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Sample records for ba-rich standard minerals

  1. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  2. Ba-rich sanidine megacrysts in trachytic rocks of Eslamy volcano, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßbichler, Donjá; Asadpour, Manijeh; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Kunzmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Eslamy volcano is located on a peninsula at the eastern coast of Urumieh lake, NW Iran. The complex stratovolcano with gentle slope flanks exposes a collapsed caldera in the central part. Specific features are different sanidine rich rocks that occur in form of ejecta and flows. According to the field observations they are products of one volcanic event. XRF measurements show they all have trachytic compositions. Typical for this locality are the large sanidine phenocrysts. In the trachytic flow the sanidine crystals reach average size of ~4 cm embedded in a greenish-blue matrix consisting mainly of crystallized feldspar and subordinate pyroxen. Occasionally feldspar megacrysts of approx. 10 cm were observed. Na content of the sanidine megacrysts varies between 0.05 - 0.5 pfu with higher concentrations in the cores. Furthermore they show oscillatory zoning patterns caused by variations of Ba content (0-0.04 pfu). The matrix of the trachytic flow consist mainly of interlocking sanidine crystals (0.05-0.45 pfu Na) partly with Ba-rich cores containing up to 0.06 pfu Ba. In contrast to the megacrysts they show slightly higher Fe contents (0.025-0.035 pfu). The volcanic ejecta with bombs of approx. 50 cm in size were found in one distinct layer within a pyroclastic horizon. The average diameter of the feldspar phenocrysts is much smaller (0.5-2 cm). Sanidine is the main phase of these rocks (up to 80 %). As mafic phase up to 30 % pyroxen (mainly diospide) ± biotite can be observed. Accessories are magnetite ± apatite ± titanite ± zircon. In contrast to the flow rocks the main phase of the matrix of the ejecta is always glass with higher Fe2O3 (total) contents (up to 6 wt.-%) indicating a fast cooling of the sample due to ejection. They are completely depleted in Ba. In two samples zoned feldspar relicts enclosed in glass show remolten rims. Similar to flow rocks the feldspar phenocrysts of all ejecta show a complex zoning pattern, e.g. three samples expose high

  3. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  4. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; Jonge, Martin D. de; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra are presented for a diverse set of 44 phosphate minerals. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens

  5. Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, NGFM van der

    2003-01-01

    In a study of 291 mineral waters from 41 different countries, 9-20% exceeded the Dutch drinking water standards for chloride, calcium, magnesium, kalium, sodium, sulphate and fluorine. The mineral water quality cannot be qualified as bad since the standards for these compounds with the exception of

  6. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making ...

  7. [Preparation of sub-standard samples and XRF analytical method of powder non-metallic minerals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Ling

    2012-05-01

    In order to solve the problem that standard samples of non-metallic minerals are not satisfactory in practical work by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) analysis with pressed powder pellet, a method was studied how to make sub-standard samples according to standard samples of non-metallic minerals and to determine how they can adapt to analysis of mineral powder samples, taking the K-feldspar ore in Ebian-Wudu, Sichuan as an example. Based on the characteristic analysis of K-feldspar ore and the standard samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, combined with the principle of the same or similar between the sub-standard samples and unknown samples, the experiment developed the method of preparation of sub-standard samples: both of the two samples above mentioned should have the same kind of minerals and the similar chemical components, adapt mineral processing, and benefit making working curve. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a method for determination of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O of K-feldspar ore by XRF was established. Thedetermination results are in good agreement with classical chemical methods, which indicates that this method was accurate.

  8. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bit of each one. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you ...

  9. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  10. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, Elizabeth; Rao, Amanda; Vitetta, Luis

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. First-principles calibration of 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and complete extraction of 40Ar* from sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Kuiper, K.; Mark, D.; Postma, O.; Villa, I. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology relies on comparing argon isotopic data for unknowns to those for knowns. Mineral standards used as neutron fluence monitors must be dated by the K-Ar method (or at least referenced to a mineral of known K-Ar age). The commonly used age of 28.02 ± 0.28 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) (Renne et al., 1998) is based upon measurements of radiogenic 40Ar in GA1550 biotite (McDougall and Roksandic, 1974), but underlying full data were not published (these measurements were never intended for use as an international standard), so uncertainties are difficult to assess. Recent developments by Kuiper et al. (2008) and Renne et al. (2010) are limited by their reliance on the accuracy of other systems. Modern technology should allow for more precise and accurate calibration of primary K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar standards. From the ideal gas law, the number of moles of 40Ar in a system can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature. Thus we have designed and are proceeding to build a pipette system to introduce well-determined amounts of 40Ar into noble gas extraction lines and mass spectrometers. This system relies on components with calibrations traceable to SI unit prototypes, including a diaphragm pressure gauge (MKS Instruments), thermocouples, and a “slug” of an accurately determined volume to be inserted into the reservoir for volume determinations of the reservoir and pipette. The system will be renewable, with a lifetime of ca. 1 month for gas in the reservoir, and portable, to permit interlaboratory calibrations. The quantitative extraction of 40Ar* from the mineral standard is of highest importance; for sanidine standards this is complicated by high melt viscosity during heating. Experiments adding basaltic “zero age glass” (ZAG) to decrease melt viscosity are underway. This has previously been explored by McDowell (1983) with a resistance furnace, but has not been quantitatively addressed with laser heating

  12. Misapplication of the IAEA 1996 basic safety standards to the minerals industry. Impact on the NORM and TENORM issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Mining and processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products and/or process wastes, relative to the source materials. The technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring minerals industry operations into the ream of regulatory concern worldwide. The IAEA 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) have become the de facto blueprint for a number of national radiation safety regulations. But verbatim adoption of the BSS would clearly result in the great majority of minerals industry operations becoming, for the first time ever, subject to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, notification, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of radiation safety staff etc. would be required. This would not only constitute a major culture shock' but would result in ongoing logistics and economic burden to the affected operations. In some cases it could spell their end. The commensurate demand on regulatory authorities would also emerge. The exemption criteria from the requirements of the BSS are very restrictive. They are not suitable for mining and processing of NORM/TENORM bearing minerals. The criteria have been expressed in terms of numerical exemption levels for hundreds of radionuclides, including all those that occur naturally. The levels specify both, the maximum exempted Activity Concentration and the maximum exempted total Activity of each radionuclide in the host material. Even if an operation could comply with the Activity Concentration criterion, due to the sheer mass of the minerals a non-compliance with the total Activity would always occur. The maximum exempted mass is of the order of single kilograms for wastes from petroleum and gas production, tin smelting and bauxite ore processing; for phosphate rock, fertilisers and most mineral sands products

  13. Exposure to radon and mortality standard in a coal miner cohort in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene Holanda Sadler; Amaral, Eliana; Koifman, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    High levels of radon and his products have been found at a underground coal mine, at the Southern Brazil, in operation since 1945. The 222 Rn concentration levels measured were 7000 Bq/m 3 and 0.7 WL for the radon sons (7.7 WLM/year), which are values considered higher than the limits for intervention in a working environments (500 to 1500 Bq/m3 of 222 Rn) and the occupational exposure limit (4.0 WLM/year). Due to the unique opportunity found in these miner group, it was decided to construct a cohort with miners from that mining (underground and surface) viewing the evaluation of the possible effects to the health decurrens from that exposure

  14. Using multifractal modeling as a standard tool in geochemical exploration for predicting mineralized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mario A.

    2015-04-01

    It has been 20 years since the pioneering work of Cheng et al (1994) first proposed a quantitative relationship for the areas enclosing concentration values of an element above given thresholds and their distribution in the field, known as concentration-area (CA) method, which is based in multifractal theory. The method allows the definition of geochemical anomalies in wide set of geological backgrounds but it took nearly 15 years before it became a widely used methodology for mineral exploration. The method was also extended to 1D and 3D data sets. It is worth noting the variety of methods that spanned from the theory of fractals. Building on previous models, including multiplicative cascades and size-grade relationships, increasing evidence points to the powerful tools of fractal theory to describe and model ore deposit distribution and formation. However, while much of these approaches become complex and not easy to use, the CA method is remarkable for its utter simplicity and disarming results obtained when confronted with the geological reality in the field. This is most valued by companies and professionals undertaking geochemical exploration surveys for the characterization or refining of potential ore targets or known mineralized areas. Several approaches have combined the CA method with geostatistic modeling and simulation and other established statistical techniques in order to enhance anomalous threshold identification. Examples are not restricted to geochemical exploration alone, other applications being studies on environmental change. Some of these examples will be addressed as they have been applied to different regions in the world, but particular emphasis will be put on geochemical exploration surveys in different geotectonic units of the Variscan basement in the Iberian Peninsula. These include quartz-vein gold mineralization in Northern Portugal and several surveys for base metals over two wide areas, which served to re-evaluate much of the

  15. Enforcement Alert: Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

  16. A new set of calibration standards for estimating the fat and mineral content of vertebrae via dual energy QCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, M M; Johnson, R H; Chesnut, C H

    1991-06-01

    A new set of calibration standards has been developed for implementing a dual-energy (DE) quantitative CT technique for estimating the fat and bone content of vertebrae. The QCT technique is based upon a three-component model of bone and utilizes calibration materials that mimic those components in their X-ray attenuation properties. The three components we chose to simulate are bone (mineral plus collagen), fat and a fat-free red marrow. This choice was predicated upon our desire to employ materials that would facilitate later experimental verification of the method. The calibration standards and a set of test samples were manufactured of tissue-simulating epoxy resins. They were employed in studies of the accuracy (consistency) and precision of the technique and in a study of 21 normal postmenopausal women. Estimates of the bone and fat content of the test samples were consistent with the manufacturer's specifications to within 13 mg/ml and 7 vol%, respectively. Long-term reproducibility (coefficient of variation) for both quantities was about 3%. The average bone content of the T12-L3 vertebrae of the human subjects was 262 +/- 32 mg/ml (152 +/- 18 mg/ml calcium hydroxyapatite or mineral) and the average fat content was 63 +/- 8%. Conventional single energy (SE) QCT measurements of these vertebrae were about 23% less than the DE mineral measurements, which is consistent with the differences between SEQCT and ash content that others have determined via chemical analysis. The DE fat content is, in absolute terms, about 15% greater than values reported in the literature and may be due to an error in the assumed composition of red marrow. The true accuracy of the bone and fat estimates is to be determined in a planned human vertebral specimen study.

  17. A standardized method for the determination of the intrinsic carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity of natural organic matter sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigatti, M.; Perez, M.D.; Blok, W.J.; Ciavatta, C.; Veeken, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the intrinsic carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity of organic matter (OM) sources by means of an aerobic incubation in suspension. The proposed method is based on determination of the oxygen consumption, monitored indirectly via

  18. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  19. DXA in the assessment of subchondral bone mineral density in knee osteoarthritis--A semi-standardized protocol after systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepriano, Alexandre; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Little, Robert D; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando; Arribas, Jose María; Largo, Raquel; Branco, Jaime C; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) contributes to the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Reliable methods to assess sBMD status may predict the response of specific OA phenotypes to targeted therapies. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the knee can determine sBMD, no consensus exists regarding its methodology. Construct a semi-standardized protocol for knee DXA to measure sBMD in patients with OA of the knee by evaluating the varying methodologies present in existing literature. We performed a systematic review of original papers published in PubMed and Web of Science from their inception to July 2014 using the following search terms: subchondral bone, osteoarthritis, and bone mineral density. DXA of the knee can be performed with similar reproducibility values to those proposed by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry for the hip and spine. We identified acquisition view, hip rotation, knee positioning and stabilization, ROI location and definition, and the type of analysis software as important sources of variation. A proposed knee DXA protocol was constructed taking into consideration the results of the review. DXA of the knee can be reliably performed in patients with knee OA. Nevertheless, we found substantial methodological variation across previous studies. Methodological standardization may provide a foundation from which to establish DXA of the knee as a valid tool for identification of SB changes and as an outcome measure in clinical trials of disease modifying osteoarthritic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (reported numerous infrared spectra. To keep up with this rising numbers of infrared spectra an electronic spectral database would be desirable. This was the motivation why we have constructed the Pannon Uniform Lithosheric Infrared (PULI) spectral database ( puli

  1. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  2. An empirical calibration for 4He quantification in minerals and rocks by laser fusion and noble gas mass spectrometry using Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite as a standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Jesus; Pi, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    An empirical calibration with a natural mineral standard (fluorapatite from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico) is proposed as a method to determine the 4 He concentration of mineral and rock samples. The procedure is based on the fusion of several aliquots of the fluorapatite standard with a well-spaced weight distribution in order to obtain a good correlation in coordinates of 4 He peak height versus fluorapatite weight. The weight is then converted to moles using the accepted mineral age (31.4 Ma) and appropriate formula. Experimental peak height of 4 He for the unknown samples are converted to moles with the regression determined for fluorapatite. The procedure is fast and inexpensive, and both precision and accuracy are always below 10% and usually about 3-5%

  3. Chemical and Physical Properties of De-Mineralized Water Compared to Ground Water and Rainwater with Respect to Local and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    , M.A. Khalifa; , T.A. Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out from 2007 to 2008. Water samples were collected from different stations in Tarhona valley 90 Km from Tripoli, Libya. Water samples were studied including 4 samples from desalination stations, 5 of house roofs rain water, 5 of direct rain water, 5 samples of state wells and 8 of private public wells. The study covers total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, alkaline ions and heavy metals. The desalination water samples showed 74 ppm of mineral salts, these amounts ar...

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  5. In vivo study of the response of Plasmodium falciparum to standard mefloquine/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (MSP) treatment among gem miners returning from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimasarn, K; Sirichaisinthop, J; Vijaykadga, S; Tansophalaks, S; Yamokgul, P; Laomiphol, A; Palananth, C; Thamewat, U; Tháithong, S; Rooney, W

    1995-06-01

    An in vivo study of the response of P. falciparum to the combination drug, MSP, was conducted among gem miners who contracted malaria from Cambodia in 1991-1992. High level resistance (RII, RIII responses) was observed in 22.5% of the 40 cases attending Mae Sot malaria clinic, west Thailand border, and in 28.1% of the 96 cases attending Bo Rai malaria clinic, east Thailand border. The observations on in vitro studies conducted prior to the MSP treatment and after recrudescence, together with the findings on adequate mefloquine blood levels strongly indicated the serious deterioration of mefloquine efficacy. The first line treatment for the malaria control program needs to be revised and the use of qinghaosu derivatives considered. Intensive measures to combat spreading of the highly resistant strains to other parts of the country should be taken into account.

  6. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  7. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    and in sedimented rifts adjacent to continental margins. The hydrothermal deposits mainly occur in the tectonically active regions, where plates shift and spread creating fissures in the seafloor. Mineralization at the spreading ridges is the result of sea-floor... processes. Submarine hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust and its activity on the ocean floor are fundamental processes controlling the transfer of energy and material from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere. Thermally induced circulation...

  8. Distribution of selected minerals in some Nigerian white breads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... WHO maximum standard. The bread samples were found to be very good sources of the minerals examined, except the toxic minerals (Cd and Pd) which must be regularly monitored in order to minimize their intake. Keywords: bread, mineral content, Nigeria, WHO standard. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 23 2005: 139-143 ...

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral Supplements Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... MVMs? Disclaimer What are multivitamin/mineral (MVM) dietary supplements? Multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements contain a combination of ...

  11. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  12. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  13. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ], which contains economic quantities of valuable minerals such as gold, tin and platinum etc. Placer deposit can also be defined as a “mineral deposit formed by the process of mechanical concentration of mineral particles from weathered debris... Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 32 Heavy mineral placers A. R. Gujar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 agujar@nio.org Heavy mineral placers Heavy mineral placer deposit is defined as “Alluvial...

  14. Phytochemicals and selected mineral constituents of Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris pods was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Selected mineral elements were also determined. Standard procedures were adopted for the phytochemical screening. Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for mineral analysis. Alkaloids ...

  15. Chinese Human Rights Guidance on Minerals Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    in the minerals sector and due diligence to ensure socially responsible sourcing of minerals with a particular focus on human rights, the guidelines refer to international human rights standards and are designed to be consistent with guidance issued by the OECD. The article discusses the Chinese guidelines...

  16. The rise and fall of food minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, John

    2011-01-01

    Climax fertility developed in early times with higher plants and animals developing to use this high standard of mineral nutrition. This climax fertility is built on carbon fixed from the air by plants. This carbon provides the energy to soil micro-organisms. Both those dependant on soil organic matter and those that draw energy and minerals directly from the plant. These micro-organisms increase plant mineral content and provide other life compounds. Agricultural activity has broken this climax fertility leading to a fall in food chain minerals.

  17. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  19. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  20. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  1. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  2. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  3. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Gómez-Gerique, Juan A; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2005-10-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low mineral water (500 ml of each) with a standard fat-rich meal (4552 kJ; 75.3 g fat). The bicarbonated waters were rich in sodium and bicarbonate and bicarbonated mineral water 1 contained 5.7 times more fluoride than bicarbonated mineral water 2. Fasting blood samples and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after the end of the meal consumption. Cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined in serum and chylomicrons. A significant water consumption effect was observed in the total area under the curve (TAUC) of serum and chylomicron triacylglycerols (ANOVA, P=0.008 and P=0.027, respectively). TAUC of serum triacylglycerols for bicarbonated mineral water 2 was significantly lower compared to low mineral water (Bonferroni, P=0.039). Peak concentration of serum triacylglycerols showed a significant water effect (P=0.025). Changes in chylomicron cholesterol were not significantly affected by the type of water. Bicarbonated mineral waters 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences. Drinking sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral waters reduces postprandial lipaemia in healthy postmenopausal women compared to drinking a low mineral water.

