WorldWideScience

Sample records for baav transcytosis requires

  1. KIF16B delivers for transcytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E.; Galvez-Santisteban, Manuel; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Epithelia that natively lack the clathrin adaptor AP-1B recycle basolateral proteins to their apical domain by transcytosis. Although microtubules are required for this process, KIF16B is the first kinesin identified to be involved in transcytosis.

  2. Colostrogenesis: IgG1 transcytosis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrucker, Craig R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-03-01

    Biological transport of intact proteins across epithelial cells has been documented for many absorptive and secretory tissues. Immunoglobulins were some of the earliest studied proteins in this category. The transcellular transport (transcytosis) of immunoglobulins in neonatal health and development has been recognized; the process is especially significant with ungulates because they do not transcytose immunoglobulins across the placenta to the neonate. Rather, they depend upon mammary secretion of colostrum and intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins in order to provide intestinal and systemic defense until the young ungulate develops its own humoral defense mechanisms. The neonatal dairy calf's ability to absorb immunoglobulins from colostrum is assisted by a ~24 h "open gut" phenomenon where large proteins pass the intestinal epithelial cells and enter the systemic system. However, a critical problem recognized for newborn dairy calves is that an optimum mass of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) needs to be absorbed within that 24 h window in order to provide maximal resistance to disease. Many calves do not achieve the optimum because of poor quality colostrum. While many studies have focused on calf absorption, the principal cause of the problem resides with the extreme variation (g to kg) in the mammary gland's capacity to transfer blood IgG1 into colostrum. Colostrum is a unique mammary secretory product that is formed during late pregnancy when mammary cells are proliferating and differentiating in preparation for lactation. In addition to the transcytosis of immunoglobulins, the mammary gland also concentrates a number of circulating hormones into colostrum. Remarkably, the mechanisms in the formation of colostrum in ungulates have been rather modestly studied. The mechanisms and causes of this variation in mammary gland transcytosis of IgG1 are examined, evaluated, and in some cases, explained. PMID:24474529

  3. Transcytosis shuts the door for an unwanted guest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Thordal-Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    been considered important for their function. However, recent insight indicates that transcytosis, leading to the formation of exosomes, has an important role in this defense and, furthermore, that strong accumulation of these SNARE proteins with the exosomes is biologically irrelevant. These findings...

  4. Nanoparticle accumulation and transcytosis in brain endothelial cell layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Raghnaill, Michelle Nic; Bramini, Mattia; Mahon, Eugene; Åberg, Christoffer; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2013-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier, which controls and limits access to the central nervous system (CNS). The selectivity of the BBB relies on specialized characteristics of the endothelial cells that line the microvasculature, including the expression of intercellular tight junctions, which limit paracellular permeability. Several reports suggest that nanoparticles have a unique capacity to cross the BBB. However, direct evidence of nanoparticle transcytosis is difficult to obtain, and we found that typical transport studies present several limitations when applied to nanoparticles. In order to investigate the capacity of nanoparticles to access and transport across the BBB, several different nanomaterials, including silica, titania and albumin- or transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles of different sizes, were exposed to a human in vitro BBB model of endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells. Extensive transmission electron microscopy imaging was applied in order to describe nanoparticle endocytosis and typical intracellular localisation, as well as to look for evidence of eventual transcytosis. Our results show that all of the nanoparticles were internalised, to different extents, by the BBB model and accumulated along the endo-lysosomal pathway. Rare events suggestive of nanoparticle transcytosis were also observed for several of the tested materials.The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier, which controls and limits access to the central nervous system (CNS). The selectivity of the BBB relies on specialized characteristics of the endothelial cells that line the microvasculature, including the expression of intercellular tight junctions, which limit paracellular permeability. Several reports suggest that nanoparticles have a unique capacity to cross the BBB. However, direct evidence of nanoparticle transcytosis is difficult to obtain, and we found that typical transport studies present several limitations when applied to nanoparticles. In

  5. Crohn's disease: Evidence for involvement of unregulated transcytosis in disease etio-pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Pravda

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Research has identified genetic predisposition and environmental factors as key elements in the development of the disease. However, the precise mechanism that initiates immune activation remains undefined. One pathway for luminal antigenic molecules to enter the sterile lamina propria and activate an immune response is via transcytosis. Transcytosis, although tightly regulated by the cell, has the potential for transepithelial transport of bacteria and highly antigenic luminal molecules whose uncontrolled translocation into the lamina propria can be the source of immune activation. Viewed as a whole, the evidence suggests that unregulated intestinal epithelial transcytosis is involved in the inappropriate presentation of immunogenic luminal macromolecules to the intestinal lamina propria. Thus fulfilling the role of an early pre-morbid mechanism that can result in antigenic overload of the lamina propria and initiate an immune response culminating in chronic inflammation characteristic of this disease. It is the aim of this paper to present evidence implicating enterocyte transcytosis in the early etio-pathogenesis of CD.

  6. Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis of Leptin through Human Intestinal Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émile Levy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric Leptin is absorbed by duodenal enterocytes and released on the basolateral side towards the bloodstream. We investigated in vitro some of the mechanisms of this transport. Caco-2/15 cells internalize leptin from the apical medium and release it through transcytosis in the basal medium in a time- temperature-dependent and saturable fashion. Leptin receptors are revealed on the apical brush-border membrane of the Caco-2 cells. RNA-mediated silencing of the receptor led to decreases in the uptake and basolateral release. Leptin in the basal medium was found bound to the soluble form of its receptor. An inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (chlorpromazine decreased leptin uptake. Confocal immunocytochemistry and the use of brefeldin A and okadaic acid revealed the passage of leptin through the Golgi apparatus. We propose that leptin transcytosis by intestinal cells depends on its receptor, on clathrin-coated vesicles and transits through the Golgi apparatus.

  7. Selection of peptide ligands for human placental transcytosis systems using in vitro phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Saleem; Vaidhyanathan, Shruthi; Pauletti, Giovanni M

    2011-01-01

    Fetal pharmacotherapy generally relies on nonspecific biodistribution of therapeutic agents to the unborn child following drug administration into the maternal circulation system. Physiologically, transfer of polar, high-molecular weight solutes across the placenta is facilitated by a specialized, vesicular transport mechanism termed transcytosis. To develop biotechnology-based drugs such as proteins, DNA, and siRNA as clinically effective therapeutics, transcytosis systems have been evaluated as a promising strategy to augment drug transfer across endothelial and epithelial barriers. Screening of random peptide libraries using phage display is a powerful technology to identify peptide sequences with high affinity for surface proteins on desired target cells. Here, we describe assembly of a diverse, cyclic heptapeptide library on the icosahedral T7 bacteriophage platform. This phage-displayed library of random peptides was used for functional in vitro screens across BeWo cell monolayers to identify peptide ligands that facilitate placental transcytosis of viral particles across this cell culture model of the human trophoblast barrier. PMID:21318904

  8. Alcohol-induced defects in hepatic transcytosis may be explained by impaired dynein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Jennifer L; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Dean J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic liver disease has been clinically well described, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we determined that microtubules are hyperacetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells, VL-17A cells, liver slices, and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. From our recent studies, we believe that these modifications can explain alcohol-induced defects in microtubule motor-dependent protein trafficking including nuclear translocation of a subset of transcription factors. Since cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin is known to mediate both microtubule-dependent translocation and basolateral to apical/canalicular transcytosis, we predicted that transcytosis is impaired in ethanol-treated hepatic cells. We monitored transcytosis of three classes of newly synthesized canalicular proteins in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells, an emerging model system for the study of liver disease. As predicted, canalicular delivery of all proteins tested was impaired in ethanol-treated cells. Unlike in control cells, transcytosing proteins were observed in discrete sub-canalicular puncta en route to the canalicular surface that aligned along acetylated microtubules. We further determined that the stalled transcytosing proteins colocalized with dynein/dynactin in treated cells. No changes in vesicle association were observed for either dynein or dynactin in ethanol-treated cells, but significantly enhanced dynein binding to microtubules was observed. From these results, we propose that enhanced dynein binding to microtubules in ethanol-treated cells leads to decreased motor processivity resulting in vesicle stalling and in impaired canalicular delivery. Our studies also importantly indicate that modulating cellular acetylation levels with clinically tolerated deacetylase agonists may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25148871

  9. Transcytosis, Antitumor Activity and Toxicity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 as an Oral Administration Protein Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenbin; Li, Yangyang; Liu, Wenhui; Ding, Ding; Xu, Yingchun; Pan, Liqiang; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) is a classical superantigen (SAg), which can tremendously activate T lymphocytes at very low dosage, thus exerting its powerful antitumor activity. As an intravenous protein drug and a bacterial toxin, SEC2 has some limitations including poor patient compliance and toxic side effects. In this research, we devoted our attention to studying the antitumor activity and toxicity of SEC2 as a potential oral administration protein drug. We proved that His-tagged SEC2 (SEC2-His) could undergo facilitated transcytosis on human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and SEC2-His was detected in the blood of rats after oral administration. Furthermore, oral SEC2-His caused massive cytokine release and immune cell enrichment around tumor tissue, leading to inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, although SEC2-His was dosed up to 32 mg/kg in mice, no significant toxicity was observed. These data showed that SEC2 can cross the intestinal epithelium in an immunologically integral form, maintaining antitumor activity but with reduced systemic toxicity. Therefore, these results may have implications for developing SEC2 as an oral administration protein drug. PMID:27322320

  10. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts. PMID:26851257

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I coating of protamine–oligonucleotide nanoparticles increases particle uptake and transcytosis in an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Ingrid; Wernig, Karin; Panzenboeck, Ute; Bernhart, Eva; Reicher, Helga; Wronski, Robert; Windisch, Manfred; Hammer, Astrid; Malle, Ernst; Zimmer, Andreas; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is severely restricted by formation of tight junctions between adjacent brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC). In the present study we have evaluated the effects of protamine–oligonucleotide nanoparticles (proticles) on the functional properties of primary porcine BCEC and characterized uptake and transcytosis of proticles by these cells. Proticles had no adverse effects on BCEC properties relevant to blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. Transcytosis of 125I-labeled proticles across polarized BCEC cultures occurred in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As apolipoproteins were suggested to enhance cellular proticle uptake, proticle coating was performed with apoA-I, the major apolipoprotein component of high density lipoproteins. Adsorption of apoA-I on the surface of proticles resulted in significantly improved uptake and transcytosis properties as compared to uncoated proticles. ApoA-I coating enhanced proticle delivery to astrocytes in an in vitro model of the BBB almost twofold. Blocking of scavenger receptor class B, type I (the prime receptor for high density lipoprotein/apoA-I that is expressed on BCEC) reduced transcytosis of apoA-I-coated proticles to levels observed for uncoated proticles. Our data indicate that apoA-I-coating of proticles could be a feasible targeting technology to improve delivery across the BBB. PMID:17239472

  12. Endothelial cells the site of the regulation of IgG LEVEL by salvaging and transcytosis of immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to function properly, cells in the human body must continuously exchange nutrients and energy with the external environment. The main source of nutrients is the blood stream. To reach the cells nutrients, growth factors and hormones must cross the endothelial cell barrier. The mechanisms involved in endocytosis and transcytosis, including vesiculation, membrane sorting, membrane fusion, organelle translocation are particularly studied in polarized epithelial cells. Among these the endothelial cells, highly specialized epithelial cells have been less or not at all considered. Under the influence of local physiological condition, vascular endothelium has undergone sequential differentiations involving to various degrees its basic cellular constituents (especially the occurrence and frequency of plasmalemmal vesicles, channels and fenestrae and their diaphragms) as well as its biochemical and functional properties (Simionescu N., Simionescu M. - Handbook of Physiology 1984). Especially in microvascular endothelial cells the transcytotic pathway is prevalent as compared with the endocytic pathway. Transcytosis may occur simultaneously over both apical and basolateral cell surfaces with very specific and selective destination. The mechanisms controlling the early biochemical steps in transcytosis in endothelial cells are largely unknown. Lately the search for the molecular basis of the endothelial transcellular pathways has gained a large interest bearing on the potential implications that a receptor mediated process may have for cell biology, physiopathology and pharmacology, especially for the locally specific drug targeting. The investigation at cellular and molecular level of the IgG transcytosis in endothelial cells is reported in this paper. Although endothelial specific binding, internalization and/or transport mechanisms were described for many macromolecules like albumin (Ghitescu et al 1986), lipoproteins (Baker et al 1984), insulin (King et al 1985

  13. Cytotoxic factor secreted by Escherichia coli associated with sepsis facilitates transcytosis through human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibo, Luiz Henrique Soares; Bertol, Jéssica Wildgrube; Bernedo-Navarro, Robert Alvin; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Culture supernatant of sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) isolated from patients with sepsis caused loss of intercellular junctions and elongation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The cytotoxic factor was purified from culture supernatant of SEPEC 15 (serogroup O153) by liquid chromatography process. PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) showed that the purified SEPEC cytotoxic factor had a molecular mass of ∼150kDa and consisted of at least two subunits. At the concentration of 1 CD50 (40μg/mL) did facilitate transcytosis through the HUVEC cells monolayer of SEPEC 15 as much as E. coli K12 within 30min without affecting cell viability. These results suggest that this cytotoxic factor, named as SPF (SEPEC's permeabilizing factor), may be an important SEPEC virulence factor that facilitates bacterial access to the bloodstream. PMID:26963151

  14. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  15. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S K; Martin, F J; Jay, G; Vogel, J; Papahadjopoulos, D; Friend, D S

    1993-07-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing KS lesions, and tissues were processed 24 hours later for both electron microscopy and for light microscopy with silver enhancement. Liposomes and silver marker were detected predominantly in the dermis surrounding the early and mature KS lesions, which were characterized by a proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and abnormal blood vessels close to the epidermis. The silver-enhanced gold marker often surrounded vascular channels and scattered erythrocytes. As determined by electron microscopy, some spindle cells and macrophages had ingested intact liposomes. Transendothelial transport of liposomes was observed both through open channels between endothelial cells and also through endothelial cells lining intact vessels. Both extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes through irregular endothelium were much higher in KS lesions than in the adjacent normal skin. The high accumulation of sterically stabilized liposomes in KS lesions and their intracellular uptake by some spindle cells enhances their potential as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents against this neoplasm. PMID:8317543

  16. Internal benchmarking of a human blood-brain barrier cell model for screening of nanoparticle uptake and transcytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnaill, Michelle Nic; Brown, Meredith; Ye, Dong; Bramini, Mattia; Callanan, Sean; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2011-04-01

    Transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful agents, is considered the holy grail of targeted delivery, due to the extreme effectiveness of this barrier at preventing passage of non-essential molecules through to the brain. This has caused severe limitations for therapeutics for many brain-associated diseases, such as HIV and neurodegenerative diseases. Nanomaterials, as a result of their small size (in the order of many protein-lipid clusters routinely transported by cells) and their large surface area (which acts as a scaffold for proteins thereby rendering nanoparticles as biological entities) offer great promise for neuro-therapeutics. However, in parallel with developing neuro-therapeutic applications based on nanotechnology, it is essential to ensure their safety and long-term consequences upon reaching the brain. One approach to determining safe application of nanomaterials in biology is to obtain a deep mechanistic understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and living systems (bionanointeractions). To this end, we report here on the establishment and internal round robin validation of a human cell model of the blood-brain barrier for use as a tool for screening nanoparticles interactions, and assessing the critical nanoscale parameters that determine transcytosis. PMID:21236340

  17. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Julia V; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics into the brain. This concept relies on the application of natural or genetically engineered proteins or small peptides, capable of specifically ferrying a drug-payload that is either directly coupled or encapsulated in an appropriate nanocarrier, across the blood-brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis. Specifically, in this process the nanocarrier-drug system ("Trojan horse complex") is transported transcellularly across the brain endothelium, from the blood to the brain interface, essentially trailed by a native receptor. Naturally, only certain properties would favor a receptor to serve as a transporter for nanocarriers, coated with appropriate ligands. Here we briefly discuss brain microvascular endothelial receptors that have been explored until now, highlighting molecular features that govern the efficiency of nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery into the brain. PMID:25407801

  18. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Georgieva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics into the brain. This concept relies on the application of natural or genetically engineered proteins or small peptides, capable of specifically ferrying a drug-payload that is either directly coupled or encapsulated in an appropriate nanocarrier, across the blood–brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis. Specifically, in this process the nanocarrier–drug system (“Trojan horse complex” is transported transcellularly across the brain endothelium, from the blood to the brain interface, essentially trailed by a native receptor. Naturally, only certain properties would favor a receptor to serve as a transporter for nanocarriers, coated with appropriate ligands. Here we briefly discuss brain microvascular endothelial receptors that have been explored until now, highlighting molecular features that govern the efficiency of nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery into the brain.

