WorldWideScience

Sample records for ba rift vietnam

  1. A Middle-Upper Miocene fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau;

    2007-01-01

    The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... as carrier beds, whereas the braided fluvial sandstones and conglomerates along the graben margins may form reservoirs. The Krong Pa graben thus contains oil-prone lacustrine source rocks, effective conduits for generated hydrocarbons and reservoir sandstones side-sealed by the graben faults toward...

  2. Rifted Structure of the Vietnam Continental Margin Near the South China Sea Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, I. D.; Fyhn, M. B.; Boldreel, L. O.; Nielsen, L. H.; Duc, N. A.; Huyen, N. T.; Thang, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    The extinct spreading center of the South China Sea intersects the continental margin off Vietnam, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of these two features. As part of a collaborative project between the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, the University of Copenhagen and the Vietnam Petroleum Institute, the crustal structure of this area has been investigated by the use of seismic reflection profiles, to provide control on the sedimentary and basement structure, combined with modelling of gravity data from global satellite altimetry, to constrain the crustal thickness. A complex pattern of rifting is seen, which may be ascribed to the complex stress fields of the propagating rift axis, together with an apparent progression in structure. In the more oceanic area, the rifting is relatively sharp, with fairly rapid crustal thnning of about 10 km. Towards the continent, in the region of the tip of the rift axis, the crustal thinning is less, around 5-7 km, and takes place over a greater distance. In the absence of data on the deep crustal structure it is not possible to determine the absolute crustal thickness with certainty, but the gravity modelling suggests that the pre-existing crust was no more than 20 km thick, having been thinned in earlier stages of formation of the South China Sea. A preliminary analysis of the isostatic balance along the various transects was inconclusive but suggests that the sedimentary sequences are largely isostatically compensated, rather than being supported by lithospheric rigidity. Detailed modelling of the rifting and subsidence may provide further insight into the processes that occur when an oceanic spreading center intersects and propagates into a continental margin.

  3. A new species of Eustigma (Hamamelidaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama,Hironori; Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Tran, Hop; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Naiki, Akiyo; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hamamelidaceae, Eustigma honbaense H.Toyama, Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov., is described from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam. This species is similar to Eustigma oblongifolium Gardner & Champ., but differs from it in having entire leaves, longer infructescences, capsules with a longer apical part and seeds with a larger hilum. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration and photographs of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to th...

  4. Goniothalamusflagellistylus Tagane & V. S. Dang (Annonaceae), a new species from Mt. Hon Ba, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Toyama, Hironori; Tran, Hop

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Goniothalamusflagellistylus Tagane & V. S. Dang, sp. nov. from Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Khanh Hoa Province, South Vietnam is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to Goniothalamustortilipetalus M.R.Hend., but distinct in having 308-336 stamens (vs. ca. 170-260) and ca.120 carpels (vs. ca. 50-100) per flower, and Stigma and pseudostyles ca.8.5 mm (vs. 4-4.5 mm) long.

  5. Goniothalamus flagellistylus Tagane & V. S. Dang (Annonaceae, a new species from Mt. Hon Ba, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Tagane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Goniothalamus flagellistylus Tagane & V. S. Dang, sp. nov. from Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Khanh Hoa Province, South Vietnam is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to Goniothalamus tortilipetalus M.R.Hend., but distinct in having 308–336 stamens (vs. ca. 170–260 and ca.120 carpels (vs. ca. 50–100 per flower, and Stigma and pseudostyles ca.8.5 mm (vs. 4–4.5 mm long.

  6. Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Vietnam assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Vietnam perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Vietnam on 1) their views regarding the general environment in ...

  7. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  8. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: 1923-1924: Beginning of use of radioactive sources for cancer treatment in Vietnam (namely in the L'Institut de Radium de L'Indochine, which was founded in Hanoi on 19 October 1923; 1960-1969: Nuclear physics began to be studied in the following education institutions in the country: - University of Natural Sciences (in Hanoi); - Institute of Physics (in Hanoi); - Hanoi University of Technology (in Hanoi); - Saigon University and Nuclear Reactor in Da Lat (South Vietnam). Since the early 1960s, nuclear techniques were applied in Vietnam for searching coal mines and minerals. Since then there were more and more demands in nuclear engineer for industrial applications. According to idea of the first Minister of the Ministry of Higher Education of Vietnam, the Late Prof. Ta Quang Buu, on introducing Nuclear Engineering Education into the country, preparation for establishing the Department of Nuclear Engineering Physics (DONEP) was started at the end of 1967. This process led to the establishment of the DONEP at Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) in 1970. The objectives of nuclear engineering education programme of HUT are as follows: - To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; - To prepare initial engineering manpower for introduction of nuclear energy into Vietnam. The number of students enrolled in the nuclear engineering education programme at HUT was 10-15 people every year during 1970-1990. The period 1990-1999 was the most difficult post-Chernobyl time for nuclear education in the country. During this time, the HUT's DONEP could not enrol any new students to follow its education programme. In order to overcome the severe difficulties in this period, DONEP had to adapt its programme considerably. The education programme of DONEP was adapted by keeping its above mentioned traditional objectives without any changes but successfully realizing a fruitful combination of the field of nuclear engineering and the field of environmental

