PI-2b, ST19 with serotype-III/rib/PI-1+PI-2a, and ST485 with serotype-Ia/epsilon/PI-2b. The rate of GBS vertical transmission was 14.1%, and the kappa test revealed good agreement in multiple molecular characteristics among GBS-positive mother-neonate pairs. Notably, the switching of molecular characteristics was found during vertical transmission. Our findings underscore the value of monitoring multiple molecular characteristics so as to provide implication for multivalent strategies and gain insights into GBS vertical transmission and vertical characteristic switching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake and predictors of early postnatal follow-up care amongst mother-baby pairs in South Africa: Results from three population-based surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna; Cheyip, Mireille; Aynalem, Getahun; Dinh, Thu-Ha; Jackson, Debra; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Chirinda, Witness; Mogashoa, Mary; Kindra, Gupreet; Lombard, Carl; Goga, Ameena

    2017-12-01

    Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother-infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake. We analyzed data from three facility-based, nationally representative surveys (2010, 2011/12 and 2012/13) primarily designed to determine the effectiveness of the South African program to prevent MTCT. This analysis describes the proportion of infants achieving the WHO recommendation of at least 3 PNC visits. Interviews from 27 699 HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers of infants aged 4-8 weeks receiving their six week immunization were included in analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA 13.0 and weighted for sample ascertainment and South African live births. We fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to estimate factors associated with early PNC uptake. Over half (59.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.0-60.3) of mother-infant pairs received the recommended three PNC visits during the first 6 weeks; uptake was 63.1% (95% CI = 61.9-64.3) amongst HIV exposed infants and 58.1% (95% CI = 57.3-58.9) amongst HIV unexposed infants. Uptake of early PNC improved significantly with each survey, but varied significantly by province. Multivariable analysis of the pooled data, controlling for survey year, demonstrated that number of antenatal visits (4+ vs 12 weeks, aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.23), place of delivery (clinic vs hospital aOR = 1.5, 1.3-1.6), and infant HIV exposure (exposed vs unexposed aOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.2) were the key factors associated with receiving recommended PNC visits. Approximately 40% of

  11. Relação de escolaridade, faixa etária e profissão de mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos Relationship of schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação do grau de escolaridade, faixa etária e a profissão das mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 190 mães de crianças entre 0 e 10 anos de idade, com idades de 20 a 45 anos que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas a respeito de profissão, nível de escolaridade e uso de chupeta e mamadeira de seus filhos RESULTADOS: não foi observada diferença significante entre o grau de escolaridade quanto ao uso de chupeta (p= 0,915. O uso de mamadeira foi significantemente maior nos filhos de mães com ensino superior (p= 0,0124. Não houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária das mães e a presença desses hábitos nos filhos (chupeta: p=0,427; mamadeira: p=0,427; e, entre mães que trabalham em casa e que trabalham fora de casa (chupeta: p=0,061; mamadeira: p=0,798. Não houve diferença entre mães que trabalham na área da saúde e em outras áreas (chupeta: p=0,339; mamadeira: p=0,455 CONCLUSÃO: as mães com nível superior de escolaridade oferecem significantemente mais mamadeira aos seus filhos, o que não ocorreu quanto ao uso de chupeta. Não foi observada diferença significante quanto ao uso de chupeta e mamadeira em relação à faixa etária e profissão de mães.PURPOSE: to evaluate the relationships among schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children. METHOD: 190 mothers with ages varying from 20 to 45 having children from 0 to 10 took part in this study. Mothers answered a questionnaire with questions regarding profession, schooling level and use of nipples and baby's bottles by their children. RESULTS: no significant differences were found between mothers having primary or secondary education and mothers with higher education regarding the use of nipples (p= 0.915. On the other hand, baby's bottle use was significantly higher among children of mothers with higher

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  14. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  15. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  17. Breastfeed Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby breast milk only (no formula, juice, cow's milk, solid foods, or water). Give your baby ... vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  2. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  4. The Ububele Baby Mat Service – A primary preventative mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...

  5. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0054; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car...

  6. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  7. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-0054; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  8. The baby has not come: obstructed labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. This article is about how to recognize obstructed labour and deal with it in a way that preserves the life and health of mother and child. It is for midwives and others who work in maternity care and is based on our experiences in Yei, South Sudan. Obstructed labour means that the baby is too big to pass through ...

  9. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos...

  10. Dynamics of baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, B.M.A.G.; Schroers, B.J.; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Baby Skyrmions are topological solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional field theory which resembles the Skyrme model in important respects. We apply some of the techniques and approximations commonly used in discussions of the Skyrme model to the dynamics of baby Skyrmions and directly test them against numerical simulations. Specifically we study the effect of spin on the shape of a single baby Skyrmion, the dependence of the forces between two baby Skyrmions on the baby Skyrmions' relative orientation and the forces between two baby Skyrmions when one of them is spinning. ((orig.))

  11. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  13. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  14. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…

  15. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  17. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e- ... good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  2. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can easily lead ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  4. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... for sensitive skin.) Unless your baby has allergies , eczema/atopic dermatitis , or another condition causing sensitive skin, ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby ...

  6. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... doubled his or her birth weight. Is My Baby Growing Normally? Babies' growth begins to slow as ...

  7. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... a cause for concern. How Much Will My Baby Grow? By 5 months, your baby's birth weight ...

  8. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  9. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  10. Does "Wanting the Best" Create More Stress? The Link between Baby Sign Classes and Maternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Neil; Kirk, Elizabeth; Pine, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gesturing classes (baby sign) affected parental frustration and stress, as advertised by many commercial products. The participants were 178 mother-infant dyads, divided into a gesture group (n = 89) and a non-gesture group (n = 89), based on whether they had attended baby sign classes or not. Mothers completed a…

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  12. The New Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Helen

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of a South African priest and his wife who are ashamed when their daughter tells them she is going to have a baby. They refuse to have anything to do with her when she is pregnant. However, when the baby comes, everything changes and they come to accept and love the baby. Large black and white…

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get the hang of it! Don’t be afraid to ask for ...

  15. Improvement of wheel skidder tractive performance by tire inflation pressure and tire chains

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilov, Stanimir

    2007-01-01

    The motion resistance ratio, gross traction ratio and net traction ratio of a wheel cable skidder were determined and mathematical models derived for three tire inflation pressure values with or without tire chains on forest road in mountainous conditions. The motion resistance ratio increases with the increase of tire inflation pressure. On the contrary, the gross traction ratio increases with the decrease of tire inflation pressure. However, when the tires are equipped with tire chains t...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Noémi Hajdú; Katalin Lipták; Zsuzsa Săplăcan

    2018-01-01

    Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to rev...

  17. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  18. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  19. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  20. The LHC babies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  1. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  2. The impact of training non-physician clinicians in Malawi on maternal and perinatal mortality: a cluster randomised controlled evaluation of the enhancing training and appropriate technologies for mothers and babies in Africa (ETATMBA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellard David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in much of sub-Saharan Africa is very high whereas there has been a steady decline in over the past 60 years in Europe. Perinatal mortality is 12 times higher than maternal mortality accounting for about 7 million neonatal deaths; many of these in sub-Saharan countries. Many of these deaths are preventable. Countries, like Malawi, do not have the resources nor highly trained medical specialists using complex technologies within their healthcare system. Much of the burden falls on healthcare staff other than doctors including non-physician clinicians (NPCs such as clinical officers, midwives and community health-workers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate a project which is training NPCs as advanced leaders by providing them with skills and knowledge in advanced neonatal and obstetric care. Training that will hopefully be cascaded to their colleagues (other NPCs, midwives, nurses. Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with the unit of randomisation being the 14 districts of central and northern Malawi (one large district was divided into two giving an overall total of 15. Eight districts will be randomly allocated the intervention. Within these eight districts 50 NPCs will be selected and will be enrolled on the training programme (the intervention. Primary outcome will be maternal and perinatal (defined as until discharge from health facility mortality. Data will be harvested from all facilities in both intervention and control districts for the lifetime of the project (3–4 years and comparisons made. In addition a process evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. interviews will be undertaken to evaluate the intervention implementation. Discussion Education and training of NPCs is a key to improving healthcare for mothers and babies in countries like Malawi. Some of the challenges faced are discussed as are the potential limitations. It is hoped that the findings

  3. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  4. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Organic foods: Health and environmental advantages and disadvantages. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e1406. Morin K. Organic baby ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  5. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  7. Baby Skyrmion chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, David

    2010-01-01

    The Baby Skyrmion model is a two-dimensional analogue of the full three-dimensional Skyrme model. It is not just useful for guiding investigations in the Skyrme model, it also has applications in condensed matter physics. Previous results on multi-charged Baby Skyrmion solutions have pointed to a modular structure, comprised of charge two rings and single charge one Skyrmions, which combine to form higher charged structures. In this paper we present alternative numerical solutions that correspond to new finite Baby Skyrmion chains, which have lower energy than those found previously, and are also good candidates for the global minimum energy solutions. We then proceed from the infinite plane, to Baby Skyrmions on a cylinder and then a torus, to obtain the solutions of periodic Baby Skyrmions, of which periodic segments will correspond to sections of large charge Baby Skyrmions in the plane

  8. Tire-soil interaction model for turning (steered) tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafiath, L. L.

    1985-07-01

    A review of the experimental information on the development of lateral forces on tires traveling at an angle to their center plane is presented and the usefulness of the consideration of the lateral forces for the development of an analytical model is evaluated. Major components of the lateral force have been identified as the forces required to balance the tractive force and the drawbar pull vectorially. These are the shear stresses developing in the contact area and the horizontal component of the normal stresses acting on the in-ground portion or the curved side walls of the tire. The tire-soil interaction model for steady state straight travel has been expanded to include the necessary algorithms for the calculation of these lateral forces. The pattern of tractive force-slip and longitudinal-lateral force relationships is in general agreement with experiments.