  19. Rack-1, GAPDH3, and actin: proteins of Myzus persicae potentially involved in the transcytosis of beet western yellows virus particles in the aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) is a Polerovirus that relies on the aphid Myzus persicae for its transmission, in a persistent-circulative mode. To be transmitted, the virus must cross the midgut and the accessory salivary glands (ASG) epithelial barriers in a transcytosis mechanism where vector receptors interact with virions. In this paper, we report in vitro interaction experiments between BWYV and aphid components. Using the M. persicae clone from Colmar, we showed that a set of aphid polypeptides, separated by SDS-PAGE or 2D electrophoresis (2DE), can bind in vitro to purified wild type or mutant particles. Using subcellular fractionation, we showed that the 65-kDa polypeptide identified as symbionin is a soluble protein whereas the other polypeptides seem to be associated more or less strongly to the membrane. We hypothesize that three polypeptides, identified by mass spectrometry as Rack-1, GAPDH3, and actin, may be involved in the epithelial transcytosis of virus particles in the aphid vector

  20. Certolizumab pegol does not bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn): Consequences for FcRn-mediated in vitro transcytosis and ex vivo human placental transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Charlene; Armstrong-Fisher, Sylvia; Kopotsha, Tim; Smith, Bryan; Baker, Terry; Kevorkian, Lara; Nesbitt, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) are used to treat inflammatory diseases, which often affect women of childbearing age. The active transfer of these antibodies across the placenta by binding of the Fc-region to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) may result in adverse fetal or neonatal effects. In contrast to other anti-TNFs, certolizumab pegol lacks an Fc-region. The objective of this study was to determine whether the structure of certolizumab pegol limits active placental transfer. Binding affinities of certolizumab pegol, infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept to human FcRn and FcRn-mediated transcytosis were determined using in vitro assays. Human placentas were perfused ex vivo to measure transfer of certolizumab pegol and positive control anti-D IgG from the maternal to fetal circulation. FcRn binding affinity (KD) was 132nM, 225nM and 1500nM for infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept, respectively. There was no measurable certolizumab pegol binding affinity, similar to that of the negative control. FcRn-mediated transcytosis across a cell layer (mean±SD; n=3) was 249.6±25.0 (infliximab), 159.0±20.2 (adalimumab) and 81.3±13.1ng/mL (etanercept). Certolizumab pegol transcytosis (3.2±3.4ng/mL) was less than the negative control antibody (5.9±4.6ng/mL). No measurable transfer of certolizumab pegol from the maternal to the fetal circulation was observed in 5 out of 6 placentas that demonstrated positive-control IgG transport in the ex vivo perfusion model. Together these results support the hypothesis that the unique structure of certolizumab pegol limits its transfer through the placenta to the fetus and may be responsible for previously reported differences in transfer of other anti-TNFs from mother to fetus. PMID:27123565

  1. Caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis is enhanced in dengue-infected human endothelial cells: A model of vascular leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthick, Chanettee; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Kiatbumrung, Rattanaporn; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Vascular leakage is a life-threatening complication of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Previously, association between "paracellular" endothelial hyperpermeability and plasma leakage had been extensively investigated. However, whether "transcellular" endothelial leakage is involved in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) remained unknown. We thus investigated effects of DENV (serotype 2) infection on transcellular transport of albumin, the main oncotic plasma protein, through human endothelial cell monolayer by Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence imaging, and fluorometry. The data showed that Alexa488-conjugated bovine serum albumin (Alexa488-BSA) was detectable inside DENV2-infected cells and its level was progressively increased during 48-h post-infection. While paracellular transport could be excluded using FITC-conjugated dextran, Alexa488-BSA was progressively increased and decreased in lower and upper chambers of Transwell, respectively. Pretreatment with nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolae-dependent endocytic pathway, significantly decreased albumin internalization into the DENV2-infected cells, whereas inhibitors of other endocytic pathways showed no significant effects. Co-localization of the internalized Alexa488-BSA and caveolin-1 was also observed. Our findings indicate that DENV infection enhances caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis through human endothelial cells that may ultimately induce plasma leakage from intravascular compartment. Further elucidation of this model in vivo may lead to effective prevention and better therapeutic outcome of DHF/DSS. PMID:27546060

  2. Eligibility Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  3. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  4. Commercially Supplied Amine-Modified siRNAs May Require Ultrafiltration prior to Conjugation with Amine-Reactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shannen Lau; White, Paul J.; Pouton, Colin W.; Boyd, Ben J.; Bim Graham

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation of siRNA to macromolecules such as serum albumin has multiple potential benefits, including enhanced extravasation via albumin-mediated transcytosis across endothelial cells and reduced renal clearance. In attempting to conjugate siRNA to albumin, we used commercially sourced amine-modified siRNA and reacted it with the heterobifunctional linker succinimidyl 4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC) to introduce a maleimide group suitable for conjugation to the thiol g...

  5. Requirement Elicitation for Requirement in Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Swathine.K*; Dr. J.KomalaLakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Requirement Elicitation is also called as Requirement Gathering, in which requirements are collected from User, Stakeholders, and Customer to build the system. Requirements elicitation practices include interviews, questionnaires, task analysis, domain analysis, user observation, workshops, brainstorming, use cases, role playing and prototyping by using this practices quality of the requirements are satisfied. A wide variety of tools exist that have been developed and used to supp...

  6. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  7. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  8. Framework for Requirements Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Uzair Akbar; Kamran, Kashif

    2008-01-01

    Requirements traceability provides support for many software engineering activities like impact analysis, requirements validation and regression testing. In addition requirements traceability is the recognized component of many software process improvement initiatives. Requirements traceability also helps to control and manage evolution of a software system. This thesis presents a systematic review and a framework for requirements traceability. The systematic review is aimed at presenting fai...

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  10. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  11. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications and on software architecture and design. Usually, the focus is when the software is under development. Little is known about how requirements evolve when software is put into use. Groupware is an ...

  12. REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna; Sanjay Kumar; Amita Dhankar

    2012-01-01

    Requirement Engineering acts as foundation for any software and is one of the most important tasks. Entire software is supported by four pillars of requirement engineering processes. Goal-oriented requirements engineering is concerned with the use of goals for eliciting, elaborating, structuring, specifying, analyzing, negotiating, documenting, and modifying requirements. This areahas received increasing attention over the past few years.The paper has highlighted requirement engineering chall...

  13. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  14. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  15. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  16. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  17. Obsolete Software Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Zahda, Showayb

    2011-01-01

    Context. Requirements changes are unavoidable in any software project. Requirements change over time as software projects progress, and involved stakeholders (mainly customers) and developers gain better understanding of the final product. Additionally, time and budget constraints prevent implementing all candidate requirements and force project management to select a subset of requirements that are prioritized more important than the others so as to be implemented. As a result, some requirem...

  18. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  19. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  20. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  1. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  2. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  3. Software Requirements Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literature in the area while tabulating possible methods of managing requirements. It also highlights the benefits of following a proper guideline for the requirements management task. With the introduction of specific software tools for the requirements management task, better software products are now been developed with lesser resources.

  4. Testing Agile Requirements Models

    OpenAIRE

    Botaschanjan, Jewgenij; Pister, Markus; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to i...

  5. Software Requirements Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-01-01

    Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literatur...

  6. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  7. Testing agile requirements models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOTASCHANJAN Jewgenij; PISTER Markus; RUMPE Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to increase the quality of the result. Therefore testing of artifacts should be introduced as early as possible, even in the requirements definition phase.

  8. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  9. Transcytosis in the continuous endothelium of the myocardial microvasculature is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide.

    OpenAIRE

    Predescu, D; Horvat, R; Predescu, S; Palade, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    In a murine heart perfusion system, we were able to "turn off" the transport of derivatized albumin [dinitrophenylated albumin (DNP-albumin)] from the perfusate to the tissue, by preperfusing the system with 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) for 5 min at 37 degrees C, followed by a 5-min perfusion of DNP-albumin in the presence of NEM. Using a postembedding immunocytochemical procedure, we showed that (i) a 30-sec to 1-min treatment of heart vasculature with 1 mM NEM reduces the transendothelial tr...

  10. Intravital imaging reveals angiotensin II–induced transcytosis of albumin by podocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and ...

  11. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain of aminopeptidase N for transport of aminopeptidase N by the indirect pathway by analysis of mutated forms of aminopeptidase N recombinantly expressed in Caco-2 cells. A tail-less and two secretory forms of aminopeptidase N, all deprived of the cytoplasmic tail, were...... transported to the basolateral plasma membrane in proportions equivalent to the wild type enzyme. This shows that no cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal is involved in directing aminopeptidase N to the basolateral plasma membrane. Both the wild type and the tail-less aminopeptidase N were transcytosed from...

  12. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems, and...

  13. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  14. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  15. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  16. Requirements engineering through viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, A.; S. Easterbrook; Kramer, J.; Nuseibeh, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a short review of contributions to a better understanding of requirements engineering arising from research at Imperial College. These contributions share a common theme - a focus on “multiple perspectives” or viewpoints.

  17. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  18. Requirements management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  19. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  20. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  1. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  2. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  3. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs to...

  4. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  5. Protein Requirements during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  6. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  7. Required High School Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  8. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  9. Essential Requirements of PPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Shrotri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment industries are using various quality standards, such as ISO, TS, APQP etc. While applying these standards in any organizations there are certain procedures. Extensive technical documentation is the major requirement of every standard mentioned above. The Production Part Approval Process is one of the quality assurance procedures which is necessary in now days, especially in Automotive industries. The purpose of Production Part Approval Process (PPAP is as follows. 1 To provide the detailed information including design process, production process, inspection to the customer. 2 To assure the customer that the current manufacturing process is able to fulfill the requirement and special demands of the customer.

  10. Business Process Requirement Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsa Etoundi Roger,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is as an increasingly important discipline for supporting business process and workflow modeling, as these are designed to satisfy diverse customer needs, and increase the productivity of enterprise. Moreover, most customers hesitate to adopt a given product or service if the added value is not conformed to their desires. Dealing with customers, with a wide range of perspective, within an enterprise, is very complex. These perspectives are grounded in differences in skills, responsibility, knowledge and expertise of stakeholders. This holds more in the domain of business processes and workflows where the satisfaction of the customers is the must if these enterprises wish to deal with the pressure of the network economy. Based on the requirement engineering, we present in this paper an integration of RE approach in the modeling of business process and workflows. (Abstract

  11. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  12. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  13. Science in Requirements Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaimi Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the articles about methodological principles, and some research classifications, in this work an overview of the nature and status of science in Requirements Engineering is done. The discussion takes a broad perspective of debates in other areas, including the methodologies in natural sciences, the social areas, information systems, and research design. It is proposed a new categorization for concepts validation and evaluation, and is suggested a framework criteria inspir...

  14. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  15. OCRWM supercomputer requirements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OCRWM program involves to a large extent the use of computer codes to conduct performance and safety analyses. A variety of computer codes are developed and used by OCRWM contractors. Some OCRWM contractors utilize supercomputer capacity already available at the laboratories (e.g., CRAY-XMP/48 or CRAY-XMP/24) and others utilize smaller computers (e.g., front-end machines, workstations, or PCs). The purpose of this requirements analysis is to identify the computational capacity needs of OCRWM and its contractors from 1989 to 1998 (assuming that all appropriate OCRWM codes are translated into supercomputer usage). Included in this report are: the geographic and organizational locations of OCRWM's computational capacity needs, as estimated from existing and projected in-house and contractor requirements; the generic and specific computer codes expected to be used by OCRWM; the expected machine requirements for the codes to be used, considering such parameters as computational needs and input/output complexity; and the expected supercomputer computational demand over the ten-year period of interest. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  17. Morsleben waste acceptance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Morsleben waste acceptance requirements take into account the valid stipulations in the permanent operational license of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (Eram) dated April 22, 1986, and in the documents underlying it. In line with the guaranteed continued validity until June 30, 2000 of this permanent operational license, also the classification of radioactive waste by waste types (A) and radiation protection groups (S) was retained. The revised requirements to be met by radioactive waste to be disposed of in Eram as issued by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) effective August 1996 constitute the safety framework which must be adhered to by this waste. They also take into account other stipulations by the BfS, especially voluntary restrictions and conditions imposed by the self-surveillance. Eram accepts the 'solid waste' and 'spent sealed radiation sources' categories. The waste generators must observe the requirements to be met by waste to be stored permanently. In the case of solid waste, these conditions include criteria to be met by waste forms, activity limitations for radionuclides and groups of radionuclides, and packaging criteria. (orig.)

  18. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  19. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  20. Requirements for ITER diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized

  1. NIRVANA network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  2. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  3. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  4. Importance of Requirement Management : A Requirement Engineering Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Dhirendra Pandey; Vandana Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Requirement engineering is first phase of software development processes and it is most important phase for every software development model. In requirement engineering phase we can gather the requirements from user and use this requirement to software development and produce software product that satisfy the user needs. In this research paper we describe the fundamental description of requirement engineering and present the basics dimensions of requirement engineering. Also, in this research...

  5. Importance of Requirement Management : A Requirement Engineering Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Pandey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is first phase of software development processes and it is most important phase for every software development model. In requirement engineering phase we can gather the requirements from user and use this requirement to software development and produce software product that satisfy the user needs. In this research paper we describe the fundamental description of requirement engineering and present the basics dimensions of requirement engineering. Also, in this research paper we also give the basic idea of software requirement specification and present the concept of why requirement management is important for software development.

  6. Repository seals requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing

  7. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  8. Repository seals requirements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  9. Repository seals requirement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  10. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  11. NASA gateway requirements analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Denise R.; Doby, John S.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA devotes approximately 40 percent of its budget to R&D. Twelve NASA Research Centers and their contractors conduct this R&D, which ranges across many disciplines and is fueled by information about previous endeavors. Locating the right information is crucial. While NASA researchers use peer contacts as their primary source of scientific and technical information (STI), on-line bibliographic data bases - both Government-owned and commercial - are also frequently consulted. Once identified, the STI must be delivered in a usable format. This report assesses the appropriateness of developing an intelligent gateway interface for the NASA R&D community as a means of obtaining improved access to relevant STI resources outside of NASA's Remote Console (RECON) on-line bibliographic database. A study was conducted to determine (1) the information requirements of the R&D community, (2) the information sources to meet those requirements, and (3) ways of facilitating access to those information sources. Findings indicate that NASA researchers need more comprehensive STI coverage of disciplines not now represented in the RECON database. This augmented subject coverage should preferably be provided by both domestic and foreign STI sources. It was also found that NASA researchers frequently request rapid delivery of STI, in its original format. Finally, it was found that researchers need a better system for alerting them to recent developments in their areas of interest. A gateway that provides access to domestic and international information sources can also solve several shortcomings in the present STI delivery system. NASA should further test the practicality of a gateway as a mechanism for improved STI access.

  12. Producing a Global Requirement Model from Multiple Requirement Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Brottier, Erwan; Baudry, Benoit; Le Traon,Yves; Touzet, David; Nicolas, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Requirements documentation is a collection of partial specifications produced by different stakeholders. Obtaining a global specification is a fundamental step of a requirement analysis process. Merging requirement specifications is indeed a way to reveal inconsistencies between them. We propose in this paper a model-driven mechanism for that purpose. It takes as inputs a set of texts or models which conform to input requirement languages and produces a global requirements model. This mechani...

  13. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  14. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  15. Writing Quality Requirements (SRS: An Approach To Manage Requirements Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Rajnish

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality requirements, that form a major sub-category of requirements, define a broad set system-wide attributes such as security, performance, usability and scalability. Unfortunately, many organizations pay less attention to quality requirements & assume that the necessary qualities are implicitly understood & will naturally emerge as the product is developed.In this paper, we would try to address important questions related to role of quality requirements in the software development lifecycle, and techniques for managing them effectively. Also, we would find out as to what happens when requirements are not managed? and suggest some practices to write quality requirements. The purpose is to make the community specifying the requirements understand requirements defects that have been made in the past. Hopefully, it also helps to avoid similar mistakes in the future.

  16. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  17. An Investigation of Online Homework: Required or Not Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tommy; Dillard-Eggers, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In our research we investigate the use of online homework in principles of accounting classes where some classes required online homework while other classes did not. Users of online homework, compared to nonusers, had a higher grade point average and earned a higher grade in class. On average, both required and not-required users rated the online…

  18. Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Smriti Jain; Maya Ingle

    2011-01-01

    Security breaches are largely caused by the vulnerable software. Since individuals and organizations mostly depend on softwares, it is important to produce in secured manner. The first step towards producing secured software is through gathering security requirements. This paper describes Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument (SSRGI) that helps gather security requirements from the various stakeholders. This will guide the developers to gather security requirements along with th...

  19. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  20. Requirements Engineering for Social Software

    OpenAIRE

    Glukhova, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Social software bears some special characteristics for requirements engineering (RE) like user-centeredness, self-organization and voluntarism. No concrete formalization of the RE process for social software has been established so far. In this position paper, important aspects of social contexts will be considered in order to define requirements, referring to the previously identified four key requirements principles.

  1. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  2. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  3. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, I.; Lock, R.; Storer, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  4. Verifying ontology requirements with SWIP

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Pradel, Camille; Hernandez, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Verifying whether an ontology meets the set of established requirements is a crucial activity in ontology engineering. In this sense, methods and tools are needed (a) to transform (semi-)automatically functional ontology requirements into SPARQL queries, which can serve as unit tests to verify the ontology, and (b) to check whether the ontology fulfils the requirements. Thus, our purpose in this poster paper is to apply the SWIP approach to verify whether an ontology satisfies the set of esta...

  5. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  6. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral requirements of dairy sheep under semi-intensive and intensive management systems are reviewed. Basically, mineral requirements obtained with mutton breeds are supplemented with specific information obtained with dairy sheep. The daily requirements of sheep in major elements have been estimated using the factorial method, first to calculate the net requirements during maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation, and second to assess the efficiency of absorption for converting net requirements into dietary allowance. The requirements in trace elements were estimated from the results of feeding trials. The choice of values for endogenous losses and particularly the precision with which efficiency of absorption can be predicted are the main sources of error in estimates of dietary allowances, especially when efficiency of absorption is low. The net requirements in major elements are given for maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, together with the recommended coefficients of absorption. Dietary requirements in trace elements are expressed as milligram per kilogram dry matter. The requirements in all nutrients and particularly in Ca and P increase during late pregnancy, especially during lactation. The requirements during lactation mainly reflect milk composition, the level of milk yield and lactation length, but also the feed intake level. The factors related to the confinement, feeding and management of dairy breeds, which differ from those of mutton breeds, may affect their mineral requirements. Changes in husbandry practices resulting in increased production may increase the stress on the animal and therefore alter its metabolic equilibrium. Direct supplementation of the diet of dairy sheep is the cheapest and most convenient method of mineral supplementation. The cost is outweighed by the enhanced performance of sheep. Determination of the mineral composition of feedstuffs available for feeding dairy sheep indicates the type and level of mineral

  7. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  8. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  9. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account

  10. Crowd-Centric Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Remco; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Hosseini, Mahmood; Shahri, Alimohammad; Ali, Raian

    2014-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a preliminary and crucial phase for the correctness and quality of software systems. Despite the agreement on the positive correlation between user involvement in requirements engineering and software success, current development methods employ a too narrow concept of tha

  11. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  12. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    White, G R

    2001-01-01

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support.

  13. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  14. Power requirements for PHERB powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbakyah, J. S.; Atiq, W. H.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Boats are considered as favourite maritime transportation designed for recreation activities, fishing and surveillance purposes. However, in tropical developed countries, boats are employed for different applications such as passenger and goods transportation. In this paper, the power requirements for a proposed plug-in hybrid electric recreational boat (PHERB) powertrain is determined using a steady state velocity and the Kuala Terengganu river driving cycle according to the boat parameters, specifications and performance requirements. The boat power requirements can be used to size the main components for PHERB powertrain. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  15. Model-based requirements engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on introduction to model-based requirementsengineering and management by describing a set of views that form the basisfor the approach. These views take into account each individual requirement interms of its description, but then also provide each requirement with meaning byputting it into the correct 'context'. A requirement that has been put into a contextis known as a 'use case' and may be based upon either stakeholders or levelsof hierarchy in a system. Each use case must then be analysed and validated bydefining a combination of scenarios and formal mathematica

  16. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  17. The Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Transcytosis across Epithelial Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gupta, S.; Gach, J. S.; Becerra, J. C.; Phan, T.; Pudney, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Joseph, S. B.; Landucci, G.; Supnet, M. D.; Ping, L.-H.; Corti, D.; Moldt, B.; Hel, Z.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Ruprecht, R. M.; Burton, D. R.; Městecký, Jiří; Anderson, D.; Forthal, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2013). E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT ENHANCEMENT * FEMALE GENITAL-TRACT * MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.057, year: 2013

  18. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, S K; F. J. Martin; Jay, G; Vogel, J.; Papahadjopoulos, D; Friend, D S

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing ...