  4. Exposure to radon and mortality standard in a coal miner cohort in Brazil; Exposicao a radonio e padrao de mortalidade em uma coorte de mineiros de carvao no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Lene Holanda Sadler; Amaral, Eliana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Koifman, Sergio [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica

    2002-07-01

    High levels of radon and his products have been found at a underground coal mine, at the Southern Brazil, in operation since 1945. The {sup 222}Rn concentration levels measured were 7000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 0.7 WL for the radon sons (7.7 WLM/year), which are values considered higher than the limits for intervention in a working environments (500 to 1500 Bq/m3 of {sup 222}Rn) and the occupational exposure limit (4.0 WLM/year). Due to the unique opportunity found in these miner group, it was decided to construct a cohort with miners from that mining (underground and surface) viewing the evaluation of the possible effects to the health decurrens from that exposure.

  5. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  6. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  10. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  11. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  12. Membranes and pathophysiological mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Agnieszka; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Bessueille, Laurence

    Vascular calcification accompanies the pathological process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Artery calcification results from trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into cells resembling mineralization-competent cells such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The activity of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a GPI-anchored enzyme necessary for physiological mineralization, is induced in VSMCs in response to inflammation. TNAP achieves its mineralizing function being anchored to plasma membrane of mineralizing cells and to the surface of their derived matrix vesicles (MVs), and numerous important reports indicate that membranes play a crucial role in initiating the crystal formation. In this review, we would like to highlight various functions of lipids and proteins associated to membranes at different stages of both physiological mineralization and vascular calcification, with an emphasis on the pathological process of atherosclerotic plaque formation.

  13. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  14. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  15. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    With increased exploitation of the onshore mineral resources, oceans that cover almost 71% of earth's surface and known as storehouse of minerals, provide a suitable alternative. Amongst the various underwater mineral resources, placer deposits...

  17. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  18. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  19. Antibacterial activity, phytochemical properties and mineral Content of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity, phytochemical properties and mineral Content of “Aju Mbaise”decoction: A liquid extract administered to nursing mothers. ... The mineral content was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard analytical methods. Results: The ...

  20. Mineral Retention Values for Blends of Cereal Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group fed the unfermented modified standard (PR:DSB:MR72:CF0) blend had the highest foodintake and mineral retention value followed by the group fed the PR:DSB:MR72:CF96 blend fermented for 96h. Based on the results fermentation should be for 96h for maximum mineral retention. Keywords: Fermentation ...

  1. Mineral composition of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Studying of mineral and chemical composition of ores have immediate practical sense. It is a basic at solving problems of origin of deposit, choosing of most profitable method of their exploitation and problems of complex ores using

  2. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  3. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  4. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  7. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotova, O

    2013-01-01

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  9. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...... (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. CONCLUSION: With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app...

  10. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  11. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals. These due diligence... establishing the source and chain of custody of such minerals.'' Further, the Conflict Minerals Report must... measures it had taken to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals...

  12. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  13. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  14. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  15. Effects of dietary organic and inorganic trace mineral levels on sow reproductive performances and daily mineral intakes over six parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C

    2008-09-01

    Dietary trace mineral sources and levels were fed to developing gilts to evaluate their performance responses during the growth phase, but treatments were continued into the reproductive phase in which subsequent reproductive responses were evaluated. In Exp. 1, three groups of gilts (n = 216) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design (6 replicates) with treatment diets initially fed at 30 kg of BW. The first factor was trace mineral source (organic or inorganic), whereas the second factor evaluated dietary levels. The NRC requirement was the first level evaluated, whereas the second level was formulated to average industry standards (IND). Organic trace minerals were mineral proteinates, whereas the inorganic minerals were provided in salt form. The results of Exp. 1 indicated that trace mineral source or level did not affect gilt growth or feed performance responses to 110 kg of BW. Experiment 2 continued with the same females but was a 2 x 3 factorial in a split-plot design using 3 groups of females over a 6-parity period and had a total of 375 farrowings. Factors in Exp. 2 were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 2 additional pens of gilts during their development had been fed the IND level trace mineral levels of both trace mineral sources. At breeding, the gilts from these 2 additional pens were continued on the same trace mineral source and level but fed greater dietary Ca and P levels (IND + Ca:P). Litters were standardized by 3 d postpartum within each farrowing. Sows fed organic trace minerals farrowed more (P trace minerals. Sows fed the IND + Ca:P level tended to have fewer (P trace minerals, but individual piglet weights were similar. Nursing pig ADG tended to be greater (P trace minerals. Other sow reproductive traits (BW, feed intake, and rebreeding interval) were not affected by trace mineral source or level. Daily mineral intake increased by parity but declined when trace mineral intakes were expressed on an amount per

  16. Uranium mineralizations in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Ch.; Gerbeaud, O.; James, O.; Le Goux, F.; Pouradier, A.; Salabert, J.; Wagani, I.; Breton, G.; Feybesse, J.L.; Parize, O.; Wattinne, A.; Flotte, N.; Brouand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  17. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  18. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animal products at all, including dairy products) may need to take vitamin supplements. If you're thinking about becoming a ... eating plan that includes the nutrients your body needs. Check with your doctor before taking vitamin or mineral supplements. Some people think that if ...

  19. Enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicola X; Joiner, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    To summarise the chemical, biological and host factors that impact enamel mineral loss, to highlight approaches to contemporary management of clinical conditions involving mineral loss and summarise emerging trends and challenges in this area. "Medline" and "Scopus" databases were searched electronically with the principal key words tooth, enamel, *mineral*, caries and erosion. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and abstracts were excluded. Enamel mineral loss leads to the degradation of the surface and subsurface structures of teeth. This can impact their shape, function, sensitivity and aesthetic qualities. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease caused by the simultaneous interplay of dietary sugars, dental plaque, the host and time. There is a steady decline in dental caries in developed countries and the clinical management of caries is moving towards a less invasive intervention, with risk assessment, prevention, control, restoration and recall. Tooth wear can be caused by erosion, abrasion and attrition. Dental erosion can be the result of acid from intrinsic sources, such as gastric acids, or extrinsic sources, in particular from the diet and consumption of acidic foods and drinks. Its prevalence is increasing and it increases with age. Clinical management requires diagnosis and risk assessment to understand the underlying aetiology, so that optimal preventative measures can be implemented. Overall, prevention of enamel mineral loss from caries and tooth wear should form the basis of lifelong dental management. Evidence based oral hygiene and dietary advice is imperative, alongside preventive therapy, to have a healthy lifestyle, whilst retaining hard tooth tissue. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  1. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  2. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  3. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  4. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  5. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  6. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  7. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    could then indicate whether the minerals can be exploited economically for use. If so, then the requisite permissions and licenses need to be obtained to mine the sands from the government. The sands can either be used within the country..., Australia, USA, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Norway and Malaysia. India is blessed with a long coastline of more than 7500 km, including islands. The erosion of rocks results in coastal placers such as rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite...

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized usin...

  9. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... the issuer to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or...

  10. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  11. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  12. 30 CFR 229.123 - Standards for audit activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 229.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE... required, including a knowledge of accounting, auditing, agency regulations, and industry operations. (ii... statement of standards. (iii) The auditor's report should contain a statement of positive assurance on those...

  13. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rchard D. Miles

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta, tamanho da partícula, interações com outros minerais e nutrientes, agentes quelantes, inibidores, estado fisiológico do animal, qualidade da água, condições de processamento ao qual ingredientes individuais ou uma dieta completa foram expostos e, é óbvio, a idade e a espécie animal. Quando um mineral-traço é ingerido, sua biodisponibilidade é influenciada por propriedades específicas do mineral da maneira como está incluído na dieta. Por exemplo, sua valência e forma molecular (orgânica versus inorgânica são importantes. Por causa dessas propriedades específicas, o mineral pode formar complexos com outros componentes no intestino, o que pode dificultar ou facilitar a absorção pela mucosa, o transporte ou o metabolismo do mineral no organismo. É bem conhecido que certos minerais em sua forma inorgânica competem com outros minerais por sítios de ligação e por absorção no intestino. O conhecimento sobre a biodisponibilidade dos minerais-traço nos ingredientes e fontes suplementares é importante para a formulação econômica de uma ração para garantir ótimo desempenho animal. A biodisponibilidade deve ser entendida como um valor “estimado” que reflete a absorção e a utilização do mineral sobre condições de um experimento específico e não de uma propriedade inerente e específica de um ingrediente ou suplemento de ração. Com a tecnologia disponível, a determinação da biodisponibilidade dentro de

  14. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Branislava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate mineral products (phosphate fertilizer and phosphate mineral feed additives contribute to the contamination of soil, plants and animals.

  15. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  16. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  17. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  18. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  19. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2008 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  2. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  3. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  4. The Brazilian mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1988: Thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestically were derived from imported materials, existing company stocks, and thorium nitrate released from the National Defense Stockpile. Major nonenergy uses were in refractory applications, ceramics, and mantles for incandescent lanterns. The only energy use of thorium in the United States was in the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGC) nuclear reactor at Fort St. Vrain, CO. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, and world review--(Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique)

  6. Silicoaluminous minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, Celia; Fina, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A group of silicoaluminous minerals of known composition have been analyzed by means of an energy dispersive electron microprobe. The analysis has been performed using a standarless semiquantitative method. The concentration was calculated using the program included in the software of the on-line computer, based on the ZAF correction. It is well known that it is difficult to analyze Si, Al and Na by this method because the absortion correction in the range of 0.9 to 2.0 KeV is not very accurate and the background substraction is also questionable. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the errors involved in these measurements and the best operation conditions. (Author) [es

  7. The Mineral Physics Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral Physics Committee members for the period July 1, 1986, to J ne 30, 1988, have been announced. They are Murli H. Manghnani (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu), and Orson L. Anderson (University of California, Los Angeles), Thomas J. Ahrens (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), Subir K. Banerjee (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), William A. Bassett (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Michael Brown (University of Washington, Seattle), Robert M. Hazen (Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, D.C.), Raymond F. Jeanloz (University of California, Berkeley), Robert C. Liebermann (State University of New York (SUNY),(Stony Brook), Alexandra Navrotsky (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), Robert N. Schock (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.), and Donald J. Weidner (SUNY Stony Brook).

  8. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  9. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Iacob, O.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioactivity control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 μSv over background radiation of 2,512 μSv.y -1 due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  10. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Iacob, O. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioacty control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 {mu}Sv over background radiation of 2,512 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  11. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  12. The 'Delft' system for mineral identification. Vol. 1. 'Opaque minerals'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, R.A.; Prins, J.J.; Roorda, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    University of Technology by the late Professor A.H. van der Veen, about half a century ago, and ever since it has been part of the curriculum for students in mining and mineral engineering. Teaching students to identify minerals by means of reflected-light microscopy has always been a matter of

  13. Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic

  14. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  15. Assessment of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, S; Kreutzer, R; Smith, D; McNeel, S; Gilliss, D

    2001-01-03

    Hair mineral analysis is being used by health care practitioners and promoted by laboratories as a clinical assessment tool and to identify toxic exposures, despite a 1985 study that found poor reliability for this test. To assess whether the reliability of data from commercial laboratories advertising multimineral hair analyses for nutritional or toxicity assessment has improved since the 1985 study. A split hair sample taken from near the scalp of a single healthy volunteer was submitted for analysis to 6 commercial US laboratories, which analyze 90% of samples submitted for mineral analysis in the United States. Agreement of test results for each analyte, laboratory reference ranges, laboratory characteristics, and interpretation of health implications. Laboratory differences in highest and lowest reported mineral concentrations for the split sample exceeded 10-fold for 12 minerals, and statistically significant (P<.05) extreme values were reported for 14 of the 31 minerals that were analyzed by 3 or more laboratories. Variations also were found in laboratory sample preparation methods and calibration standards. Laboratory designations of normal reference ranges varied greatly, resulting in conflicting classifications (high, normal, or low) of nearly all analyzed minerals. Laboratories also provided conflicting dietary and nutritional supplement recommendations based on their results. Hair mineral analysis from these laboratories was unreliable, and we recommend that health care practitioners refrain from using such analyses to assess individual nutritional status or suspected environmental exposures. Problems with the regulation and certification of these laboratories also should be addressed.

  16. Effect of Mineral Composition on Thermoluminescence Analysis of Irradiated Garlics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookkasem, Atitaya; Wanwisa, Sudprasert; Vitittheeranon, Arag

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the most popular techniques used for identification of irradiated foods such as spices, herbs and dried fruits in accordance with the Codex Standards. TL analysis is based on the determination of TL of adhering or contaminating minerals in foods. This research aimed to study the effect of mineral composition on the TL intensity. The composited minerals were extracted from 3 types of non-irradiated and irradiated garlic powders by sodium polytungstate solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the type and amount of minerals present in garlic powders. TL of separated minerals were analysed using a Harshaw 4500 TL reader. The results showed that the mineral composition of garlic powders was mainly quartz of varying amounts depending on types of garlics. The TL intensity linearly increased with the amount of quartz present in the samples. It can be concluded that the amount of minerals affect the TL intensity which might influence the identification of irradiated tretment of garlics by thermoluminescence

  17. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  18. Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

  19. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 d ig C to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  20. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger

  1. From Mountain Men to Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

  2. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  3. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  4. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  5. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who can...

  6. South Pacific mineral cache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent deep-water sampling of mineral-rich crusts on the seafloor between the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa revealed deposits of cobalt, nickel, and manganese that are richer than previous samples, according to a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Federal Republic of Germany aboard the research vessel S.P. Lee.Thin pieces of crust dredged from a seamount about 260 km northwest of Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef (U.S. territorial possessions roughly midway between Honolulu and American Samoa) had a cobalt concentration of 2.5%, or more than twice the concentration that earlier reconnaissance studies indicated would be found. The rock samples also contained 0.8% nickel and 32% manganese, compared to the estimated concentrations of 0.5% and 25%, respectively. The areas in which the deposits were found are part of the relatively unexplored ocean bottom included in the recently proclaimed 200-nautical-mile U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

  7. Trace element analysis of mineral water samples by PIXE and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.John; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements present in bottled mineral water have been studied by PIXE and ICP-MS. Samples from ten different brands of brands of bottled mineral water were prepared by preconcentration techniques. Measurements were carried out using the 2 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. Our results are compared with Indian standard packaged natural mineral water specifications, World Health Organisation (WHO) and European guidelines for drinking water standards. Concentration of aluminum was found to be more in one of the brands. In general, our results are comparable to the above standards. (author)

  8. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite, anthophylite...

  9. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  10. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  11. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  12. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions......, stable BET values can be obtained by increasing the outgassing time without heating iron oxides. For quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite, stableBETvalues were obtained after outgassing the minerals at 100 to 250±C for 2 h. However, outgassing these minerals at room temperature (20±C) only resulted...

  13. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. On the Adsorption of Some Anionic Collectors on Fluoride Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil

    1973-01-01

    Test flotations have been carried out in a small apparatus under standardized conditions in order to determine the dependence of the flotation yield on the reagent concentration for certain minerals and anionic collectors. The results suggest that a special adsorption mechanism is operating...

  15. Proximate and mineral elements composition of five locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the studied fruits were determined by the standard methods of Official Analytical Chemists, while the Mineral Elements (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Na+ and K+ were determined using Flame photometry and the level of P was ...

  16. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  17. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  18. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  19. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  20. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  1. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  2. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  3. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Clark, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  4. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  5. Heritability of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Benmalek, A; Guaydier-Souquières, G; Sabatier, J P; Marcelli, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of genetic background as a determinant of peak bone mass. We compared lumbar spine bone mineral density in 175 girls with a bone age of 16 years or older and in their premenopausal mothers. We also investigated the influence of a family history of osteoporosis on lumbar spine bone mineral density in 275 women and their 559 daughters. In the 175 mother-daughter pairs, heritability (h2) was significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001) for lumbar spine bone mineral density (h2 = 53%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 28.5-77.6%), bone mineral content (h2 = 62.3%; 95% CI = 37.7-86.8%), bone mineral density adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 56%; CI = 31.5-80.5%), and bone mineral content adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 68.2%; CI = 43.6-92.7%). However, the heritability estimations lacked accuracy, as shown by the wide 95% CIs. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 16.4% and 1% of the mothers, respectively. In the subgroup defined by osteopenia or osteoporosis in the mother, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly higher in the daughters than in the mothers (0.994 +/- 0.095 g/cm2 versus 0.895 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P < 0.0001), whereas the opposite was true in the subgroup defined by normal bone mass in the mothers (1.068 +/- 0.110 g/cm2 versus 1.109 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P = 0.0003). Nevertheless, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly lower in the daughters of low-bone-mass women than in those of normal-bone-mass women (0.994 +/- 0.009 g/cm2 versus 1.069 +/- 0.012 g/cm2; P = 0.0006). These findings suggest a role of genetic factors inherited from the father and also indicate that bone mass gains during adulthood contribute to achievement of the optimal peak bone mass. In the family history study, bone mass was lower in the subjects with a family history of osteoporosis (123 of the 559 daughters, Z-scores normalized for height, weight, and pubertal status: bone mineral density Z-score, -0.054 +/- 1.104; bone mineral

  6. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  7. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary ingredients (including vitamins; minerals; herbs or other botanicals; amino acids; and other substances). Supplements do not ... as a dietary supplement and present in some medicines. It helps your body regulate muscle and nerve ...

  8. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  9. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  10. Clay mineral quaternary sediments mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, A.; Ayala, R.; Daziano, O.; Loyola, C.