  9. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  10. Noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    We subject the baby Skyrme model to a Moyal deformation, for unitary or Grassmannian target spaces and without a potential term. In the Abelian case, the radial BPS configurations of the ordinary noncommutative sigma model also solve the baby Skyrme equation of motion. This gives a class of exact analytic noncommutative baby Skyrmions, which have a singular commutative limit but are stable against scaling due to the noncommutativity. We compute their energies, investigate their stability and determine the asymptotic two-Skyrmion interaction.

  11. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  12. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  13. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  14. Estudo pessoa-processo-contexto da qualidade das interações entre mãe-adolescente e seu bebê A person-process-context study of the quality of interactions between the teenage mother and her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bigras

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: entender os mecanismos de transmissão das dificuldades psicossociais, diante dos processos de interação entre a mãe-adolescente e filho. A hipótese é que a qualidade das trocas mãe-filho depende de fatores de riscos associados às características da mãe e características da criança. MÉTODO: OBSERvação direta da qualidade das trocas entre 97 adolescentes primíparas e filhos, de 4 meses de idade. As adolescentes estavam na faixa de 13-18 anos na 26ª semana de gravideze. As gestantes completaram questionários relativos à preparação à maternidade e história de abusos emocional. RESULTADOS: a falta de conhecimentos sobre o desenvolvimento e a natureza dos cuidados dispensados à criança está associada a trocas maternas insensíveis com a criança aos 4 meses. Observou-se um efeito de interação entre as características da mãe (conhecimentos da maternidade e abuso sexual antes do seu nascimento e o sexo do bebê. CONCLUSÃO: Estes efeitos de interação entre as características da mãe e de seu filho podem favorecer o ciclo de reciprocidade negativa que, com o tempo, interfere cada vez mais em relações interpessoais harmoniosas, mais freqüentemente observado quando os parceiros são reativos perante a adversidade, os quais estão em menor condições de pacificar as trocas.OBJECTIVE: To understand the transmission mechanisms of psychosocial difficulties prompted by teenage mother and baby interactions. The hypothesis is that the quality of the mother-child exchanges relies on linked with the characteristics of the mother, such as being abused and poor preparation for motherhood, as well as the characteristics of the child. METHOD: Direct observation of the quality of exchanges between 97 primipara adolescents and their four month old babies. The teens were 13-18 years old, in the 26th week of pregnancy, from four homes run by the Youth Center in Montréal and Rosalie-Jetté School. They completed questionnaires

  15. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  16. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  17. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  18. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  19. Smokefree After Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many women quit smoking when they become pregnant. However, about 40 percent start smoking again 6 months after they have their baby. Quitting smoking has benefits for you and your baby that last longer than the 9 months of your pregnancy.

  20. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  1. T P Nafeesa Baby

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. T P Nafeesa Baby. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 80 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 289-294 Research Articles. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field · K A Vijayalakshmi T P Nafeesa Baby.

  2. (AGA) Pre Term Babies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological Indices in Healthy Appropriate For-Gestational-Age (AGA) Pre Term Babies. ... International Journal of Medicine and Health Development. Journal Home ... Patient and Methods: All consecutive healthy pre-term new born babies delivered at UNTH and admitted into the hospital NBSCU were included.

  3. CASE REPORT Mermaid baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2010. Abstract. We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia. Case report. A 40-year-old woman delivered a baby at 36 ...

  4. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...

  5. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  6. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  7. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  8. Interação mãe-bebê em contexto de depressão materna: aspectos teóricos e empíricos Mother-baby interaction in the context of maternal depression: theoretical and empirical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Bitencourt Frizzo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo revisar a literatura sobre a interação mãe-bebê em situação de depressão materna. Em particular, buscou-se analisar os diversos fatores que podem mediar o impacto da depressão materna no desenvolvimento do bebê, dentre eles a idade da criança, o seu temperamento, a cronicidade do episódio depressivo materno e o estilo interativo da mãe deprimida. A literatura revisada revela que a depressão afeta não só a mãe, mas também o bebê e até mesmo o próprio pai, em vista da influência deste quadro no contexto familiar. Alguns estudos sugerem ainda que a presença do pai e a ausência de conflitos conjugais são fatores que podem amenizar os efeitos da depressão materna para o bebê.The aim of the present study was to review the literature on mother-infant interaction in the context of maternal depression. Particularly, it aimed to examine several factors that could mediate the maternal depression impact on infant development, such as the child's age and temperament, the chronicity of the maternal depression episode and the depressed mother's interaction style. The literature reviewed shows that depression affects not only the mother, but also the baby and even the father, because of its influence on the family context. Some studies also suggest that the father's presence, as well as, the absence of marital conflict , may buffer the maternal depression effects on the baby.

  9. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  10. A 9-Year-Old Girl Discovers That Her Mother Was Murdered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, David J; Shekunov, Julia; Jellinek, Michael; Stein, Martin T

    Susan was a 9-year-old girl living with her mother; she had never met her father. Her mother returned one evening from her job as a cocktail waitress and Susan met her at the apartment door to let her know they had run out of cat food. Her mother said she would go and buy some the next morning because it was late and she was tired, but Susan insisted she go out that evening because the cat had not eaten all day. Her mother was fatally shot in the parking lot of the convenience store shortly thereafter; since there was no robbery involved, the police suspected it was someone that she knew. Susan's extended family had her move out of the apartment that evening and relocate to live with her aunt and uncle out-of-state. The transition happened quickly. Susan was unable to return to her apartment to pick up any additional belongings and never returned to say goodbye to her friends. The family decided she was too young to attend the funeral.Susan had trouble fitting in with her aunt and uncle's family; they had 2 children who were 8 and 6 years old, and Susan felt she was being treated like a baby. She resented having a bedtime (her mother allowed her to stay up as late as she wished), and she complained that the work at school was boring and her classmates were childish. When the family went to a festival in town, she left abruptly without telling them, which frightened Susan's aunt and uncle. They wanted to be supportive but felt that she needed more structure than her mother had provided her. Susan's aunt and uncle sought bereavement support for Susan from her pediatrician and parenting advice for themselves.

  11. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  13. Visión de las madres en el cuidado del hijo prematuro en el hogar Visão das mães no cuidado do filho prematuro em casa Vision of mothers in care of premature babies at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Castiblanco López

    2011-07-01

    e analisada segundo a entrevista e análises etnográficos de James Spradley. Participantes: oito mães de recém nascidos prematuros que compareceram para controle no Programa Mãe Canguru Integral, Hospital Universitário São Ignácio, entre novembro de 2007 e maio de 2008. Resultados: surgem duas questões: cuidados diretos ao recém nascido prematuro e o caminho até a adaptação. O cuidado direto ao recém nascido prematuro em casa implica para a mãe carregar, massagear, proteger do frio, alimentar à criança, manter a higiene, conservar a proteção do médio, dar amor, suprir oxigeno suplementar ao bebê quando o precisar e saber sobre os sinais da criança. O caminho para a adaptação materna está dirigido a um objetivo para as mães: "criar a criança". Elas expressam que as noites são muito difíceis e expressam seus sentimentos e finalmente descrevem a adaptação materna ao hábito. Conclusão: a visão das mães sobre o cuidado do recém nascido prematuro é universal: "cuidar muito da criança" e ficar sempre atenta; por outro lado, a conotação de cuidado é diversa porque cada mãe o cataloga, desde sua própria percepção, como cuidado extremo, básico, essencial e especial. Também as mães compartilharam crenças, valores, tradições e mitos.Purpose: To describe the significance of taking care of premature babies at home for mothers, from their cultural context. Design: qualitative ethnographic study based on Madeleine Leininger's theory. Sample: Information obtained from observation and 23 interviews to mothers at home was collected and analyzed in accordance to the interview and James Spradley ethnographic analysis. Participants: eight mothers of premature newborns attending control at the Integral Kangaroo Mother Program (Programa Madre Canguro Integral, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, between November 2007 and May 2008. Results: Two subjects arise: premature newborn care and the way to adaptation. Direct care to premature

  14. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  15. Model-based state estimator for an intelligent tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A. P.; Schmeitz, A. J.C.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  16. Model-based State Estimator for an Intelligent Tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  17. Healthy Smile for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby is 1 year old before feeding him cow’s milk. m Hold your baby while feeding him breast milk or formula in a bottle. m ... your baby is 1 year old before giving him juice. m When your baby is around 4 ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  20. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk is easier to digest than formula. • Breast milk contains antibodies that protect infants from certain illnesses, such as ear infections, diarrhea, respiratory illnesses, and allergies. The longer your baby breastfeeds, ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your ... milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  3. Babies Need Tummy Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | Share Your Story Register | Sign In Hi | Your dashboard | sign out Donate ... DONATE sign up sign in sign out account center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for ... Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity research Birth defects research Infant ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  11. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  12. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  13. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility Sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en sistema de alojamiento conjunto Sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em sistema de alojamento conjunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.Estudio realizado con el objetivo de conocer los sentimientos de madres al amamantar a sus bebés prematuros en Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, realizándose entrevistas individuales con 33 madres acompañantes en el período comprendido entre febrero y abril de 2006, en una maternidad escuela de Natal / RN / Brasil. Los principales sentimientos referidos por esas madres resultaron en tristeza, culpa, decepción, frustración, inseguridad, miedo de tocar, asegurar o hasta incluso de perjudicar a sus delicados bebés mientras eran amamantados. No obstante eso, el vínculo creado por madres y bebés cuando los mismos reciben el alta de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal para el Sistema de Alojamiento Conjunto, se manifiesta en los sentimientos de realización y orgullo, los cuales son determinados por la satisfacción de la primera lactancia.Estudo teve o objetivo de conhecer os sentimentos de mães ao amamentarem seus bebês prematuros em Sistema de Alojamento Conjunto. Entrevistas individuais foram realizadas com 33 mães acompanhantes no período de fevereiro a abril de 2006, em uma maternidade-escola de Natal/RN/Brasil. Os principais