  19. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo models of drug transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug and solute transport through in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were compared to provide a measure of how well the in vitro model predicted BBB permeability found in vivo. The in vitro model employed bovine brain capillary endothelial cells in either primary tissue culture or as a continuous line grown on Transwells and placed in side-by-side diffusion chambers. The in vivo model of BBB transport utilized an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method in anesthetized rats. BBB permeability in vivo and in vitro was measured for 15 radiolabeled drugs and for L-[3H]dopa, D-[14C]glucose and [3H]albumin. [3H]- or [14C]sucrose was used in vivo as a blood volume reference. Lipid solubility of each drug was measured based on the 1-octanol/Ringer's partition coefficient. The morphology of the endothelial cell in primary tissue culture was spindle-shaped and the morphology of the endothelial cell in continuous culture was cuboid-shaped. The cuboidal morphology demonstrated a 2-fold greater resistance to solute transport and was used for the majority of the in vitro studies. Drug and solute permeability coefficients (Pe) ranged from 3.9 X 10(-3) to 2.5 X 10(-1) cm/min in vitro and from 1.0 X 10(-5) to 2.1 X 10(-2) cm/min in vivo. The In of the permeability.surface area product in vitro correlated with the In partition coefficient (r = 0.62, P less than .0125) and the In permeability.surface area product in vivo correlated with the In partition coefficient (r = 0.84, P less than .0005)

  20. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuhorn, Inge; Georgieva, Julia V.; Hoekstra, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics in

  1. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas G; Deschamps C; Disson O; Niault T; Cossart P; Lecuit M

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminat...

  2. Maternal Antibodies Enhance or Prevent Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Placenta by Neonatal Fc Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maidji, Ekaterina; McDonagh, Susan; Genbacev, Olga; Tabata, Takako; Pereira, Lenore

    2006-01-01

    How human cytomegalovirus (CMV) reaches the fetus across the placenta is unknown. The major viral cause of congenital disease, CMV infects the uterine-placental interface with varied outcomes depending on the strength of maternal humoral immunity and gestational age. Covering the surface of villi that float in blood, syncytiotrophoblasts express the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) that transports IgG for passive immunity. Immunohistochemical analysis of early-gestation biopsy specimens showed an ...

  3. PFP requirements development planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline

  4. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  5. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans in the...... presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase in...

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to define the performance and system requirements for the development of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), including the Waste Handling System, Waste Isolation System, and the Operational Support System consistent with the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). These requirements apply to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning. The document also presents an overall description of the MGR, its functions and its systems as described in Section 2.3. In addition, the MGR interfaces are identified. Development of the MGR must be consistent with the requirements of the this document. While the MGR may evolve and change through the design process, changes must occur in a controlled manner. This document and, as necessary, the CRD, will be revised to capture the changes. Also, changes in the CRD will be captured in revisions to this document as necessary

  7. Physics and detector simulation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the computing environment needed to meet the requirements for high energy physics Monte Carlo Calculations for the simulation of Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory physics and detectors

  8. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS...... messengers and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  9. Quality System Requirements QS-9000

    CERN Document Server

    The Automotive Industry Action Group. Detroit

    QS-9000 is the shorthand name for "Quality System Requirements QS-9000." It is the common supplier quality standard for DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. QS-9000 is based on the 1994 edition of ISO 9001, requirements that are particular to the automotive industry. These additions are considered automotive "interpretations" by the ISO community of accreditation bodies and registrars.

  10. Requirements Engineering Reference Model (REM)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Geisberger; Manfred Broy Technische Universitaet Muenchen Brian Berenbach; Juergen Kazmeier; Daniel Paulish; Arnold Rudorfer Siemens Corporate Research Princeton

    2016-01-01

    Der folgende technische Bericht beschreibt das Requirements Engineering Reference Model (REM). Die Zielsetzung von REM ist:(1) Die Definition eines Referenzmodells für das Requirements Engineering (RE) mittels Festlegung der Kernmenge von zu entwickelnden RE Artefakten (Arbeitsprodukten im RE) einer Systementwicklung und ihren Abhängigkeiten - das RE Artefaktmodell, und(2) Die Einführung und Anpassung von produkt- und projekt-spezifischen RE Prozessen auf Basis des RE Artefaktmodells.REM ist ...

  11. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  12. GRID INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Poh Ai Ling

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid information security. It introduces the conceptual analysis to the methodology with the application ofhermeneutic circle and information security functional requirement identification. Information security for the grid market cover matters includes automation and communications industry that affects the operation of electric power systems and the functioning of the utilities that manage them and its awareness of this information infrastructure has become critical to the reliability of the power system. Community benefits from of cost savings, flexibility and deployment along with the establishment of wireless communications. However, concern revolves around the security protections for easily accessible devices such as the smart meter and the related communications hardware. On the other hand, the changing points between traditional versus smart grid networking trend and the information security importance on the communication field reflects the criticality of grid information security functional requirement identification. The goal of this paper is to identify the functional requirement and relate its significance addresses to the consumer requirement of an information security of a smart grid. Vulnerabilities may bring forth possibility for an attacker to penetrate a network, make headway admission to control software, alter it to load conditions that destabilize the grid in unpredictable ways. Focusing on the grid information security functional requirement is stepping ahead in developing consumer trust and satisfaction towardsmart grid completeness.

  13. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  14. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  15. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  16. User Expressions Translated Into Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounding the development of mobile and ubiquitous services on actual needs and behaviors of users, rather than on designers' intuition, is a well-established tradition. However, gathering data about users in different contexts usually results in large amounts of data that have to be analyzed and translated into requirements. This crucial activity and its outcome are often shaped by the preconceptions of the developers or researchers. Despite this subjectivity, the translation process is seldom transparent. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the field by presenting a process for translating user expressions into needs and later into requirements using Reiss' taxonomy of human needs. By adopting this process of translation, we were able to identify two hierarchical levels of needs: needs of a service and needs in a service. These two levels provide a transparent bridge between user expressions and system requirements.

  17. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a...... complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task of...... leaning over the side of the yacht to increase righting moment) is the primary requirement. Other than the ability to sustain prolonged quasi-isometric contractions, hiking seems to require significant maximal muscle strength especially in knee extensors, hip flexors and abdominal and lower back muscles...

  18. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  19. Project X functional requirements specification

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Kephart, R; Kerby, J; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Mishra, S; Nagaitsev, S; Solyak, N; Tschirhart, R

    2012-01-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  20. Project X functional requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  1. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice. PMID:26914090

  2. Johnson Noise Thermometry System Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Jr, Charles L [ORNL; Roberts, Michael [ORNL; Ezell, N Dianne Bull [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This document is intended to capture the requirements for the architecture of the developmental electronics for the ORNL-lead drift-free Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) project conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development (R&D) program. The requirements include not only the performance of the system but also the allowable measurement environment of the probe and the allowable physical environment of the associated electronics. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [1].

  3. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  4. Magnet requirements for experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnet requirements for the experimental areas of the TRIUMF KAON Factory are varied and demanding. In the target areas the magnets will be located in radiation fields up to 10E7 rad/h and will also absorb thermal loads from beam heating up to several W/cm3. In this operating environment the magnets must be reliable and capable of remote installation and servicing. Other magnet designs include Lambertson septum magnets for beam splitting in the proton switchyard and superconducting or superferric magnets in the secondary channels and detectors. This paper describes some of these magnet requirements and presents some preliminary ideas on their designs

  5. 78 FR 78589 - Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    .... Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards; Final... 230 Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards... Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal awards. These modifications...

  6. Snubber qualification and test requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onesto, A.T.; Larson, D.A.

    1983-05-02

    The use of snubbers for safety related piping systems has increased significantly during the last decade. A corresponding increase in snubber requirements (criteria) has also occurred. A review of these criteria indicates inconsistencies and contradictions, and reflects how rapidly knowledge and experience has been gained and applied. This study reviews and summarizes existing criteria, illustrates inconsistencies and recommends research to resolve conflicts.

  7. ISEE-3 Microwave Filter Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, J. L.; Marlin, H.; Stanton, P.

    1984-01-01

    The 64 m subnet is committed to support the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) spacecraft. The uplink and one of the downlink frequencies will be respectively, 2090 and 2217 MHz. As these two frequencies fall outside the normal DSN transmit and receive bands, the 64-m antennas present new filter requirements, which are analyzed.

  8. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  9. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppina Camboni; Walter Pinna; Federico Infascelli; Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium) and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium) that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep. 

  10. Requirements management: A CSR's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joanie

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: customer service overview of network service request processing; Customer Service Representative (CSR) responsibility matrix; extract from a sample Memorandum of Understanding; Network Service Request Form and its instructions sample notification of receipt; and requirements management in the NASA Science Internet.

  11. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  12. The Present Requirements on Bank Prudence. Publicity Requirements and Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Carmen Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Requirements on banking activity impose regulation of specific issues concerning both the authorisation and the operation, and also ceasing the bank activity. This enforcement originates from the objectives pursued by the National Bank of Romania as own policy, but also as a separate member of the European financial structures. The analysis aims to identify, without exhaustive study, the intrinsic correlations of essential notions for banking field - prudence, prudential supervision, internat...

  13. Conversion of dependability deterministic requirements into probabilistic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the on-going survey conducted jointly by the DAM/CCE and NRE/SR branches on the inclusion of dependability requirements in control and instrumentation projects. Its purpose is to enable a customer (the prime contractor) to convert into probabilistic terms dependability deterministic requirements expressed in the form ''a maximum permissible number of failures, of maximum duration d in a period t''. The customer shall select a confidence level for each previously defined undesirable event, by assigning a maximum probability of occurrence. Using the formulae we propose for two repair policies - constant rate or constant time - these probabilized requirements can then be transformed into equivalent failure rates. It is shown that the same formula can be used for both policies, providing certain realistic assumptions are confirmed, and that for a constant time repair policy, the correct result can always be obtained. The equivalent failure rates thus determined can be included in the specifications supplied to the contractors, who will then be able to proceed to their previsional justification. (author), 8 refs., 3 annexes

  14. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer; Lauridsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... course. The authors find that RPT produces satisfying learning outcomes, active students, and ideal constructive alignments of the seminar content with the exam, the intended learning outcomes, and the requirements of the Bologna Process. Our data, which comprise surveys and evaluations from both faculty...

  16. CMS Requirements for the Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Holtman; J.Amundson; 等

    2001-01-01

    CMS physicists need to seamlessly access their experimental data and results,independent of location and storage medium,in order to focus on the exploration for the new physics signals arther than the complexities of worldwide data management .In order to achieve this goal,CMS has adopted a tiered worldwide computing model which will incorporate emerging Grid technology.CMS has started to use Grid tools for data processing,replication and migration,Important Grid components are expected to be delivered by the Data Grid projects.like projects,CMS has created a set of long-term requirements to the Grid projects.These requirements are presented and discussed.

  17. DRFM requirements demand innovative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, G.; Culp, J.; Robinson, M.

    1986-02-01

    In the context of the operation of emerging electronic countermeasures (ECM) jamming systems, a coherent means of capturing a received threat waveform is needed. The present paper is concerned with digital RF memory (DRFM) technology, which can be used to satisfy the involved requirements, taking into account high-performance multibit systems currently under development. System-driven requirements are considered along with a DRFM design implementation sampler/digitizer, Mux/Demux and memory, and packaging. It is pointed out that one of the most promising approaches for DRFM packaging involves surface mount technology (SMT). The development of low power and highspeed GaAs memory will provide DRFM designers with alternative options to the solution of power dissipation problems.

  18. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  19. Integrated care requires integrated supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Ketelaars, Corry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Given recent developments in integrated care, it is becoming increasingly important for the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate to direct its supervision in a way that may help speed up the implementation of integrated care.Description of care practice: Since the implementation of integrated care for chronic patients is facing obstacles, alternative methods are required to ensure that the implementation process does not run into any delays. By applying a risk-based approach to integr...

  20. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a significant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste

  1. Mineral requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Camboni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major (Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Sulphur, Magnesium and the trace  elements (Iron, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Zync, Molybdenum, Selenium that play an essential role in animal  metabolism. For each one the authors indicate not only the function, but also the more recent advances in terms of  daily requirements for dairy sheep. 

  2. Requirements and information metadata system

    OpenAIRE

    Beckman, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    CHDS State/Local This thesis proposes an adoption of a data schema called RIMS (Requirements and Information Metadata System) developed as a pilot project in the Pittsburgh Field Office of the FBI and sets out to determine if RIMS could be an effective and efficient method to capture, catalogue and retrieve intelligence information within the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). RIMS would enhance the search platform used by FBI analysts and investigators who gather or data mine exi...

  3. Space flight requires nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be able to solve its future tasks, space flight needs nuclear energy: manned space flight to the Mars is almost unthinkable without nuclear propulsion, and orbital nuclear power plants will be required for the power supply of high-capacity satellites or large space stations. Nuclear energy needs space flight: a nuclear power plant on the moon does not bother man because of the high natural radiation exposure existing there, and could contribute to terrestrial power supply. (orig./HSCH)

  4. EMC Part Ⅱ Regulatory Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnWong

    2005-01-01

    As described in the Part I, the goal of electromagnetic compatibility, or EMC, is to design electronic systems that are electromagnetically compatible with their environment. EMC requirements exist so that electronic systems designers have a set of guidelines that explain the limits of what is considered electromagnetically compatible. There is not, however, one allencompassing set of EMC guidelines. Instead, EMC guidelines are created by individual product manufacturers,

  5. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  6. Material Requirement Planning – MRP

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana; Vasileva, Liljana

    2013-01-01

    Managing inventory is one of the most important logistic tasks. Many companies are faced with problems that hinder finding the optimal policy of managing inventory. Given the fact that the problem with inventory nowadays is more prominent in the operation of enterprises, studied in this paper will be contemporary models of inventory, where emphasis will be placed on management models based on inventory planning needs material (Material Requirement Planning -MRP). In domestic professional l...

  7. GRID INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Poh Ai Ling; Mukaidono Masao

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid information security. It introduces the conceptual analysis to the methodology with the application ofhermeneutic circle and information security functional requirement identification. Information security for the grid market cover matters includes automation and communications industry that affects the operation of electric power systems and the functioning of the utilities that manage them ...

  8. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  9. Requirements for Model Development Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, Osman

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the initial phase of our ongoing research project on the Definition of a Discrete Event Simulation MDE which started on 1 June 1983. The first phase of the rapid prototyping approach we are using in designing the MDE involves the requirements specification. A literature review revealed eleven current problems in modeling. To address these problems, a MDE was identified as composed of four layers: (1) hardware and operating system, (2) kernel MDE, (3) minimal MDE, and...

  10. Requirements for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EUR (European Utilities Requirements) is an organization founded in 1991 whose aim was to write down the European specifications and requirements for the future reactors of third generation. EUR gathers most of the nuclear power producers of Europe. The EUR document has been built on the large and varied experience of EUR members and can be used to elaborate invitations to tender for nuclear projects. 4000 requirements only for the nuclear part of the plant are listed, among which we have: -) the probability of core meltdown for a reactor must be less than 10-6 per year, -) the service life of every component that is not replaceable must be 60 years, -) the capacity of the spent fuel pool must be sufficient to store 10-15 years of production without clearing out. The EUR document is both open and complete: every topic has been considered, it does not favor any type of reactor but can ban any technology that is too risky or has an unfavourable feedback experience. The assessment of the conformity with the EUR document of 7 reactor projects (BWR 90/, EPR, EP1000, SWR1000, ABWR, AP1000 and VVER-AES-92) has already be made. (A.C.)

  11. Lunar Human Research Requirements (LHRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research will be conducted during transit and on the surface of the Moon to prepare for extended stays on the Moon and to prepare for the exploration of Mars. The objective of the Human Research Program (HRP) is to preserve the health and enhance performance of astronaut explorers. Specific objectives of the HRP include developing the knowledge, capabilities, and necessary countermeasures and technologies in support of human space exploration; focusing on mitigating the highest risks to crew health and performance; and defining and improving human spaceflight medical, environmental, behavioral, and human factors standards. This document contains a detailed description of the resource accommodations, interfaces, and environments to be provided by the Constellation Program (CxP) to support the HRP research in transit and on the lunar surface. Covered, specifically, are the requirements for mass and volume transport; crew availability; ground operations, baseline data collection, and payload processing; power, and data. Volumes and mass are given for transport of conditioned samples only. They do not account for the engineering solution that the Constellation Program will implement (refrigerator/freezer volume/mass). This document does not account for requirements on the Orion vehicle for transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS Program has supplied requirements for this mission.