    2007-01-01

    The subsidence is one of the geotechnical problems more important associated with Cordoba loess soils. The change of the mineral internal structure in the loess soils cause volume modification, that generate the potential danger of subsidence. The mineralogical evolution and the geotechnical behaviour in these soils are governed by the prevalent environmental hand lings in the region. A sequence of quaternary loess soils associated to a landscape with high carcavamiento has been studied. In this paper are examined the clay minerals and the calcium carbonates associated with the loess soils located in the superior basin of the Arroyo Tegua, Dto. Rio Cuarto, Prov. de Cordoba. The two-micron fraction was concentrated without previous destruction of cements and the determination of the mineral species has been carried out by means of X-Ray Diffraction methods. The clay minerals more abundant are the 2:1 non-expanded and rather crystallized ones. The 1:1non expanded mineral have disorderly structure and the 2:1 expanded are concentrated in the calcic horizons. The presence of palygoskite clay group was possible also to determine. The clay mineral composition in the studied sedimentary sequence is not homogeneous and the physical behavior of the different silts depends on the abundance and distribution of the clay minerals that carry. We can indicate that the clay minerals most unstable under humidity desiccation conditions are fireclay one and those of the palygorskite group. Recapitulating we can express that: vaterite is associated to more young silts and to a low alkaline environmental paleosoils genesis, but with a local CaCO3 supersaturation and alkalinity increase, vaterite transforms to calcite and also aragonite. (author)

  11. The Zapot pegmatite mineral county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, E.E.; Soregaroli, A.E.; Gordon, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Zapot pegmatite is currently being mined for mineral specimens (chiefly amazonite, topaz and smoky quartz in miarolitic cavities), for gemstones (topaz and smoky quartz) and for decorative rock (amazonite). The deposit is owned and operated by Harvey Gordon Minerals of Reno, Nevada, and is the only amazonite-topaz mining operation in the state. Thousands of specimens from this operation have reached the collector market.

  12. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  13. Musculoskeletal Disorders among Iranian Coal Miners at 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Aghillinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some factors such as stooping posture and frequent kneeling in miners can increase prevalence of their musculoskeletal disorders Present study was performed for assessment of MSDs prevalence among Iranian coal miners and finds its relationships with some their characters including age, work experience and body mass index. Participants in the persent cross sectional study, were 505 coal miners which selected among Iranian coal miners by simple random method. Data of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs gathered by Standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list. Findings of persent study showed that 56.1% and 66.5% of study miners claimed one of the MSDs complaints during last week and in the last year respectively. Lumbar, Knee(s and Back had most common MSDs prevalence at last week and year. MSDs prevalence had significant association with age (P≤0.02 and non-significant association with BMI (P≥0.8 of workers. MSDs in Iranian coal miners were happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies in the workplaces must be focussed for elimination of environmental hazards such as apposition at the time of work, manual handling of heavy loads.

  14. Outlook for mineral raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhoff, H.A.

    1979-04-01

    No better summary of the outlook for the mineral raw materials industry during the next two decades can be offered than the oft-repeated aphorism, The more things change, the more they remain the same. Each mineral commodity will pursue its own individual course, but overall, the growth and increasing sophistication of the world population will double consumption and narrow such gaps as exist between supply and demand. Sources of supply will be found over a widening geographic range and will cross an increasing number of political boundaries. Although the need for an international mineral policy is obvious, confrontation between the industrial nations of the West and the anti-colonialism and nationalism of Third World countries offers little hope of anything better than ad hoc solutions in the form of bilateral agreements or cartelization of specific commodities involving several producing nations with common interests. Japan has shown the efficacy of bilateral agreements; the International Tin Council and OPEC are examples of cartelization. Although its mineral resources make the USSR all but self-sufficient, analysis of its military and maritime programmes indicates that one of its aims is to fill the vacuum created by the lack of an international mineral policy. It is following closely a modernized formula for world domination set forth by Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904. Success would enable it to impose a mineral policy on the rest of the world, which will be well advised to ponder this possibility.

  15. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  16. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  17. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  18. Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Despite the success of surface complexation models (SCMs) to interpret the adsorptive properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and/or physical constraints, and thus, casts doubts on the physical-chemical significance of the derived model parameters. In this paper, we address the definition of primary surface sites (i.e., adsorption units) at hydrated carbonate mineral surfaces and discuss its implications to the formulation and calibration of surface equilibria for these minerals. Given the abundance of experimental and theoretical information on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleavage calcite surface, this mineral was chosen for a detailed theoretical analysis of critical issues relevant to the definition of primary surface sites. Accordingly, a single, generic charge-neutral surface site ( tbnd CaCO 3·H 2O 0) is defined for this mineral whereupon mass-action expressions describing adsorption equilibria were formulated. The one-site scheme, analogous to previously postulated descriptions of metal oxide surfaces, allows for a simple, yet realistic, molecular representation of surface reactions and provides a generalized reference state suitable for the calculation of sorption equilibria for rhombohedral carbonate minerals via Law of Mass Action (LMA) and Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) approaches. The one-site scheme is extended to other rhombohedral carbonate minerals and tested against published experimental data for magnesite and dolomite in aqueous solutions. A simplified SCM based on this scheme can successfully reproduce surface charge, reasonably simulate the electrokinetic behavior of these minerals, and predict surface speciation agreeing with available spectroscopic data. According to this model, a truly amphoteric behavior is displayed by these surfaces across the pH scale but at circum-neutral pH (5.8-8.2) and relatively high ΣCO 2 (⩾1 mM), proton/bicarbonate co

  19. Study of some immunological indicators in tin-tungsten ore miners also exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.; Landa, K.; Cizek, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Ig G, IG A, Ig M and Ig D immunoglobulin values and the lysozyme values were ascertained in 75 tin-tungsten ore miners who were also exposed to radon and in a control group of 32 coal miners. The mean values did not differ between the groups, but in the tin-tungsten ore miners the Ig G and Ig M values were 37.3% and 17.33% outside normal values. The lysozyme values were higher in the ore miners whereas in the control group the findings were within standard. (author)

  20. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  1. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate—A Review of Properties and Testing Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, William N.; Nicholson, Timothy; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence J.

    2017-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) restoratives and MTA sealers are commonly used in endodontics. Commonly referenced standards for testing of MTA are ISO 6876, 9917-1 and 10993. A PubMed search was performed relating to the relevant tests within each ISO and “mineral trioxide aggregate”. MTA restoratives are typically tested with a mixture of tests from multiple standards. As the setting of MTA is dependent upon hydration, the results of various MTA restoratives and sealers are dependent upon ...

  2. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  3. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition...

  4. Minerals transnationalism and economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts of developing countries to alter the prevailing presumptions and conditions under which their resources will become available for use in developed nations have fundamentally transformed the structure of international minerals political economy. This study attempts to contribute to an improved understanding of the complex issues that currently define the interactions among major participants in the international minerals equation. Its emphasis is directed toward an isolation and evaluation of policy options available to mineral-exporting developing nations. The study begins with a fairly detailed and comprehensive discussion of the historical and analytical issues that impose themselves on national deliberations. The intent of these chapters is to establish the major opportunities and constraints developing nations must confront in formulating appropriate minerals-sector policies. Thereafter, the core of analysis focuses upon a detailed, applied evaluation of policy options concerning ownership and control, fiscal regimes, and integrative linkage or spread-effect questions. The adduced evidence suggests the continued likelihood of instability and policy experimentation, but also indicates some hopeful avenues of establishing a more mutually beneficial and predictable structure of mineral relations.

  5. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  6. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  7. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  8. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  9. Brazil`s mineral policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, C.A.V. [Pinheiro Neto-Advogados, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1997-06-01

    Brazil is a large producer of many minerals, with a favourable regulatory framework, tax policy and foreign investment legislation. Although there are strict environmental requirements, mining ventures can cope with them and they represent no obstacle to mining activities. Efficient regulatory agencies are in place, such as the Department of Mines (DNPM) and the Geological Survey (CPRM). The Brazilian mineral policy is set out in a number of different documents, the more important being the Federal Constitution and the Mining Code. Important constitutional amendments have been recently passed, so as to open Brazil`s economy to foreign investments.

  10. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  11. 30 CFR 202.101 - Standards for reporting and paying royalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 202.101 Section 202.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 202.101 Standards for reporting and paying... for Basic Sediment and Water (BS&W) and other impurities. Reported American Petroleum Institute (API...

  12. 30 CFR 202.353 - Measurement standards for reporting and paying royalties and direct use fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gallons to the nearest hundred gallons. (e) You need not report the quality of geothermal resources... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement standards for reporting and paying royalties and direct use fees. 202.353 Section 202.353 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  13. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  14. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnadeep Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2±3.38 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min the youngest group (20–29 yrs. It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r=−0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r=0.57 – 0.68, P≤0.001. Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India.

  15. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy.

  16. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  17. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  18. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  19. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  20. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  1. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  2. Minerals Industry' 97. Survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this annual survey is to provide timely and accurate financial data such as production, price movements, profitability, distribution of assets by activity, employment and labour cost and taxation on the Australian minerals industry. It aims to facilitate more informed debate on the industry's role and importance in the economy. The report also includes information on the safety and health performance and overseas exploration expenditure of the minerals industry. This twenty-first survey relates to the year ended 30 June 1997. The proportion of activity covered in this year's survey is comparable with the 1996 survey. The mineral industry is defined as including exploration for, extraction and primary processing of minerals in Australia. The oil, gas, iron and steel industries are excluded. As for the uranium industry, increased mine capacity over the medium term saw a switch away from spot market purchases to long term contracts for uranium in 1996. This, coupled with announced releases from the US stockpile, saw downward pressure on spot market prices for uranium during 1996/97. The average spot market price for U 3 O 8 fell by an average of 6 percent during 1996/97 and was approximately 16 percent lower than three years ago. General uncertainty over the future profitability of coal industry is compounded by the likely softness of future coal prices

  3. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes

    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  4. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  5. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence D. Meinert; Gilpin R. Robinson; Nedal T. Nassar

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798), but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using ...

  6. X-ray diffraction identification of clay minerals by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Imasava, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The identification of clay minerals by X-ray powder diffraction are done by searching an unknown pattern with a file of standard X-ray diffraction patterns. For this searching done by hand is necessary a long time. This paper shows a program in ''Basic'' language to be utilized in microcomputers for the math of the unknown pattern, using the high velocity of comparison of the microcomputer. A few minutes are used for the match. (author) [pt

  7. Characterization of biological mineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, L.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization is an essential requirement for normal skeletal development, which is generally accomplished through the function of two cell types, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Soft tissues do not mineralize under normal conditions, but under certain pathological conditions some tissues like

  8. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  9. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  10. 30 CFR 229.124 - Documentation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... execution of each audit procedure, assuming the target company retains its accounting documentation. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation standards. 229.124 Section 229... MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Oil and Gas, Onshore Delegation Requirements § 229.124 Documentation...

  11. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  12. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  13. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    1995-01-01

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.) [de

  14. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  15. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Minerals AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice, request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... organizations on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part.... ADDRESSES: Comments concerning this notice should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Minerals and...

  16. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  17. Contribution of the Minerals Industry towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a leading producer of a number of mineral commodities, and the minerals industry is a key driver of the South African economy. Ensuring that this mineral wealth is exploited in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development requires policies and strategies that are underpinned by a ...

  18. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  19. Mineral zircon : A novel thermoluminescence geochronometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, H.J.; Vainshtein, DI; De Meijer, RJ; Den Hartog, HW; Donoghue, JF; Rozendaal, A

    2002-01-01

    Mineral zircon contains trace amounts (typically 10-1000 ppm) of the alpha-emitters uranium and thorium, which irradiate this mineral internally. This outstanding feature of zircon turns out to be extremely useful when this mineral is applied as a thermoluminescence (TL) dating medium, because the

  20. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas rights will not be acquired except where the development thereof would interfere with project purposes...

  1. Rugged target standards for HSI remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Mark; O'Neill, Mary; Hahn, Mark; DiBenedetto, John

    2015-05-01

    There is a need for stable test standards for many remote sensing applications that can be used both in the laboratory and in rugged test environments. Ideally these standards would be stable over time such that the same standard could be used from year to year for comparison of system performance. While ink-jet and spray gun methods can disperse controlled doses of dissolved analytes, methods to maintain particle size spectral variations are lacking. In addition, standards that are environmentally robust and stable over time are limited. As part of the recent Lighthouse work toward a Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) proximal handheld sensor, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) was tasked to do preliminary work toward a rugged, transportable, waterproof target board. This involved developing test standards using minerals of known particle sizes that have spectrally relevant features. Mineral powders were dispersed in binders that did not change their spectral characteristics. These standards were packaged such that they could be transported and used repeatedly. This paper discusses the methodology for developing this preliminary set of targets. Target sizes were limited to the proximal case, and further work is required to finalize the optimum binder and examine other possible appropriate minerals.

  2. Evidence-based screening for low bone mineral density in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Patsi; Du, Ping; Haas, Richard E; Pugh, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Low bone mineral density, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture risk, is an emerging clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Our evidence-based practice project screened a convenience sample of 225 HIV-infected men for low bone mineral density using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, and of those men, 173 were also screened by quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus. One hundred twelve men had low bone mineral density by either or both screening methods. Seventy-one of these 112 men were tested by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and 73% had low bone mineral density. The positive protective value of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool was 73% and for quantitative ultrasound was 88%. These results suggest that routine low bone mineral density screening should be included as standard practice for all HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  4. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  5. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  6. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  7. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Schoppen, S.; Pérez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; Gómez-Gerique, J.A.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

  8. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  9. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  10. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  11. Chapter 2. Geological setting of uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkovic, I.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is mainly bound to the Permian sequences. The most important stratiform uranium mineralization is related either to the Permian acid volcanism of Gemericum and Tatricum, or to sandstones with abundant organic matter in Hronicum of the Kozie Chrbty Mts. Less important uranium mineralization occurs in veins and stock-works cutting the Paleozoic sequences of Gemericum and the Neogene volcanic rocks of Central Slovakia. The most important stratiform uranium-molybdenum mineralization occurs in the Permian volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks near Novoveska Huta. The important stratiform uranium mineralization occurs near Kalnica in the Permian Selec formation of Tatricum in the Povazsky Inovec Mts. The Permian acid volcanism was the important factor of primary uranium mineralization. The Permian Maluzina Formation of Hronicum contains uranium and copper mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty, Nizke Tatry and Male Karpaty Mts. The most important is the uranium mineralization in the Kozie Chrbty Mts in Vikartovce, Kravany, Svabovce and Spissky Stiavnik deposits. The Maluzina Formation is of similar character as the Kozie Chrbty Mts that continues on the northern slopes of the Nizke Tatry Mts. The stratiform uranium mineralization occurs in the lower ore-bearing horizon underlying the Kravany Beds in valleys Benkovsky Potok, Ipoltica and Nizny Chmelenec. Quartz and quartz-apatite veins with uranium mineralization occur in the eastern part of the Slovenske Rudohorie Mts. The common feature of this vein mineralization is cutting of the Early Paleozoic rocks of Gemericum in a proximity of the Gemeric granites. Quartz veins with uranium mineralization represented by uranite and brannerite are accompanied by gold in Peklisko and Zimna Voda. The oldest manifestation of uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians is occurrence of pegmatite with uraninite in antimony deposit Dubrava in the Nizke Tatry Mts. It is related to the

  12. Scuba diving does not affect bone mineral density or bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowska, Katarzyna; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Przybylski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Scuba diving is a very specialized, physically demanding activity. The bones of divers are subjected to stress from water pressure, from the forces generated when their muscles resist water pressure, and from weightlessness. Notably, few studies have addressed the effects of diving on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and the results have been controversial. The goal of the study was to assess BMD and BMC in a group of professional scuba divers. The study group (diving group [D]) included 16 male professional scuba divers who also worked as firemen. The control group included 14 firemen who did not scuba dive (non-diving group [ND]). The groups were matched by age, weight, and height. The BMD and BMC of the whole skeleton, L1-L4, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences in BMD or in BMC in the two groups, and the BMD and BMC values were within one standard deviation in terms of Z- and T-scores. There was no correlation between total diving time (hours) and BMD in the D group. Scuba diving does not negatively influence bone turnover. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing the extraction of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada

    2015-01-01

    Mass consumption and shortening product lifecycles have increased worldwide production. Consequently, more raw materials such as minerals are used, and available landfills are filling up. Companies are urged to effectively incorporate sustainability issues such as End-of-life (EOL) management...... and Reverse Logistics (RL) practices to close the loop and diminish the amount of raw materials used in their production systems. However, implementing RL implies dealing with its barriers. The purpose of this article is to focus on the recovery of EOL products that use mostly raw materials from the mining...

  14. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  15. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  16. Nanofiltration renovation of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodzek Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2, recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L. As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%, while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88% and magnesium (84-89% has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from

  17. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  18. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  19. Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, K d is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log K D ). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log K d values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide K d values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each element of interest in

  20. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  1. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  2. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  3. Water mineralization and its importance for health

    OpenAIRE

    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2016-01-01

    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  4. Nitrogen Mineralization From Prunings Of Three Multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on soil N mineralization in the field in an alley cropping system between 2003 -2005 under two soil depths (0-30cm and 30-60cm) through the utilization of an in-situ soil core technique for studying fluxes of mineral N and its uptake by maize. Result obtained indicated that N mineralization was in the ...

  5. Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M L; Kissel, D E; Vigil, M F

    2005-01-01

    Research on nitrogen (N) mineralization from organic residues is important to understand N cycling in soils. Here we review research on factors controlling net N mineralization as well as research on laboratory and field modeling efforts, with the objective of highlighting areas with opportunities for additional research. Among the factors controlling net N mineralization are organic composition of the residue, soil temperature and water content, drying and rewetting events, and soil characteristics. Because C to N ratio of the residue cannot explain all the variability observed in N mineralization among residues, considerable effort has been dedicated to the identification of specific compounds that play critical roles in N mineralization. Spectroscopic techniques are promising tools to further identify these compounds. Many studies have evaluated the effect of temperature and soil water content on N mineralization, but most have concentrated on mineralization from soil organic matter, not from organic residues. Additional work should be conducted with different organic residues, paying particular attention to the interaction between soil temperature and water content. One- and two-pool exponential models have been used to model N mineralization under laboratory conditions, but some drawbacks make it difficult to identify definite pools of mineralizable N. Fixing rate constants has been used as a way to eliminate some of these drawbacks when modeling N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may be useful for modeling N mineralization from organic residues. Additional work with more complex simulation models is needed to simulate both gross N mineralization and immobilization to better estimate net N mineralized from organic residues.