  14. Effects of emotionally affect adult and baby' photographs in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients evaluating by exploratory eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Chizuko; Morita, Kiichiro; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Fujiki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasue; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mother and baby is of fundamental importance in the development of cognitive function and emotion. In this study we investigated the effects of affective photographs of a mother and baby (crying or smiling faces) and other stimuli (neutral mother or baby faces) on visual cognitive function in schizophrenic patents. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 22 healthy controls and 22 age-matched schizophrenic patients. Total number of right and left field gaze points (right TNGP, left TNGP) in the visual fields were determined using an eye-mark recorder as subjects viewed affectively charged or neutral photographs (crying, smiling or neutral faces). Left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral) were significantly larger in controls than patients, and right TNGP for neutral mother photographs were significantly larger in controls than in patients. Right TNGP for photographs of smiling babies were significantly larger in controls than patients, and left TNGP for photographs of both smiling and crying babies were significantly larger in controls than patients. Within the patient group, right TNGP were significantly larger than left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral). Left TNGP for photographs of mothers and babies correlated negatively with negative symptom scores. These results suggest that exploratory eye movements when viewing emotionally laded twin stimuli such as photographs of a mother and baby are a useful marker of visual cognitive function in both healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  15. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Tire Tread Modeling 4  4.  Setting Tire Thickness 7  5.  Changing the Rim Width 9  6.  Changing the Radial Location of the... treaded or nontreaded model in the tire -model.c combination based on the analysis. 4. Setting Tire Thickness Tire thickness is manipulated via... tread is not modeled by default but can be added using options. • Fine-grained control of parameters such as tire thickness is available with

  16. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  18. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  19. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  20. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  2. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  3. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Hajdú

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to reveal the behavioural similarities and differences between the two countries. To meet this aim, a questionnaire-based quantitative research was designed. The sample consists of 993 mothers (590 from Hungary and 403 from Romania with small children. Results show that there is a difference between Romanian and Hungarian mothers regarding the baby food buying habits. The profile of the mothers buying jarred baby food can be characterised by living in towns, with one or two children, and the propensity to give jarred baby food to their child is growing with their age. The mothers agree that the labels contain tiny, unreadable letters, disordered information, unknown expressions and bad translation. The Hungarian mothers pay more attention to the indication of allergen and to the ingredients list. The most important information cluster they seek on a label is related to product ingredients, the second is related to usage of baby food and the least important are the label design elements. The paper provides insightful results for the producers and policy-makers to improve the baby food label quality to help consumers to make better, healthier and safer food choices for their children.

  5. Percepções de mães de prematuros acerca da vivência em um programa educativo Percepciones de madres de prematuros acerca de la vivencia en un programa de educación en salud Perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Magalhães Ferecini

    2009-06-01

    posibilidades de socializar el conocimiento con la familia; el Programa como espacio para la relajación y la escucha; y desarrollando el vínculo afectivo con otras madres y con la enfermera. CONCLUSIÓN: Frente a los resultados positivos de este estudio, se recomienda que los programas educativos de esa naturaleza y ampliados con la participación de otros miembros de la familia del prematuro sean implantados en otras unidades neonatales.OBJECTIVE: To identify the perceptions of mothers of premature babies regarding their experience with a health educational program using participant observation methodology. METHODS: Thirty-eight mothers of inpatient premature babies of a neonatal unit participated in the health educational program. The goal of the educational program was to provide mothers with the knowledge and skills to care for their premature babies. Paulo Freire's theory of education served as the framework for the study. An educational booklet and group activities were used to stimulate mothers' perceptions regarding the educational program. A thematic analysis was used to identify the perceptions of mothers regarding the educational program through participants' talk. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: The development of mothers' knowledge by participating in the educational program; the potential for mothers to share the acquired knowledge with family members; the education program as a medium and place for relaxing and listening; and the development of an affective bond with other mothers and the nurse. CONCLUSION: Given the positive results of this study, it is recommended that such educational programs in neonatal units expand to include the participation of other family members or premature babies as well.

  6. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  7. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  8. Alkaptonuria diagnosed in a 4-month-old baby girl: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Asok K; Mandal, Syamali; Dasgupta, Anindya; Ghosh, Tarun K

    2008-01-01

    The mother of a four month old female baby attended in the well baby clinic with the complaint of black staining of the diaper after few minutes of urination. The baby was born of a non consanguineous marriage, healthy and breast fed. Mother noticed that stain first at the age of two and half month. The urine when kept in a test tube for two hours turned black. Laboratory examination of urine revealed increased concentration of homogentisic acid. The patient was diagnosed as alkaptonuria. PMID:19014543

  9. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  10. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby's provider if ...

  11. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    The way a HIV+ mother feeds her baby affects the child's risk of: • Becoming ... mothers with HIV is exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. .... Thaczuk D. & Safreed-Harmon K. ART use in mothers with low CD4 cell counts reduces breastfeeding transmission ... This article is based on information in chapters. 6 and 7 of ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  13. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  14. Spitting Up in Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done. If your baby’s reflux is causing health problems, your doctor may prescribe medicine. This medicine is the same ... Is my baby at risk for any health problems? Last Updated: February 8, 2018 ... of Family Physicians This information provides a general overview and may ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Product Catalog Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners ... strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  17. How Babies Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2018-01-01

    Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…

  18. Choosing Safe Baby Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wipes within your reach, but out of your baby’s reach. Car seat: The law requires drivers to place a child in a car seat designed for the child’s age, weight, and height. These requirements can vary by state and include: Rear-facing car seats for babies up to age 2. Forward-facing car seats ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief ... health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  20. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  1. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  2. Baby Naps: Daytime Sleep Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... won't harm your baby. It's common for babies to cry when put down for sleep, but most will quiet themselves if left alone for a few minutes. If the crying lasts longer than a few minutes, check on your baby and offer comforting words. Then give him or ...

  3. Usage of post-consumer tires as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vovk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of post-consumer tires accumulation and recycling both in Europe and Ukraine. It describes general tires properties, their structure and composite elements which are valuable secondary resources. Also there are analyzed the most known methods of used tires treatment and final product of tires utilizations.

  4. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire identification requirements. 574.5 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.5 Tire identification requirements. Each tire manufacturer shall conspicuously label on one...

  5. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  6. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    OpenAIRE

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The opportunity lies in the wide availability of the material and in the fact that passenger car tires form a huge potential market for recycled rubber. The aim of this study is to develop a de-vulcanizatio...

  7. The ART of marketing babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  8. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  9. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    with tire tread . By varying the thickness and geometry of the polyurethane soft layer, this unique tire -wheel assembly can generate a wide array of...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire , and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be...be for an optimized shape. Fig 8 shows the actual process applied to a current tire . The carbon fiber was added by removing the tread , cutting

  10. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  11. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  12. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Chen Liang; Jing Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5) was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS). The ti...

  13. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Shaken baby syndrome; Shaken-baby-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [German] Das Shaken-baby-Syndrom (SBS) oder Schuetteltrauma des Saeuglings beschreibt die Koinzidenz subduraler Haematome, retinaler Blutungen und prognostisch unguenstiger, diffuser Hirnschaeden durch heftiges Schuetteln eines Saeuglings. Die klinischen Symptome umfassen Irritabilitaet, Trinkschwierigkeiten, Somnolenz, Apathie, zerebrale Krampfanfaelle, Apnoe, Temperaturregulationsstoerungen und Erbrechen durch Hirndruck. Leichtere Symptome des SBS werden haeufig nicht diagnostiziert, die Dunkelziffer ist wahrscheinlich viel hoeher. Die Diagnose des SBS wird durch die typische Symptomkonstellation gestellt

  15. Baby universe theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    1989-12-01

    We give an elementary review of the so called 'the theory of baby universes' which is a series of ideas or speculations about some effects in quantum gravity, viz. the effect of a certain type of wormholes, representing the exchange of small 3-space universes called baby universes. We consider this 'theory' as being physically and scientifically a very promising candidate for a theory of everything. It is, however, mathematically lacking any strong foundation at all. It solves several fine-tuning problems: First of all the cosmological constant problem, and also the strong CP-problem and the hierarchy problem. We also speculate that it might predict the possibility of influencing the probability distributions of the outcome of quantum mechanical measurements at one time by acts at a later time. (orig.)

  16. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  17. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged zero to four months: a community-based study of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Zekiye

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that affect exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged 0-4 months. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend feeding babies of 0-6 months exclusively with breast milk and starting complementary foods after the sixth month. In Turkey, however, a vast majority of babies 1-5 months of age (89.4%) are given complementary foods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in central Ankara province, with a sampling of 514 individuals who were selected using the convenience sampling method. Of the 514 mothers who participated in my research, 260 (50.6%) were found to be feeding their babies exclusively with breast milk; 77 (15.0%), with breast milk + water; 87 (16.9%), with breast milk + baby formula; 70 (13.6%), with breast milk + baby formula + other foods; and 20 (3.9%), baby formula + other foods. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis results, the mother's employment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.488; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.288-0.827) considerably reduced the incidence of complementary foods, while frequent crying of the baby (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.125-2.530) significantly increased the use of supplementary foods in infant nutrition. This study concluded that frequent crying of the baby increases the likelihood of giving the baby complementary foods. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently. Exclusive breastfeeding of babies aged 0-6 months is crucial for the development and growth of the baby and instrumental in reducing infant morbidities and mortalities. One factor that increases the likelihood of provision of complementary foods is frequent crying of the baby. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently.