  12. Physics and detector simulation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) has computing requirements in several different areas at several levels of intensity. These needs vary from word processing and spreadsheet calculations on one end of the spectrum to a need for thousands of hours of super-computer time on the other. These needs and their focus will continue to develop and change throughout the life cycle of the laboratory. This document describes the computing environment needed to meet the requirements for high energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. Two types of Monte Carlo simulations must be done: the first, to simulate the physics of the interactions that will occur at the SSCL, and the second, to determine the simulated response of the detectors that will study these interactions. The calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed, and could require many months per run on a VAX 11/780 and may produce several gigabyte of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these needs. These networked computers would form the basis of a centralized facility for SSCL physics and detector simulation work. It has been estimated that this computing facility will need to grow to approximately 4000 MIPS of computing horse-power by 1992

  13. Escherichia coli K1 internalization via caveolae requires caveolin-1 and protein kinase Calpha interaction in human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Quon, Michael J; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2002-12-27

    The morbidity and mortality associated with Escherichia coli K1 meningitis during the neonatal period have remained significant over the last decade and are once again on the rise. Transcytosis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) by E. coli within an endosome to avoid lysosomal fusion is crucial for dissemination into the central nervous system. Central to E. coli internalization of BMEC is the expression of OmpA (outer membrane protein A), which interacts with its receptor for the actin reorganization that leads to invasion. However, nothing is known about the nature of the signaling events for the formation of endosomes containing E. coli K1. We show here that E. coli K1 infection of human BMEC (HBMEC) results in activation of caveolin-1 for bacterial uptake via caveolae. The interaction of caveolin-1 with phosphorylated protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) at the E. coli attachment site is critical for the invasion of HBMEC. Optical sectioning of confocal images of infected HBMEC indicates continuing association of caveolin-1 with E. coli during transcytosis. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of caveolin-1 containing mutations in the scaffolding domain blocked the interaction of phospho-PKCalpha with caveolin-1 and the E. coli invasion of HBMEC, but not actin cytoskeleton rearrangement or the phosphorylation of PKCalpha. The interaction of caveolin-1 with phospho-PKCalpha was completely abrogated in HBMEC overexpressing dominant-negative forms of either focal adhesion kinase or PKCalpha. Treatment of HBMEC with a cell-permeable peptide that represents the scaffolding domain, which was coupled to an antennapedia motif of a Drosophila transcription factor significantly blocked the interaction of caveolin-1 with phospho-PKCalpha and E. coli invasion. These results show that E. coli K1 internalizes HBMEC via caveolae and that the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 plays a significant role in the formation of endosomes. PMID:12386163

  14. Technology Requirements for Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Sara; Knoblock, Craig A.; Lannom, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the results of a panel study conducted into the technology requirements for information management in support of application domains of particular government interest, including digital libraries, mission operations, and scientific research. The panel concluded that it was desirable to have a coordinated program of R&D that pursues a science of information management focused on an environment typified by applications of government interest - highly distributed with very large amounts of data and a high degree of heterogeneity of sources, data, and users.

  15. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  16. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  17. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data that suggests some criteria for evaluating growth chamber and greenhouse lighting. A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing, and duration. Effective lighting should produce plants that perform according to the goals of the project. For example, for physiological studies the plants probably should exhibit morphology and physiology similar to that found in field-grown plants. For other projects the criteria will obviously be set according to the reason for raising the plants.

  18. Requirements and the baseline plan

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel

    2012-01-01

    For each software project a plan is developed, according to a documented procedure, that covers the software activities and commitments. The requirements allocated to software form the basis for the software development plan. Estimates for critical computer resources are documented, reviewed, and agreed to. All affected groups and individuals understand the estimates and plans and commit to support them. Senior management reviews the estimates and plans before external commitments are made. Software risks associated with the cost, resources, schedule, and technical aspects of the project are identified and evaluated, and contingencies are documented. Planning and estimation data are collected for use in planning subsequent projects and for input in management oversight review meetings.

  19. Materials requirements for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once the physics of fusion devices is understood, one or more experimental power reactors (EPR) are planned which will produce net electrical power. The structural material for the device will probably be a modification of an austenitic stainless steel. Unlike fission reactors, whose pressure boundaries are subjected to no or only light irradiation, the pressure boundary of a fusion reactor is subjected to high atomic displacement-damage and high production rates of transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen. The design data base must include irradiated materials. Since in situ testing to obtain tensile, fatigue, creep, crack-growth, stress-rupture, and swelling data is currently impossible for fusion reactor conditions, a program of service-temperature irradiations in fission reactors followed by postirradiation testing, simulation of fusion conditions, and low-fluence 14 MeV neutron-irradiation tests are planned. For the Demonstration Reactor (DEMO) expected to be built within ten years after theEPR, higher heat fluxes may require the use of refractory metals, at least for the first 20 cm. A partial data base may be provided by high-flux 14 MeV neutron sources being planned. Many materials other than those for structural components will be required in the EPR and DEMO. These include superconducting magnets, insulators, neutron reflectors and shields, and breeding materials. The rest of the device should utilize conventional materials except that portion involved in tritium confinement and recovery

  20. Shielding requirements in helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical tomotherapy is a relatively new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for which room shielding has to be reassessed for the following reasons. The beam-on-time needed to deliver a given target dose is increased and leads to a weekly workload of typically one order of magnitude higher than that for conventional radiation therapy. The special configuration of tomotherapy units does not allow the use of standard shielding calculation methods. A conventional linear accelerator must be shielded for primary, leakage and scatter photon radiations. For tomotherapy, primary radiation is no longer the main shielding issue since a beam stop is mounted on the gantry directly opposite the source. On the other hand, due to the longer irradiation time, the accelerator head leakage becomes a major concern. An analytical model based on geometric considerations has been developed to determine leakage radiation levels throughout the room for continuous gantry rotation. Compared to leakage radiation, scatter radiation is a minor contribution. Since tomotherapy units operate at a nominal energy of 6 MV, neutron production is negligible. This work proposes a synthetic and conservative model for calculating shielding requirements for the Hi-Art II TomoTherapy unit. Finally, the required concrete shielding thickness is given for different positions of interest

  1. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  2. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  3. 24 CFR 234.501 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDOMINIUM OWNERSHIP MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements-Projects-Conversion Individual Sales Units § 234.501 Eligibility requirements. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 200, subpart A, apply...

  4. SLI Thermal Imaging Requirements Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E. H.; Woody, L. M.; Wirth, S. M.; Smith, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat program has provided a continuous record of global terrestrial imagery since 1972. This data record is an invaluable resource for determining long term trends and monitoring rates of change in land usage, forest health, water quality, and glacier retreat. In 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), initiated the sustainable land imaging (SLI) architecture study to develop an affordable system design for acquiring future terrestrial imagery compatible with the existing Landsat data record. The principal objective has been to leverage recent advances in focal plane technologies to enable smaller, lower-cost instruments and launch options. We present an evaluation of the trade space implied by the SLI thermal imaging requirements as well as the performance potential of enabling technologies. Multiple approaches, each incorporating measured performance data for state-of-the-art detectors, are investigated to simultaneously optimize instrument mass and volume, spatial response, radiometric sensitivity, and radiometric uncertainty.

  5. Pyridoxine requirements of channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J W; Murai, T

    1979-04-01

    In 20 and 12 week feeding trials, channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing five levels (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and six levels (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) of supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride. Fish fed unsupplemented diets (pyridoxine content of 1.2 mg/kg) were characterized by anoxeria, nervous disorders, tetany, greenish-blue body coloration, and eventual mortality. Anemia, which has been reported in pyridoxine deficient salmonids, was not observed in pyridoxine deficient catfish. However, a microcytic, normochromic anemia was observed in groups fed high dietary levels of pyridoxine (20 mg/kg or greater). The dietary pyridoxine level required for maximal growth was approximately 3 mg/kg of diet. All other deficiency signs were prevented by 2.2 mg/kg of diet. PMID:430257

  6. Requirements engineering for digital health

    CERN Document Server

    Thümmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and well-being have captured the attention of established software companies, start-ups, and investors. Software is starting to play a central role for addressing the problems of the aging society and the escalating cost of healthcare services. Enablers of such digital health are a growing number of sensors for sensing the human body and communication infrastructure for remote meetings, data sharing, and messaging. The challenge that lies in front of us is how to effectively make use of these capabilities, for example to empower patients and to free the scarce resources of medical personnel. Requirements engineering is the process by which the capabilities of a software product are aligned with stakeholder needs and a shared understanding between the stakeholders and development team established. This book provides guide for what to look for and do when inquiring and specifying software that targets healthcare and well-being, helping readers avoid the pitfalls of the highly regulated and sensible h...

  7. A Framework for Requirements Triage Process

    OpenAIRE

    Veeramachaneni, Ramya Chowdary; Uppalapati, Niroopa

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Context: Requirements triage is a crucial activity in requirements engineering process for market-driven products. Triage deals with selection of appropriate requirements from large number of requirements for particular release plan. If triage is not performed initially, selection and management of a large number of requirements would be difficult in requirements engineering process. In market-driven product development triage is followed by estimation and prioritization of requireme...

  8. Discourse Structure Analysis for Requirement Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Juyeon Kang; Patrick Saint-dizier

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we first introduce two main approaches to writing requirements and then propose a method based on Natural Language Processing to improve requirement authoring and the overall coherence, cohesion and organization of requirement documents. We investigate the structure of requirement kernels, and then the discourse structure associated with those kernels. This will then enable the system to accurately extract requirements and their related contexts from texts (called requirement mi...

  9. Analysing the Assumed Benefits of Software Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Braithwaite, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Often during the requirements engineering (RE) process, the value of a requirement is assessed, e.g., in requirement prioritisation, release planning, and trade-off analysis. In order to support these activities, this research evaluates Goal Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE) methods for the description of a requirement's value. Specifically, we investigate the goal-to-goal contribution relationship for its ability to demonstrate the value of a requirement, and propose that it is enrich...

  10. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  11. [Educational requirements of younger psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, P H; Nielsen, B; Lolk, A; Brødsgaard, M A; Hansen, P E; Knudsen, L; Krarup, G; Lien, K; Refshammer, C M

    1993-05-24

    In order to define the requirements junior medical staff in postgraduate psychiatric training would wish to make for future postgraduate training in adult psychiatry, a questionnaire with 66 questions was sent in June 1990 to postgraduate trainees at all departments of child psychiatry and adult psychiatry in the country. Response was anonymous. The article deals with the responses from 264 persons either intending to undergo specialist training in adult psychiatry or having already completed it. Sixty-four percent stated a need for better individual clinical guidance. The majority stated that eight hours every week should be earmarked for formal tuition and research (two hrs clinical tuition, two hrs theory, two hrs supervision in psychotherapy, and two hrs for research). On average, the trainees had used 4200 DKK of their own income and four free days on courses over the previous year. Twenty-four months was proposed as adequate for an introductory appointment. The majority held that appointments should be made on the basis of the traditional curriculum vitae (82%) and a personal interview (86%), while about 20% believed that written or oral references should also be a requirement. Sixty-nine percent believed that selection of applicants for teaching appointments should be made locally with central supervision. Twenty-six percent felt they had been passed over in appointment situations, and 68% claimed it was due to nepotism. Recommendations for modifications of the future postgraduate training according to the responses are proposed, and it is concluded that earmarked resources are necessary, if the intention in the educational reform now in progress is to be realized. PMID:8316994

  12. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  14. REQUIREMENT PRODUCT CONFIGURATION IN MASS CUSTOMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xin; Tan Jianrong; Zhang Shuyou; Wu Peining

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of researching on requirement product configuration in mass customization, the concept of product family requirement class (PFRC) and requirement-matching template are put forward. A case-based requirement product configuration (CB-RPC) model and corresponding requirement product model are established. The result of requirement product configuration is obtained by using the method of two-level similar matching. In addition, the effect of the method on requirement responding is analyzed. Finally, the model and the method given are applied in elevator industry, and have improved the enterprise's ability of rapid responding to customer's requirements.

  15. Three arguments against prescription requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2012-10-01

    In this essay, I argue that prescription drug laws violate patients' rights to self-medication. Patients have rights to self-medication for the same reasons they have rights to refuse medical treatment according to the doctrine of informed consent (DIC). Since we should accept the DIC, we ought to reject paternalistic prohibitions of prescription drugs and respect the right of self-medication. In section 1, I frame the puzzle of self-medication; why don't the same considerations that tell in favour of informed consent also justify a right of self-medication? In section 2, I show that the prescription drug system was historically motivated by paternalism. In section 3, I outline the justifications for the DIC in more detail. I show that consequentialist, epistemic, and deontic considerations justify the DIC. In sections 4-6, I argue that these considerations also justify rights of self-medication. I then propose that rights of self-medication require non-prohibitive prescription policies in section 7. I consider two objections in sections 8 and 9: that patients ought not to make medically risky or deadly decisions, and that unrestricted access to prescription-grade pharmaceuticals would result in widespread misuse and abuse. Section 10 concludes. PMID:22844026

  16. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  17. The genomics of micronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Kussmann, Martin; Kaput, Jim

    2015-07-01

    Healthy nutrition is accepted as a cornerstone of public health strategies for reducing the risk of noncommunicable conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and related morbidities. However, many research studies continue to focus on single or at most a few factors that may elicit a metabolic effect. These reductionist approaches resulted in: (1) exaggerated claims for nutrition as a cure or prevention of disease; (2) the wide use of empirically based dietary regimens, as if one fits all; and (3) frequent disappointment of consumers, patients, and healthcare providers about the real impact nutrition can make on medicine and health. Multiple factors including environment, host and microbiome genetics, social context, the chemical form of the nutrient, its (bio)availability, and chemical and metabolic interactions among nutrients all interact to result in nutrient requirement and in health outcomes. Advances in laboratory methodologies, especially in analytical and separation techniques, are making the chemical dissection of foods and their availability in physiological tissues possible in an unprecedented manner. These omics technologies have opened opportunities for extending knowledge of micronutrients and of their metabolic and endocrine roles. While these technologies are crucial, more holistic approaches to the analysis of physiology and environment, novel experimental designs, and more sophisticated computational methods are needed to advance our understanding of how nutrition influences health of individuals. PMID:25981693

  18. Space systems requirements and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the more important space power technology issues, requirements and challenges as we enter the decade of the 1990's and provided an assessment of the impact of new component technology on the overall performance of space power systems. The paper emphasizes advanced component, subsystem and system technologies which will make a difference for the future in terms of the performance, reliability and survivability of next generation baseload and burst mode space power systems. The paper primarily addresses technology disciplines related to power sources (solar/nuclear and chemical), power conversion, energy storage, power conditioning/distribution and control and waste heat acquisition, transport and rejection. For some of these technology disciplines, performance trends are developed which can be used as the basis for projecting future, advanced power system performance. Performance capabilities for several different types of space power systems for both baseload and burst mode applications are postulated based on evolving technology and point designs which incorporate projections of advanced component capabilities

  19. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations. Driver-related elements of the regulations contained in 49 CFR parts 382, 391, 392, 393, 395, 396... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge....

  20. 48 CFR 2906.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 2906.501... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocate 2906.501 Requirement. The Assistant Secretary for Administration... be predicated on an understanding of the competition requirements in the FAR, and particularly...

  1. 48 CFR 6.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 6.501 Section 6.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 6.501 Requirement. As required by section 20 of the Office...

  2. 40 CFR 240.210-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.210-1 Section 240.210... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.210-1 Requirement... the design requirements. An operations manual describing the various tasks to be performed,...

  3. 18 CFR 807.1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement. 807.1... WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.1 Requirement. In addition to any other requirements of Commission regulations, and subject to the consent of the affected member state to this requirement, any person withdrawing...

  4. 49 CFR 383.113 - Required skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required skills. 383.113 Section 383.113... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 Required skills. (a) Basic vehicle control skills. All applicants for a CDL must possess and demonstrate basic motor vehicle...

  5. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4106 - Standard requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 60.4106 Standard requirements. (a) Permit Requirements. (1) The Hg designated representative of each Hg Budget source required to have a title V operating permit and each Hg Budget unit required to have a title V...

  7. Meeting Quay 2k30's requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, G.H.; Toorn, A. van der; Schuylenburg, M.; Heijnen, H.P.J.; Gijt, J.G. de; Molenaar, W.F.; Ligteringen, H.; Krom, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The requirements that a quay design should meet in order to yield a viable port infrastructure, vary widely from flexibility due to future customers requirements to durability due to owners requirements. In a Port of Rotterdam backed project, current and future requirements have been aggregated by c

  8. 24 CFR 1006.315 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 1006.315... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.315 Lease requirements... use leases that: (a) Do not contain unreasonable terms and conditions; (b) Require the DHHL, owner,...

  9. A Framework for Modelling Software Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Dhirendra Pandey; Ugrasen Suman; A K Ramani

    2011-01-01

    Requirement engineering plays an important role in producing quality software products. In recent past years, some approaches of requirement framework have been designed to provide an end-to-end solution for system development life cycle. Textual requirements specifications are difficult to learn, design, understand, review, and maintain whereas pictorial modelling is widely recognized as an effective requirement analysis tool. In this paper, we will present a requirement modelling framework ...

  10. Requirements Engineering in Software Houses of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is an essence of software development life cycle. The more time we spend on requirement engineering, higher the probability of success. Effective requirement engineering ensures and predicts successful software product. This paper presents the adaptation of requirement engineering practices in small and medium size companies of Pakistan. The study is conducted by questionnaires to show how much of requirement engineering models and practices are followed in Pakistan.

  11. 40 CFR 258.29 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an approved state program may receive electronic documents only if the state program includes the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting). ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.29 Recordkeeping requirements. (a)...

  12. Regulatory requirements for ISI qualification. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report present drafts for the regulation documents worked out by the Committee of the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes. It contains the Regulatory requirements for ISI qualifications and Regulatory requirements for the Qualification Body

  13. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  14. 8 CFR 1216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... second time of the requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file... does not relieve the alien and the petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to...

  15. 8 CFR 216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file a petition to remove the... petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file a petition to remove conditions...

  16. Physicians: Requirements for Becoming a Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Contact Us A | A Text size Email Requirements for Becoming a Physician Note: We are not ... the doctor's knowledge and skills remain current. CME requirements vary by state, by professional organizations, and by ...

  17. Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions

  18. Requirements Elicitation Problems: A Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Davey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is the process through which analysts determine the software requirements of stakeholders. Requirements elicitation is seldom well done, and an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of user requirements has led to the downfall of many software projects. This paper proposes a classification of problem types that occur in requirements elicitation. The classification has been derived from a literature analysis. Papers reporting on techniques for improving requirements elicitation practice were examined for the problem the technique was designed to address. In each classification the most recent or prominent techniques for ameliorating the problems are presented. The classification allows the requirements engineer to be sensitive to problems as they arise and the educator to structure delivery of requirements elicitation training.

  19. 40 CFR 246.202-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 246.202-1 Requirement. Any commercial establishment generating 10 or more tons of waste corrugated containers per month...

  20. 40 CFR 141.500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for the following contaminants: Giardia lamblia, viruses, heterotrophic plate count bacteria, Legionella, Cryptosporidium and turbidity. The treatment technique requirements consist of installing and properly operating water...

  1. Requirement Analysis: Specify the Environmental Model

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This interactive case study illustrates the specification of the environment model in software requirements analysis using the spec language to refine and formalize the requirements in the initial problem statement. Last modified: 5/18/2009

  2. Integrating Creativity Workshops into Structured Requirements Processes

    OpenAIRE

    MAIDEN, N; Manning, S; S. Robertson; Greenwood, J.

    2004-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a creative process in which stakeholders and designers work together to create ideas for new systems that are eventually expressed as requirements. However, many requirements engineering or software development methods do not encourage or support creative thinking, let alone integrate it with existing modeling and analysis processes. This paper describes RESCUE, a scenario-driven requirements engineering process that includes workshops that integrate creativity tec...