  6. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  7. Adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals: a few suggestions for prebiotic chemistry experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2012-10-01

    Amino acids and nucleic acid bases are very important for the living organisms. Thus, their protection from decomposition, selection, pre-concentration and formation of biopolymers are important issues for understanding the origin of life on the Earth. Minerals could have played all of these roles. This paper discusses several aspects involving the adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals under conditions that could have been found on the prebiotic Earth; in particular, we recommend the use of minerals, amino acids, nucleic acid bases and seawater ions in prebiotic chemistry experiments. Several experiments involving amino acids, nucleic acid bases, minerals and seawater ions are also suggested, including: (a) using well-characterized minerals and the standardization of the mineral synthesis methods; (b) using primary chondrite minerals (olivine, pyroxene, etc.) and clays modified with metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Mo, Zn, etc.); (c) determination of the possible products of decomposition due to interactions of amino acids and nucleic acid bases with minerals; (d) using minerals with more organophilic characteristics; (e) using seawaters with different concentrations of ions (i.e. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2- and Cl-) (f) using non-protein amino acids (AIB, α-ABA, β-ABA, γ-ABA and β-Ala and g) using nucleic acid bases other than adenine, thymine, uracil and cytosine. These experiments could be useful to clarify the role played by minerals in the origin of life on the Earth.

  8. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  9. Thermodynamic investigation of surface of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medout-Marere, V.; Zoungrana, T.; Douillard, J.M.; Partyka, S. [U.P.R.E.S.A., 5072 CNRS, University of Montpellier II, place Eugene Bataillon, Case 015, 34095 Montpellier Cedex (France); Malandrini, H. [Sanofi Recherche-Centre de Recherches, 371 rue du Professeur Blayac, 34000 Montpellier (France)

    1998-06-06

    In this paper values of surface enthalpies and surface Gibbs free energies are given in order to characterize subsurface minerals. These values are obtained by combining standard measurements of adsorption and the Van Oss-Chaudhury-Good model [Van Oss, C.J., Chaudhury, M.K., Good, R.J., 1987. Monopolar surfaces. Adv. Coll. Interface Sci. 28, 35; Van Oss, C.J., Good, R.J., Chaudhury, M.K., 1988. Additive and nonadditive surface tension components and the interpretation of contact angles. Langmuir 4, 884; Van Oss, C.J., Giese, R.F., Costanzo, P.M., 1990. DLVO and non-DLVO interactions in hectorite. Clays Clay Min. 38, 151; Van Oss, C.J., Giese, R.F., Li, Z., Murphy, K., Norris, J., Chaudhury, M.K., Good, R.J., 1992. Determination of contact angles and pore sizes of porous media by column and thin layer wicking. J. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 6, 413.]. This model is reviewed and modified with a view to identify the types of interactions at solid-fluid interfaces and interpreting experimental results

  10. Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carron, Keith

    1997-01-01

    The project entitled 'Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces' involved five faculty members from the University of Wyoming's Departments of Chemistry, Geology, Soil Science, and Mathematics...

  11. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  12. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  13. Increasing strategic role for SA's minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The strategic importance of South Africa's vast mineral resources has been strongly underlined by the Minister of Defence, Mr P.W. Botha. It was pointed out that South Africa ranked among the world's five biggest suppliers of nonfuel minerals and that she has demonstrated her potential as the West's most important source of minerals and strategic raw materials. South Africa therefore exercise a very important stabilising influence on the supply and prices of critical, strategic minerals and raw materials, regarded as of the greatest importance to the Western economy

  14. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  15. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-07-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. © 2013 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  17. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1986-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system diseases. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies uranium mine air agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from serially sacrificed rats are reported for approximately 20- to 640- working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures delivered at one-tenth the rate of previous exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone

  18. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathologic data from rats are shown for approximately 300- to 10,000-working-level-month (WLM) radon-daughter exposures. Exposure of male rats to radon daughters and uranium ore dust continues, along with exposure of male and female beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone. 4 tables

  19. Mineral malnutrition following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Wright, Breanne N

    2013-09-01

    Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes.

  20. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  1. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  2. SIP response for volume content of sulfide mineral in artificial specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Jong Yi, Myeong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has recently been introduced to enhance mineral resource exploration techniques in metal ore deposit, South Korea. Because the valuable mineral ore contains various sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), and galena (PbS), which show IP (Induced Polarization) effect. The conventional IP method was not adequate to find these various sulfide minerals because of certain restrictions, including limited frequency. In order to solve this problem, the SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) method was introduced, which measures responses like as amplitude (or resistivity) and phase for a wide frequency band. The application of the SIP method has been increasing as an exploration technology for mineral resources, because it can be used to acquire and analyze high quality IP data according to the spectral frequency. SIP responses are strong in the presence of the sulfide minerals; however, sufficient study on the characteristics of the SIP response for the various sulfide minerals is not available so far. In this study, in order to identify the SIP response characteristics of sulfide minerals, the SIP method was used in the laboratory; on artificial specimens filled with glass beads and sulfide minerals. The experiment was controlled by the changing volume content, and grain size, of three kinds of sulfide minerals (i.e., chalcopyrite, pyrite, and galena). The grain sizes of the sulfide minerals were varied in five steps: under 0.5 mm, 0.5 - 1.0 mm, 1.0 - 2.0 mm, 2.0 - 2.85 mm, and 2.85 - 4.0 mm, while the grain size of the glass beads was in the range of 0.75 - 1.0 mm. Variation of the volume content of the sulfide mineral was divided into eight grades. The sulfide minerals occupied 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20 percent of the total volume 250 ml specimens. The volume content was converted from the weight using the density of a standard volume of 100 ml for each grain size. The results show that phase response

  3. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  4. Grism manufacturing by low temperature mineral bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkowski, G.; Grabowski, K.; Harnisch, G.; Flügel-Paul, T.; Zeitner, U.; Risse, S.

    2017-09-01

    By uniting a grating with a prism to a GRISM compound, the optical characteristics of diffractive and refractive elements can be favorably combined to achieve outstanding spectral resolution features. Ruling the grating structure into the prism surface is common for wavelengths around 1 μm and beyond, while adhesive bonding of two separate parts is generally used for shorter wavelengths and finer structures. We report on a manufacturing approach for joining the corresponding glass elements by the technology of hydrophilic direct bonding. This allows to manufacture the individual parts separately and subsequently combine them quasimonolithically by generating stiff and durable bonds of vanishing thickness, high strength and excellent transmission. With this approach for GRISM bonding, standard direct-write- or mask-lithography equipment may be used for the fabrication of the grating structure and the drawbacks of adhesive bonding (thermal mismatch, creep, aging) are avoided. The technology of hydrophilic bonding originates from "classical" optical contacting [1], but has been much improved and perfected during the last decades in the context of 3-dimensinal stacking Si-wafers for microelectronic applications [2]. It provides joins through covalent bonds of the Si-O-Si type at the nanometer scale, i.e. the elementary bond type in many minerals and glasses. The mineral nature of the bond is perfectly adapted to most optical materials and the extremely thin bonding layers generated with this technology are well suited for transmission optics. Creeping under mechanical load, as commonly observed with adhesive bonding, is not an issue. With respect to diffusion bonding, which operates at rather high temperatures close to the glass transition or crystal melting point, hydrophilic bonding is a low temperature process that needs only moderate heating. This facilitates provision of handling and alignment means for the individual parts during the set-up stages and greatly

  5. Bone mineral density among female sports participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare

    2006-02-01

    Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive

  6. Mineralization enrichment of uranyl mineral in mid-low temperature hydrothermal of Shuanghuajiang uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi; Liang Yongdong; Tao Zhijun; Chen Weifeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on field examination and mineral study by X-ray powder diffraction, electronic probe and back scatter electronic image, uranium mineral in Shuanghuajiang uranium deposit are analyzed and the mineral are divided into two classes: uranyl phosphate and uranyl silicate. After studying the forming condition of these uranylminerals, the deposit fall into low temperature hydrothermal genesis. The metallogenic model is hence established. (authors)

  7. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: I. Comparison of 10/60 and standard self-rescue devices. Phase II report, number 1. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Krohn, G.; Volkmer, K.; Wick, D.; Miller, H.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report compares a proposed 10/60 'piggyback' 02-generating, self-rescue unit with the standard CO self-rescue unit with respect to work task interference. A simulated low seam coal mine was constructed and workers performed locomotion, shoveling, cart pushing, and timbering tasks with the 10/60 and standard self-rescue units attached to their belts.

  8. Minerals in fish: does the source matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to

  9. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1965-01-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget

  10. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  12. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger.

  13. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  14. Intracellular transport of ions in mineralizing tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.L.

    This study resulted in the development of a new model for bone cell physiology and has provided the means for studying the mechanism and site of action of bone affecting hormones and vitamin metabolites and has provided new information on mechanisms of mineralization and mineralization defects

  15. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  17. COMPOSITION, MINERAL SAFETY INDEX, CALCIUM, ZINC AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Two independent experiments were conducted. KEY WORDS: Fast-foods, Minerals, Amino acids, Mineral Safety Index. INTRODUCTION. Trends in food consumption have been accompanied by changes in eating patterns. Traditional family meals have been replaced, in part, by between-meal snacks and by meals eaten ...

  18. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  19. Isotope analysis of molybdenum in selected minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method is described for the mass spectrometric determination of molybdenum abundance values. The results of analyses of three molybdenum mineral samples are presented and compared with the results of other authors. It is shown that the fine variations of molybdenum in natural minerals cannot be analysed with currently available mass spectrometers

  20. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  1. Fluorimetrich determination of uranium in mineral samples and phosphoric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupo Gonzales, I.; Cuevillas, J.; Estevez, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper an analytical technique for the determination of uranium in different cuban minerals and acid leaching liquors of phosphorites is proposed. The method used for solid samples includes their disolution and further dilution of the solution obtained. For liquid samples dilution is the only intermediate step used. A study of HNO3 concentration (pH) was made in fluorimetric measurements. The method was applied to the uranium analysis in two IAEA standard reference samples (phosphate base), in natural phosphorites and a synthetic one, in clays and phosphoric liquors. The results agree with those obtained by other methods

  2. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  3. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  4. Ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals in the immersion mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pinti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion and bulk freezing experiments were performed to investigate immersion ice nucleation on clay minerals in pure water, using various kaolinites, montmorillonites, illites as well as natural dust from the Hoggar Mountains in the Saharan region. Differential scanning calorimeter measurements were performed on three different kaolinites (KGa-1b, KGa-2 and K-SA, two illites (Illite NX and Illite SE and four natural and acid-treated montmorillonites (SWy-2, STx-1b, KSF and K-10. The emulsion experiments provide information on the average freezing behaviour characterized by the average nucleation sites. These experiments revealed one to sometimes two distinct heterogeneous freezing peaks, which suggest the presence of a low number of qualitatively distinct average nucleation site classes. We refer to the peak at the lowest temperature as "standard peak" and to the one occurring in only some clay mineral types at higher temperatures as "special peak". Conversely, freezing in bulk samples is not initiated by the average nucleation sites, but by a very low number of "best sites". The kaolinites and montmorillonites showed quite narrow standard peaks with onset temperatures 238 K<Tonstd<242 K and best sites with averaged median freezing temperature Tmedbest=257 K, but only some featuring a special peak (i.e. KSF, K-10, K-SA and SWy-2 with freezing onsets in the range 240–248 K. The illites showed broad standard peaks with freezing onsets at 244 K Tonstd<246 K and best sites with averaged median freezing temperature Tmedbest=262 K. The large difference between freezing temperatures of standard and best sites shows that characterizing ice nucleation efficiencies of dust particles on the basis of freezing onset temperatures from bulk experiments, as has been done in some atmospheric studies, is not appropriate. Our investigations

  5. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  6. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  7. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  8. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  9. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  10. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a) A...

  11. PMCR-Miner: parallel maximal confident association rules miner algorithm for microarray data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Wael; Kotb, Yasser; Ghaleb, Fayed F M

    2015-01-01

    The MCR-Miner algorithm is aimed to mine all maximal high confident association rules form the microarray up/down-expressed genes data set. This paper introduces two new algorithms: IMCR-Miner and PMCR-Miner. The IMCR-Miner algorithm is an extension of the MCR-Miner algorithm with some improvements. These improvements implement a novel way to store the samples of each gene into a list of unsigned integers in order to benefit using the bitwise operations. In addition, the IMCR-Miner algorithm overcomes the drawbacks faced by the MCR-Miner algorithm by setting some restrictions to ignore repeated comparisons. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is a parallel version of the new proposed IMCR-Miner algorithm. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is based on shared-memory systems and task parallelism, where no time is needed in the process of sharing and combining data between processors. The experimental results on real microarray data sets show that the PMCR-Miner algorithm is more efficient and scalable than the counterparts.

  12. Does the preferential microbial colonisation of ferromagnesian minerals affect mineral weathering in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; Certini, Giacomo; Campbell, Colin D.; Anderson, Ian C.; Hillier, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Fungal activity is thought to play a direct and effective role in the breakdown and dissolution of primary minerals and in the synthesis of clay minerals in soil environments, with important consequences for plant growth and ecosystem functioning. We have studied primary mineral weathering in volcanic soils developed on trachydacite in southern Tuscany using a combination of qualitative and quantitative mineralogical and microbiological techniques. Specifically, we characterized the weathering and microbiological colonization of the magnetically separated ferromagnesian minerals (biotite and orthopyroxene) and non-ferromagnesian constituents (K-feldspar and volcanic glass) of the coarse sand fraction (250-1,000 µm). Our results show that in the basal horizons of the soils, the ferromagnesian minerals are much more intensively colonized by microorganisms than K-feldspar and glass, but that the composition of the microbial communities living on the two mineral fractions is similar. Moreover, X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscope observations show that although the ferromagnesian minerals are preferentially associated with an embryonic form of the clay mineral halloysite, they are still relatively fresh. We interpret our results as indicating that in this instance microbial activity, and particularly fungal activity, has not been an effective agent of mineral weathering, that the association with clay minerals is indirect, and that fungal weathering of primary minerals may not be as important a source of plant nutrients as previously claimed.

  13. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  14. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  15. Study of the utilization of clays and minerals for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratipasen, M.; Mongkolphanthan, S.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption capability of strontium-90, cesium-137 and radioactive liquid waste from Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) onto two types of standard clay of montmorillonite and kaolinite as well as their minerals was studied. The tested radioactive isotopes were in low level of radiation, that was the activity in the range of 10 - 3 to 10 - 5 micro-curie per cubic centimeter. Minerals were collected at provinces of Lopburi and Saraburi respectively and were assayed for the type of clay by X-ray diffraction technique prior to submit for the investigation. The standard clay was separated by using sedimentation and siphoning method. The sorption capability of strontium-90, cesium-137 and radioactive liquid waste of OAEP onto clays and their minerals was tested under these following conditions: effect of pH, effect of equilibrium time and effect of concentration. The result could be tabulated

  16. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b), or...

  17. Miners annual exposure and the outlet air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluszczynski, D.; Domanski, T.