  18. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  19. LAMELLAR ICHTHYOSIS (COLLODION BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramarta IGE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyosis are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorder of keratinization which affected the epidermis characterized by presence of visible scales on the skin surface in the absence of inflammation. It can occur as a disease limited to the skin or in association with abnormalities of other organ systems. Lamelar ihthyosis (LI is one of two mayor autosomal recessive ichthyosis with an incidence of approximately one in 300,000. The diagnosis is based on clinical and pathologic finding. Infection is the most common complication, while prognosis of LI is depends on severity and complication of the disease. A case of lamellar ichthyosis in 0 day Balinese female baby was reported. The skin of the body was thick, plate-like appearance, scaling on the entire body, some of the thick skin was ruptured on chest and extremities. There were eclabium on the mouth and ectropion on the eyes. Histopathology examination showed hyperkeratosis without perivascular infiltration lymphocyte. The baby was given breast feeding, antibiotic, hydrocortisone cream and olium olivarum. The prognosis of the baby is good.

  20. Mothers' knowledge on essential newborn care at Juba Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... Objective: To identify the gaps in the knowledge and practices of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers at Juba. Teaching Hospital .... Baby is kept warm after delivery by: -Skin to skin contact. 128. 33.3. -Wrapping baby in a cloth. 347. 90.4. Duration between birth and first bath: -Hours. 169. 44.1.

  1. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  2. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  3. Effect on Baby-Friendly Hospital Steps When Hospitals Implement a Policy to Pay for Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Y W; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Bai, Dorothy Li; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy M Y; Chan, Noel P T; Dodgson, Joan E

    2016-05-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative requires hospitals to pay market price for infant formula. No studies have specifically examined the effect of hospitals paying for infant formula on breastfeeding mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps. To investigate the effect of hospitals implementing a policy of paying for infant formula on new mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps and examine the effect of exposure to Baby-Friendly steps on breastfeeding rates. We used a repeated prospective cohort study design. We recruited 2 cohorts of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (n = 2470) in the immediate postnatal period from 4 Hong Kong public hospitals and followed them by telephone up to 12 months postpartum. We assessed participants' exposure to 6 Baby-Friendly steps by extracting data from the medical record and by maternal self-report. After hospitals began paying for infant formula, new mothers were more likely to experience 4 out of 6 Baby-Friendly steps. Breastfeeding initiation within the first hour increased from 28.7% to 45%, and in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding rates increased from 17.9% to 41.4%. The proportion of mothers who experienced all 6 Baby-Friendly steps increased from 4.8% to 20.5%. The risk of weaning was progressively higher among participants experiencing fewer Baby-Friendly steps. Each additional step experienced by new mothers decreased the risk of breastfeeding cessation by 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.95). After implementing a policy of paying for infant formula, breastfeeding mothers were exposed to more Baby-Friendly steps, and exposure to more steps was significantly associated with a lower risk of breastfeeding cessation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  5. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  7. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  8. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby's cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby's emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect baby's emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting baby's emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  10. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  11. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  12. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  13. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  14. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  15. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  16. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  17. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. JSW's baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis

  20. Polysomnographic evaluation of uninfected babies born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive mothers = Evaluación polisomnográfica de bebés no infectados nacidos de madres VIH-1 positivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila Melendez, Mario Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is a lymphotropic and neurotropic retrovirus. Thus, it causes immunological and neurological alterations particularly in children. In the neonatal period the maturational changes of the central nervous system occur rapidly, and their alteration can be reflected in processes such as the sleep-awake pattern. Objective: To evaluate sleep organization, EEG and respiratory pattern in newborns to HIV-1 positive mothers. Methods: 22 infants underwent polysomnography. Delta brushes number in REM and NREM sleep, duration of interburst interval and interhemispheric synchrony were used to calculate EEG maturation. Analysis of the sleep architecture was based on polysomnographic sleep percentage of REM, NREM and transitional sleep to total sleep time. Results: The difference between electroencephalographically calculated and clinically calculated conceptional age was less than two weeks. Percentages of REM and NREM sleep ranged from 39-64 and 30-58 with a median of 52.5 and 36.5 respectively. Concordance was lower in newborns who had high transitional sleep percentages, compared to that in newborns who did not have high such characteristic (p less 0.05. Discussion: Despite intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and to antiretroviral drugs we did not observe a significant effect on EEG maturation. The decreased concordance in newborns with high transitional sleep percentages would suggest an alteration in the maturation process, but this aspect itself is not sufficient to consider that intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and antiretrovirals affect the entire sleep architecture Future studies should clarify whether the decreased concordance between behavior and NREM sleep is replicable.

  1. How Active Is Your Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range). As your baby develops, take advantage of every opportunity to help stimulate her mind and body. From the earliest weeks of life, walk around the house while holding and interacting with your baby and say aloud the names of the objects that the ...

  2. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  3. Baby universes with induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Gao Hongbo

    1989-01-01

    In this paper some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. It is proved that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential

  4. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  5. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  6. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  7. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  8. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann

    2014-02-24

    Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the

  9. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  10. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  11. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  12. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  13. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW (birth weight below 2500g- case group and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group. The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test. Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042, and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.

  14. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  16. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    the body-ply is a linear elastic material. To facilitate the analysis, the tire was divided into Tread and Sidewall by the dash line as shown in...only one element is assigned through the thickness of the tire . Therefore, the thickness of the element is the same as the thickness of the tire ...to the whole part of the 3D full tire in the thermal analysis. The average strain energy density for each part ( tread or sidewall) in the cross

  17. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    understanding of this tire inspection area. But this better technical understanding will not guar - antee the success of either the industry or...control. Tires with very dark sur- face may be sprayed with talcum powder to improve their reflectance. Depending upon tire type and the required tire...products there has been a tendency to use some natural or synthetic cross-linking polymer gums which under extended heat conditions have tended to

  18. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S

    2000-12-01

    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Sirenomelia (Mermaid baby).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Jamshed; Shaikh, Muhammad Ali; Saleem, Nasir; Taqvi, Syed Raees; Jehan, Yaqoot; Batool, Tayyaba; Zameer, Naima; Mirza, Farhat

    2005-11-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly that rarely occurs as an isolated lesion. Several theories have been proposed regarding the etiopathogenesis. In this communication, we report a case of sirenomelia. Our patient was referred to hospital at the age of four hours. On examination, fusion of both lower limbs with hook shaped appendage, attached distally, absent genitalia and absent anal orifice was found. Spine was deficient in sacral region. Upper torso looked normal. Baby also had frothing from mouth. Abdomen was non-distended. Feeding tube no.10 was tried to pass through mouth, which got obstructed at the level of upper esophagus that suggested oesophageal atresia. The skeletogram revealed absence of pelvic bones, sacral agenesis, absent fibulae and fracture of both femora. The patient died at the age of 12 hours.

  20. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  1. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... car tires. The final rule also established reporting requirements for the generated performance... aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\ The final rule also... provide information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear...

  2. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  3. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  4. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  5. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When... the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d...

  6. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  7. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  8. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  9. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  10. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  11. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height-for-age (stunting), weight-for-height (wasting) and weightfor-age ... Up to 74.4% of mothers with children 0-6 months of age exclusively breastfed their infants. Few mothers (7.5%) gave breast milk to their babies immediately after birth, ...

  12. Attitudes of mothers and staff towards treatment and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies and children with multiple disabilities; paediatricians (including registrars) and nurses working in these units. Outcome measures. The preferences for developmental outcomes were compared between four groups: nurses, paediatricians, mothers of VLBW infants, ...

  13. how acceptable are the prevention of mother to child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or mother continue to use ARV.9 The baby's chance of survival is increased ... and acceptability of the infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers. Pretesting of the questionnaire was conducted among pregnant women attending ANC at the University College ... when any cell had a value less than five. Student's t test.

  14. 9592 THE EXPERIENCES OF HIV-POSITIVE MOTHERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and unemployed, participated during two visits to the study site. Responses to semi- ... Five major themes emerged: (i) benefits of breast milk to the mother and the baby ...

  15. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  16. Baby on Belly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available My work is inspired by the intricacies of family life and of familial relationships. In my painting, I gravitate irresistibly toward representing the domestic, in particular the lives of mother and children. My paintings use the human figure to express the vulnerability of motherhood and my own obsession not only with the dilemma of raising boys in a violently media-driven culture, but in its midst, caring for a son with a fatal genetic disease.

  17. Correlates of First-Time Mothers' Postpartum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chich-Hsiu Hung

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and its correlates following discharge from the hospital or clinic after vaginal delivery. One hundred and eightythree first-time mothers were enrolled from hospitals and clinics in Kaohsiung City. All first-time mothers reported normal pregnancies and vaginal deliveries, delivered healthy infants at term, and were surveyed during their postpartum periods after discharge from hospitals or clinics. The Hung Postpartum Stress Scale was used to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and stressors during their postpartum periods. The top ten postpartum stressors perceived by the women were: “the baby getting sick suddenly”, “the flabby flesh of my belly”, “the unpredictability of the baby's schedule”, “interrupted sleep”, “the shape of the baby's head due to the sleeping position”, “not sleeping enough”, “lack of information regarding infant's growth and development”, “the baby's crying”, “my life is restricted”, and “the baby choking during feeding”. There were no significant differences between the first-time mothers' demographic characteristics and their postpartum stress and its three components (negative body changes, maternal role attainment, lack of social support, respectively. Insight into the study results of first-time mothers' post- partum stress and stressors provides a reference for health professionals that the development of programs and resources addressing primiparous women's unique needs are required.

  18. Baby universes, fine tuning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao.

    1988-12-01

    We review the recently popular 'theory of baby universes' put forward by Banks, Coleman and Hawking. We then derive the strong CP breaking coefficient θ-bar to be very small, in a similar manner to the derivation of the cosmological constant being zero. A solution for an old controversy concerning the entropy creation in black holes is also discussed. We finally confront the baby universe theory with random dynamics. We conclude that the theory of baby universes is so successful that the essential features are likely true and might have to go into a right theory even if with some troubles at first. (author)

  19. Empirical Analysis of Pneumatic Tire Friction on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Troy Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic tire friction on ice is an under-researched area of tire mechanics. This study covers the design and analysis of a series of pneumatic tire tests on a flat-level ice road surface. The terramechanics rig of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) is a single-wheel test rig that allows for the experimental analysis of the forces and moments on a tire, providing directly the data for the drawbar pull of said tire, thus supporting the calculation of friction based on this data. This...