  3. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan El-Hadary; Sherif El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. Th...

  4. Dosimeter characteristics and service performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for personal dosimeters and dosimetry services given by ICRP 26, ICRP 35, ICRP 60 and ICRP 75 are summarised and compared with the requirements given in relevant international standards. Most standards could be made more relevant to actual workplace conditions. In some standards, the required tests of energy and angular dependence of the response are not sufficient, or requirements on overall uncertainty are lacking. (author)

  5. Requirements Management Tools: A Quantitative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sud, Rajat R.; Arthur, James D.

    2003-01-01

    This report is primarily aimed at people with some background in Requirements Engineering or practitioners wishing to assess tools available for managing requirements. We provide a starting point for this assessment, by presenting a brief survey of existing Requirements Management tools. As a part of the survey, we characterize a set of requirements management tools by outlining their features, capabilities and goals. The characterization offers a foundation to select and possibly customize a...

  6. Attributions and requirements of Islamic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlena Sari Marbun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look into the relationship between attribution and requirements of Islamic leadership. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes concepts of attribution and requirements of leadership and links them to related Islamic concepts. Findings - A correlation is found to exist between attribution and requirements of “conventional” and Islamic leadership. Research limitations/implications - Being a practical endeavor, attribution and requirements of ...

  7. 7 CFR 1724.6 - Insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1724.6 Section 1724.6... Insurance requirements. (a) Borrowers shall ensure that all architects and engineers working under contract with the borrower have insurance coverage as required by part 1788 of this chapter. (b) Borrowers...

  8. 29 CFR 99.200 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial statement audit of the auditee, the auditee may elect to have a program-specific audit conducted... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirements. 99.200 Section 99.200 Labor Office of....200 Audit requirements. (a) Audit required. Non-Federal entities that expend $300,000 or more in...

  9. 5 CFR 1315.9 - Required documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... made electronically except in situations where the EFT requirement is waived under 31 CFR 208.4. Where... requirement is waived under 31 CFR 208.4; (ix) Contact name (where practicable), title and telephone number... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required documentation. 1315.9...

  10. 48 CFR 1306.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 1306.501 Section 1306.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 1306.501 Requirement. The designee authorized...

  11. 48 CFR 706.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 706.501 Section 706.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 706.501 Requirement. The USAID...

  12. 48 CFR 806.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 806.501 Section 806.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 806.501 Requirement. (a) The...

  13. 48 CFR 2406.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Requirement. 2406.501 Section 2406.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 2406.501 Requirement....

  14. 48 CFR 3006.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 3006.501... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 3006.501 Requirement. The DHS Senior Competition Advocate (SCA) is located in the Office of the Chief...

  15. 48 CFR 2806.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Requirement. 2806.501 Section 2806.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 2806.501 Requirement. In accordance with FAR...

  16. 40 CFR 238.30 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the American Society of Testing and Materials, 1916 Race... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 238.30 Section 238.30... CARRIERS Requirement § 238.30 Requirement. (a) No processor or person shall manufacture or import, in...

  17. 48 CFR 906.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 906.501 Section 906.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 906.501 Requirement. The Secretary of Energy...

  18. 48 CFR 1206.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 1206.501 Section 1206.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 1206.501 Requirement. The DOT Senior Competition Advocate...

  19. 48 CFR 1406.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 1406.501 Section 1406.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 1406.501 Requirement. (a) The...

  20. 48 CFR 9903.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202 Disclosure requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 9903.202 Section 9903.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  1. 76 FR 38326 - Qualification Requirements (General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... title 5, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Qualification Requirements (General). Part 338 governs... revise title 5, Code of Federal Regulations, part 338 as follows: PART 338--QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 338 RIN 3206-AL15 Qualification Requirements (General)...

  2. 28 CFR 80.12 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting requirements. 80.12 Section 80... PROCEDURE § 80.12 Accounting requirements. Neither the submission of a request for an FCPA Opinion, its... comply with the accounting requirements of 15 U.S.C. 78m(b)(2) and (3)....

  3. 45 CFR 96.91 - Audit requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assurance required by section 675(c)(9) of the Reconciliation Act (42 U.S.C. 9904(c)(9)) to conform to the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit requirement. 96.91 Section 96.91 Public... Block Grants § 96.91 Audit requirement. Pursuant to section 1745(b) of the Reconciliation Act (31...

  4. 49 CFR 177.834 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following— (i) The applicable fire suppression requirements in 29 CFR 1910.106(e), (f), (g), (h), and (i); (ii) The emergency shutdown requirements in 29 CFR 1910.119(f), 1910.120(q) and 1910.38(a); (iii) The emergency response planning requirements in 29 CFR part 1910 and 40 CFR part 68; (iv)...

  5. 16 CFR 1505.4 - Manufacturing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing requirements. 1505.4 Section... USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.4 Manufacturing requirements. (a) General. (1) Only materials safe...-equipped manufacturing establishment. Each component of a toy shall comply with the requirements set...

  6. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... correcting a final rule published on September 7, 2012 (77 FR 55108). In that rule, the FAA amended its... Siting Requirements'' (77 FR 55108). In that final rule, the FAA revised the requirements for siting... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 420 RIN 2120-AJ73 Explosive Siting Requirements;...

  7. 33 CFR 183.302 - Flotation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flotation requirements. 183.302...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.302 Flotation requirements. Each boat to which this...

  8. 24 CFR 92.612 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.612 Project requirements. The following project requirements contained in subpart F of this part apply to the ADDI: (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project requirements....

  9. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment. (c) Design. All personal protective equipment shall... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.132 General requirements....

  10. 12 CFR 614.4255 - Independence requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Independence requirements. 614.4255 Section 614... Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4255 Independence requirements. (a) Prohibitions. For all personal... indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the loan or subject property; (2) As a director, vote on...

  11. 48 CFR 806.570 - Planning requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning requirements. 806... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 806.570 Planning requirements... staff office director. (4) Ensure that the services and offices that the contracting activity...

  12. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot...

  13. 7 CFR 277.17 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 277.17 Section 277.17 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.17 Audit requirements. (a) General. This section sets forth the audit requirements for...

  14. 24 CFR 891.625 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 891.625 Section 891.625 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Assistance § 891.625 Lease requirements. The lease requirements are provided in § 891.425....

  15. 24 CFR 891.765 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 891.765 Section 891.765 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.765 Lease requirements. The lease requirements are provided in §...

  16. Technical requirements for the Wismut rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements for the rehabilitation of abandoned Wismut locations are ultimately determined by the legal provisions of the various fields of law concerned. Rehabilitation requirements differ for the various objects to be rehabilitated (pits, waste heaps, settling facilities,..). This paper first presents the methodology employed for formulating recommendations for rehabilitation requirements. This is followed by a presentation of examples of rehabilitation requirements for various objects. The examples in Chapter 3 concern principal decisions made for entire locations which were made from a correspondingly general perspective. Finally the author gives examples of technical detail requirements for the rehabilitation of a waste heap

  17. Requirements management at Westinghouse Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies and surveys made in various industry branches support the Westinghouse opinion that qualitative systems engineering and requirements management have a high value in the development of complex systems and products. Two key issues causing overspending and schedule delays in projects are underestimation of complexity and misunderstandings between the different sub-project teams. These issues often arise when a project jumps too early into detail design. Good requirements management practice before detail design helps the project teams avoid such issues. Westinghouse therefore puts great effort into requirements management. The requirements management methodology at Westinghouse rests primarily on four key cornerstones: 1 - Iterative team work when developing requirements specifications, 2 - Id number tags on requirements, 3 - Robust change routine, and 4 - Requirements Traceability Matrix. (authors)

  18. A Framework for Modelling Software Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Pandey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering plays an important role in producing quality software products. In recent past years, some approaches of requirement framework have been designed to provide an end-to-end solution for system development life cycle. Textual requirements specifications are difficult to learn, design, understand, review, and maintain whereas pictorial modelling is widely recognized as an effective requirement analysis tool. In this paper, we will present a requirement modelling framework with the analysis of modern requirements modelling techniques. Also, we will discuss various domains of requirement engineering with the help of modelling elements such as semantic map of business concepts, lifecycles of business objects, business processes, business rules, system context diagram, use cases and their scenarios, constraints, and user interface prototypes. The proposed framework will be illustrated with the case study of inventory management system.

  19. Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

  20. Management system requirements for small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This abstract identifies the management system requirements for the life cycle of small reactors from initial conception through completion of decommissioning. For small reactors, the requirements for management systems remain the same as those for 'large' reactors regardless of the licensee' business model and objectives. The CSA N-Series of standards provides an interlinked set of requirements for the management of nuclear facilities. CSA N286 provides overall direction to management to develop and implement sound management practices and controls, while other CSA nuclear standards provide technical requirements and guidance that support the management system. CSA N286 is based on a set of principles. The principles are then supported by generic requirements that are applicable to the life cycle of nuclear facilities. CNSC regulatory documents provide further technical requirements and guidance. (author)

  1. Requirements development for a patient computing system.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, J. S.; Pedraza, L. A.; Reilly, C. A.; Murphy, M. E.; Kuperman, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Critical parts of the software development life cycle are concerned with eliciting, understanding, and managing requirements. Though the literature on this subject dates back for several decades, practicing effective requirements development remains a current and challenging area. Some projects flourish with a requirements development process (RDP) that is implicit and informal, but this approach may be overly risky, particularly for large projects that involve multiple individuals, groups, a...

  2. Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kearl, Leonard C.

    1982-01-01

    This book was assembled using the latest information for compiling the nutrient requirements of sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo. Because of the complexity of the interactions between an animal, its diet, its physiological state, and the environment; the values depicting the nutrient requirements are estimates and not absolutes. These values, however, are considered to be adequate to meet the minimum requirements of healthy animals maintained in a thermoneutral environment. The mean ...

  3. Requirement Defect Identification: An Early Stage Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rizwan Beg; Sandeep Kumar Nayak; Khan, Raees A.

    2012-01-01

    Delivery of reliable software has become a primary concern for the successful software development organizations. Successful and reliable software can be delivering only when the requirement documentation is reliable. There is various threats point in the requirement phase that causes for requirement defects and so defect occurring in the further phases of Software Development process. A key aspect of delivering and improving the software reliability it is necessary to be confident that the r...

  4. Matching ERP System Functionality to Customer Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Colette; Prakash, Naveen

    2001-01-01

    International audience Although procuring Enterprise Resource Planning systems from commercial suppliers is becoming increasingly popular in our industry, fitting those systems to customer requirements remains problematic. In this paper, we propose an approach for matching ERP system functionality to customer requirements. The assumption made is that the ERP system postulates a set of requirements that are worth eliciting from the ERP documentation as abstractions of the ERP system functio...

  5. Model-driven Engineering for Requirements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Benoit; Nebut, Clementine; Le Traon,Yves

    2007-01-01

    Requirements engineering (RE) encompasses a set of activities for eliciting, modelling, agreeing, communicating and validating requirements that precisely define the problem domain for a software system. Several tools and methods exist to perform each of these activities, but they mainly remain separate, making it difficult to capture the global consistency of large requirement documents. In this paper we introduce model-driven engineering (MDE) as a possible technical solution to integrate the...

  6. Safety assessment and the software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although much work has been done on assessing safety in programmable systems, one very important aspect, the integration of hazard analysis and requirements engineering, has been somewhat neglected. The problems associated with this integration are discussed and the HAZAPS methodology is proposed as a means of solving some of these. HAZAPS was developed for identifying hazards in programmable systems, constructing and modelling safety requirements, and assessing these requirements. A computer support tool for HAZAPS is also described

  7. Agro-ecosystems water requirements for crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop water requirements were mainly influenced by meteorological factors like temperature, wind, humidity and radiational balance. In agro-ecosystems, the main water loss was through evapotranspiration. In the present article the water requirements for rice and wheat crops in India are presented. It was observed that there were strong gradients for water requirements in the north-western and south-western parts of the country

  8. Tying, Bundling, and Loyalty/Requirement Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Economides

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the impact of tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on consumer surplus in the affected markets. I show that the Chicago School Theory of a single monopoly surplus that justifies tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on the basis of efficiency typically fails. Thus, tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates can be used to extract consumer surplus and enhance profit of firms with market power. I discuss the various setups when this occurs.

  9. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard identifies safety requirements for magnetic fusion facilities. Safety functions are used to define outcomes that must be achieved to ensure that exposures to radiation, hazardous materials, or other hazards are maintained within acceptable limits. Requirements applicable to magnetic fusion facilities have been derived from Federal law, policy, and other documents. In addition to specific safety requirements, broad direction is given in the form of safety principles that are to be implemented and within which safety can be achieved

  10. Requirements engineering-based conceptual modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Insfrán, E.; O. Pastor; Wieringa, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The software production process involves a set of phases where a clear relationship and smooth transitions between them should be introduced. In this paper, a requirements engineering-based conceptual modelling approach is introduced as a way to improve the quality of the software production process. The aim of this approach is to provide a set of techniques and methods to capture software requirements and to provide a way to move from requirements to a conceptual schema in a traceable way. T...

  11. Market risk premium: Required, historical and expected

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    The market risk premium is one of the most important but elusive parameters in finance. It is also called equity premium, market premium and risk premium. The term 'market risk premium' is difficult to understand because it is used to designate three different concepts: 1) Required market risk premium, which is the incremental return of a diversified portfolio (the market) over the risk-free rate (return of treasury bonds) required by an investor. It is needed for calculating the required ret...

  12. Requirement emergence computation of networked software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Keqing; LIANG Peng; PENG Rong; LI Bing; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    Emergence Computation has become a hot topic in the research of complex systems in recent years.With the substantial increase in scale and complexity of network-based information systems,the uncertain user requirements from the Internet and personalized application requirement result in the frequent change for the software requirement.Meanwhile,the software system with non self-possessed,resource become more and more complex.Furthermore,the interaction and cooperation requirement between software units and running environment in service computing increase the complexity of software systems.The software systems with complex system characteristics are developing into the"Networked Software" with characteristics of change-on-demand and change-with-cooperation.The concepts "programming","compiling" and "running"of software in common sense are extended from "desktop" to "network".The core issue of software engineering is moving to the requirement engineering,which becomes the research focus of complex systemsoftware engineering.In this paper,we present the software network view based on complex system theory,and the concept of networked software and networked requirement.We proposethe challenge problem in the research of emergence computation of networked software requirement.A hierarchical & cooperative Unified requirement modeling framework URF (Unified Requirement Framework) and related RGPS (Role,Goal,Process and Service) meta-models are proposed.Five scales and the evolutionary growth mechanismin requirement emergence computation of networked software are given with focus on user-dominant and domain-oriented requirement,and the rules and predictability in requirement emergence computation are analyzed.A case study in the application of networked e-Business with evolutionary growth based on State design pattern is presented in the end.

  13. 48 CFR 23.1004 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Denmark, East Germany, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein..., Switzerland, Wales, West Germany, Yugoslavia), or Greenland shall meet each applicable minimum requirement...

  15. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  16. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery

    1995-01-01

    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  17. SE Requirements Development Tool User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Faith Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The LANL Systems Engineering Requirements Development Tool (SERDT) is a data collection tool created in InfoPath for use with the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) SharePoint sites. Projects can fail if a clear definition of the final product requirements is not performed. For projects to be successful requirements must be defined early in the project and those requirements must be tracked during execution of the project to ensure the goals of the project are met. Therefore, the focus of this tool is requirements definition. The content of this form is based on International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and Department of Defense (DoD) process standards and allows for single or collaborative input. The “Scoping” section is where project information is entered by the project team prior to requirements development, and includes definitions and examples to assist the user in completing the forms. The data entered will be used to define the requirements and once the form is filled out, a “Requirements List” is automatically generated and a Word document is created and saved to a SharePoint document library. SharePoint also includes the ability to download the requirements data defined in the InfoPath from into an Excel spreadsheet. This User Guide will assist you in navigating through the data entry process.

  18. Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication establishes requirements and provides criteria for ensuring safety in site evaluation for nuclear installations. The Safety Guides on site evaluation listed in the references section provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements established in this publication. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  19. Nursing staff requirements for neonatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S.; Whelan, A; Weindling, A M; Cooke, R W

    1993-01-01

    A study to estimate the number of nursing staff required for neonatal nursing was undertaken. Certain nursing tasks, such as transporting any infant, caring for the dying infant, and looking after the very unstable infant required continuous attention by one nurse (5.5 whole time equivalent (wte) nurses for each cot). The stable ventilated infant required 10.5 nursing hours each day-that is, 2.4 wte/cot. Infants with intravenous infusions, but not ventilated, required only slightly less nursi...

  20. 45 CFR 1080.8 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... violence. (Information collection requirements are approved by the Office of Management and Budget under..., ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY COMMUNITY...

  1. A Requirements Analysis Model Based on QFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-wei; Nelson K.H.Tang

    2004-01-01

    The enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has emerged to offer an integrated IT solution and more and more enterprises are increasing by adopting this system and regarding it as an important innovation. However, there is already evidence of high failure risks in ERP project implementation, one major reason is poor analysis of the requirements for system implementation. In this paper, the importance of requirements analysis for ERP project implementation is highlighted, and a requirements analysis model by applying quality function deployment (QFD) is presented, which will support to conduct requirements analysis for ERP project.

  2. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  3. Maintainability program requirements for space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  4. Bandwidth requirements for fine resolution squinted SAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2000-03-01

    The conventional rule-of-thumb for Synthetic Aperture Radar is that an RF bandwidth of c/(2{rho}{sub r}) is required to image a scene at the desired slant-range resolution {rho}{sub r}, and perhaps a little more to account for window functions and sidelobe control. This formulation is based on the notion that the total bandwidth required is the same bandwidth that is required for a single pulse. What is neglected is that efficient processing of an entire synthetic aperture of pulses will often require different frequency content for each of the different pulses that makeup a synthetic aperture. Consequently, the total RF bandwidth required of a Synthetic Aperture Radar may then be substantially wider than the bandwidth of any single pulse. The actual RF bandwidth required depends strongly on flight geometry, owing to the desire for a radar to maintain a constant projection of the Fourier space collection surface onto the {omega}{sub y} axis. Long apertures required for fine azimuth resolution, and severe squint angles with steep depression angles may require total RF bandwidths well beyond the minimum bandwidth required of any single transmitted pulse, perhaps even by a factor of two or more. Accounting for this is crucial to designing efficient versatile high-performance imaging radars. This paper addresses how a data set conducive to efficient processing might increase the total RF bandwidth, and presents examples of how a fixed RF bandwidth might then limit SAR geometries.