    1998-01-01

    The air in all underground mines is contaminated by radioactive gas radon. The presence of it is the potential danger for the health of workers. The measure of this danger is the annual exposure of miners. It may be evaluated using several techniques, but all of them base on measurements carried out in the work-places. The measurements lead in this way, form the problems in choosing the optimal measurements' strategy. It is known that mines are large and dynamic (in the physical sense) objects. The air contamination change both in time and places as well and the changes are in the order to magnitude frequently. Authors were searching for a new method which can average the air contamination's level and which is simple in use. The proposed method bases on measurements carried out in outlet air stream in mines. These streams are sum of many local streams, so they carry information on average radiation in the air on work-places. The main idea of the method is to correlate parameters of the contamination's distribution measured in the outlet air streams with the appropriate parameters of contamination's distribution measured in the work-places. It was proved that the geometric mean obtained from the measurements in the outlet air can be correlated with the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the measurements' distribution obtained in the work-places. The determination coefficient is 0.87 and 0.59 respectively. The idea of the method may be useful in all situations, where the air contamination frequently vary and is no possibility to take continuous measurements in all work-places. (author)

  18. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Persulfate activation by naturally occurring trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Watts, Richard J

    2011-11-30

    The potential for 13 naturally occurring minerals to mediate the decomposition of persulfate and generate a range of reactive oxygen species was investigated to provide fundamental information on activation mechanisms when persulfate is used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Only four of the minerals (cobaltite, ilmenite, pyrite, and siderite) promoted the decomposition of persulfate more rapidly than persulfate-deionized water control systems. The other nine minerals decomposed persulfate at the same rate or more slowly than the control systems. Mineral-mediated persulfate activation was conducted with the addition of one of three probe compounds to detect the generation of reactive oxygen species: anisole (sulfate+hydroxyl radical), nitrobenzene (hydroxyl radical), and hexachloroethane (reductants and nucleophiles). The reduced mineral pyrite promoted rapid generation of sulfate+hydroxyl radical. However, the remainder of the minerals provided minimal potential for the generation of reactive oxygen species. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of naturally occurring trace minerals do not activate persulfate to generate reactive oxygen species, and other mechanisms of activation are necessary to promote contaminant destruction in the subsurface during persulfate ISCO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  1. Surface geochemistry of the clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Garrison; Skipper, Neal T.; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, Sung-ho; Soper, Alan K.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    1999-01-01

    Clay minerals are layer type aluminosilicates that figure in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, in the buffering capacity of the oceans, and in the containment of toxic waste materials. They are also used as lubricants in petroleum extraction and as industrial catalysts for the synthesis of many organic compounds. These applications derive fundamentally from the colloidal size and permanent structural charge of clay mineral particles, which endow them with significant surface reactivity. Unraveling the surface geochemistry of hydrated clay minerals is an abiding, if difficult, topic in earth sciences research. Recent experimental and computational studies that take advantage of new methodologies and basic insights derived from the study of concentrated ionic solutions have begun to clarify the structure of electrical double layers formed on hydrated clay mineral surfaces, particularly those in the interlayer region of swelling 2:1 layer type clay minerals. One emerging trend is that the coordination of interlayer cations with water molecules and clay mineral surface oxygens is governed largely by cation size and charge, similarly to a concentrated ionic solution, but the location of structural charge within a clay layer and the existence of hydrophobic patches on its surface provide important modulations. The larger the interlayer cation, the greater the influence of clay mineral structure and hydrophobicity on the configurations of adsorbed water molecules. This picture extends readily to hydrophobic molecules adsorbed within an interlayer region, with important implications for clay–hydrocarbon interactions and the design of catalysts for organic synthesis. PMID:10097044

  2. Marketing mix of chosen Slovak mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhanová Silvia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering its small area, Slovakia abounds in many sources of mineral waters and a considerable amount of them can be used for the commercial utilization. STN 86 8000 divides mineral waters in the natural mineral waters, natural mineral table waters and the natural mineral healing waters. Natural mineral water is, after the present norm, in effect water, which rises from natural trapped sources. This type of water contains more than 1 gram of dissolved substances or 1 gram of dissolved CO 2 in 1 litter. Natural mineral table water is water that, with its chemical composition as well as its physical and sensorial attributes is suitable as a refresher. It contains at least 1 gram of melted CO2 and up to 6 grams of dissolved illiquid substances in 1 litter. The mentioned substances are not characterised by any marked pharmacological effect. Natural mineral healing water is water, which with an eye to its chemical composition and physical properties, have a scientifically demonstrable effects to the human health and it is generally used for healing purposes. In the present contribution, an attention is orientated to the occurrence of listed types of waters in Slovakia, in connection with geological conditions of their circulation and accumulation and especially with possibilities of their use on the Slovak buyer’s market.The marketing mix is a complex of information, which can be regulated. Firms accumulate this information to satisfy a customer. Marketing mix of mineral waters includes information about four variables: product (characteristics of product, quality, packing, design..., prices, advertisement, distribution (the way how to get product to customer. Data listed in the contribution come from the sectional market research, which was performed between December 1st and December 22nd 2000 in twenty groceries in

  3. Fractal analysis of sulphidic mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklúšová Viera

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of fractal theory in the characterization of fragmented surfaces, as well as the mass-size distributions are discussed. The investigated mineral-chalcopyrite of Slovak provenience is characterised after particle size reduction processes-crushing and grinding. The problem how the different size reduction methods influence the surface irregularities of obtained particles is solved. Mandelbrot (1983, introducing the fractal geometry, offered a new way of characterization of surface irregularities by the fractal dimension. The determination of the surface fractal dimension DS consists in measuring the specific surface by the BET method in several fractions into which the comminuted chalcopyrite is sieved. This investigation shows that the specific surface of individual fractions were higher for the crushed sample than for the short-term (3 min ground sample. The surface fractal dimension can give an information about the adsorption sites accessible to molecules of nitrogen and according to this, the value of the fractal dimension is higher for crushed sample.The effect of comminution processes on the mass distribution of particles crushed and ground in air as well as in polar liquids is also discussed. The estimation of fractal dimensions of particles mass distribution is done on the assumption that the particle size distribution is described by the power-law (1. The value of fractal dimension for the mass distribution in the crushed sample is lower than in the sample ground in air, because it is influenced by the energy required for comminution.The sample of chalcopyrite was ground (10min in ethanol and i-butanol [which according to Ikazaki (1991] are characterized by the parameter µ /V, where µ is its dipole moment and V is the molecular volume. The values of µ /V for the used polar liquids are of the same order. That is why the expressive differences in particle size distributions as well as in the values of

  4. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  5. The Effect of Dietary Inorganic and Organic Trace Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    82kg were assigned to five dietary treatments to investigate the effect of dietary inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation on growth performance; fecal mineral excretion and apparent digestibility. Trace minerals considered were ...

  6. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  7. Mineral matter in Mozambique coals - preliminary note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Borros, L.; Lemos de Sousa, M.J.; Furtado, S.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of mineral matter which occurs in coals as plant ash (trace elements), mineral inclusions, and as discrete band of dirt or partings within the seams, is discussed. A preliminary research of the mineralogical composition of the discrete bands occurring in coal seams from Moatize-Minjova and Chicoa-Mecucoe coalfields, Zambezi Valley, People's Republic of Mozambique, showed the occurrence of the following minerals: kaolinite; illite with more or less complex stratified species, namely montmorillonite; quartz; carbonates and iron oxides.

  8. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  10. USGS Mineral Resources Program: A National Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Minerals are chemical compounds abundant in the rocks, soil, and water around us and they have a profound impact on the lives of all beings. Naturally occurring minerals define the landscape in which we live. They affect our ecosystems, influence the availability of nutrients that support biota, impact the distribution of vegetation, and may also contribute to contamination of the environment. Minerals are used in fertilizers for farming, in concrete and building materials for construction, in aggregate for roads, in steel for cars and all manner of transportation, and in materials crucial to the communications industry.

  11. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  12. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  13. Mineral carbon sequestration and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushina, Viktoriya M.; Bercovici, David

    2013-03-01

    The seismic safety of current technologies for CO2 sequestration has been questioned in several recent publications and whitepapers. While there is a definite risk from unbalanced subsurface fluid injection because of hydraulic fracturing, we propose a simple model to demonstrate that mineral carbonation in mafic rocks can mitigate seismic risk. In particular, mineral precipitation will increase the solid grain-grain contact area, which reduces the effective fluid pressure, distributes the deviatoric stress load, and increases frictional contact. Thus, mineral sequestration can potentially reduce seismic risk provided fluid pumping rates do not exceed a critical value.

  14. comparative study on the minerals composition of the flesh of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bashar

    The analyses of mineral composition of red and yellow fruits varieties of Terminalia catappa using standard analytical apparatus, reagents ... alarming food shortage in human nutrition have aroused attention of various researchers ... and ripe pawpaw (74mg/100g). This is an indication that; the fruits are not good sources of.

  15. 76 FR 60532 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Miner's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Miner's Claim for Benefits Under the Black Lung Benefits Act and... Benefits Under the Black Lung Benefits Act and Employment History,'' to the Office of Management and Budget... Benefits Under the Black Lung Benefits Act Form (Form CM-911) is the standard application form filed by the...

  16. Vegetable, Fish and Mineral Oils Control Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Martín

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were performed on vegetable, fish and mineral oils to evaluate their phytotoxic effects on grapevine and their effectiveness in the control of grapevine powdery mildew. None of the oils tested showed detectable phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 2% or less applied up to 4 times per week. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of paraffin oil, refined rapeseed oil and partially refined fish oil against powdery mildew was similar to that obtained with the standard fungicides (tebuconazole or colloidal sulphur. In field trials, the three oils tested (paraffin oil, crude soya oil, and fish oil: 1% in aqueous emulsion were at least as effective as the standard fungicide Quinoxifen, with crude soya oil being the most effective. The oils used in the field trials were also effective for controlling eriophyd mites such as Calepitrimerus vitis.

  17. 77 FR 19722 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary of Labor... necessary. To ensure the safety of the miners in active mines and to protect miners in future mines that may mine in close proximity to these same active mines it is necessary to determine the exact location and...

  18. 78 FR 59723 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary of Labor determines that: 1. An alternative method of... miners in active mines and to protect miners in future mines that may mine in close proximity to these same active mines, it is necessary to determine the exact location and extent of the mine workings. (2...

  19. 30 CFR 202.152 - Standards for reporting and paying royalties on gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volumes and British thermal unit (Btu) heating values, if applicable, under the same degree of water... same standards specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (3) Natural gas liquids (NGL) volumes shall... gas. 202.152 Section 202.152 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  20. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part 90 miner is exposed contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the...

  1. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903...

  2. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...

  3. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...

  4. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...

  5. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937...

  6. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...

  7. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...

  8. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...

  9. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910...

  10. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912...

  11. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...

  12. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...

  13. Mineral-Microbe Interaction and Methanogenesis: The Role of Mineral Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, P. B.; Harvey, O. R.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial processes in anoxic subsurface environments are well known to be affected by physicochemical factors including pH, temperature, and pressure. Recent experimental evidence also suggests that mineral type/composition may have regulatory effects on archaea-mediated methanogenesis in geologic environments. For example, in experiments involving the model methanogenic archaea, Methanococcus Maripaludis, and various sulfide-bearing minerals; we observe significant differences across minerals (and in some cases, between mineral-free and mineral treatments). After 14 days of incubation, methane production in pyrite(FeS2)-containing treatments was twice that in comparable galena(PbS)-containing treatments. No significant difference in methane production was observed between mineral-free and pyrite-containing treatments. Our data pointed to mineral alterations of 1) solution chemistry and/or 2) mineral-methanogen interactions as potentially key factors impacting microbial methane production in deep earth, as well as near-surface, anoxic environments. This presentation will discuss data that further explores the extent to which mineral-archaea interactions alter methane production in experiments containing different types of minerals including sulfides, carbonates, silicates, and sulfide-rich coals.

  14. Trace Minerals and Livestock: Not Too Much Not Too Little

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Alonso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The new approaches of the animal production systems make managing the mineral nutrition a challenge. Versus the excessive, trace mineral supply in intensively managed livestock, well above the physiological requirements, is the no trace mineral supplementation of organic systems, which become highly dependent on trace minerals in the soil. Nowadays, in addition to the animal health perspective, trace mineral nutrition must be environment friendly and allow getting mineral-enriched animal prod...

  15. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Phase II field ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment. System water was monitored, either continuously or thrice daily, for routine water quality parameters, minerals, and MicroTox® in-vitro toxicity, and intermittently for somatic and male-specific coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, emerging organic constituents (non-quantitative), and the Florida drinking water standards. All 115 drinking water standards with the exception of bromate were met in this phase. Neither virus nor protozoa were detected in the treated water, with the exception of measurement of adenovirus genome copies attributed to accumulation of inactive genetic material in hydraulic dead zones. Chemical oxygen demand was mineralized to 90% in treatment. Total dissolved solids were maintained at ∼500 mg/L at steady state, partially through aerated aluminum electrocoagulation. Bromate accumulation is projected to be controlled by aluminum electrocoagulation with separate dispo

  16. Sorption of Groundwater Dissolved Organic Carbon onto Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Meredith, K.; Andersen, M. S.; O'Carrol, D. M.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of groundwater organic matter (OM) as a carbon source or sink in the environmental carbon cycle is limited. The dynamics of groundwater OM is mainly governed by biological processing and its sorption to minerals. In saturated groundwaters, dissolved OM (DOM) represents one part of the groundwater organic carbon pool. Without consideration of the DOM sorption, it is not possible to quantify governing groundwater OM processes. This research explores the rate and extent of DOM sorption on different minerals. Groundwater DOM samples, and International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) standard solutions, were analysed. Each was mixed with a range of masses of iron coated quartz, clean quartz, and calcium carbonate, and shaken for 2 hours to reach equilibrium before being filtered through 0.2 μm for total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and composition analysis by size-exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). Sorption isotherms were constructed and groundwater DOM sorption were compared to the sorption of IHSS standards. Initial results suggest that for the IHSS standards, the operationally-defined humic substances fraction had the strongest sorption compared to the other LC-OCD fractions and total DOC. Some samples exhibited a small increase in the low molecular weight neutral (LMW-N) aqueous concentration with increasing humic substances sorption. This gradual increase observed could be the result of humic substances desorbing or their breakdown during the experiment. Further results comparing these IHSS standards with groundwater samples will be presented. In conjunction with complementary studies, these results can help provide more accurate prediction of whether groundwater OM is a carbon source or sink, which will enable the management of the groundwater resources as part of the carbon economy.

  17. The mineral scoring technique and evaluation of indigenous browse species as natural mineral phytocentres for goats in African rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasa, J D; Opuda-Asibo, J; Thinggaard, G; ter Meulen, U

    2004-05-01

    The utilization and evaluation of indigenous browse species as natural mineral phytocentres for goats was examined by the combined use of mineral concentrations, mineral scores, browse accessibility and abundance in the Ankole rangeland, Uganda. The species Grewia bicolor and Carissa edulis with > 140% mineral scores and > 70% accessibility were the most valuable mineral phytocentres and were the victims of overgrazing. Acacia albida and Acacia abyssinica with > 130% mineral scores but genus Acacia and lowest (5.3%) in Dichrostachsys. Browse accessibility was < 35%, in 69.2% of species. Acacia hockii was the most abundant species (24.5%) but had the lowest mineral score (17.7%). Browse species (90-100%) were deficient in Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The combined use of mineral concentrations and mineral scoring technique was superior to the use of mineral concentrations alone in defining mineral adequacy, deficiency and supply potential, making the mineral scoring technique a valuable tool in browse management.

  18. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way?Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long–term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation.The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on "Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development" at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18–19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development.The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  19. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  20. Study of blood pressure among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon; Dhar, B.B.; Singh, A.K.P.; Sahay, L.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work was to assess the prevalence of hypertension among 2772 coal miners and to establish the relationship of hypertension with family history, living conditions, dietary habits, and other associated medical parameters. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  2. Status of mineral resources evaluation and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hanfeng; Li Ziying; Luo Yi; Li Shengxiang; Sun Wenpeng

    2007-01-01

    The work of resources evaluation and forecast is a focus to the governments of every country in the world, it is related to the establishment of strategic policy on the national mineral resources. In order to quantitatively evaluate the general potential of uranium resources in China and better forecast uranium deposits, this paper briefly introduces the method of evaluating total amount of mineral resources, especially 6 usual prospective methods which are recommended in international geology comparison programs, as well as principle of usual mineral resources quantitative prediction and its steps. The work history of mineral resources evaluation and forecast is reviewed concisely. Advantages and disadvantages of each method, their application field and condition are also explained briefly. At last, the history of uranium resources evaluation and forecast in China and its status are concisely outlined. (authors)

  3. Granite-hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean Bundelkhand cratonmolybdenite characterization, host rock mineralogy, petrology, and fluid inclusion characteristics of Mo-bearing quartz. J K Pati M K Panigrahi M Chakarborty. Volume 123 ...

  4. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  5. Automatic mineral classification in the macroscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschallinger, R.

    1997-02-01

    A method is introduced which enables reliable, automated mineral classification in the macroscopic scale. Polished rock samples are scanned by a color image scanner. Scanner output is split into red, green and blue component images to be evaluated by multispectral image processing methods. Different unsupervised and supervised image classification algorithms have been tested with medium-to-coarse grained crystalline rocks. Statistical evaluation of the results showed that the supervised maximum likelihood algorithm was the most robust approach: provided the minerals of interest show different hues, average mineral-phase recognition levels are approximately 90%. The result of the method is a classified raster image of mineral distribution which, besides giving rock modes, can be postprocessed by shape and fabric analysis programs or passed to 3D serial section reconstruction algorithms.

  6. Beach sand minerals in ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Patra, R.N.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramics are in use since the time memorial and many new materials belonging to this segment of industry have come to existence as the human civilization progressed. Although clay and some non-clay minerals are used in the traditional ceramics, they are not compatible for advanced ceramic applications. The synthesized compounds of elements like aluminium, silicon, titanium, zirconium, rare earths etc are having ability to satisfy the requirements of such advanced high tech applications. The six heavy minerals present in abundantly available Indian beach sand minerals happen to contain these elements and find application as such or in their value added forms both in traditional and advanced ceramics. In this paper an effort has been made to describe the role of beach sand minerals being produced by Indian Rare Earths Ltd as basic raw materials for the Indian ceramic industry. (author)

  7. Colloidal Mineral Liquid Crystals. Formation & Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink op Reinink, A.B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the formation, manipulation and characterization of colloidal mineral liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are liquids containing ordered anisometric particles. A range of liquid crystalline phases exists, from solely orientationally ordered nematic phases to

  8. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-01-01

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  9. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  10. Mineral nutrient status, some quality and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral nutrient status, some quality and morphological characteristics changes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars under salt stress. VD Taffouo, TL Meguekam, MLP Ngueleumeni, IJ Pinta, A Amougou ...

  11. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  12. Perched silica minerals on mordenite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ellipsoidal quartz grains and spherulitic chalcedony are perched on mordenite fibers in geodes from Chihuahua, Mexico. Examination of samples of fibrous mordenite from six additional localities indicated that most mordenites have perched quartz crystals. A linear relationship exists between the Si:Al ratios and the refractive indices of the mordenites. The pH of the mineralizing solutions appears to be the primary factor controlling the presence of perched silica minerals (the lower the pH, the higher the Si:Al ratios and the lower the probability of precipitating quartz). Other factors that may affect the presence of lurched silica minerals are (1) the compactness of the mordenite fibers, (2) the morphology of the fibers, and (3) the concentration of Al, Ca, Na, and K in the mineralizing solutions.