  20. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation on tire-aggregate friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce. Keywords: Tire, Aggregate, Friction coefficient, Microscopic mechanism, MD simulation

  1. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  2. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  3. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry Towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shota; Yoshitomi, Yasunari; Tabuse, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kou; Asada, Taro

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy) expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We per...

  4. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  5. Mother-Infant Interaction: a Process of Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Mônica Arpini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the first experiences to the psychological constitution and that such constitution is based on parental relationships, this study aimed to comprehend the aspects that indicate health and well-being in the mother-baby relationship, focusing on the moments of breastfeeding, cry, communication and interaction of the dyad. The study was grounded on observation and an interview with the mothers. Results emerged from content analysis and highlight the presence of indicators of the Child Development Risks Index (IRDIs in the relationship of the dyad, evidencing mothers hold knowledge about their babies. Final considerations emphasize the importance of the mother-baby relationship and suggest the inclusion of Clinical Indicators of Risk regarding Child Development in services of primary health care.

  6. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  7. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  8. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  9. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  11. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  12. Lazer para mães de bebês de risco hospitalizados: análise da experiência na perspectiva dessas mulheres Ocio para madres de bebes de riesgo: análisis de la experiencia en la perspectiva de estas mujeres Leisure for mothers of high-risk babies: analysis of the experience in these women's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2004-10-01

    entrevistas grabadas tuvieron como cuestión norteadora "Hable sobre su vivencia en esas reuniones de grupo". Verificamos que las madres consideraron las actividades "...buenas que crian vínculo" y "...es bueno, porque uno se distrae"; revitalizando las para el enfrentamiento del estrés de la longa internación. Destacaron la oportunidad de aprender algunos cuidados con el hijo a través de juegos y películas educativas - "Saca nuestras dudas, principalmente de aquellas que tienen prematuros", y de realizar trabajos manuales -"Bordado, que nadie sabia, aprendió", que revertieron en vestuario para el hijo. Concluímos que el programa contribuyó con el proceso de construcción de una asistencia más integral y humanizada, teniendo como foco la familia, ampliando la visión del hospital encuanto un espacio también de ocio.In view of the implementation of new care strategies for mothers of high-risk babies attended at neonatal units through a program involving play, recreation and educational activities, this study aims to analyze this experience according to these women's perspectives. A qualitative and descriptive study was conducted at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Seven mothers were interviewed who had attended at least three activity sessions in the program and signed an informed consent document. The interviews were taped and were guided by the following question: "Tell us about your experience in these group meetings". It was observed that the mothers described the activities as "...they are nice and help to establish ties" and "...they are good because we get some distraction", thus revitalizing them to cope with the stress from long hospitalization. They pointed out the opportunity to learn about some types of care for their children through games and educational films - "They solve many of our doubts, especially for those who have pre-term babies", as well as the opportunity to do manual work - "We learned how to embroider, which was

  13. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  14. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  15. The baby broker boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1986-06-01

    Annas comments on two 1986 court decisions involving surrogate motherhood: Surrogate Parenting Associates v. Kentucky and Smith v. Jones. In the first case, the Supreme Court of Kentucky ruled against the state's Attorney General in his attempt to revoke the charter of a company prompting surrogate arrangements. The court determined that the state's prohibition of child purchasing would not be violated if financial arrangements were worked out before conception and if the surrogate mother retained the right to cancel the contract up to the moment she relinquished her parental rights. In Smith v. Jones, a lower court judge in Michigan allowed an infertile ovum donor and her husband to be listed as the parents on a child's birth certificate, rather than the surrogate who had been artificially inseminated. Annas sees both decisions as accommodating the law to modern science, and as encouraging commercial surrogacy.

  16. The Australian baby bonus maternity payment and birth characteristics in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001-2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20-24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6, mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4 or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4, mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6, mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8, and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5. Interestingly, births to private patients (-4.3%, 95%CI = -4.8,-3.7 and births in private hospitals (-6.3%, 95%CI = -6.8,-5.8 decreased following the policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas.

  17. Bereaved mothers' attitudes regarding autopsy of their stillborn baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aims of the study, using an exploratory and descriptive research design to ... of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, ..... book. 1st ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2001. 13. Horey D, Flenady V, ...

  18. Integrated multisectoral approach to a sustainable mother and baby ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... public health facilities, which doesn't account for the many patients who use private, ... The data itself tends to be of poor quality, leading to widely varying statistics about ... Strengthening the collection and use of routine health data will also ...

  19. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  20. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2007-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight

  1. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight

  2. Baby Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  3. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    pasa por etapas antes de ver al bebé como suyo y confiar en sí. Posibilitar el toque en el hijo, comprendiéndola en su individualidad, singularidad que se mostró como un cuidado al recién nacido prematuro en su complexidad como ser-ahí.Study in the approach theorical-methodological heideggerian with the objective to reveal the meaning of being-mother that has the possibility to touch the premature baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. After approbation, was developed a phenomenological interview with nine women-mothers. The comprehensive analysis constituted eight units of significance, the hermeneutics allowed to reveal the existential movement of being-mother in the daily routine, in the ways of being of the inauthenticity and impersonality, moved by the talk, the ambiguity and fear, modes of occupation. By understanding how yours the possibility to have a premature baby, touch it gingerly and carefully, transits to an understanding in which no longer engages yourself, concerns yourself. By concerning yourself, the being-mother establishes the possibility of being-there-with-the-baby. Was possible to understand this way of being mother, in which pass by stages before seeing the baby like yours and to trust in yourself. Enable to touch the baby, understanding it in its individuality, uniqueness proved to be a care to the premature newborn in their complexity as being-there.

  4. Screening for Postpartum Depression in Well-Baby Care Settings: : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Angarath; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M.E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health problem frequently experienced by mothers in the first year postpartum. Early detection and treatment can help to reduce its negative effect on the development of the newborn child. Well-baby care (WBC) is a promising screening setting for

  5. Screening for Postpartum Depression in Well-Baby Care Settings : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mental health problem frequently experienced by mothers in the first year postpartum. Early detection and treatment can help to reduce its negative effect on the development of the newborn child. Well-baby care (WBC) is a promising screening setting for

  6. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  7. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  8. A new use for old tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  9. Baby Factories in Nigeria: Starting the Discussion Toward a National Prevention Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Olaleye, Olalekan; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Huntley, Svetlana S; Brown, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Baby factories and baby harvesting are relatively new terms that involve breeding, trafficking, and abuse of infants and their biological mothers. Since it was first described in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization report in Nigeria in 2006, several more baby factories have been discovered over the years. Infertile women are noted to be major patrons of these baby factories due to the stigmatization of childless couples in Southern Nigeria and issues around cultural acceptability of surrogacy and adoption. These practices have contributed to the growth in the industry which results in physical, psychological, and sexual violence to the victims. Tackling baby factories will involve a multifaceted approach that includes advocacy and enacting of legislation barring baby factories and infant trafficking and harsh consequences for their patrons. Also, programs to educate young girls on preventing unwanted pregnancies are needed. Methods of improving awareness and acceptability of adoption and surrogacy and reducing the administrative and legal bottlenecks associated with these options for infertile couples should be explored to diminish the importance of baby factories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Designer babies--why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  11. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Timing of specimen collection is crucial in urine screening of drug dependent mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, A C; Godolphin, W; Lockitch, G; Segal, S

    1988-01-01

    We compared results of urine drug analysis with clinical data and history to test the usefulness of peripartum drug screening and to establish guidelines for optimal testing. Urine from 28 mothers and 52 babies was analysed. Drugs not suspected by history were found in 10 mothers and six babies. Results assisted in the management of neonatal withdrawal in three babies. Drugs suspected by history were not found in 11/22 mothers and 23/35 babies. About half of these results were associated with delayed urine collection. In 12/28 mothers, drugs administered in hospital could have confused interpretation of screen results. We conclude that urine drug screening without strict protocols for specimen collection is of limited usefulness for management of drug abuse in pregnancy and neonatal drug withdrawal. We favour testing of maternal urine obtained before drugs are administered in hospital. Neonatal urine, if used, should be collected in the first day of life.

  13. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2004-01-01

    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  14. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  15. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianhu; Chu, Zhaojun; Liu, Yingfang; Luo, Weiming; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall h...

  16. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  17. Deterministic and Stochastic Semi-Empirical Transient Tire Models

    OpenAIRE

    Umsrithong, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The tire is one of the most important components of the vehicle. It has many functions, such as supporting the load of the vehicle, transmitting the forces which drive, brake and guide the vehicle, and acting as the secondary suspension to absorb the effect of road irregularities before transmitting the forces to the vehicle suspension. A tire is a complex reinforced rubber composite air container. The structure of the tire is very complex. It consists of several layers of synthetic polymer, ...

  18. The design and improvement of radial tire molding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented that the high accuracy semisteel meridian tire molding machine structure configurations, combining tyre high precision characteristics, the original structure and parameter optimization, technology improvement innovation design period of opening and closing machine rotary shaping drum institutions. This way out of the shaft from the structure to the push-pull type movable shaping drum of thinking limit, compared with the specifications and shaping drum can smaller contraction, is conducive to forming the tire and reduce the tire deformation.

  19. Utility of kangaroo mother care in preterm and low birthweight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers who practise KMC exhibit less maternal stress and fewer symptoms of depression, and have a better sense of the parenting role and more confidence in meeting their babies' needs than those who don't. Despite the apparent feasibility of KMC, currently, only a few preterm babies in low-income countries have

  20. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres.

  1. Mother's Behaviour Towards the Prevention and Treating of Children Under Five Years Old From Diarrhea in Belawa Community Health Center Service Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ningsih, Haryati; Syafar, Muh; Nyorong, Mappeaty

    2014-01-01

    A mother's role is very important when baby suffers from diarrhea, because mother is the figure most responsible for the baby's growth. According to the data from the Health Department, in 2011 until 2012 there were 12.942 babies who suffered from diarrhea in Wajo Regency, South Sulawesi. This study implemented a qualitative method with phenomenology approach. Informants were selected using the purposive sampling method, which is a method to select informants based on certain criterias. 11 in...