  9. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  10. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    Full Text Available A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macromorphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy, assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis, determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences. Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  11. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  12. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

      Seismic stratigraphic and structural analyses of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam, based on 2-D seismic data, indicate that the initial rifting began during the latest Cretaceous? or Palaeogene controlled by left-lateral transtension along the East Vietnam Boundary Fault ...

  13. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  14. How Biodiversity Conservation Policy Accelerates Agrarian Differentiation: The Account of an Upland Village in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, W.H.; Xuan To, P.; Mahanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the implementation of Vietnam«SQ»s recent biodiversity conservation policy in Ba Vi National Park has increased the economic value of nature, created sustained conflict, and exacerbated agrarian differentiation in an upland village in northern Vietnam. Increased global and natio

  15. Vietnam nursing in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, Marcia, A

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam as a country is undergoing major changes. Nursing is also experiencing many changes in education and practice. This study evaluated the current status of nursing in Vietnam, the planned direction for chage and the process that is being utilized

  16. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  17. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  18. How Mountains Become Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiter, S. J.; Tetreault, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Rifting often initiates on former continental collision zones. For example, the present-day passive margins of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans formed after continental break-up occurred on relatively young and very old sutures, such as Morocco-Nova Scotia and East Antarctica-Australia, respectively. Rifts may localize on former collision zones for several reasons: orogens are thermally weak because of the increase in heat producing elements in their thicker crustal root, the inherited thrust faults form large-scale heterogeneities, and in the case of young sutures, extensional collapse of the orogen may help initiate rifting. We highlight the impact of collision zone inheritance on continental extension and rifted margin architecture using numerical experiments. We first explicitly prescribe collisional structures in the initial setup, such as increased crustal thickness and inherited thrust faults. Varying the prescribed structures results in different rift to break-up durations and margin widths. Our second series of experiments creates a collision zone through subduction and closure of an ocean. We confirm that post-collisional collapse is not a sufficient trigger for continental rifting and that a change in regional plate motions is required. When extension occurs, the weak former subduction interface and the elevated temperatures in the crustal nappe stack work in tandem as the main deformation localizers for continental rifting. Our experiments show that different approaches of initiating a continental rift result in different dynamics of the crust and mantle, thereby impacting rift geometry, rift to break-up duration, and exhumation of subduction-related sediments and oceanic crust.

  19. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  1. Vietnam Urban Wastewater Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing the challenge of trying to keep pace with increasing environmental pollution associated with rapid urbanization, especially in the larger cities. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has made considerable effort to develop urban sanitation policies, legislations and regulations, and to invest in urban sanitation including wastewater treatment systems. This st...

  2. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  3. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps......This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...

  4. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, Vietnam evolved from `war after war' to an emerging economy with an attractive foreign investment policy and commitment to a liberalized economy. Although the GDP per capita is still considerably lower than in the Asian Tiger economies, and the institutional framework...... still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy......, society, culture, and policies towards foreign investment to inform those considering to invest in Vietnam, and to provide some practical advice....

  5. North America's Midcontinent Rift: when Rift MET Lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Bollmann, T. A.; Wolin, E.; Zhang, H.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Ola, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; Alequabi, G.; Waite, G. P.; Blavascunas, E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Flesch, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.; Moucha, R.; Brown, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rifts are segmented linear depressions, filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks, that form by extension and often evolve into plate boundaries. Flood basalts, a class of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), are broad regions of extensive volcanism due to sublithospheric processes. Typical rifts are not filled with flood basalts, and typical flood basalts are not associated with significant crustal extension and faulting. North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is an unusual combination. Its 3000-km length formed as part of the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian NE South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established, but contains an enormous volume of igneous rocks. MCR volcanics are significantly thicker than other flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift geometry but a LIP's magma volume. Structural modeling of seismic reflection data shows an initial rift phase where flood basalts filled a fault-controlled extending basin, and a postrift phase where volcanics and sediments were deposited in a thermally subsiding basin without associated faulting. The crust thinned during rifting and rethickened during the postrift phase and later compression, yielding the present thicker crust. The coincidence of a rift and LIP yielded the world's largest deposit of native copper. This combination arose when a new rift associated with continental breakup interacted with a mantle plume or anomalously hot or fertile upper mantle. Integration of diverse data types and models will give insight into questions including how the magma source was related to the rifting, how their interaction operated over a long period of rapid plate motion, why the lithospheric mantle below the MCR differs only slightly from its surroundings, how and why extension, volcanism, and compression varied along the rift arms, and how successful seafloor spreading ended the rift phase. Papers