  13. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  14. Evaluation of trace mineral source and preharvest deletion of trace minerals from finishing diets on tissue mineral status in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral source and deletion on mineral content in tissues. Methods Weanling crossbred pigs (n = 144; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; body weight [BW] = 7.4±1.05 kg were used. A basal diet was prepared, and trace mineral premix containing either inorganic (ITM or organic (OTM trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was added to the basal diet. Pigs were blocked by sex and BW and randomly allotted to 24 pens for a total of 6 pigs per pen, and fed a diet containing either ITM or OTM supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases (Phase I to V from 7 to 120 kg. The trace mineral supplementation was deleted for 6, 4, 2, and 0 wk of Phase V; regarding nutrient adequacy during this phase, the indigenous dietary Fe and Mn was sufficient, Cu was marginal and Zn was deficient. Results At the end of Phase IV, Mn content (mg/kg on the dry matter basis was greater (p<0.05 in heart (0.77 vs 0.68, kidney (6.32 vs 5.87, liver (9.46 vs 8.30, and longissimus dorsi (LD; 0.30 vs 0.23 of pigs fed OTM. The pigs fed OTM were greater (p<0.05 in LD Cu (2.12 vs 1.89 and Fe (21.75 vs 19.40 and metacarpal bone Zn (141.86 vs 130.05. At the end of Phase V, increased length of deletion period (from 0 to 6 wk resulted in a decrease (linear, p<0.01 in liver Zn (196.5 to 121.8, metacarpal bone Zn (146.6 to 86.2 and an increase (linear, p<0.01 in heart Mn (0.70 to 1.08, liver Mn (7.74 to 12.96, and kidney Mn (5.58 to 7.56. The only mineral source by deletion period interaction (p<0.05 was observed in LD Zn. Conclusion The results demonstrated differential effects of mineral deletion on tissue mineral content depending on both mineral assessed and source of the mineral.

  15. Evaluation of trace mineral source and preharvest deletion of trace minerals from finishing diets on tissue mineral status in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y L; Lindemann, M D; Webb, S F; Rentfrow, G

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral source and deletion on mineral content in tissues. Weanling crossbred pigs (n = 144; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; body weight [BW] = 7.4±1.05 kg) were used. A basal diet was prepared, and trace mineral premix containing either inorganic (ITM) or organic (OTM) trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) was added to the basal diet. Pigs were blocked by sex and BW and randomly allotted to 24 pens for a total of 6 pigs per pen, and fed a diet containing either ITM or OTM supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases (Phase I to V) from 7 to 120 kg. The trace mineral supplementation was deleted for 6, 4, 2, and 0 wk of Phase V; regarding nutrient adequacy during this phase, the indigenous dietary Fe and Mn was sufficient, Cu was marginal and Zn was deficient. At the end of Phase IV, Mn content (mg/kg on the dry matter basis) was greater (p<0.05) in heart (0.77 vs 0.68), kidney (6.32 vs 5.87), liver (9.46 vs 8.30), and longissimus dorsi (LD; 0.30 vs 0.23) of pigs fed OTM. The pigs fed OTM were greater (p<0.05) in LD Cu (2.12 vs 1.89) and Fe (21.75 vs 19.40) and metacarpal bone Zn (141.86 vs 130.05). At the end of Phase V, increased length of deletion period (from 0 to 6 wk) resulted in a decrease (linear, p<0.01) in liver Zn (196.5 to 121.8), metacarpal bone Zn (146.6 to 86.2) and an increase (linear, p<0.01) in heart Mn (0.70 to 1.08), liver Mn (7.74 to 12.96), and kidney Mn (5.58 to 7.56). The only mineral source by deletion period interaction (p<0.05) was observed in LD Zn. The results demonstrated differential effects of mineral deletion on tissue mineral content depending on both mineral assessed and source of the mineral.

  16. INTERACTIONS AMONG THE TRACE MINERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Miles

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora existam pelo menos 50 interações conhecidas entre 27 elementos, muitas delas são de pouca importância prática para os criadores. Os animais que consomem dietas completas em sistemas de confinamento não deveriam apresentar problemas metabólicos resultantes de interação entre minerais, exceto em casos de acidentes de suplementação, ou por contaminação ou por erros na mistura dos ingredientes. Os ruminantes sob pastejo estão mais sujeitos aos sinais de intoxicação ou de deficiência, causados por interações entre minerais. Os problemas comuns como a interação do molibdênio, cobre e enxofre são bem conhecidos e apresentam uma extensa documentação em termos de pesquisa. No entanto, o conhecimento de um problema e sua aplicação prática nem sempre são recíprocos. O consumo de quantidades necessárias de um determinado suplemento mineral não pode ser assegurado a todos os indivíduos de um rebanho em pastejo e, conseqüentemente, os problemas advindos de interações são ainda observados em condições de campo. A ênfase corrente na literatura científica sobre produção animal nos Estados Unidos no tocante a interações minerais-traço tem levado em conta o efeito da enzima fitase e o fósforo orgânico na utilização do ferro, zinco e cobre. Experimentos que investigam a interação entre cobre e molibdênio têm sido também relatados nos últimos anos. É provável que, futuramente, a maior parte das pesquisas com minerais esteja direcionada para as funções metabólicas de elementos, com auxílio de técnicas da biologia molecular, em detrimento de ensaios de alimentação com animais. Presume-se que os ensaios simples de alimentação que unicamente avaliam crescimento e conversão alimentar vão se tornar atividades superadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Minerais-traço, alimentação, rebanho.

  17. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P trace minerals, as well as no trace mineral supplementation, did not influence pig growth performance. Totally replacing ITMs by equivalent levels of OTMs could improve hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px activities and reduce fecal Mn, Cu, and Se excretion for grower-finisher pigs when supplemented at commercially recommended levels.

  18. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  19. Preventing corruption in community mineral beneficiation schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Nest, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyses patterns of corruption and corruption risks related to community mineral beneficiation schemes (CMBSs) that distribute benefits funded by mineral revenues to communities. It analyses insights from existing scholarship on CMBSs, evidence from seven cases of corruption, and lessons from guidance documents on reducing corruption in the mining value chain. The aim of the paper is to stimulate debate and further research about the suitability of anti-corruption st...

  20. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  1. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, U.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K) are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cas...

  2. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  3. Analysis of human serum and whole blood for mineral content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: development of a mineralomics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Essader, Amal S; Sumner, Susan J; Levine, Keith E

    2014-07-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This paper describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μL) and serum (250 μL) samples was measured for eight essential minerals--sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se)--by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 to 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348-5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals and potentially of other minerals.

  4. Mineral resources of Novokuznetsk administrative district of Kemerovo region (metallic and non-metallic minerals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutak, Ja M.

    2017-09-01

    The article summarizes data on metallic and non-metallic minerals of Novokuznetsk district of Kemerovo region. Consistently reviewed are iron deposits (Tersinskaya group of deposits), gold deposits (placer accumulations and vein gold deposits), mineral water deposits (Tersinskoe deposit), deposit of refractory clay (Barkinskoe) and wide spread mineral deposits such as brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel, building stones, ornamental stones, facing stones, peat, materials for lime production. It is indicated that resource base of metallic and nonmetallic minerals is inferior to that of mineral coal. At the same time it can be of considerable interest to small and medium-size businesses as objects with quick return of investment (facing and ornamental stones). For a number of wide spread mineral resources (brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel) it is an important component of local industry.

  5. Mineral Density and Quantity of Bone, Parameters of Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ivanyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diagnostic of osteoporosis the golden standard is bone mineral density, though X-ray densitomenry parameters not always determine risk for osteoporotic fractures. That is why new methods are being looked for to find the parameters not only mineral density, but rather quantity of bone. One of theses methods is trabecular bone score. As general weight of body includes fat and lean mass some researchers tried to determine their role in development of structural and functional impairments in bone, however there is no clear answer to this question: while some scientists considered fat mass as a basic factor of protection from fractures, other ones decided that lean mass is more connected with mineral density of bone tissue. The aim of study was to investigate parameters of quantity and density of bone of spine, neck of femur and body composition depending on the postmenopausal period; to study connection between fat mass and mineral density and quantity of bone. Materials and methods. The observed females were divided into the groups: premenopausal women and women with postmenopause of various duration (early, middle, late. There were conducted a general clinical observation of a patient and investigation of mentioned above parameters using X-ray densitomentry General Electric. Results. Quantity of bone (TBS and bone mineral density significantly decrease depending on postmenopausal period. Fat and lean masses do not significantly change. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods bone mineral density of the spine and hip neck increase while fat mass increases.

  6. LOW WATER DEMAND CEMENTS - WAY OF EFFICIENT USE OF CLINKER AND MINERAL FILLERS IN CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhryakov Oleg Viktorovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the provisions in the updated edition of the technical specifications for cements are analyzed. A trend to decrease the clinker volume in Portland cement due to the wider use of mineral additives, up to 95%, was observed. Research objectives: substantiation of the most complete and efficient use of Portland cement and mineral additives in the composition of low water demand cements. Materials and methods: portland cement, mineral additives and superplasticizer were used as raw materials for obtaining cements of low water demand. The experimental methods comply with the current standards. Results: comparative properties of low water demand cements and cements with mineral additives are presented. The properties of cement-water suspensions of these binders have been studied, and, on their basis, heavy concretes have been made. The results of the grindability of Portland cement and mineral components with a superplasticizer are given. Conclusions: it is shown that the cement of low water demand, in which the advantages of both Portland cement and mineral additives are more fully and efficiently presented, complies with the tendency to decrease the clinker volume to the greatest degree. It is established that the clinker volume index for heavy concrete prepared on low water demand cement is almost four times lower than that for heavy concrete based on common Portland cement.

  7. Karakteristik dan kandungan mineral pasir pantai Lhok Mee, Beureunut dan Leungah, Kabupaten Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniah .

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to determine the characteristics and mineral content of coastal sand from  Lhokmee, Beureunut, and Leungah Aceh Besar District. The sand analysis was conducted at Material Laboratory of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Syiah Kuala University from March to April, 2014. Samples were collected using purpossive sampling method. The observed physical characteristics of this research were sand color, shape and particle size. The mineral content was analysed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standard (JCPDS program. The result showed that Lhok Mee coastal sand was physically characterized as white, sub-angular rounded shape and 0.21 mm of size, while Beureunut coastal sand was light brown, rounded-well rounded shape and 0.19 mm of size, then Leungah coastal sand was black, angular-well rounded shape and 0.13 mm of size. Based on  mineral content showed that Lhok Mee, Beureunut, and Leungah coastal sand were dominated by SiO3, SO3 and Fe3O4, respectively. All identified minerals at all stations were classified as volcanic minerals of lithogenous sediment. Keywords: Beach sands; Color difference; Mineral content; Shape; Particle size.

  8. Respiratory morbidity among U.S. coal miners in states outside of central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura E; Blackley, David J; Laney, Anthony S; Halldin, Cara N

    2017-06-01

    Recent NIOSH publications have focused on the respiratory health of coal miners in central Appalachia, yet 57% of U.S. coal miners work in other regions. We characterized respiratory morbidity in coal miners from these regions. Active coal miners working outside of central Appalachia who received chest radiographs and/or spirometry during 2005-2015 were included. Chest radiographs were classified according to International Labour Office standards and spirometry was interpreted using the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and abnormal spirometry were compared by region. A total of 103 (2.1%) miners had CWP. The eastern region had the highest prevalence (3.4%), followed by the western (1.7%), and interior (0.8%) regions. A total of 524 (9.3%) miners had abnormal spirometry. CWP occurs in all U.S. coal mining regions. Prevalence of CWP was higher in the eastern region, but lower than levels reported in central Appalachia. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; Pnails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  10. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  11. Mineral oxide transformation of antimicrobial contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Kendall, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The quality of our water supply is dependent on the organic-mineral interface. Organics contain reactive groups that dissolve minerals, and release surface associated contaminants into aquifers and reservoirs. Conversely, minerals may transform organic pollutants, including antimicrobial drugs that are potentially deleterious to aquatic ecosystems or human health. Under aqueous conditions typical of soils and natural waters, the antibiotic agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is transformed in the presence of pyrolusite, presumably on the MnO2 surface. At least 50 percent loss of SMX was observed after 269 h, in both acidic and basic solutions (pH 3-9). Nearly 100 percent loss is recorded at pH 3 and 66 percent loss was recorded at circumneutral pH. Initial mass spectrometry of the reaction products suggests an oxidative pathway where hydroxylation and oxidation occurs at the aniline moiety and isoxazolamine ring of SMX. Concomitant increases in aqueous manganese concentrations suggest reductive transformation of the mineral surface. Ongoing electric force spectroscopy and force microscopy experiments probe potential mineral surface alteration associated with the SMX-MnO2 reaction. Coupling bulk aqueous observations and mass spectrometry with molecular-scale force microscopy should further elucidate sulfonamide reactivity as influenced by mineral surface chemistry and topography. Moreover, the observed transformation suggests manganese oxides likely play an important role in the fate of SMX in the environment.

  12. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  13. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirable dust standard when quartz is present... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Dust Standards § 71.101 Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the...

  14. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  15. International strategic minerals inventory. Summary report. A regional assessment of selected mineral commodities in subequatorial Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, G.J.; Crockett, R.N.; Hammerbeck, E.C.I.

    1991-09-01

    The major mineral resources of 19 countries of central and northern Africa are described in this summary report. A total of 27 categories of individual commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, are analyzed in detail. A simplified geologic map places these mineral resources within their broad geologic environments. A companion infrastructure map locates mines and deposits and highlights currently existing rail transport and export harbor capacities available to support the regional development of mineral resources. A summary listing of known mining and foreign investment legislation in each country is presented, as is a list of the mineral agencies of each country.

  16. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  17. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  18. Impact of ARPANS-like legislation on minerals industry in Australia - the TENORM issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral products and/or process wastes, relative to those in the source materials. Due to the current legislative trends this technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring mineral processing practices, including disposal of NORM-elevated wastes, into the realm of regulatory concern for practically all mineral-processing operations in Australia. The 1999 Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) legislation has been based on the 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As such, it contains very restrictive exemption criteria from the provisions of the legislation. ARPANS legislation is only binding upon Commonwealth entities. They, incidentally, do not include minerals industry operations. This legislation has been incompatible with the nature of the minerals industry. However, the current legislative developments have been aimed at imposing this legislation onto States and Territories. If this happens, and the current ARPANS legislative exemption criteria are not rationalised, major radiation safety-related operational and administrative impacts on the Australian minerals industry will occur. They will result in a marked burden to the national economy for yet to be clearly identified health and safety benefits. It is thus recommended that, without compromising rational radiation protection principles and practices, legislation commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national and state circumstances, conditions and interests be adopted in Australia. Such legislation would follow the spirit of the IAEA 1996 recommendations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  19. Mineral trioxide aggregate and portland cement for direct pulp capping in dog: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth.

  20. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. His-topathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tis-sue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposedwith a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Port-land cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral triox-ide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Al-though the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45% and the least increase in fibrous tissue were ob-served adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp cap-ping in dog teeth.

  1. In situ osteoblast mineralization mediates post-injection mechanical properties of osteoconductive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialorucki, Callan; Subramanian, Gayathri; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the temporal relationship between in situ generated calcium content (mineralization) and the mechanical properties of an injectable orthobiologic bone-filler material. Murine derived osteoblast progenitor cells were differentiated using osteogenic factors and encapsulated within an injectable polycaprolactone nanofiber-collagen composite scaffold (PN-COL +osteo) to evaluate the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. A comprehensive study was conducted using both an experimental and a predictive analytical mechanical analysis for mechanical property assessment as well as an extensive in vitro biological analysis for in situ mineralization. Cell proliferation was evaluated using a PicoGreen dsDNA quantification assay and in situ mineralization was analyzed using both an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and an Alizarin Red stain-based assay. Mineralized matrix formation was further evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and visualized using SEM and histological analyses. Compressive mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffolds were determined using a confined compression stress-relaxation protocol and the obtained data was fit to the standard linear solid viscoelastic material mathematical model to demonstrate a relationship between increased in situ mineralization and the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. Cell proliferation was constant over the 21 day period. ALP activity and calcium concentration significantly increased at day 14 and 21 as compared to PN-COL -osteo with undifferentiated osteoblast progenitor cells. Furthermore, at day 21 EDS, SEM and von Kossa histological staining confirmed mineralized matrix formation within the PN-COL scaffolds. After 21 days, compressive modulus, peak stress, and equilibrium stress demonstrate significant increases of 3.4-fold, 3.3-fold, and 4.0-fold respectively due to in situ mineralization. Viscoelastic

  2. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process.

  3. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  4. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  5. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswenger, Toya N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Gallagher, Neal B. [Eigenvector Research, Inc., Manson, WA, USA; Myers, Tanya L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Tonkyn, Russell G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Su, Yin-Fong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Lewallen, Tricia A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    2017-10-24

    The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species, including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide the

  6. What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.

  7. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  8. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  9. 30 CFR 46.5 - New miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid methods. (d) No later than 90 calendar days after a new miner begins work at the mine— You... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New miner training. 46.5 Section 46.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND...

  10. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true White mineral oil. 172.878 Section 172.878 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.878 White mineral oil. White mineral oil may be safely used in food in accordance..._locations.html. (b) White mineral oil may contain any antioxidant permitted in food by regulations issued in...

  11. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  12. Trace minerals and livestock: not too much not too little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The new approaches of the animal production systems make managing the mineral nutrition a challenge. Versus the excessive, trace mineral supply in intensively managed livestock, well above the physiological requirements, is the no trace mineral supplementation of organic systems, which become highly dependent on trace minerals in the soil. Nowadays, in addition to the animal health perspective, trace mineral nutrition must be environment friendly and allow getting mineral-enriched animal products. We are in a new scenario, where a balance between animal trace mineral needs and limits is needed. This papers focuses on different aspects that will help us to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal-human-environment.