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  3. Experiments on Spray from a Rolling Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, Charles; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the mechanisms and statistics of droplet production for spray emerging from a rolling tire. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire contact patch in the form of a liquid sheet of non-uniform thickness. The sheet breaks into droplets as a result of several, organized instabilities. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6, for Weber numbers of 2700, 10900 and 24400. A technique to identify and size water droplets was developed and the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000μm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800μm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with increasing Weber number as (approximately) We-1/2. Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as a function of droplet size. The spread of droplet velocities about the tire peripheral speed is strongly correlated with droplet size. The spread can be estimated by a simple physical model incorporating rigid droplets subject to gravity and drag.

  4. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  5. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  6. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  7. Who benefited from the US tariffs on the Chinese tires?

    OpenAIRE

    Joonhyung, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...

  8. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  9. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  10. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  11. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comp...

  12. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  13. 29 BABY DUMPING AND EVOLVING BABY FACTORIES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    room for a conducive environment for child rights and social protection. ... new dimensions to include the worst of all forms of human trafficking issues ... of strict penalties for offenders in the bid to give every child born the benefit of ..... vein, the study conducted by Onuoha (2014) listed the causes of baby factory incidences to.

  14. Development of an Intelligent Tire Based Tire - Vehicle State Estimator for Application to Global Chassis Control

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kanwar Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The contact between the tire and the road is the key enabler of vehicle acceleration, deceleration and steering. However, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver`s ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road c...

  15. Riding on air: critical safety information for you and your tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This booklet is issued for public distribution by Transport Canada. It provides a few simple tips concerning automobile tire safety which, if followed, is expected to result in increased personal and vehicle safety, improved fuel economy, prolonged tire life, energy savings and reduced environmental pollution. The information provided include tips about tire pressure, tire inspection for damage and wear, rotation of tires for more even wear, replacing worn tires, the advantages of using snow tires in winter and an explanation of the meaning of the information found on the tire sidewall.

  16. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  17. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's state of development Can help prevent childhood obesity Recommendations During the first 6 months of life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will ...

  18. Crying Baby? How to Keep Your Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatal. If you're having trouble managing your emotions or dealing with parenthood, seek help. Your baby's ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/crying-baby/art-20046995 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  19. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G

    1999-01-01

    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  20. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  1. Mind-mindedness and maternal responsiveness in infant-mother interactions in mothers with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlby, S; Fernyhough, C; Meins, E; Pariante, C M; Seneviratne, G; Bentall, R P

    2010-11-01

    Previous cross-diagnosis studies of interaction between mothers with severe mental illness and their babies have concluded that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in interaction, but these studies have not included healthy controls. In-patients on a mother and baby unit, with diagnoses of schizophrenia (n=15), depressive mood disorders with or without psychosis (n=23), or mood disorders where mania was the predominant feature, with or without psychosis (n=12), were observed interacting with their infants on admission and discharge. Mothers' mind-mindedness and other measures of the quality of maternal and infant behaviour were coded. Findings from this sample were compared with those from healthy mothers and their infants (n=49). Compared with healthy controls, on admission depressed mothers were marginally less likely to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states. Both the depressed and mania groups were more likely to touch their babies and engage in attention-seeking behaviours. Interactional behaviours of mothers in the schizophrenia group were not markedly different from healthy controls. On discharge there were fewer differences between the clinical and healthy groups, although the depressed group continued to engage in more attention-seeking and touching behaviour and the mania group continued to touch their infants more. Only mothers in the schizophrenia group showed changes in interactional behaviours between admission and discharge, talking more to their infants. The findings challenge previous conclusions that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in their interactions with their babies, and demonstrate that mothers with severe mental illness are able to respond appropriately to their infants' cues.

  2. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  3. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…

  4. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  5. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Margaret

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  6. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Decisions to Make Delivery and Beyond Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen ... preschooler in planning for the baby . This will make him less jealous. ... you get them ready for the new baby. Buy your child (boy or girl) a doll so ...

  7. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Death without dignity for commercial surrogacy: the case of Baby M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1988-01-01

    The New Jersey Supreme Court's In re Baby M ruling is applauded for remedying the flawed opinion of the lower court by invalidating surrogate contracts, applying existing law to determine custody, and restoring the natural mother's parental rights. Portions of the decision highlighted are the court's rejection of the label "surrogate mother" and the claim that surrogacy promotes family building. The author analyzes the surrogacy contract's violation of existing adoption laws, the constitutional issues raised by the contract, the court's controversial ruling on custody, and responses to the opinion by commercial baby brokers. He concludes that legislation must be enacted now to prevent "full surrogacy," in which in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer render the gestational mother an incubator with no rights or interests in the child.

  9. [Impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index on baby's physical growth and nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Tan, Shan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Xiong, Changhui; Yan, Qiang; Lin, Ling; Li, Dimin; Yi, Juan; Yan, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To explore the impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index on baby's physical growth and nutritional status. A total of 491 pairs of mother-infant were divided into 3 groups according to mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): a pre-pregnancy low BMI group (BMIpregnancy normal BMI group (18.5 kg/m² ≤ BMIpregnancy high BMI group (BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m², n=72). Analysis of variance of repeated measurement data and the median percentage methods were used to compare the physical growth and nutritional status of babies in different groups. Baby's weight in the high BMI group were higher than that in the normal BMI and the low BMI group (F=3.958, P=0.020). The incidence of malnutrition in the low BMI group showed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=5.611, P=0.018), the incidence of overweight and obesity in the high and the normal BMI groups displayed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=18.773, 53.248, all PPregnancy BMI was correlated with the growth of baby. Too high or too low prepregnancy BMI exerts harmful effect on baby's weight and nutritional status. Medical workers should strengthen the education on women's pre-pregnancy to remind them keeping BMI at normal level.

  10. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  11. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  12. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section 27.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed...

  13. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section 29.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise...

  14. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  15. The experimental assessment of dynamic tire handling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of steady state tire handling performance is nowadays common practice with slip angle sweeps and breaking being simulated in the laboratory with drum or flat belt, or on the road with a test trailer. In recent years, more emphasis is put on dynamic tire models, motivated by ride comfort

  16. Enhanced friction modeling for steady-state rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der R.

    2010-01-01

    Tire modeling is nowadays a necessary tool in the tire industry. Car manufacturers, governments and consumers demand better traction under all circumstances, less wear and more recently less noise and a lower rolling resistance. Therefore finite element analysis is adopted in the design process of

  17. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  18. A rare case of haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamee Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a rare case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN with Bombay phenotype mother. A retrospective study of a case with severe haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother was done. Blood grouping, antibody screening, and lectin study was done on the blood sample of the baby and mother to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from the hospital laboratory information system for the analysis. Blood group of the baby was A positive, direct antiglobulin test was negative. Blood group of the mother was confirmed to be Bombay phenotype, Hematological parameters showed all the signs of ongoing hemolysis and the bilirubin level was in the zone of exchange transfusion. Due to the unavailability of this rare phenotype blood unit, baby was managed conservatively. Anticipating the fetal anemia and HDN with mothers having Bombay phenotype and prior notification to the transfusion services will be of great help in optimizing the neonatal care and outcome.

  19. Good Food for My Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Peggy Daly; Pizzo, Philip

    Prenatal and infant nutritional needs and eating patterns are described and illustrated (in picture-book style) in this brief story about a mother and her infant son. Balanced diets, vitamin supplements, breast feeding, weaning, and infant food preparation are discussed. Mothers are encouraged to breast feed because it is cheaper and "the…

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima Duchesne) and baby courgettes (C. pepo. L.) measuring 10 to 25...

  1. Anti-diphtheria immunity in Nigerian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Henry; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere; Oviawe, Osawaru; Sadoh, Wilson Ehidiamen

    2014-05-30

    Immunity to diphtheria has been noted to wane with age such that previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of females with characteristics comparable to those of Nigerian women of reproductive age have inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria. Thus, it is envisaged that Nigerian newborns may inherit inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria from their mothers. Cord blood and peripheral maternal blood samples were collected from 231 mother-infant pairs at delivery. Anti-diphtheria antibody titres were assayed using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Recruited babies were those born at term with normal birth weight. As much as 29.9% of both mothers and their babies had no protection (antibody titrediphtheria. Ninety (39.0% CI 33%,45%) mothers and 107 (46.3% CI 40%,52%) babies were inadequately protected (antibody titrediphtheria. The difference in the geometric mean antibody titres of mothers and babies was statistically significant (pdiphtheria. Vaccination of parturient women with booster doses of diphtheria toxoid vaccine is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  4. DEMOGRAPHIC-ANAMNESTIC PARAMETERS WHICH AFFECT IMPLEMENTATION OF BABY FRIENDLY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies and extensive researches, particularly during recent years, on the advantages of breastfeeding and the use of breast milk in infant`s nourishment, have stressed its immeasurable benefit to mothers, infants, family and society. The objective of the research was to ascertain demographic and anamnestic factors affecting the implementation of the baby friendly program. The study was undertaken at OGC CC Kragujevac and based on data from 432 women. The mean age of the examinees was 25,9 years and they were 6 months younger than the corresponding examinees from similar world researches. In most cases, the examinees were from urban areas and lived in bigger families, which did not affect the implementation of the program. With equal probability, it was the first or second pregnancy and in most cases, there were no hospitalizations during the pregnancy in both tested groups. Medications are more often used during the implementation of the baby friendly program. The reason for positive influence of the use of medications during the pregnancy on implementation of the baby friendly program probably lies in better supervision of the pregnancy. The gestation age did not influence the selection into the program. By means of higher level of supervision and by the use of medications during pregnancy, we can positively influence mother`s and infant`s starting with the baby friendly programme implementation.