  5. Exploratory Study to Assess and Evaluate Requirement Specification Techniques Using Analysis Determination Requirements Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Souhaib Besrour; Lukman Bin Ab Rahim; P.D.D.Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Various requirements engineering techniques have been proposed to enhance the quality of requirement as well as the implemented software and to growth customer satisfaction with the product. However the large number of requirement techniques makes the choosing between them complicated and confusing. Consequently, this study purposes to present an exploratory study to evaluate requirement techniques and illuminate their key features, limitations and strength.

  6. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Standards and Requirements Identification Document (SRID) Requirements Management System and Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP), River Protection Project (RPP), CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), will use a computer based requirements management system. The system will serve as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) requirements and links to implementing procedures and other documents. By managing requirements as one integrated set, CHG will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. CHG has chosen the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS(trademark)) as the preferred computer based requirements management system. Accordingly, the S/RID program will use DOORS(trademark). DOORS(trademark) will replace the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI) system as the tool for S/RID data management. The DOORS(trademark) S/RID test project currently resides on the DOORSTM test server. The S/RID project will be migrated to the DOORS(trademark) production server. After the migration the S/RID project will be considered a production project and will no longer reside on the test server

  7. 21 CFR 660.2 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 660.2 Section 660.2 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.2 General requirements. (a) Processing. The processing method shall be one that has been shown...

  8. 49 CFR 377.103 - Tariff requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff requirements. 377.103 Section 377.103... CHARGES Handling of C.O.D. Shipments § 377.103 Tariff requirements. No common carrier of property subject....d. service unless such carrier has published, posted and filed tariffs which contain the...

  9. Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirements on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant

  10. 32 CFR 766.9 - Insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance requirements. 766.9 Section 766.9... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.9 Insurance requirements. (a) Control of insurance. The Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, or his designee, shall be responsible...

  11. 15 CFR 911.8 - Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.8 Technical requirements. (a) All platform operators of the NOAA DCS must use a data collection platform radio set whose technical... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical requirements. 911.8...

  12. 50 CFR 660.15 - Equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... receivers, computer hardware for electronic fish ticket software and computer hardware for electronic... provided by Pacific States Marine Fish Commission are required to meet the hardware and software... not subject to any specific hardware or software requirements. (1) Hardware and software...

  13. 46 CFR 153.238 - Required materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required materials. 153.238 Section 153.238 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.238 Required materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section...

  14. 7 CFR 1290.10 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 1290.10 Audit requirements. The State is accountable for conducting a financial audit of the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 1290.10 Section 1290.10... audit, a copy of the audit results....

  15. Protein requirements for long term missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.

    1994-01-01

    A key component of the diet for a space mission is protein. This first part of this paper reviews the reasons for emphasizing protein nurtition and then discusses what the requirements are likely to be. The second part discusses potential advantages of modifying these requirements and describes potential potential approaches to effecting these modificatons based on well established ground based models.

  16. 40 CFR 240.203-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.203-1 Section 240.203-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.203-1...

  17. 40 CFR 240.206-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.206-1 Section 240.206-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-1...

  18. 40 CFR 240.209-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.209-1 Section 240.209-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.209-1...

  19. 40 CFR 240.205-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.205-1 Section 240.205-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205-1...

  20. 40 CFR 240.207-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.207-1 Section 240.207-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.207-1...

  1. 40 CFR 240.200-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.200-1 Section 240.200-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200-1...

  2. 40 CFR 240.202-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.202-1 Section 240.202-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.202-1...

  3. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  4. 40 CFR 240.201-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.201-1 Section 240.201-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201-1...

  5. 40 CFR 240.204-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.204-1 Section 240.204-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204-1...

  6. 40 CFR 240.208-1 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement. 240.208-1 Section 240.208-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-1...

  7. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this section is to explain the meaning of logical connectors with specific examples. Logical connectors are used in Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) to discriminate between, and yet connect, discrete Conditions, Required Actions, Completion Times, Surveillances, and Frequencies. The only logical connectors that appear in TSRs are AND and OR. The physical arrangement of these connectors constitutes logical conventions with specific meanings

  8. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.203 Training requirements. (a... refresher training, at an interval not to exceed three years, that includes classroom and “hands-on... to be equipped with a two-way end-of-train telemetry device pursuant to subpart E of this part,...

  9. Requirements for transporting the TMI-2 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the requirements associated with the actual transport of core debris from the damaged Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The requirements are discussed under six headings: accountability, security, quality, safety, environment, and transportation

  10. 40 CFR 211.210 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 211.210 Section 211.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.210 Requirements....

  11. 40 CFR 205.157 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.157 Section 205.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157 Requirements....

  12. 24 CFR 221.501 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Moderate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility requirements. 221.501 Section 221.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  13. 14 CFR 21.613 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 21.613 Section 21.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... requirements. (a) Keeping the records. Each manufacturer holding a TSO authorization under this part shall,...

  14. 32 CFR 235.7 - Information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 235.7 Section 235.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SALE OR RENTAL OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON DOD PROPERTY § 235.7 Information requirements....

  15. 45 CFR 98.70 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (April 1998 through June 1998). States and Territorial Lead Agencies which choose to submit case-level... Program Reporting Requirements § 98.70 Reporting requirements. (a) Quarterly Case-level Report— (1) State and territorial Lead Agencies that receive assistance under the CCDF shall prepare and submit to...

  16. 21 CFR 211.180 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General requirements. (a) Any production, control, or distribution record that is required to be maintained in compliance with this part and is specifically associated with a batch of a drug product shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration date of the batch or, in the case of certain...

  17. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  18. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...

  19. 16 CFR 307.5 - Language requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... case of an advertisement for a smokeless tobacco product in a newspaper, magazine, periodical, or other... requirements. The warning statement on the label of a smokeless tobacco product required by the Act and these regulations shall be set out in the English language. If the label of a smokeless tobacco product contains...

  20. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revenue requirements. 904.5 Section 904.5 Energy... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.5 Revenue requirements. (a) Western shall collect all electric service revenues from the Project in accordance with applicable statutes and regulations and deposit such...

  1. 8 CFR 312.1 - Literacy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Literacy requirements. 312.1 Section 312.1... FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.1 Literacy requirements. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... unable, because of a medically determinable physical or mental impairment or combination of...

  2. 13 CFR 307.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements. 307.5 Section 307.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... EDA) a CEDS, except that a CEDS is not required when applying for a Strategy Grant; and (2)...

  3. 49 CFR 630.4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from the National Transit Database Web site located at http://www.ntdprogram.gov. These reference... Transit Database Web site and a notice of any significant changes to the reporting requirements specified... TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.4 Requirements. (a) National Transit Database Reporting...

  4. 10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance... lost for more than 10 seconds. (j) Seismic. For panoramic irradiators to be built in seismic areas, the... an earthquake by designing to the seismic requirements of an appropriate source such as...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.672 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental requirements. 1944.672 Section 1944.672 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... following is additional information on how to approach HPG projects under those requirements: (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 141.131 - Analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 1301... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical requirements. 141.131... Disinfection Byproduct Precursors § 141.131 Analytical requirements. (a) General. (1) Systems must use only...

  7. 46 CFR 177.700 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements. 177.700 Section 177.700 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.700 General requirements. (a) A crew accommodation space and...

  8. 46 CFR 177.100 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirement. 177.100 Section 177.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Provisions § 177.100 General requirement. The construction and...

  9. 46 CFR 177.800 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements. 177.800 Section 177.800 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.800 General requirements. (a) All...

  10. 20 CFR 220.133 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skill requirements. 220.133 Section 220.133... DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.133 Skill requirements. (a) General. To evaluate skills and to... claimant does not gain work skills by doing unskilled jobs. For example, jobs are considered unskilled...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1568 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skill requirements. 404.1568 Section 404.1568...- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations § 404.1568 Skill requirements. In order to evaluate your skills and to help determine the existence in the national economy of work you are able to...

  12. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  13. 14 CFR 63.57 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.57 Section 63.57 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.57 Skill requirements. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.79 Section 65.79... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a... cover the applicant's basic skill in performing practical projects on the subjects covered by...

  15. 20 CFR 416.968 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skill requirements. 416.968 Section 416.968... DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations § 416.968 Skill requirements. In order to evaluate your skills and to help determine the existence in the national economy of work...

  16. 14 CFR 63.39 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.39 Section 63.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.39 Skill requirements. (a)...

  17. 29 CFR 4231.5 - Valuation requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation requirement. 4231.5 Section 4231.5 Labor... PLANS § 4231.5 Valuation requirement. (a) In general. For a plan that is not a significantly affected... has terminated by mass withdrawal under section 4041A(a)(2) of ERISA, the actuarial...

  18. Herausforderungen fuer das Requirements Engineering eingebetteter Systeme

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Fleischmann; Eva Geisberger; Markus Pister

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: In diesem Bericht werden in kompakter Form die spezifischen Problemstellungen und Herausforderungen bei der Entwicklung Eingebetteter Systeme aufgezeigt und die entsprechenden Anforderungen an das Requirements Engineering definiert. Der Bericht ist Teilergebnis des REFOCUS Projekts am Lehrstuhl von Professor Broy, in dem eine durchgehende Methodik fuer das Requirements Engineering Eingebetteter Systeme entworfen wird.

  19. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 5.33 Section 5.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  20. 27 CFR 4.38 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 4.38 Section 4.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine §...

  1. 44 CFR 80.21 - Closeout requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closeout requirements. 80.21 Section 80.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... restriction language to meet the requirements of this part; (b) A photo of each property site after...

  2. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  3. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each... positions held on behalf of a customer in a securities account or futures account as set forth in this... security future shall be twenty (20) percent of the current market value of such security future....

  4. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin... of a customer in a securities account or futures account as set forth in this section. (b) Required... be twenty (20) percent of the current market value of such security future. (2) Offsetting...

  5. 8 CFR 245.4 - Documentary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentary requirements. 245.4 Section 245.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.4 Documentary requirements....

  6. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or...

  7. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine h

  8. 40 CFR 425.06 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements. 425.06 Section 425.06 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.06 Monitoring requirements. Compliance with monthly...

  9. 32 CFR 162.7 - Information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENHANCING CAPITAL INVESTMENT (PECI) § 162.7 Information requirements. (a) DoD Components shall submit to the ASD (FM&P), by December 15th of each year, an annual status report on all PECI programs as outlined in... requirements. (b) The Summary Report, “PECI Program Status,” is assigned Report Control Symbol FM&P (A)...

  10. 14 CFR 258.5 - Notice requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice requirement. 258.5 Section 258.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... are shown as requiring a change of aircraft. (b) Oral notice to prospective consumers. In any...

  11. 40 CFR 141.70 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations establish criteria under which filtration is required as a treatment technique for public water... under the direct influence of surface water. In addition, these regulations establish treatment technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for the following contaminants: Giardia...

  12. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the...

  13. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required. Before producing any special natural wine, the proprietor shall receive approval of the formula by which it is...

  14. 27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...

  15. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...

  16. 27 CFR 19.378 - Formula requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Manufacture of Articles Formulas § 19.378 Formula requirements. An approved formula on TTB Form 5110.38 must be secured for spirits for domestic use or export as provided in 27 CFR 5.26-5.27 before processors... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements....

  17. 42 CFR 3.106 - Security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT PSO Requirements and Agency Procedures § 3.106 Security requirements. (a) Application. A PSO must secure patient safety work product in conformance with the security... the confidentiality and security of patient safety work product. (2) Distinguishing patient...

  18. General Education Requirements: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Darrell B.; Koeppel, Katie

    2009-01-01

    While "general education" is a phrase heavily used in higher education, Leskes and Wright note that it has multiple meanings: it can refer to those courses that a college or university requires all of its students must pass as a condition for graduation, a common curriculum, a distribution requirement, or even core texts. This analysis of general…

  19. Requirements Analysis for Information-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. D.; Hartsough, C.; Morris, R. V.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses role of requirements analysis in development of information-intensive systems. System examined from variety of human viewpoints during design, development, and implementation. Such examination, called requirements analysis, ensures system simultaneously meets number of distinct but interacting needs. Viewpoints defined and integrated to help attain objectives.

  20. 7 CFR 1770.13 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements shall be prepared for the period and audited in accordance with the provisions of 7 CFR part 1773... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting requirements. 1770.13 Section 1770.13... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System...

  1. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements....

  2. 40 CFR 63.775 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements specified in 40 CFR 61.247, except that the Periodic Reports shall be submitted on the schedule... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 63.775 Section 63.775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  3. 49 CFR 451.25 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 451.25 Section 451.25....25 Required information. (a) The safety approval number appearing on line 1 of the safety approval... safety approval plate on the freight container provided that all the information contained on...

  4. 19 CFR 142.6 - Invoice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invoice requirements. 142.6 Section 142.6 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.6 Invoice requirements. (a) Contents. The commercial invoice, or the documentation acceptable in place of a commercial invoice in those instances listed...

  5. 7 CFR 58.810 - Temperature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperature requirements. 58.810 Section 58.810... Procedures § 58.810 Temperature requirements. (a) Unless processed within 2 hours, all whey or condensed whey... be cooled to 45 °F or less, or heated to 145 °F or higher. Other temperatures may be used...

  6. 7 CFR 1423.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WAREHOUSES § 1423.5 Application requirements. To apply for approval under this part, a warehouse operator... storage agreement; (b) Evidence of compliance with § 1423.4; (c) Current financial information sufficient to meet the requirements of § 1423.6; (d) For State licensed or non-licensed warehouse operators,...

  7. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  8. 12 CFR 704.15 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIONS § 704.15 Audit requirements. (a) External audit. The corporate credit union supervisory committee... supervisory committee shall submit the audit report to the board of directors. A copy of the audit report, and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 704.15 Section 704.15...

  9. 12 CFR 989.2 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the audit committee of each Bank, the OF board of directors, and the Financing Corporation Directorate... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 989.2 Section 989.2 Banks... Audit requirements. (a) Each Bank, the OF and the Financing Corporation shall obtain annually...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.156 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease requirements. 3560.156 Section 3560.156... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Multi-Family Housing Occupancy § 3560.156 Lease requirements. (a) Agency approval. Borrowers must use a lease approved by the Agency. The lease must...

  11. 24 CFR 886.127 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tenancy for “other good cause” under 24 CFR 247.3(a)(3), unless the termination is based on family... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 886.127 Section... for Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.127 Lease requirements. (a) Term of...

  12. 24 CFR 884.215 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 884.215 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.215 Lease requirements. The Lease shall... provisions listed in paragraph (c) of this section. (a) Term of lease. The term of the Lease shall be for...

  13. 24 CFR 891.425 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 891.425 Section... Lease requirements. This section shall apply to capital advances under the Section 202 Program and the Section 811 Program, as well as loans financed under subpart E of this part. (a) Term of lease. The...

  14. 24 CFR 886.327 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tenancy for “other good cause” under 24 CFR 247.3(a)(3), unless the termination is based on family... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 886.327 Section... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.327 Lease requirements. (a) Term of lease. (1)...

  15. 5 CFR 842.704 - Election requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 842.704 Section... Election requirements. (a) The election of an alternative form of annuity and evidence of spousal consent... certify that the current spouse presented identification, gave consent to the specific election...

  16. 32 CFR 505.9 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting requirements. 505.9 Section 505.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.9 Reporting requirements. The Department of the Army...

  17. Software requirements specification for critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software requirements specification document is a central document for any engineered software product but is of crucial importance for critical applications for the following reasons: it is used as a basis of review of the required functionality of the system being specified; it is the basis of the software design; it is used as a basis for review of the design; and it is used as a basis of the testing of the final product. Adequate assurance that a software product has met its requirements cannot be attained without a complete, precise, unambiguous, and correct specification of the required behavior of the software based system. This paper presents a technique for requirements specification, based on a finite state machine model and tabular representation of mathematical functions, which is being developed at Ontario Hydro for use during development of software for use in real-time, critical applications

  18. Nonfunctional requirements in systems analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Kevin MacG

    2015-01-01

    This book will help readers gain a solid understanding of non-functional requirements inherent in systems design endeavors. It contains essential information for those who design, use, and maintain complex engineered systems, including experienced designers, teachers of design, system stakeholders, and practicing engineers. Coverage approaches non-functional requirements in a novel way by presenting a framework of four systems concerns into which the 27 major non-functional requirements fall: sustainment, design, adaptation, and viability. Within this model, the text proceeds to define each non-functional requirement, to specify how each is treated as an element of the system design process, and to develop an associated metric for their evaluation. Systems are designed to meet specific functional needs. Because non-functional requirements are not directly related to tasks that satisfy these proposed needs, designers and stakeholders often fail to recognize the importance of such attributes as availability, su...

  19. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pott, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brechtel, C.E. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery.

  20. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  1. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  2. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  3. A MODEL FOR ALIGNING SOFTWARE PROJECTS REQUIREMENTS WITH PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hans

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The fast-paced, dynamic environment within which information and communication technology (ICT projects are run as well as ICT professionals’ constant changing requirements present a challenge for project managers in terms of aligning projects’ requirements with project team members’ requirements. This research paper purports that if projects’ requirements are properly aligned with team members’ requirements, then this will result in a balanced decision approach. Moreover, such an alignment will result in the realization of employee’s needs as well as meeting project’s needs. This paper presents a Project’s requirements and project Team members’ requirements (PrTr alignment model and argues that a balanced decision which meets both software project’s requirements and team members’ requirements can be achieved through the application of the PrTr alignment model.

  4. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  5. Identifying dependability requirements for space software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Toshiro Yano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are increasingly used in space, whether in launch vehicles, satellites, ground support and payload systems. Software applications used in these systems have become more complex, mainly due to the high number of features to be met, thus contributing to a greater probability of hazards related to software faults. Therefore, it is fundamental that the specification activity of requirements have a decisive role in the effort of obtaining systems with high quality and safety standards. In critical systems like the embedded software of the Brazilian Satellite Launcher, ambiguity, non-completeness, and lack of good requirements can cause serious accidents with economic, material and human losses. One way to assure quality with safety, reliability and other dependability attributes may be the use of safety analysis techniques during the initial phases of the project in order to identify the most adequate dependability requirements to minimize possible fault or failure occurrences during the subsequent phases. This paper presents a structured software dependability requirements analysis process that uses system software requirement specifications and traditional safety analysis techniques. The main goal of the process is to help to identify a set of essential software dependability requirements which can be added to the software requirement previously specified for the system. The final results are more complete, consistent, and reliable specifications.