  13. Mineral levels in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manent, Josep; Cuenca, Rafaela; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2014-03-01

    The effects of mineral deficiencies are often sub-clinical, and the importance of mineral status is often underestimated in wildlife populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study that gives reference intervals of hepatic minerals for Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). We determined macro and trace mineral concentrations in liver samples from 100 animals (44 healthy and 56 sick) collected in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain) from 1995 to 2008. After wet digestion, we determined Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, S, and Fe concentrations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Cu, Zn, and Mo concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We observed low hepatic concentrations of Cu in a considerable percentage of chamois, without evidences that these low concentrations increased their susceptibility to infectious diseases. The group of sick chamois had very similar percentage of animals (10/56) with low concentration of Cu (<20 ppm DW) than the group of healthy chamois (9/44). On the other hand, we observed that infectious diseases increased significantly the hepatic concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn, very likely, as a consequence of processes associated with the acute phase inflammatory response. The obtained values of liver mineral levels and their sources of variation, such as sex, age and disease, mostly fall within the range of those described for other ruminants, but possible deficiencies and differences between individuals and populations require further study.

  14. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  15. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Subsurface Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2016-08-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has become a widely used technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater. Although peroxymonosulfate is not a common oxidant source for ISCO, its chemical structure is similar to the ISCO reagents hydrogen peroxide and persulfate, suggesting that peroxymonosulfate may have the beneficial properties of each of these oxidants. Peroxymonosulfate activation in the presence of subsurface minerals was examined as a basis for ISCO, and possible reactive species (hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical, and reductants + nucleophiles) generated in the mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems were investigated. Rates of peroxymonosulfate decomposition and generation rates of reactive species were studied in the presence of three iron oxides, one manganese oxide, and three soil fractions. The iron oxide hematite-activated peroxymonosulfate system most effectively degraded the hydroxyl radical probe nitrobenzene. Reductants + nucleophiles were not generated in mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems. Use of the probe compound anisole in conjunction with scavengers demonstrated that both sulfate radical and hydroxyl radical are generated in mineral-activated peroxymonosulfate systems. In order to confirm the activation of peroxymonosulfate by subsurface minerals, one natural soil and associated two soil fractions were evaluated as peroxymonosulfate catalysts. The natural soil did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants; however, the soil organic matter was found to promote the generation of reductants + nucleophiles. The results of this research show that peroxymonosulfate has potential as an oxidant source for ISCO applications, and would be most effective in treating halogenated contaminants when soil organic matter is present in the subsurface.

  16. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  17. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  18. Niger Republic mineral planning (part five): recommendations and suggestions for the developement of mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, A.

    1986-06-01

    The mineral planning present a comprehensive program of prospecting in order to increase mineral industry sector participation to the economc development of the country. Subjects taken in consideration in this volume are: setting up structural and technical means; projects proposal; summary of projects, financial cost estimation and proposals for activities forward looking calendar [fr

  19. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  20. Mineralization/Anti-Mineralization Networks in the Skin and Vascular Connective Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in ...

  1. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  2. 30 CFR 206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas. 206.153... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.153 Valuation standards—processed gas. (a)(1) This section applies to the valuation of all gas that is processed by the lessee and any other gas production to which...

  3. 30 CFR 206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 206.152... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.152 Valuation standards—unprocessed gas. (a)(1) This section applies to the valuation of all gas that is not processed and all gas that is processed but is sold or...

  4. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Provision of a feed ration sufficient to meet nutritional requirements, including vitamins, minerals... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain... appropriate housing, pasture conditions, and sanitation practices to minimize the occurrence and spread of...

  5. Minerals from Macedonia. VI. Separation and identification of some sulfide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makreski, Petre; Jovanovski, Gligor; Stefov, Viktor; Mincheva-Shukarova, Biljana; Kaitner, Branko; Boev, Blazho

    2001-01-01

    Among the rich ore deposits present in Macedonia, the sulfide minerals are being the mostly exploited ones. Some of these minerals appear as well formed single crystal species in the nature, but often some other mineral forms accompany them. The difficulties connected with the selection, separation, purification, identification and characterization of several sulfide minerals (galena, PbS; sphaleritelwurtzite (Zn,Fe)S; pyrite, FeS 2 ; chalcopyrite, CuFeS 2 ) from various localities (Sasa, Buchim, Zletovo, Toranica) were discussed. Identification was based on the comparison of our results (obtained by use of the infrared and Raman vibrational spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction) with the corresponding literature data for the analogous mineral species originating all over the world. (Original)

  6. Iron Sulfide Minerals Record Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Anoxic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, A.; Gartman, A.; Cosmidis, J.; Clarke, D. R.; Girguis, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The precipitation of most minerals in low-temperature environments on Earth is directly or indirectly influenced by the presence of organic substances and/or microbial biomass. Notably, the influence of microorganisms on the formation of Mn and Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides at the surface of the Earth has been well characterized (Chan et al., 2011; Estes et al., 2017). However, an oxygenated atmosphere is a unique feature of planet Earth. It is therefore critical for the search of life on other planetary bodies to characterize microbe-mineral interactions that form in anoxic conditions. Here we explore the role of microorganisms on the formation of iron sulfide minerals, which form under anoxic conditions. On modern Earth, sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are the major source of dissolved sulfide in low-temperature sedimentary environments. We experimentally demonstrate that SRM play a role in the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals by acting as organic templates. The physical characteristics of the resulting minerals are different from those formed under abiotic conditions. Moreover, upon forming, iron sulfide minerals become associated with organic carbon, producing a potential organo-mineral signature. We also evaluate how the presence of various organic substances affect the formation of abiotic minerals and how this could produce false biosignatures that could be mistaken as biogenic minerals. Chan, C.S., Fakra, S.C., Emerson, D., Fleming, E.J. and Edwards, K.J. (2011) Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation. Isme Journal 5, 717-727. Estes, E.R., Andeer, P.F., Nordlund, D., Wankel, S.D. and Hansel, C.M. (2017) Biogenic manganese oxides as reservoirs of organic carbon and proteins in terrestrial and marine environments. Geobiology 15, 158-172.

  7. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  8. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Nordi, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...... resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing ofmaterial in the central part...... of the fjord. Thiswas supported by the fact that themeasured benthic mineralization rate – in contrast to most investigations – actually increased with increasing water depth. In August,whenmineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2mmolm−2...

  9. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent

  10. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic microscopy application in artificial minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L E.

    1995-07-01

    One of the uses of electronic microscopy in combination with the analysis microprobe EDAX is to characterize the properties of the minerals. The technique consist of studying the chemical composition by elements or by oxides of particles which can be enlarged successfully up to 100000x. With the help of the optical microscope one is able to determine the textual characteristics, the form, cleavage and other cristallographic properties which, combined with microprobe analysis enable one to determine its classification. The industrial processes which use ovens usually have problems due to the formation of impurities, spots and abnormal aspects which are reflected in a lower quality of the final material produced. These types of defects appear in minerals which are made in laboratories; knowing the natural minerals one can exercise a better quality control since this permits to know the behaviour of the raw material at a particular temperature and its reactions depending on the additives used

  13. Standardization and the European Standards Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Orviska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardization is a relatively neglected aspect of the EU regulatory process and yet it is fundamental to that process and arguably has recently been the key vehicle in making the single market an economic reality. Yet the key standardization bodies in the EU, the ESOs, are scarcely known to the public and seldom discussed in the literature. In this article we redress this imbalance, arguing that standardization and integration are closely related concepts. We also argue that the ESOs have developed a degree of autonomy in expanding the boundaries of standardization and even in developing their own links with the rest of the world. Recent proposals put forward by the European Commission can be seen as an attempt to reduce that autonomy. These proposals emphasize the speed of, and stakeholder involvement in, standards production, which we further suggest are somewhat conflicting aims.

  14. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S.; Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L.; Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana; Preoteasa, E. A.; Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M.

    2016-03-01

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. "mineral age" of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  15. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S. [Departamento Anatomía Patológica, University of Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L. [IREC, Sección Albacete (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete (Spain); Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Preoteasa, E.A., E-mail: eugenpreoteasa@gmail.com [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. “mineral age” of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  16. Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s and World’s use of energy and minerals is expected to grow, driving the demand for scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. The importance of environmental stewardship and human health in sustainable growth emphasizes the need for a broader understanding of energy and mineral resources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a world leader in conducting research needed to address these challenges and to provide a scientific foundation for policy and decisionmaking with respect to resource use, sustainability, environmental protection, and an adaptive resource management approach.

  17. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  18. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paker N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most DXA (dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry manufacturers are not able to provide specific reference values for their equipment yet. The mean bone mineral density can vary among different populations.The aim of this study was to identify local reference values from a group of Turkish women living in Istanbul, in order to compare with the results obtained from other countries. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm, and total body in 205 healthy women between ages 20–79. They are all residents in Istanbul. Bone mineral density measurement was performed by DXA equipment. All measurements were made by an experienced technician in our hospital, using the same DXA equipment. Subjects enrolled in the study also filled in a questionnaire before the test.The mean age at menopause was 46.29 (± 14.28 years. Peak bone mineral density values were obtained in the 20–39 year age group when measured at the ultradistal radius, however, peak values were in the 30–39 age group when measurements were made at other sites. The number of women who had bone loss was higher with the forearm measurements compared to measurements made from the spine and femur. Bone mineral density values measured from the spine, hip, and forearm in our study group were lower than the values from American and European women, on the other hand, total body bone mineral density values from our group were higher than the values reported from western countries. Bone mass from different populations varies due to genetic and geographical factors. We, therefore, suggest that each country should use their localized reference values for bone mineral density measurement.

  20. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF MINERAL WOOL SLABS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal insulation materials is an effective method to create an insulating envelope of a building, as well as to reduce energy costs and increase the durability of building structures. The properties of stone wool products and their operational durability is largely determined by the conditions of formation of the mineral wool carpet, uniform distribution of binder and its curing and the heat treatment conditions. Most domestic technologies are aimed at the production of mineral wool products with volume-oriented structure, which is formed using special units: spreader and corrugator placed in a production line. The next step to obtain the optimum structures is the production of dual density slabs. The denser upper layer receives mechanical loads caused by the operating conditions; the lower, less dense, but more thick layer performs the main function - insulation. The dual density slabs are produced on standard lines supplemented with a special unit, which is located in front of the heat treatment camera. Optimization of heat treatment parameters and prediction of the properties of materials is performed using software package.

  1. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José

    2014-05-01

    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  2. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  3. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  4. Biodisponibilidad mineral de menús escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    La biodisponibilidad mineral se define como el porcentaje de mineral inicialmente presente en un alimento, comida ó dieta que es absorbido y utilizado para una función fisiológica correcta y está condicionada por diversos factores de tipo fisiológico y dietético. Teniendo en cuenta la enorme importancia del calcio, hierro, zinc y cobre en la nutrición infantil, así como el creciente consumo por parte de la población escolar española de comidas fuera del hogar, y en concreto en el comedor esco...

  5. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  6. Mineral exploitation and development in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    using immigrant and migrant labourers that work intensively while living in temporary quarters. The historic experiences of Greenland tell that a different, slower exploitation of mineral resources may contribute to social improvements and competence building thereby providing long-term improvements...... for the Greenlandic society. This point to a need for plans and the organisation of mineral exploitations that operate based on coupling local settlements and resources with mining and other forms of activities. This demands new perspectives on the content of social impact assessments as well as new criteria...

  7. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  8. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  9. SciMiner: web-based literature mining tool for target identification and functional enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Schuyler, Adam D; States, David J; Feldman, Eva L

    2009-03-15

    SciMiner is a web-based literature mining and functional analysis tool that identifies genes and proteins using a context specific analysis of MEDLINE abstracts and full texts. SciMiner accepts a free text query (PubMed Entrez search) or a list of PubMed identifiers as input. SciMiner uses both regular expression patterns and dictionaries of gene symbols and names compiled from multiple sources. Ambiguous acronyms are resolved by a scoring scheme based on the co-occurrence of acronyms and corresponding description terms, which incorporates optional user-defined filters. Functional enrichment analyses are used to identify highly relevant targets (genes and proteins), GO (Gene Ontology) terms, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, pathways and protein-protein interaction networks by comparing identified targets from one search result with those from other searches or to the full HGNC [HUGO (Human Genome Organization) Gene Nomenclature Committee] gene set. The performance of gene/protein name identification was evaluated using the BioCreAtIvE (Critical Assessment of Information Extraction systems in Biology) version 2 (Year 2006) Gene Normalization Task as a gold standard. SciMiner achieved 87.1% recall, 71.3% precision and 75.8% F-measure. SciMiner's literature mining performance coupled with functional enrichment analyses provides an efficient platform for retrieval and summary of rich biological information from corpora of users' interests. http://jdrf.neurology.med.umich.edu/SciMiner/. A server version of the SciMiner is also available for download and enables users to utilize their institution's journal subscriptions. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Drubay, D.; Ancelet, S.; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France). Direction Sante

    2015-08-15

    The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models. The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays. Conclusions The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

  11. Inclusion of Yucca schidigera and zeolite in dog feed: influence on mineral excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding Yucca schidigera and zeolite (Clinoptilolite to feed (super premium and standard for adult dogs on the apparent indigestibility coefficient of minerals. In the first assessment, 21 dogs were used, with average weight of 12.5kg±1.46 in seven treatments in two periods (super premium diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 125, 250, 375ppm Yucca schidigera and 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% zeolite. The second assessment was conducted with standard feed, using 21 experimental plots distributed in three treatments (standard diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 375ppm of Yucca schidigera and 1.0% zeolite. The additives did not affect the acceptability of feed and fecal characteristics in both assessments (P>0.05. With the exception of calcium, no minerals were affected by the inclusion of additives (P>0.05 in the experiment with super premium feed. In the assessment with standard feed, calcium as phosphorus and magnesium presented decreased excretion (P<0.05 with the inclusion of additives. It is possible to conclude that the inclusion of additives in the tested concentrations may interfere with the excretion of some minerals in the diet.

  12. Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaş, Efe; Çubukçu, H. Evren; Artuner, Harun

    2014-05-01

    Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks. Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc.) and the incident electron beam (accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size etc.) control the produced characteristic X-ray, which in turn affect the elemental analyses. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data. Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets. A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz), comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected. Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of 240 reference and 200 test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions. The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  14. Quantitative determination of minerals in Nevada Test Site samples by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1983-07-01

    The external standard intensity ratio technique has been developed into a routine procedure for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of Nevada Test Site (NTS) samples by x-ray diffraction. This technique used ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from the same run which eliminates many possible errors. Constants have been determined for each of thirteen minerals commonly found in NTS samples - quartz, montmorillonite, illite, clinoptilolite, cristobalite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, hornblende, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite, and amorphous glass. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of quartz are used to calculate sample composition. The technique has been tested on samples with three to eleven components representative of geologic environments at NTS, and is accurate to 7.0 wt % of the total sample. The minimum amount of each of these minerals detectable by x-ray diffraction has also been determined. QUANTS is a computer code that calculates mineral contents and produces a report sheet. Constants for minerals in NTS samples other than those listed above can easily be determined, and added to QUANTS at any time

  15. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Buchet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM, or

  16. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarek, Saida; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Magne, David; Do, Le Duy; Bandorowicz-Pikula, Joanna; Pikula, Slawomir; Buchet, René

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM), or participate in

  17. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  19. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  20. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  1. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  2. Study on Standard Fatigue Vehicle Load Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Li, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    Based on the measured data of truck from three artery expressways in Guangdong Province, the statistical analysis of truck weight was conducted according to axle number. The standard fatigue vehicle model applied to industrial areas in the middle and late was obtained, which adopted equivalence damage principle, Miner linear accumulation law, water discharge method and damage ratio theory. Compared with the fatigue vehicle model Specified by the current bridge design code, the proposed model has better applicability. It is of certain reference value for the fatigue design of bridge in China.

  3. Bismuth-silver mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth-silver mineralization attendant to gold mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence has been studied in detail. Bi-Ag mineralization is connected with diorite porphyry dykes, which cut volcanic-sedimentary Lopian complexes of the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt – hornblendite and actinolite-chlorite amphibolites, biotite and bi-micaceous gneisses. Distribution of Bi-Ag mineralization similar to gold mineralization is controlled by 80 m thick zone of silicification. Bi minerals are found in brecciated diorite porphyry. Bismuth-silver mineralization includes native metals (bismuth, electrum, silver, tellurides (hedleyite, hessite, selenides (ikunolite, sulfides and sulfosalts of Bi and Ag (matildite, lillianite, eckerite, jalpaite, prustite, acanthite, a few undiagnosed minerals. All Bi and Ag minerals associate with galena. Composition of mineralization evolved from early to late stages of development, depending on intensity of rock alteration. The earliest Bi-Ag minerals were native bismuth and hedleyite formed dissemination in galena, and electrum with 30-45 mass.% Au. Later native bismuth was partly substituted by silver and bismuth sulfosalts and bismuth sulfides. The latest minerals were low-temperature silver sulfides eckerite, jalpaite, and acanthite, which were noted only in the most intensively altered rocks. As soon as the process of formation of Bi-Ag mineralization is the same as formation of gold, findings of bismuth-silver mineralization can serve as a positive exploration sign for gold in the region.

  4. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  5. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  6. Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Excess lung cancer has been demonstrated in many groups of underground miners exposed to radon, including uranium miners and those mining other substances in radon-contaminated mines. In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980s, but occupational exposure to radon progeny remains a concern for many other types of underground miners and other underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues, with documented production in Canada, South Africa and other African countries, and Australia. Thus, radon in underground mines remains a significant occupational hazard as the end of the twentieth century approaches.39 references

  7. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  8. Heavy mineral potential of Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, J.; Oxenford, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    There are three large scale production operations in the Athabasca oil sands: (1) Syncrude, a surface mining plant that has been operating since 1978 at a current synthetic oil production rate of over 205,000 barrels per day, (2) the Suncor operation, also a surface mining plant, in operation since 1967 and producing about 80,000 barrels per day of synthetic oil and (3) Esso`s Cold Lake operation, an in-situ operation that extracts the oil from the deposits in the ground and produces about 95,000 barrels per day of bitumen. The presence of heavy metals in the Athabasca oil sands was discussed, emphasizing current trends in the heavy mineral industry and various conditions and options for the development of this resource. The typical heavy minerals include magnetite, ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, zircon, monazite, sillimanite, kyanite, and garnet. Several potentially attractive investment options exist to develop this byproduct of oil sands mining. The potential impact on the heavy mineral industry that may result from the development of heavy minerals from oil sands was also explored. 23 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, G.