  5. Evolving trends: hyperbilirubinemia among newborns delivered to rh negative mothers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Girish; S, Santosh; Sr, Keshavamurthy

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal jaundice is the commonest abnormal physical finding in the new born nursery and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) among babies born to Rh negative mothers is the most formidable etiology. During last few decades considerable evolution has been observed in this entity secondary to development of several novel preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. To study the current trends in presentation, management and outcome of hyperbilirubinemia among newborns delivered to Rh negative mothers. This observational descriptive study with prospective data collection included one hundred live born term babies born to Rh negative mothers in our hospital. A predesigned proforma was used to record antenatal and postnatal data .Cord blood collected during delivery for assessment of bilirubin,hematocrit and direct coombs test.Serum bilirubin levels were estimated in babies with clinical jaundice and treated for the same if required.All babies were regularly followed up weekly for one month. Chi square test/Fisher Exact test and Student "t" test has been used to find the significant association of jaundice(incidence,treatment) and study characteristics. Out of 100 babies enrolled, 57 babies developed jaundice. Jaundice is 2.7 times more likely associated with babies born to multiparous Rh-ve mothers with p=0.017*. Jaundice is 3 times more likely associated with Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers with p=0.020*. Jaundice is 3.97 times more likely associated with Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who have not received Anti-D with p=0.154. Treatment of jaundice is 2.75 times more likely in Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who have not received Anti-D with p=0.162. Duration of phototherapy is significantly more in Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who had not received Anti-D with p=0.0097*.Exchange transfusion was required in two babies. Although the incidence of Rh isoimmunization has declined dramatically over the years ,it is still an

  6. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  7. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  8. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  9. Replacing coal by tire powder in ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothe, C.G. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Escola de Quimica/CT/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mothe Filho, H.F. [Dept. de Geociencias, Inst. de Agronomia/UFRRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays preserving nature, recycling or reusing materials are good policies. Around ten million tires are put out by year in Brazil, and it is not known for how long they will remain in environment till their complete degradation. This research used tires to replace coal in ceramic processing. In this way it helps to protect environment, to reduce the consumption of mineral deposits and to save money. Results show that tire powder can replace coal to obtain ceramic material, using one percent of tire. Experiments were carried out using TA instruments SDT 2960, in air or nitrogen atmospheres, at heating rate of 10 C/min., flow 120 ml/min. TG/DTA curves of tire and coal have exothermic events at close temperatures between 450-600 C. At range of temperatures clay have endothermic events. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  11. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  12. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  13. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  14. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  15. Cocaine use and the breastfeeding mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding may have severe consequences for the baby due to its pharmacokinetic properties. Midwives need to be aware of the prolonged action of cocaine and be alert to the possibility of cocaine toxicity if a baby is excessively irritable and tachycardic. Euphoric highs are brief but breast milk and urine remain positive for long periods. Infant urine following exposure to cocaine via breast milk may remain positive for up to 60 hours. Mothers who snort cocaine should pump and dump breast milk for 24-48 hours. Passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke may also result in infants with positive toxicology screens. Cocaine powder should never be applied to the nipples of breastfeeding mothers.

  16. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  17. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability-free survival. The power of parent's voices has been important in high-income countries in bringing attention to preterm newborns, but is still missing from the most affected countries. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children

  18. Present situation of 'baby cyclotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Teruo

    1981-01-01

    A ''baby cyclotron'' has been developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. Its No. 1 model (proton 9.4 MeV) was delivered to the Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium in March, 1979. It is being used successfully for the production of 11 C, 13 N and 15 O and labeled compounds. The proton or deuteron particles accelerated in the cyclotron collide on target materials. The target box, which is automatically changeable, is directly installed to the accelerating box, thereby taking the safety measures for any leaking radiation. The following matters are described: the production of short-lived radioisotopes (RI yields and treatment); the processes of production in the Nakano Hospital, with No. 1 baby cyclotron, including the photosynthesis of labeled compounds such as 11 C-labeled glucose; the research on the automation in the synthesis of organic labeled compounds like 11 C-palmitic acid. (J.P.N.)

  19. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  20. Advanced Portable Preterm Baby Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Shaib , M.; Rashid , M.; Hamawy , L.; Arnout , M.; Majzoub , I. ,; Zaylaa , A. ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Nearly 20 million premature and Low Birth Weight infants are born each year in developing countries, 4 million die within their first month. These deaths occur due to the unavailability or unreliability of traditional incubators. Moreover, although Telemedicine is helpful in rural areas, the shortage of healthcare providers have made it inaccessible in both basic healthcare. Thereby, traditional preterm baby and low-birth weight incubators and therapeutic techniques la...

  1. Feeding by numbers: an ethnographic study of how breastfeeding women understand their babies' weight charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Fiona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weighing breastfed babies has been the subject of some controversy as the previous international growth chart was largely based on data from infants fed infant formula. The concern that professionals may be misled by the charts into suggesting to mothers that they supplement unnecessarily was a major impetus for the World Health Organization's investment in a new growth chart. Evidence of interpretation in practice has been scant. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a town in the Northwest of England to investigate this issue. In the first phase, women and health visitors were observed in the well-child clinic during clinic sessions and breastfeeding group meetings. In the second phase, longitudinal interviews with 14 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed up to three times in the first six months after the birth of her baby, with a total of 35 interviews. Results Mothers and health visitors focussed on weight gain with frequent weighing and attention to even minor fluctuations of the plotted line being evident. Women felt it important to ensure their baby's weight followed a centile, and preferred for this to be the fiftieth centile. Interventions included giving infant formula and solids as well as changing what the mother ate and drank. Women also described how they worried about their baby's weight. Little effective support by health professionals with breastfeeding technique was observed. Conclusion Babies were weighed more often than officially recommended, with weighing and plotting being at the core of each clinic visit. The plotted weight chart exerted a powerful influence on both women's and health visitors' understanding of the adequacy of breastfeeding. They appeared to rate the regular progression of weight gains along the chart centiles more highly than continued or exclusive breastfeeding. Thus weighing and visual charting of weight constituted a form of surveillance under the medical gaze

  2. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population.

  3. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards for a tire labeled as either load...-0107; Notice 2] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of... Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  4. 75 FR 17830 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... safety as it ``does not affect the safety, performance and durability of the tire; the tires were built... requirements. Continental said that it performs ongoing compliance testing ``to assure tire performance'' and that ``all tires included in this petition will meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS...

  5. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... subject tires in fact have more tread plies than indicated and meet or exceed all performance requirements...-0109; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured...

  6. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... noncompliant tires are mislabeled; the subject tires meet or exceed all performance requirements as required in...-0108; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC (BRIDGESTONE),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  7. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0109; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand replacement tires...

  8. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...-0056; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC),\\1\\ replacement tires for passenger cars... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles. YTC...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that tire...

  10. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on... than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no...

  12. Baby universes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS 2 xS 2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e -N ) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments

  13. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  14. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  15. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Recruiting pregnant smokers from Text4baby for a randomized controlled trial of Quit4baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Leah; Abroms, Lorien; Johnson, Pamela; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer; Bushar, Jessica; Singh, Indira; Cleary, Sean D; McInvale, Whitney; Turner, Monique

    2017-06-01

    Recruiting pregnant smokers into clinical trials is challenging since this population tends to be disadvantaged, the behavior is stigmatized, and the intervention window is limited. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of recruiting pregnant smokers into a smoking cessation trial by sending recruitment text messages to an existing subscriber list. Recruitment messages were sent to subscribers flagged as pregnant in Text4baby, a national text messaging program for pregnant women and mothers. Four recruitment messages were rotated to test the effectiveness of different emotional frames and a financial incentive. Study staff called subscribers who expressed interest to screen for eligibility and enroll eligible women. Between October 6, 2015 and February 2, 2016, 10,194 recruitment messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers flagged as pregnant, and 10.18% (1038) responded indicating interest. No significant increase in cancellation was observed compared to subscribers who received other ad hoc messages. Of respondents, 54.05% (561) were reached by phone for follow-up, and 21.97% (228) were found to be eligible. Among the eligible, 87% (199) pregnant smokers enrolled. The recruitment message with a pride emotional appeal had a significantly higher response (p = 0.02) compared to the recruitment message with no emotional appeal, but enrollment did not significantly differ between recruitment messages with different emotional appeals. The recruitment messages with a reference to financial incentive yielded higher response (p < 0.01) and enrollment (p = 0.03) compared to a recruitment message without. This study demonstrates success recruiting pregnant smokers using text message. Future studies should consider building on this approach for recruiting high-risk populations.

  17. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  18. Dielectric properties of various polymers (PVC, EVA, HDPE, and PP) reinforced with ground tire rubber (GTR)

    OpenAIRE

    Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Marín Genescá, Marcos; Ballart Prunell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Mass production of tires as well as its difficult storage or elimination is a real environmental problem. Various methods for recycling tires are currently used, such as mechanical crushing, which puts vulcanized rubber, steel, and fibers apart. The rubber may be used in several industrial applications such as flooring, insulations, and footwear. The present paper focuses on finding a new application for old used tires [ground tire rubber (GTR)]. To this end, tires dust has been mixed with va...

  19. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comparing with the other uses. There are a lot of studies conducted in these field, these studies suggests many methods to manage the huge number of scrap tires, the current paper aims to use the old rubber tires in engineering purposes (especially as a coupler joins the motor or engines with the other equipment as electric dynamo or pumps, the study focusing on the mechanical properties of a strip from a used tires and comparing with one prepared in the lab., and suggesting a new method to use as an engineering parts (for example the coupler lays between the IC engine and the dynamo of an electric generator. One of the results obtained from the experiments, there is no significant difference between the mechanical properties of the old and the new strip, (in the tensile test, the breaking force of the -Lab. tensile specimen- is 137 N whereas the specimen of old tire have a breaking force 113.27 N, but they are same in the elongation. A computational example is suggested to estimate the dimensions of a flexible coupler use an old tire pieces.