  6. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made

  7. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  8. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  9. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear data requirements for experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactors are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the shield as well as major reactor components of concern to the nuclear performance. The nuclear data requirements are defined as a result of analyzing four key areas. These are the most likely candidate materials, energy range, types of needed nuclear data, and the required accuracy in the data. Deducing the latter from the target goals for the accuracy in prediction is also discussed. A specific proposal of measurements is recommended. Priorities for acquisition of data are also assigned. (author)

  10. Quality Assurance Source Requirements Traceability Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Yucca Mountain Project the Project Requirements Processing System assists in the management of relationships between regulatory and national/industry standards source criteria, and Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document (DOE/R W-0333P) requirements to create compliance matrices representing respective relationships. The matrices are submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assist in the commission's review, interpretation, and concurrence with the Yucca Mountain Project QA program document. The tool is highly customized to meet the needs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Quality Assurance

  11. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  12. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permission from an immigration officer. (d) Emergency or forced landing. Should any aircraft carrying... emergency or forced landing. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing requirements. 234.2 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 310.6 - Entrance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements, will be acceptable to the Administration. (5) Possess a secondary school education or equivalent... qualities of leadership. (b) Enrollment on or after April 1, 1982. A candidate for admission to a school...

  14. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Often product development processes, in the market-pull cases, start with identifying the needs or problems that the product is expected to satisfy or solve. The initial needs and problems should be formulated into abstract, unambiguous, traceable and validatable design requirements (Brace...... and Cheutet, 2012). Design requirements coordinate the diverse desires in the end product and provide the basis of synthesizing a solution (Darlington and Culley, 2004). Various studies have been conducted in the engineering design field both descriptively to comprehend the design requirement practice......, and prescriptively to improve practice through developing theories and methods etc. (Darlington and Culley, 2002). Several procedures for developing design requirements have been proposed in literatures e.g. (Dieter and Schmidt, 2007; Pahl, et Al., 2007; Ulrich and Eppinger, 2011). Poorly identified design...

  15. The European utility requirements for future ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EUR (European Utilities Requirements) effort was launched in December 1991 by five European utilities, later rejoined by four others. The objective was to write down common requirements for light water reactors of the next generation, which would be built in the near future. Benefits from this approach are expected in the fields of plant licensing, public acceptance as well as the strengthening of nuclear energy competitiveness. These requirements address both evolutive reactors and the ones using intensively passive safety devices, PWRs as well as BWRs. A number of new features appear in these requirements, like the concept of Design Extension Conditions, which is developed to cover the severe accident issue, and a new classification system for all structures, systems, and components. Emphasis is put on standardisation and simplification, but also on margins and cost objectives. (orig./GL)

  16. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  18. 38 CFR 36.4365 - Appraisal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substantially completed except for customer preference items, such as interior finishes, appliances or equipment... units in the project. Lenders shall certify as to satisfaction of the presale requirement prior to...

  19. 14 CFR 61.183 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.183 Eligibility requirements. To be eligible for a... university. (f) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in § 61.185(a)(2) and...

  20. 24 CFR 234.26 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... meet this occupancy requirement. (f) Limitations on conversion of rental housing to condominium use... entity (the same individual, investor group, partnership, or corporation) may own more than 10 percent...

  1. 32 CFR 505.8 - Training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.8 Training requirements. (a) Training. (1) The Privacy... specialists, finance officers, DOD personnel who may be expected to deal with the news media or the...

  2. Target input requirements for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the requirements a heavy ion accelerator must meet in order to initiate practical thermonuclear microexplosions. Particular emphasis is given to the question of maximum allowable ion energy

  3. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  4. Requirements Engineering In Current Web Engineering Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jeyakarthik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Web engineering – the discipline concerned with the development of quality web applications has been receiving a lot of attention in the recent era with the increasing number of web projects being undertaken by many organizations. Many methodologies have been proposed in this regard. Requirements engineering – being an integral and crucial phase in traditional software engineering, also necessitates a careful consideration in web engineering as well. The present paper presents an overview of how well the available web engineering methodologies address requirements engineering. The types of requirements, techniques, activities and the level of detail supported by the web engineering methodologies available today are tabulated and this throws light on the need for new methodologies that address requirements engineering in a greater depth for web applications.

  5. Space shuttle requirements/configuration evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Space Shuttle chronology; Space Shuttle comparison; Cost comparison; Performance; Program ground rules; Sizing criteria; Crew/passenger provisions; Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) characteristics; Space Shuttle program milestones; and Space Shuttle requirements are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  6. 16 CFR 432.2 - Required disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.2 Required disclosures. (a) Whenever any direct or indirect... sound power amplification equipment in any product brochure or manufacturer specification sheet,...

  7. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  8. 75 FR 12803 - Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...Notice of the Compact Council's establishment of a process for initiating noncriminal justice criminal history record checks during times of emergencies and disasters under the authority of the Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule, title 28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part...

  9. 40 CFR 141.170 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations in this subpart establish or extend treatment technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for the following contaminants: Giardia lamblia, viruses, heterotrophic plate count... must provide treatment of its source water that complies with these treatment technique...

  10. 48 CFR 750.7108 - Contractual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7108 Contractual requirements. Every contract amended or... policy interests of the United States....

  11. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  12. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All......Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... effects of such changes include an increase in lead-time and cost. Thus, support to mitigate change in requirements is essential. A thorough understanding of the nature of changes in requirements is essential before a method or tool to mitigate these changes can be proposed. Therefore, a case study...

  13. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  14. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  15. 48 CFR 22.602 - Statutory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... required by the Act pertaining to such matters as minimum wages, maximum hours, child labor, convict labor... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act...

  16. Should Universities lower Admission Requirements for Celebrities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many famous universities lower admission requirements for celebrities. More and more celebrities, especially sports stars, have been admitted to famous universities even without an entry examination. This phenomenon has become a subject of widespread controversy.

  17. Requirements for gamma radiation survey meter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes the minimum requirements for calibrating a portable analog gamma radiation survey meter by means of a beam calibrator, with a known calibration source. If an alternative method of calibration is to be used the licensee should make a written request to the Atomic Energy Control Board that describes the calibration method to be used, and request the Board's permission to use that method in place of the requirements contained in this guide. This guide explains: the responsibility for survey meter calibration if licensees calibrate their own survey meters, use the services of a Canadian calibration agency, and use the services of a non-Canadian calibration agency; the requirements for survey meter calibration and the supporting documentation; the requirements for record-keeping; and, a calibration certificate, a calibration sticker, and a notification of failure to calibrate form, with examples

  18. 32 CFR 516.61 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.61 Reporting requirements... is requested by PFD, the provisions of DFARS 209.406-3 (48 CFR 209.406-3) will be followed....

  19. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  20. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0013 gb|AAV93255.1| putative green ... sensitive visual pigment [Pundamilia nyererei] g ... b|AAV93258.1| putative green ... sensitive visual pigment [Pundamilia sp. 'luanso'] ... gb|AAV93259.1| putative green ... sensitive visual pigment [Pundamilia sp. 'red head ...

  2. Determination of Basic Household Water Requirements (Revised)

    OpenAIRE

    Inocencio, Arlene B.; Padilla, Jose E.; Javier, Esmyra P.

    1999-01-01

    The concern for determining the basic or minimum water requirement for a person to maintain good health and proper sanitation comes about in the light of the current state of water resources and the growing scarcity against a rapidly rising population. This paper’s contribution is the determination of this basic or minimum water requirement which is necessary to sustain human life and other basic human activities through a record keeping approach and use of an econometric tool. Specifically, ...

  3. Smart Grid Information Security (IS) Functional Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Amy Poh Ai; Masao, Mukaidono

    2011-01-01

    It is important to implement safe smart grid environment to enhance people's lives and livelihoods. This paper provides information on smart grid IS functional requirement by illustrating some discussion points to the sixteen identified requirements. This paper introduces the smart grid potential hazards that can be referred as a triggering factor to improve the system and security of the entire grid. The background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid IS is descri...

  4. Requirements on gamma ray spectrum analysis programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many programs intended for the evaluation of gamma ray spectra have been written. Most of them cover the basic needs but there are several options a user might want to have which are not incorporated. This paper attempts to list all general and some special requirements on such programs. Recommendations on details of the physical and technical methods to match the requirements and the citation of any existing program are avoided. (author)

  5. Understanding Social and Environmental Requirements in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Rapid changes in the social and technical environment bring about many new challenges to system requirements engineering, amongst which out-sourcing or off-shoring of certain design tasks to countries with more human resources and broader markets becomes promising business leverage. Here we report some of the result from an ongoing research project on the survey of requirements practices in China. It is interesting to understand the current status of industrial practices after years' research...

  6. Semantic Approach for Service Oriented Requirements Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bin; Cai, Guang-Jun; Jin, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    International audience Services computing is an interdisciplinary subject that devotes to bridging the gap between business services and IT services. It is recognized that Requirements Engineering is fundamental in implementing the service oriented architecture. It takes traditional RE techniques great efforts to model business requirements and search for the appropriate services. In this paper, we propose an ontological approach to facilitate the service-oriented modeling framework. The g...

  7. Requirements for CEC POP machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of CEC POP machine protection system are meant to prevent damage to a vacuum chamber by a missteered electron beam. In this example, beam energy = 22 MeV, Maximal bunch charge = 5 nC, Maximal repetition rate = 78 kHz, Normalized emittance = 5 mm mrad, Minimal β-function = 1 m. From this information the requirements of the protection system can be calculated by factoring the information into equations to find beam densities and temperature excursions.

  8. USMC tactical motor transport lift requirements model

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on developing a spreadable model that can be used by Marine logisticians in computing sustainment requirements and the resulting tactical motor transport lift requirements necessary to keep a notional sized maneuver element supported on a daily basis in the Marine Corps projected maneuver warfare environment. Sustainment computations are limited to resupplying the maneuver element with food, water, fuel, and ammunition. Using an "add-in" simulation package the plannin...

  9. Pulse source requirements for OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted.......A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted....

  10. Hanford analytical services quality assurance requirements documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1997-09-25

    Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD) is issued by the Analytical Services, Program of the Waste Management Division, US Department of Energy (US DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The HASQARD establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700.6C (DOE 1991b). The HASQARD is designed to meet the needs of DOE-RL for maintaining a consistent level of quality for sampling and field and laboratory analytical services provided by contractor and commercial field and laboratory analytical operations. The HASQARD serves as the quality basis for all sampling and field/laboratory analytical services provided to DOE-RL through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Management Division in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup efforts. This includes work performed by contractor and commercial laboratories and covers radiological and nonradiological analyses. The HASQARD applies to field sampling, field analysis, and research and development activities that support work conducted under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement and regulatory permit applications and applicable permit requirements described in subsections of this volume. The HASQARD applies to work done to support process chemistry analysis (e.g., ongoing site waste treatment and characterization operations) and research and development projects related to Hanford Site environmental cleanup activities. This ensures a uniform quality umbrella to analytical site activities predicated on the concepts contained in the HASQARD. Using HASQARD will ensure data of known quality and technical defensibility of the methods used to obtain that data. The HASQARD is made up of four volumes: Volume 1, Administrative Requirements; Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements; Volume 3, Field Analytical Technical Requirements; and Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements. Volume 1 describes the administrative requirements

  11. Value relevance of IFRS mandatory disclosure requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Tsalavoutas; Dionysia Dionysiou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address recent calls for research regarding the valuation implications of mandatory disclosure requirements (cf. Hassan et al., 2009; Leuz and Wysocki, 2008; Schipper, 2007). Design/methodology/approach – The paper measures compliance with all International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) mandatory disclosure requirements for a sample of firms. The paper subsequently explores whether the compliance scores (i.e. the mandatory disclosure levels) ar...

  12. Forces required to vertically uproot tree stumps

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Ola; Henningsson, Marina; Athanassiadis, Dimitris; Nordfjell, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Stumpwood attracts renewed interest due to increased use of forest biomass for bioenergy. In Nordic countries stumps are generally uprooted with crawler excavators, which have strong cranes (ca. 400 kNm gross lift torque), but are not designed for moving in forest terrain. Their use is based on practical experience with available and tested machine types rather than thorough examinations of requirements, partly due to limited knowledge of force requirements for uprooting of stumps. Therefore,...

  13. Chlorine requirement for Japanese laying quails

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Jalceyr Pessoa Figueiredo Júnior; Denise Fontana Figueiredo Lima; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Matheus Ramalho de Lima; Sarah Gomes Pinheiro; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chlorine nutritional requirement of Japanese Quails during the laying phase, based on performance and egg quality parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed according to a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with 8 birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided in four cycles of 21 days each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, except for chlori...

  14. Generation of the Data Required by AGNPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于苏俊

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems offer a good means of collecting and manipulating the data required to assess conservation practices. A method for automatic generation of most of the data required by the agricultural non-point source (AGNPS) erosion model is put forward from three sources: (1) files with contour lines from topographic maps, (2) soil mapping units from soil surveys, and (3) land cover from land-sat TM image classifications.

  15. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details

  16. Requirements for a Software Maintenance Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, Richard E.; Arthur, James D.; Ciaramella, John A.

    1991-01-01

    This project ventures into the domain of software maintenance methodologies, an area given relatively little attention in software engineering. Project efforts are divided into three tasks: (1) definition of maintenance methodology requirements; (2) development of a model of the AEGIS maintenance process; and (3) specification of the requirements for an AEGIS maintenance methodology. The focus of this report is on the third task. The research utilizes the Objectives/Principles/Attributes (O...

  17. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific a...

  18. Requirements development for a patient computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, J S; Pedraza, L A; Reilly, C A; Murphy, M E; Kuperman, G J

    2001-01-01

    Critical parts of the software development life cycle are concerned with eliciting, understanding, and managing requirements. Though the literature on this subject dates back for several decades, practicing effective requirements development remains a current and challenging area. Some projects flourish with a requirements development process (RDP) that is implicit and informal, but this approach may be overly risky, particularly for large projects that involve multiple individuals, groups, and systems over time. At Partners HealthCare System in Boston, Massachusetts, we have applied a more formal approach for requirements development to the Patient Computing Project. The goal of the project is to create web-based software that connects patients electronically with their physician's offices and has the potential to improve care efficiency and quality. It is a large project, with over 500 function points. Like most technological innovation, the successful introduction of this system requires as much attention to understanding the business needs and workflow details as it does to technical design and implementation. This paper describes our RDP approach, and key business requirements discovered through this process. We believe that a formal RDP is essential, and that informatics as a field must include proficiencies in this area. PMID:11825282

  19. Nondestructive examination requirements for PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the requirements for the nondestructive examination of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel internals in accordance with the requirements of the EPRI Material Reliability Program (MRP) inspection standard for PWR internals (MRP-228) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI In-service Inspection. The MRP vessel internals examinations have been performed at nuclear plants in the USA since 2009. The objective of the inspection standard is to provide the requirements for the nondestructive examination (NDE) methods implemented to support the inspection and evaluation of the internals. The inspection standard contains requirements specific to the inspection methodologies involved as well as requirements for qualification of the NDE procedures, equipment and personnel used to perform the vessel internals inspections. The qualification requirements for the NDE systems will be summarized. Six PWR plants in the USA have completed inspections of their internals using the Inspection and Evaluation Guideline (MRP-227) and the Inspection Standard (MRP-228). Examination results show few instances of service-induced degradation flaws, as expected. The few instances of degradation have mostly occurred in bolting

  20. Goals and requirements for advanced reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic problems and public concerns about safety have lead to a reassessment of current nuclear power plant designs and the development of improved designs or new reactor concepts to better meet the needs of United States utilities. This paper presents a set of goals and requirements, developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), to provide a means for evaluating the relative merits of alternate advanced reactor concepts. This set of requirements and goals is intended to be independent of any particular reactor concept, and is predicated on the assumption that nuclear power cannot become viable option until the public is favorable to the use of nuclear power for electric power generation in the United States. Under this assumption, the top level requirements defined for new reactor concepts are (1) public acceptability, (2) acceptable investment risk, (3) competitive life cycle costs, and (4) early deployment. Each of these requirements is supported by several related lower level requirements and design goals that are necessary or desirable to meet the top level requirements

  1. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  2. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O

    2016-07-01

    Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy. The current Estimated Average Requirement and RDA recommendations of 0.88 and 1.1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively, are for all stages of pregnancy. The single recommendation does not take into account the changing needs during different stages of pregnancy. Recently, with the use of the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation method, we defined the requirements to be, on average, 1.2 and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) during early (∼16 wk) and late (∼36 wk) stages of pregnancy, respectively. Although the requirements are substantially higher than current recommendations, our values are ∼14-18% of total energy and fit within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Using swine as an animal model we showed that the requirements for several indispensable amino acids increase dramatically during late gestation compared with early gestation. Additional studies should be conducted during pregnancy to confirm the newly determined protein requirements and to determine the indispensable amino acid requirements during pregnancy in humans. PMID:27422521

  3. From requirements to Java in a snap model-driven requirements engineering in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Smialek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a coherent methodology for Model-Driven Requirements Engineering which stresses the systematic treatment of requirements within the realm of modelling and model transformations. The underlying basic assumption is that detailed requirements models are used as first-class artefacts playing a direct role in constructing software. To this end, the book presents the Requirements Specification Language (RSL) that allows precision and formality, which eventually permits automation of the process of turning requirements into a working system by applying model transformations and co

  4. Getting Grip on Security Requirements Elicitation by Structuring and Reusing Security Requirements Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmitt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for structuring and reusing security requirements sources. The model serves as blueprint for the development of an organization-specific repository, which provides relevant security requirements sources, such as security information and knowledge sources and relevant compliance obligations, in a structured and reusable form. The resulting repository is intended to be used by development teams during the elicitation and analysis of security requirements with the goal to understand the security problem space, incorporate all relevant requirements sources, and to avoid unnecessary effort for identifying, understanding, and correlating applicable security requirements sources on a project-wise basis. We start with an overview and categorization of important security requirements sources, followed by the description of the generic model. To demonstrate the applicability and benefits of the model, the instantiation approach and details of the resulting repository of security requirements sources are presented.