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po as well as 238 U and 234 U in Austrian mineral waters were measured and the doses to the public were calculated. Radium isotopes (and 210 Pb), 210 Po and uranium isotopes are isolated from the sample and measured by LSC and α-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. 75 FR 58330 - Minerals Management: General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Part 3000 Minerals Management: General CFR Correction In Title 43 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1000 to End, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 331, in ] Sec...

  11. Mineral micronutrient density characterization using energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Clustered-Bar-Graphing test was used to obtain Ca, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn as variation-picking elements which were turned into MRS X-variables upon which fruit species mineral-density variation was determined. Significant (p < 0.05) FMDVAR x MRS and phyto-region x FMDVAR interactions were detected. Rhus spp had ...

  12. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state

  16. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  17. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  18. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  19. Provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral analysis of part of Agbaja-Lokoja formation, Bida basin, NW Nigeria. ... Abundance of feldspathic grains is a reflection of its closeness to the provenance which is perhaps located in the north central basement domain on account of the paleocurrent azimuth trend ...

  20. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of protein supplement, valuable minerals and dietary antioxidants. They can serve as scavengers of free radicals reported to be associated with occurrence of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Peppers, phytochemicals, Nutritional composition, Free radicals, Diseases ...

  1. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  2. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  3. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  4. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  5. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  6. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of

  7. Climatic control on clay mineral formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many physico-chemical variables like rock-type,climate,topography and exposure age affect weathering environments.In the present study,an attempt is made to understand how the nature of clay minerals formed due to weathering differs in tropical regions receiving high and low rainfall. Clay mineralogy of weathering pro ...

  8. Risk of leukemia in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation epidemiological studies among uranium miners have evidenced lung cancer risk in relation to radon exposure is presented. Although leukemia is especially sensitive to induction by radiation, the assessment of leukemia risk in exposed populations is more complex as its incidence is substantially (more than 30 times) lower than that of lung cancer. So far, the significant association among uranium miners has been observed in studies of Czech uranium miners. The assessment of the risk is complex because the radiation risk in mines involves exposure to radon, external gamma radiation, and exposure to airborne long lived radionuclides arising from uranium ore dust. In contrast to radon measurements, the other two components were monitored much later in uranium mines. Recent follow-up of a Czech study of 10 000 uranium miners have resulted in 42 leukemia cases. The risk is evaluated in relation to cumulated equivalent doses from radon, long lived radionuclides, and external gamma. The mean equivalent doses to the red bone marrow in the entire study are 35 mSv from radon, 46 mSv from external gamma radiation, and 106 mSv from long lived radionuclides. Mean doses among leukemia cases are nearly twice. The excess relative risk per Sv (ERR/Sv) in this study 3.75 is statistically significant (p=0.008). This value is consistent with the leukemia risk observed in the Life Span Study among Japanese survivors of A bombing (ERR/Sv = 4). (author)

  9. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... at the Plant Biology and Biotechnology Department .... Cocaine, a drug derived from an alkaloid is a local anaesthetic central nervous stimulant (Leung, 1980). Thus, presence of alkaloids in the tuber explains its use as ...

  10. Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclellan, I. M.; Kaizer, J. L.; McCulloch, P. D.; Ratcliffe, R.; Wenning, A. S. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Activities of the Nova Scotia Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles are described, including statistical information about staking and mining activity in the province during 1999. In terms of activities, the Registry receives applications and issues licenses and leases for mineral and petroleum rights, receives statements of exploration expenditures and assessment reports that pertain to renewal of licenses and leases, maintains maps showing the disposition of lands under license or lease, and maintains a system of prospector registration. In addition, the Registry processes applications for underground gas storage rights and treasure trove rights and maintains a database of information concerning production and employment in Nova Scotia mines and quarries. At the end 1999 there were 230,660 hectares under exploration licence. Exploration expenditures, including engineering, economic and feasibility studies during 1999 totalled $4.2 million, mostly by junior mining companies searching for industrial mineral commodities. Mining activity during 1999 generated revenues of $340 million. Coal production dropped by 25 per cent, due mainly to the closure of the Phalen Mine. Gypsum production was up to 7.9 million tonnes; shipments of cement, barite and clay products also increased during 1999; salt production remained unchanged from 1998 with 842,000 tonnes. Production of construction aggregates totalled 10.6 million tonnes, down slightly from the year before. Mineral industry employment was roughly 2,500 persons, down by 24 per cent from 1998 levels, due primarily to the closure of the Phalen Mine.

  11. International strategic mineral issues summary report: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antony B.T.; Sinclair, W. David; Amey, Earle B.

    1998-01-01

    Scheelite and wolframite are the principal minerals currently mined for tungsten. Both occur in hard-rock deposits; wolframite is also recovered from placer deposits. Most current mine production of tungsten is from vein/stockwork, skarn, porphyry, and strata-bound deposits. Minor amounts are produced from disseminated, pegmatite, breccia, and placer deposits.

  12. -Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Mineral Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Brill, Marcel

    2016-11-08

    We have synthesized and characterized new gold-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes derived from the deprotonation of mineral acids. The use of sulfuric acid was a particularly interesting case. These complexes were tested in known gold-catalyzed reactions, such as the hydration of alkynes and the Meyer–Schuster rearrangement. They proved to be highly efficient in both reactions.

  13. Bacteriological, physicochemical and mineral studies on Awedele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    physicochemical quality of the water samples was also assessed. The mineral content of the adjacent soil samples was also determined. Antibiotic resistance among isolated Enterococcus species was highest to penicillin as all isolates demonstrated complete resistance to the antibiotics. Prevalence of gentamycin-.

  14. Biaxial phases in mineral liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroege, G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074293001

    2013-01-01

    A review is given of liquid crystals formed in colloidal dispersions, in particular those consisting of mineral particles. Starting with the historical development and early theory, the characteristic properties related to the colloidal nature of this type of liquid crystals are discussed. The

  15. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Manzoni; Robert B. Jackson; John A. Trofymow; Amilcare Porporato

    2008-01-01

    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of ~2800 observations to show...

  16. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In

  17. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... The problem is that these countries are unable to exercise sufficient control over the development of their resources: "There are some aberrations in mining activity: few economic benefits, toxic spills, mineral resources used to fuel armed conflict... and these findings are now known throughout the world," ...

  18. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  19. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  20. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available for irrigation as well as for urban and indus¬trial use. A mathematical simulation model is being developed for the Great Fish and Sundays River systems in the Eastern Cape to predict the consequences of different mineralization processes in terms of salt...

  1. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  2. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  3. On dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of urnaium vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of contineous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis [ru

  4. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more expensive protein sources in ruminant rations. (Anonymous, 1960; Bistrop, Wilke, Nash, Nell, Mac-. Donald, Compaan, Grobler & Kingman, l97l; van der. Westhuizen & Hugo, 1972 a,b) though the high mineral content of manure is often neglected. Poultry manure can be sold in Soutli Africa as an animal food only if it ...

  5. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  6. What are the health costs of uranium mining? A case study of miners in Grants, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A

    2014-10-01

    Uranium mining is associated with lung cancer and other health problems among miners. Health impacts are related with miner exposure to radon gas progeny. This study estimates the health costs of excess lung cancer mortality among uranium miners in the largest uranium-producing district in the USA, centered in Grants, New Mexico. Lung cancer mortality rates on miners were used to estimate excess mortality and years of life lost (YLL) among the miner population in Grants from 1955 to 2005. A cost analysis was performed to estimate direct (medical) and indirect (premature mortality) health costs. Total health costs ranged from $2·2 million to $7·7 million per excess death. This amounts to between $22·4 million and $165·8 million in annual health costs over the 1955-1990 mining period. Annual exposure-related lung cancer mortality was estimated at 2185·4 miners per 100 000, with a range of 1419·8-2974·3 per 100 000. Given renewed interest in uranium worldwide, results suggest a re-evaluation of radon exposure standards and inclusion of miner long-term health into mining planning decisions.

  7. Quantifying the effect of soil moisture on the aerobic microbial mineralization of selected pesticides in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, Reiner; Becher, Hans Heinrich; Dörfler, Ulrike; Gayler, Sebastian; Grundmann, Sabine; Hartmann, Hans Peter; Ruoss, Jürgen

    2006-05-15

    A standardized quantitative approach was developed to reliably elucidate the effect of increasing soil moisture on pesticide mineralization. The mineralization of three aerobically degradable and chemically different 14C-labeled pesticides (isoproturon, benazolin-ethyl, and glyphosate) was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory at an identical soil density of 1.3 g cm(-3). The agricultural soils used are characterized by (i) large variations in soil texture (sand content 4-88%) and organic matter content (0.97-2.70% org. C), (ii) fairly diverse soil-water retention curves, and (iii) differing pH values. We quantified the effect of soil moisture on mineralization of pesticides and found that (i) at soil water potential mineralization occurred; (ii) a linear correlation (P soil moisture (within a soil water potential range of -20 and -0.015 MPa), and increased relative pesticide mineralization; (iii) optimum pesticide mineralization was obtained at a soil water potential of -0.015 MPa, and (iv) when soil moisture approximated water holding capacity, pesticide mineralization was considerably reduced. As both selected pesticides and soils varied to a large degree, we propose that the correlation observed in this study may be also valid in the case of aerobic degradation of other native and artificial organic compounds in soils.

  8. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  9. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  10. Organic Minerals in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S.; Biondi, E.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Models for the origin of life are plagued by fundamental problems that, due to their difficulty, are called "paradoxes". One of these, known to anyone who has ever worked in a kitchen, is that organics, when given energy and left to itself, does not generate life. Rather, organics devolve to give tarry mixtures that become increasingly complex and increasingly less likely to support life (like asphalt). However, even if those mixtures escape devolution to create something useful for Darwinism, like building blocks for RNA, the water in which they must work is corrosive, leading to their destruction. Even if RNA is created, it is itself easily degraded. One current trend to manage those paradoxes turns to minerals in environments on early Earth. Inorganic minerals containing borate have now been shown to prevent the destruction of ribose (the R in RNA) and other carbohydrates essential for early Earth. Evaporite desert basins supplied with aqueous runoff from tourmaline-containing basalts are ideal environments for forming borate minerals, especially if they are made alkaline by serpentinizing peridotite. In the evaporite environments, drying cycles mitigate the destructive capability of water. Further, we have shown that phosphate is segregated from calcium (avoiding formation of relatively unreacted apatites) if magnesium and borate are present. Further, a common magnesium borophosphate (luneburgite) not only makes phosphate available for prebiotic synthesis, but selectively phosphorylates RNA building blocks as it releases borate to stabilize them against further degradation. Finally, a variety of minerals bind and stabilize RNA itself. Research in this area has also discovered organic minerals that might have been relevant to the origins of life on Earth. Such minerals are scarce on Earth today, since they are easily consumed by microbial communities. However, on a prebiotic Earth, organic minerals could have stored organic species as intermediates towards our

  11. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  12. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  13. Production of mineral ash-wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micevic, Z.; Djekic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The project entitled 'Production of Mineral Ash-Wool' presents a new technology of possible use of the fly ash, generated as a waste product from the fossil fueled power plants, as a basic raw material for manufacturing of different products from a new mineral ash-wool. The wide area of mineral ash-wool application (civil engineering, industry, power generation, etc.) and the advantages of this new technology (important raw material obtained free of charge, substitution of expensive silicate stone, use of electric energy for melting instead for coke, vicinity of factory location close to the fossil fueled power plant, lower product price, reduction of environmental pollution, etc.) have resulted in the performance of the bench scale tests. Positive results have been obtained, as a good initial base for the realization of this project. The named study as an detailed analysis has been carried out for the assessment of: supply and sales market, analysis of possible and selection of an optimal location of the factory in the frame of fossil fueled power plant 'Kosovo', selection of the production capacity and alternative preliminary technical designs of the factory for the mineral ash-wool production. For the studied alternatives, specifications and capital investments evaluations for equipment and works (mechanical, civil engineering and electromechanical part) have been made as well as assessments of production costs. Based on the performed economical and financial analyses, as well as the sensitivity analyses one could be concluded that the investments in the factory for the mineral ash-wool production is highly economically acceptable. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  14. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barcellos, E. de.

    1985-08-01

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author) [pt

  15. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  16. Physicochemical characterization of mineral (iron/zinc) bound caseinate and their mineral uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-08-15

    Milk proteins (especially caseins) are widely accepted as good vehicle for the delivery of various bioactive compounds including minerals. Succinylation is one of the most acceptable chemical modification techniques to enhance the mineral binding ability of caseins. Addition of minerals to succinylated proteins may alter their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Physicochemical characteristics of succinylated sodium caseinate (S.NaCN)-mineral (iron/zinc) complexes were elucidated. Chromatographic behaviour and fluorescence intensity confirmed the structural modification of S.NaCN upon binding with minerals. The bound mineral from protein complexes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioavailability (mineral uptake) than mineral salts in Caco-2 cells. Also, iron bound S.NaCN showed higher cellular ferritin formation than iron in its free form. These mineral bound protein complexes with improved bioavailability could safely replace inorganic fortificants in various functional food formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  18. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  19. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  20. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  1. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  2. Scientific and Engineering Progress in CO2 Mineralization Using Industrial Waste and Natural Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, sustainably utilizing natural mineral resources, and dealing with industrial waste offer challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. The latest advances in CO2 mineralization technology involving natural minerals and industrial waste are summarized in this paper, with great emphasis on the advancement of fundamental science, economic evaluation, and engineering applications. We discuss several leading large-scale CO2 mineralization methodologies from a technical and engineering-science perspective. For each technology option, we give an overview of the technical parameters, reaction pathway, reactivity, procedural scheme, and laboratorial and pilot devices. Furthermore, we present a discussion of each technology based on experimental results and the literature. Finally, current gaps in knowledge are identified in the conclusion, and an overview of the challenges and opportunities for future research in this field is provided.

  3. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  4. Chemical analysis of mineral water available in the local markets of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Zaib, S.; Sher, N.; Tariq, S.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analysis of mineral water of different companies was carried out asses the quality of mineral water available in the local market. The results were compared with WHO standards. Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ were determined with the help of flame emissions spectrophotometer while Cl/sup 1/, HCO/sub 3/, Ca/sup +2/ and Mg/sup +2/ were determined by titrimetric methods. The physical parameters such as pH, EC, and TDS were determined by pH meter, EC meter and TDS meter respectively. It was observed that about 80 percentage of the sample obey the WHO standards regarding Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ whereas only 20 percentage samples fall within the permissible limit regarding Cl/sup -/ ions. The concentration of Ca/sup +2/ in all the sample exceeds the permissible limits. It was concluded that some brands need to improve their quality. (author)

  5. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  6. Wettability characteristics of a sample of minerals: influence of mineral type, particle size and chemical weathering

    OpenAIRE

    de Gomis, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of mineral properties has been thoroughly studied since they have numerous applications in several industrial fields, from mining, to optics and material science. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the wettability of minerals as a surface property. This property has a great importance in terms of Earth’s shallow surface processes such as water infiltration, soil water retention, erosion or landslides. This dissertation sets out a research proposal to examin...

  7. Expression of mineralization markers during pulp response to biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalto é, Mariana O.; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley G.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Gatón Hernández, Patrícia; Rossi, Andiara de; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the cell viability of dental pulp cells treated with Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and the in vitro and in vivo expression of mineralization markers induced by the 2 materials. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells isolated from 6 permanent teeth were stimulated with Biodentine and MTA extracts. Cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromid...

  8. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  9. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  10. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  11. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  12. [Ophthalmology and standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, R

    1989-01-01

    The standards are the references for quality and safety of materials, instruments and devices in ophtalmological use. The French standardisation association, "Association Française de Normalisation" (AFNOR), drafts his standards in connection with the concerned professionals. The ophthalmologists are concerned by standards of diagnostic and therapeutic instruments, intraocular and orbital implants, contact lenses, spectacle frames and glasses, and ocular protectors.

  13. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  14. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  15. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for administering and interpreting film-based chest radiographs. This final rule updates the Department's existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  16. A world of minerals in your mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jane E.; Ober, Joyce A.; Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    Mobile phones and other high-technology communications devices could not exist without mineral commodities. More than one-half of all components in a mobile device—including its electronics, display, battery, speakers, and more—are made from mined and semiprocessed materials (mineral commodities). Some mineral commodities can be recovered as byproducts during the production and processing of other commodities. As an example, bauxite is mined for its aluminum content, but gallium is recovered during the aluminum production process. The images show the ore minerals (sources) of some mineral commodities that are used to make components of a mobile device. On the reverse side, the map and table depict the major source countries producing these mineral commodities along with how these commodities are used in mobile devices. For more information on minerals, visit http://minerals.usgs.gov.

  17. Situation on the market of mineral fertilizers in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zalewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes international and domestic supply-demand situation on the market of mineral fertilizers. The article also analyses factors which had an influence on the increase of mineral fertilizers prices.

  18. Deriving optimal exploration target zones on mineral prospectivity maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. The methodology is demonstrated in the Rodalquilar mineral district in Spain. A subset of known...

  19. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  20. Mineral Resource Points, US EPA Region 9, 2006, USGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...