  20. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  1. The effect of mother's age, parity and antenatal clinic attendance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1 Incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and mean birth weight of babies from different age groups of mothers. Mother's. Number of Number of ..... Schneck ME, Sideras KS, Fox RA, Dupuis L. Low-income pregnant adolescents and their ...

  2. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCKS TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  3. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  4. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Germany. p. 18. 2. Oertel, C., On Modeling Contact and Friction Calculation of Tyre Response on Uneven Roads . Vehicle System Dynamics, 1997. 27(S1): p...touching the ground. This massless tip acts as a sensor point and can be used to detect the tire- road contact . Also, using the direction and value of the...superiority of this model as compared to other lumped parameter models currently available. Keywords: Wheeled Vehicle, Terramechanics, Off- Road

  5. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  6. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  7. Evaluating Home Day Care Mothers' Work with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    This checklist was developed to determine the skills of day care home mothers before and after training as observed by a day care home educator. Areas evaluated are: Professional Attitude; Parent Relationships; Nutrition; Health and Safety; Baby Care; Preparing the Teaching Environment; Guidance; Teaching Techniques, Language and Literature; Art;…

  8. Can mothers who have swine flu continue to breastfeed? Yes!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    The risk for H1N1 influenza transmission through breast milk is unknown. However, reports of viraemia with seasonal influenza infection are rare. Also unknown is the specific protection to the baby of the antibodies the mother passes through her breastmilk. However the strong recommendations from Centers for Disease ...

  9. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... thermia, hypoglycemia and nosocomial sepsis in neo- nates with birth weight ... for care for preterm babies with few neonatal care units, located often in .... Fig 2: Reasons for not practicing Kangaroo Mother Care in facilities of ...

  10. Barriers to timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine labour ward and delivery table, specific assignment to the staff in the delivery/ labour rooms help newly delivered mothers initiate breastfeeding early, and empowering the to request for babies are recommended. Keywords: breastfeeding, initiation, barriers. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol. 9(1) 2006: 57-64 ...

  11. Newborn cord care practices amongst mothers in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included biodata, age and sex of last baby, social class, place of antenatal care and delivery, and cord care practices. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and ten mothers participated in the study. 71.9% were of high social class. Over 80% received antenatal care in ...

  12. Mothers' recognition of newborn danger signs and health seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mothers were asked to identify danger signs of neonatal illness from a list of symptoms, to indicate which of the listed symptoms their babies experienced, to state what actions were taken in ... Unconsciousness and excessive crying were thought to be caused by evil spirits and consultations sought with faith healers.

  13. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.

  14. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  15. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  16. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  17. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  18. Intestinal colic in newborn babies: incidence and methods of proceeding applied by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal colic is one of the more frequent complaints that a general practitioner and paediatrician deal with in their work. 10-40% of babies formula fed and 10-20% breast fed are stricken by this complaint. A colic attack appears suddenly and very quickly causes energetic, squeaky cry or even scream. Colic attacks last for a few minutes and appear every 2-3 hours usually in the evenings. Specialist literature provides numerous definitions of intestinal colic. The concept was introduced for the first time to paediatric textbooks over 250 years ago. One of the most accurate definitions describe colic as recurring attacks of intensive cry and anxiety lasting for more than 3 hours a day, 3 days a week within 3 weeks. Care of a baby suffering from an intestinal colic causes numerous problems and anxiety among parents, therefore knowledge of effective methods to combat this complaint is a challenge for contemporary neonatology and paediatrics. The aim of the study is to estimate the incidence of intestinal colic in newborn babies formula and breast fed as well as to assess methods of proceeding applied by parents and analyze their effectiveness. Material and methods: The research involved 100 newborn babies breast fed and 100 formula fed, and their parents. The research method applied in the study was a diagnostic survey conducted by use of a questionnaire method. Results: Among examined newborn babies that were breast fed, 43% have experienced intestinal colic, while among those formula fed 30% have suffered from it. The study involved 44% new born female babies and 56% male babies. 52% of mothers were 30-34 years old, 30% 35-59 years old, and 17% 25-59 years old. When it comes to families, the most numerous was a group in good financial situation (60%. The second numerous group was that in average financial situation (40%. All the respondents claimed that they had the knowledge on intestinal colic and the main source of knowledge

  19. The Implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in Tire Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Abdul Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research had two main objectives. The first research objective was to make the right design of new product according to customer requirements with the implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in the tire industry. The second research objective was to enhance competitiveness based on the renewal of marketing strategy and consumer needs, non-explosive prohibition, non-slip tires, no bulgy, and competitive prices. The research was carried out by using costumer satisfaction rating by comparing with the competitor companies. Based on calculation using QFD method, it shows that split liner has the highest percentage of technical requirement in tire industry about 30,57%. The second factor is pattern design about 25,98%. Then, the third factor is compound technology about 22,68%. Therefore, the researchers can recommend several strategies for the quality improvement based on customer needs for the tire industry.

  20. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  1. The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis (1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the social benefits of EPA action to require more appropriate disposal of scrap tires versus the social costs of such an action.

  2. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  3. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  4. Deuterium dilution method for determining the Breast milk intake of babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Bilal, R.; Latif, Z.

    2000-11-01

    Various methods for measuring the milk intake of breast fed babies are available. Most methods are time consuming, cumbersome and inaccurate. The report describes various methods used for Breast Milk intake measurement with emphasis on the D/sub 2/O dilution method. The methodology of the D/sub 2/O dilution method is now streamlined in this Inst. for measuring the milk intake of babies. Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods used to determine the breast milk intake of the infants are also included in the present report. For the D/sub 2/O dilution method, and oral administration of small dose of deuterium oxide (sup 2/H/sup 2/O) is given to the mothers after collecting pre-dose samples. The post dose samples of urine from the baby and saliva from the mother are collected at 24 hours intervals over a 14 days period. These samples are analyzed on isotope ratio Mass spectrometer. The D/H values obtained over a 14 days period are then extrapolated to calculate the milk intake of babies using the Microsoft Excel Computer programme designed for this purpose. (author)

  5. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick; KANE, Malal; CEREZO, Véronique; DO, Minh Tan

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless, only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film su...

  6. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless,only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film suc...

  7. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  8. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  9. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  10. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (skin hydration when compared with using cotton wool and water (usual care). A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n=280), recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies) or cotton wool and water (140 babies). Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 %) babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4) vs. water 63.5 (14.2), p=0.47, 95% CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4) vs. water 63.6 (14.3), p=0.53, 95% CI -2.4 to 4.2). No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p=0.025 for complete responses). Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86207019.

  11. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  12. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. SIMULATION AND INVESTIGATION OF TIRE TREAD BLOCKS INTERACTION WITH ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Ružinskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car tire is an essential subject analysing its interaction with the road. From tire’s tread condition, geometry and rubber compound depends grip and vehicle stability. This is especially relevant in winter time, when roads are covered with the layer of snow or ice. Generally, new tires are tested in real traffic conditions using vehicles. However, ensuring these conditions requires many resources and sometimes it could be a big challenge. For this reason, simulation of the tire interaction with the road becomes more important in nowadays tire researches. Since the tire is a complex engineering subject, the tire tread blocks could be separated for individual analysis. The interaction between the dry ice and the tread block with sipes was analysed using finite element analysis. The tread block was described using hyperelastic Mooney­Rivlin material model. The deformations, distribution of the contact pressure and shear stresses were obtained for the soft and hard rubber compounds with different vertical load conditions. Also a solid tread block interaction was analysed and it was found that values of contact pressure and shear stresses are much lower comparing to siped tread block.

  14. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  15. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  16. Spray From a Rolling Tire: Mechanics of Droplet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocher, Dennis; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The spray pattern immediately behind a single-groove tire rolling on a wet surface is produced in the laboratory using a specially designed tire spray simulator. The spray development is examined using high speed video. Water from the groove forms a liquid sheet as the tire-tread lifts away from the surface. The sheet is not of uniform thickness, but it remains attached to the tread. The thinner portions of the sheet become even thinner as the tire rotates, and eventually break to produce holes near the tire surface. The holes grow as the sheet margins surrounding the holes retract into the thicker portions of the sheet which become roughly cylindrical "ligaments" aligned at right angles to the direction of spray motion. The ligaments break into large droplets via a Rayleigh instability. The smallest droplets form when the margins of two holes collide. As Weber number, We = ρU^2w/2σ , based on tire groove half width, w/2, varies by a factor of 25, the sheet-ligament structure persists, but ligaments become less organized, and more small droplets appear in the pattern.

  17. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  18. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  19. Using Baby Books to Change New Mothers’ Attitudes About Corporal Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.; Duncan, Greg J.; Auger, Anamarie

    2012-01-01

    Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the U.S. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers...

  20. Parental grief and relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelin, Pernilla; Rådestad, Ingela; Säflund, Karin; Wredling, Regina; Erlandsson, Kerstin

    2013-06-01

    to describe the grief of mothers and fathers and its influence on their relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby. a postal questionnaire at three months, one year and two years after stillbirth. a study of mothers and fathers of babies stillborn during a one-year period in the Stockholm region of Sweden. 55 parents, 33 mothers and 22 fathers. mothers and fathers stated that they became closer after the loss, and that the feeling deepened over the course of the following year. The parents said that they began grieving immediately as a gradual process, both as individuals, and together as a couple. During this grieving process their expectations, expressions and personal and joint needs might have threatened their relationship as a couple, in that they individually felt alone at this time of withdrawal. While some mothers and fathers had similar grieving styles, the intensity and expression of grief varied, and the effects were profound and unique for each individual. experiences following a loss are complex, with each partner attempting to come to terms with the loss and the resultant effect on the relationship with their partner. anticipating and being able to acknowledge the different aspects of grief will enable professionals to implement more effective intervention in helping couples grieve both individually and together. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.