  5. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  6. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. PMID:23316890

  7. Energy requirements of households in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we determine the total (direct plus indirect) energy requirements of a given set of Brazilian households. We use a generalized input-output model in order to calculate the energy embodied in goods and services purchased by households of different income level in 11 capital cities of Brazil. Our results show that, on average, the total energy intensity of household expenditure increases with income level, although there is a considerable spread in energy intensities within income classes as well as disparities between regions of the country. The total yearly average energy requirement per household in Brazil in 1995-96 was 173.6 GJ (61% of which was indirect), with 32.8 GJ for the lower income level (66% of which was indirect), and 602.2 GJ for the higher income level (62% of which was indirect). Of this total average energy requirement, 76% was required for only three consumption categories: utilities (31%), mobility (28%) and shelter (17%). This analysis calls for the attention that has to be given not only to the direct energy consumption (as motor fuels and electricity, for example) but also to the consumption categories that encompass an important part of the indirect energy requirement of households in capital cities in Brazil

  8. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific approach to assessment beginning in the 1970s, followed by a period of discussion and refinement. A number of reservations about soil quality assessment expressed in the literature are summarised. Taking concerns into account, a definition of soil quality incorporating soil's ability to meet multifunctional requirements, to provide ecosystem services, and the potential for soils to affect other environmental media is described. Assessment using this definition requires a large number of soil function dependent indicators that can be expensive, laborious, prone to error, and problematic in comparison. Findings demonstrate the need for a method that is not function dependent, but uses a number of cross-functional indicators instead. This method to systematically prioritise areas where detailed investigation is required, using a ranking based against a desired level of action, could be relatively quick, easy and cost effective. As such this has potential to fill in gaps and compliment existing monitoring programs and assist in development and implementation of current and future soil protection legislation. PMID:20483160

  9. Structural requirements for the interaction of human IgA with the human polymeric Ig receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melanie J; Pleass, Richard J; Batten, Margaret R; Atkin, Julie D; Woof, Jenny M

    2005-11-15

    Transport of polymeric IgA onto mucosal surfaces to become secretory IgA is mediated by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). To study the interaction of human dimeric IgA (dIgA) (the predominant form of IgA polymer) with the human pIgR (hpIgR), we generated recombinant wild-type dIgA1 and dIgA2m(1) and various mutant dIgA1 and analyzed their interaction with a recombinant human secretory component and membrane-expressed hpIgR. We found that wild-type dIgA1 and dIgA2m(1) bound to recombinant human secretory component with similar affinity and were transcytosed by the hpIgR to the same extent. Mutation of the IgA Calpha2 domain residue Cys311 to Ser reduced binding to hpIgR, possibly through disruption of noncovalent interactions between the Calpha2 domain and domain 5 of the receptor. Within the Calpha3 domain of IgA1, we found that combined mutation of residues Phe411, Val413, and Thr414, which lie close to residues previously implicated in hpIgR binding, abolished interaction with the receptor. Mutation of residue Lys377, located very close to this same region, perturbed receptor interaction. In addition, 4 aa (Pro440-Phe443), which lie on a loop at the domain interface and form part of the binding site for human FcalphaRI, appear to contribute to hpIgR binding. Lastly, use of a monomeric IgA1 mutant lacking the tailpiece revealed that the tailpiece does not occlude hpIgR-binding residues in IgA1 monomers. This directed mutagenesis approach has thus identified motifs lying principally across the upper surface of the Calpha3 domain (i.e., that closest to Calpha2) critical for human pIgR binding and transcytosis. PMID:16272325

  10. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  11. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  12. Spatial resolution requirements in digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology use requires definition of spatial resolution parameters necessary to maintain diagnostic quality. Skeletal radiography requirements differ from past applications focusing on chest imaging. In this study radiographs of 56 nondisplaced fractures and matched normal studies are digitized to varying spatial resolution, evaluated by 10 radiologists, and analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Pixel size greater than 0.16 mm (2.88 1p/mm) results in significantly lower diagnostic accuracy than that of conventional radiographs. Spatial resolution requirements are more demanding in skeletal radiography than in many other digital applications. Implications concerning digital systems (including teleradiology) and methods of using available technology to satisfy image quality demands need to be determined

  13. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  14. Investment requirements for new mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that there will be an increase from production of 18,000 tpy of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ to 25,000 tpy by 1985, 35,000 tpy by 1990 and around 50,000 tpy by the year 2000, this would require an increase in the daily ore milling rate from 40,000 tpd to about 140,000 tpd. This new milling capacity would require 1.5 to 2.0 billion dollars. New mines with a daily tonnage rate of about 150,000 tons would have to be developed requiring an investment from 10 to 12.5 billion dollars in the same time span. Adding expenditures for replacement of depleted facilities and exploration gives 17.5 to 25 billion dollars

  15. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate......Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis is...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over the...

  17. Multi-canister overpack: additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established in the K Basin Spent Fuel Project, Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) facilities to achieve ''nuclear safety equivalency'' to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Conditioning Facility or K Basins Path Forward Projects, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNFP facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO

  18. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  19. Power requirements in an electrodialysis desalination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrolysis is a desalination technique employing cation and anion selective membranes to remove the salt ions under the influence of electrical energy. Direct current (DC) based power is required to desalinate the feed stream of saline water. An alternate current (AC) is to be there to pump the feed water through the plant and to maintain proper flow through an electrodialysis plant. Both the types of power segments have been determined as a function of feed stream velocity (3 to 15 cm/s) The DC power required for a 0.2 mgd plant is in the order of 5Kwt. Hr per 1000 gallons of product water for a salt removal of 1000 PPM at a solution velocity of 9.24cm/s,. The Pumping power requirement for this has been estimated to be 3Kwt. hr per 1000 gallons of product water. (author)

  20. Danish Requirements for Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Christensen, H. H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious failure consequences combined with strengthened requirements to efficiency in design and execution as well as increased risk of human errors necessitates requirements for the robustness of new structures, essential....... This paper describes the background of the revised robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures in 2003 [1, 2, 3]. According to the Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures where consequences of failure are serious. This paper...... systems and identification of key elements. Step 3: evaluation of the sensitivity of essential parts of the structure to unintentional loads and defects. Step 4: documentation of robustness by 'failure of key element' analysis. Step 5: documentation of robustness by increasing the strength of key elements...

  1. Software Requirements Analysis as Fault Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    Waiting until the integration and system test phase to discover errors leads to more costly rework than resolving those same errors earlier in the lifecycle. Costs increase even more significantly once a software system has become operational. WE can assess the quality of system requirements, but do little to correlate this information either to system assurance activities or long-term reliability projections - both of which remain unclear and anecdotal. Extending earlier work on requirements accomplished by the ARM tool, measuring requirements quality information against code complexity and test data for the same system may be used to predict specific software modules containing high impact or deeply embedded faults now escaping in operational systems. Such knowledge would lead to more effective and efficient test programs. It may enable insight into whether a program should be maintained or started over.

  2. Spacecraft attitude control momentum requirements analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brent P.; Heck, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between attitude and angular momentum control requirements is derived for a fixed attitude, Earth orbiting spacecraft with large area articulating appendages. Environmental effects such as gravity gradient, solar radiation pressure, and aerodynamic forces arising from a dynamic, rotating atmosphere are examined. It is shown that, in general, each environmental effect contributes to both cyclic and secular momentum requirements both within and perpendicular to the orbit plane. The gyroscopic contribution to the angular momentum control requirements resulting from a rotating, Earth oriented spacecraft is also discussed. Special conditions are described where one or more components of the angular momentum can be made to vanish, or become purely cyclical. Computer generated plots for a candidate space station configuration are presented to supplement the analytically derived results.

  3. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  4. Integrated Requirements Analysis and Technology Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, Strategic Insight performed analytical studies for NASA's Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program, creating program documents which illuminated technical requirements and critical research opportunities. Studies were performed to structure and confirm HRST's evolving technical requirements, building on Marshall's Phase 1 work, which defined HRST system concepts, analytical tools and high-level issues for assessment in Phase 2. Specifically, Strategic Insight: (1) Performed a requirements analysis to update HRST: An Advanced Concepts Study, Study Guidelines, Version 2.0 of January 22, 1996; only minor changes were recommended for the given parameters of interest to concept designers; (2) Conducted mini-workshops during HRST Working Group meetings on April 14-15, 1997 and July 22-24, 1997; and (3) Created structures for technology road maps of candidate HRST concepts, both subsystem and end-to-end concepts, emerging from the 13 cooperative agreement projects.

  5. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    approach was employed to understand the nature of change in requirements during the design process - particularly concerning the initiation, discovery, and motivation of these changes. Semi-structured interviews were adopted as the data collection method. The interviews were transcribed and analysed based......Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All...

  6. HEP Science Network Requirements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans-Atlantic connectivity

  7. Expression of macrophage-lymphocyte Fc receptors in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: polarity and transcytosis differ for isoforms with or without coated pit localization domains

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Many cells of the immune system and certain epithelia express receptors for the Fc domain of IgG (FcR). On mouse macrophages and lymphocytes, two distinct receptor isoforms have been identified, designated FcRII- B1 and FcRII-B2. The isoforms are identical except for an in-frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail of FcRII-B1 that blocks its ability to be internalized by clathrin-coated pits. We have recently found that at least one IgG-transporting epithelium, namely placenta...

  8. 2006 Final Transmission Proposal: Revenue Requirements Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the Revenue Requirement Study (Study) is to establish the level of revenues needed from rates for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) transmission and ancillary services to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, costs associated with the transmission of electric power over the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). The FCRTS is part of the larger Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) which also includes the hydroelectric, multipurpose facilities constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation in the Pacific Northwest. The FCRPS costs that are not included in the FCRTS costs are funded and repaid through BPA power rates. The transmission revenue requirements herein include: recovery of the Federal investment in transmission and transmission-related assets; the operations and maintenance (O&M) and other annual expenses associated with the provision of transmission and ancillary services; the cost of generation inputs for ancillary services and other between business-line services necessary for the transmission of power; and all other transmission-related costs incurred by the Administrator. The cost evaluation period for this rate proposal includes Fiscal Years (FYs) 2005-2007, the period extending from the last year for which historical information is available through the proposed rate test period. The Study includes the transmission revenue requirements for the rate test period, FYs 2006-2007 (Rate Period) and the results of transmission repayment studies. This Study outlines the policies, forecasts, assumptions, and calculations used to determine BPA's transmission revenue requirements. Legal requirements are summarized in Chapter 5 of this Study. The Revenue Requirement Study Documentation (Documentation), TR-06-FS-BPA-01A, contains key technical assumptions and calculations, the results of the transmission repayment studies, and a further

  9. Fuel Cycle Requirements Code (FLYER). Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for, and the analysis of, the fuel requirements of the nuclear industry requires the ability to evaluate contingencies in many areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas of nuclear fuel utilization, both uranium and plutonium, and of separative work requirements are of particular interest. The Fuel Cycle Requirements (FLYER) model has been developed to provide a flexible, easily managed tool for obtaining a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. The model allows analysis of the interactions among the nuclear capacity growth rate, reactor technology and mix, and uranium and plutonium recycling capabilities. The model was initially developed as a means of analyzing nuclear growth contingencies with particular emphasis on the uranium feed and separative work requirements. It served to provide the planning group with analyses similar to the OPA's NUFUEL code which has only recently become available for general use. The model has recently been modified to account for some features of the fuel cycle in a more explicit manner than the NUFUEL code. For instance, the uranium requirements for all reactors installed in a given year are calculated for the total lifetime of those reactors. These values are cumulated in order to indicate the total uranium committed for reactors installed by any given year of the campaign. Similarly, the interactions in the back end of the fuel cycle are handled specifically, such as, the impacts resulting from limitations on the industrial capacity for reprocessing and mixed oxide fabrication of both light water reactor and breeder fuels. The principal features of the modified FLYER code are presented in summary form

  10. Does global citizenship require modern technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Dower, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    A double answer is given to the question: 'does global citizenship require modern technology?' First, it does not because the idea of global citizenship as membership of a universal moral commnunity goes back to the ancient Stoics. Second, it does, because the adequate expression of globalresponsibility in the modern world requires the development of global culture and global institutions for which modern technologies of communication and transportation are crucial: modern technology furthemo...

  11. Design versus manufacturing data base management requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenna, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data base management systems are valuable manufacturing and design tools as these disciplines are exceptionally information intensive, requiring precise organization and control of data processing and utilization. One such data base manager is the IPAD* system, which was originally developed to support the design process but was expanded to incorporate the additional needs of manufacturing. To set the stage, an overview of the design and manufacturing process is presented. The different functions of computers in these processes are then discussed. Finally, the design and manufacturing requirements for a data base manager are compared and contrasted.

  12. A Simplified Procedure for Safety Requirements Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ioan Gergely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a procedure for analysis of PLC-controlled system risk due to component failure and for derivation of safety integrity requirements for components, focusing on software requirements. The approach allows fully integrated treatment of random and systematic failure. It can be applied at different levels of design detail and at different stages of the system development lifecycle. The procedure does not address how to assess failure rates, but provides a foundation for integrating PLC software assessment into system riskassessment and for making trade-offs in design.

  13. Ootw Tool Requirements in Relation to JWARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley III, D.S.; Packard, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results of the CMke of the Secretary of Defense/Program Analysis & Evaluation (OSD/PA&E) sponsored project to identify how Operations Other Than War (OOTW) tool requirements relate to the Joint Warfare Simulation (JWARS) and, more generally, to joint analytical modeling and simulation (M&S) requirements. It includes recommendations about which OOTW tools (and functionality within tools) should be included in JWARS, which should be managed as joint analytical modeling and simulation (M&S) tools, and which should be left for independent development.

  14. Basic requirements of nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological progress in nuclear medicine continues, not always to the immediate advantage of the developing world. The capital expense, operational demands and maintenance requirements of ever more complex equipment, the consequent need for highly trained staff, the necessity to assure regular supplies of costly radioactive materials, all present problems to which compromise or alternative solutions must often be sought. This chapter constitutes an attempt to define the basic requirements for thr practice of nuclear medicine with respect to staff, equipment, accommodation, supplies and supporting services with particular reference to the needs of institutions in developing countries

  15. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    . This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle requirements in WOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD/NEA will publsih an updated version of its study 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements and Supply Considerations, Through the Long-Term.' The Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe (KfK) was involved in the work necessary to provide this book. Although KfK had only responsiblility for part of the required computations it performed all the calculations for its own documentation interests. This documentation was felt to be a helpful background material for the reader of the second 'Yellow Book'. In this sense the original strategy computer outprints are published now without any discussion of assumptions and results. (orig.)

  17. Lithography requirements in complex VLSI device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of complex very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits requires continual advances in lithography to satisfy: decreasing minimum linewidths, larger chip sizes, tighter linewidth and overlay control, increasing topography to linewidth ratios, higher yield demands, increased throughput, harsher device processing, lower lithography cost, and a larger part number set with quick turn-around time. Where optical, electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography can be applied to judiciously satisfy the complex VLSI circuit fabrication requirements is discussed and those areas that are in need of major further advances are addressed. Emphasis will be placed on advanced electron beam and storage ring x-ray lithography

  18. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily i....... Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes....

  19. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...... the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system....

  20. Meeting timeliness requirements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting the Agency's timeliness requirements in a reprocessing plant presents a challenge, particularly when the plant is in operation. The verification of the spent fuel pond inventory and the Pu product storage is relatively simple, employing established safeguards procedures for static inventories. However, the flow sections of a reprocessing plant require the development and management approval of facility-specific methods. These methods employ head-end batch follow-up in conjunction with density correlations and the application of near real time accountancy (NRTA). These methods have been in use since late 1990. Results attained so far are presented, with areas for improvement highlighted

  1. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards......, the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  2. US cask requirements and industry capability survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this paper are to provide an estimate of spent fuel shipping cask requirements for reactor to away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility shipments from the present time until late in this century and to determine and document the willingness and capability of private industry to provide required future transportation services. In order to meet this objective, the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Teledyne Energy Systems to conduct a survey of US industry. Results of tasks completed to carry out the objectives are reviewed

  3. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage....... These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation...

  4. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  5. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  6. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  7. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future

  8. 21 CFR 640.101 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 640.101 Section 640.101 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.101 General... manufacture is the date of initiating the last valid measles or poliomyelitis antibody test (§ 640.104(b)...

  9. 7 CFR 58.528 - Microbiological requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements. 58.528 Section 58.528 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  10. 30 CFR 7.98 - Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to provide explosion-proof features, provided that failure of the connection activates the safety... exhaust system and shall be threaded to ensure that all specified bolts or screws will not bottom even if... to the interior of an intake or exhaust system and shall be threaded to ensure that all...

  11. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were...

  12. 40 CFR 60.635 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the requirement of § 60.486(j): Information and data used to demonstrate that a reciprocating compressor is in wet gas service to apply for the exemption in § 60.633(f) shall be recorded in a log that...

  13. 24 CFR 290.7 - Occupancy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multifamily housing project is governed by 24 CFR part 247, subpart B. (c) Threat to health and safety. Whenever HUD determines that there is an immediate threat to the health and safety of the tenants, HUD may... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy requirements....

  14. 43 CFR 26.5 - Administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., disadvantaged, non-public school youth, and youth having left school before graduation; (2) That selections will... that enrollment will not interfere with the established educational systems. (e) The enrollee is an... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative requirements. 26.5...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.432 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental requirements. 1980.432 Section 1980.432...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.432 Environmental... will review Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1940-20, “Request...

  16. 32 CFR 903.2 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHOOLS AIR FORCE ACADEMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL § 903.2 Eligibility requirements. (a) For admission to the HQ... have no dependents. (4) Of high moral character. Applicants must have no record of Uniform Code of... Preparatory School. The Headquarters USAFA Registrar's Office (HQ USAFA/RR) determines an applicant's...

  17. 7 CFR 1416.7 - Insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1416.7 Section 1416.7... PROGRAMS General Provisions for 2006 Emergency Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 1416.7 Insurance... rates for producers who did not have crop insurance or coverage under the Noninsured Crop...

  18. 19 CFR 351.202 - Petition requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the Commission's regulations concerning the contents of petitions, currently 19 CFR 207.11. (b... DUTIES Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Procedures § 351.202 Petition requirements. (a) Introduction... merchandise is from a country that the Secretary has found to be a nonmarket economy country,...

  19. 20 CFR 655.1311 - Required departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-2A worker. See 8 CFR 214.2(h). A foreign worker may not remain beyond his or her authorized period of... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1311 Required departure. (a) Limit to worker's stay. As...

  20. Requirements to a text of advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Shmilyk, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    In the given article the author has studied the peculiarities of the structure of advertisement: the title, introduction, content, conclusion, price and address. The author has also dealt in the article with the main requirements to a text of advertisement: its singularity, conciseness, expressiveness, civility and compliance with linguistic norms.