  6. Corporate Governance in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for Asia Private Equity Research Ltd.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (CG) success stories in Vietnam are part of the International Finance Corporation’s ongoing efforts to raise greater awareness of the merits of CG. These success stories in Vietnam can serve as a guiding light for the immediate benefit and long-term value of CG to corporate development. The Law on Enterprise 2005, implemented in July 2006, marked the first introduction...

  7. Customer relationship management in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Chau Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is considered a potential market for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). As the Vietnam economy is booming, especially when Vietnam joined WTO in 2007, along with the economic growth exceed 7.5% every year and potential young labour force, Vietnam economy is developing a miracle, the living standard was increasing significantly which lead Vietnamese consumers very keen on choosing the goods and services. To understand the customer high demand, maximizing the efficiency of marke...

  8. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  9. Evolutionary model of the oblique rift basins- Central African Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenn-Ming; Cheng, I.-Wen; Wu, Jong-Chang

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of oblique-rifting basin is strongly related with the angle (α) between the trend of rift and that of regional major extensional stress. The main purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of geometry and kinematics of structure and tectono-stratigraphy during basin evolution of Central African Rifts (CAS). In this study, we simulated the formation of oblique-rifting basin with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D) and compared the simulation results with the tectonic settings of a series of basin in CAS. CAS started to develop in Early Cretaceous (130Ma) and lasted until the Late Cretaceous (85Ma-80Ma). The following collision between the African and Eurasian plates imposed compressional stress on CAS and folded the strata in the rift basins. Although the characteristics of rift basin formation remain controversial, palinspastic sections constructed in this study show that, in the Early Cretaceous, the rift basins are mainly characterized by normal faults and half-grabens. In the Late Cretaceous, the morphology of the rift basins was altered by large-scaled tectonic compression with the active Borogop Fault of regional scale. Also, en echelon trend of normal faults in the basins were measured and the angles between the trend with that of the rift axes of each basin were demonstrated, indicating that the development of CAS was affected by the regional extensional stress with a dextral component during the rifting process and, therefore, the rift basins were formed by oblique-rifting. In this study, we simulated the oblique-rifting basin model of various α with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D). The main theory of PFC 3D is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), in which parameters are applied to every particle in the models. We applied forces acting on both sides of rift axis, which α are 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° respectively, to simulate basin formation under oblique-rifting process. The study results of simulation

  10. Upstream profitability in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeberg, K.

    1993-12-01

    This report outlines the main characteristics of the petroleum industry in Vietnam. First, it discusses the exploration history and the fiscal regime and concession system for international companies searching for new exploration ventures in the country. Second, it presents an economic analysis of exploration and field development decisions. The analysis is based on a cash flow tax model reflecting the current economic framework. Calculations of upstream profitability are based on typical offshore oil project assumptions. The analysis includes the effects of different levels of exploration risks, tax position and tax agreements. The report also compares fiscal terms in Vietnam and Malaysia and their effect on attractivity. 20 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Rifts in spreading wax layers

    CERN Document Server

    Ragnarsson, R; Santangelo, C D; Bodenschatz, E; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Ford, J Lewis; Santangelo, Christian D; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

  12. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  13. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  14. The Reconcavo Basin reservoirs in transition of the pre-rift and rift phases: new discussion; Os reservatorios da Bacia do Reconcavo na transicao das fases pre-rift e rift: nova discussao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Felipe [Queiroz Galvao Perfuracoes S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borghi, Leonardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The facies analysis of the stratigraphic interval represented by Sergi, Itaparica, and Agua Grande formations (Brotas and Santo Amaro groups) of Reconcavo basin was guided by cores description of the well 1-CAL-1-BA (Caldeirao 1), located in the Northwestern part of the Reconcavo Basin. Sedimentary facies (lithofacies) were described and grouped into four facies association interpreted as fluvial (upper Sergi Fm.), fluvial-lacustrine (Itaparica Fm.), and fluvial-eolian (Agua Grande Fm.) depositional systems; also, forced-regression erosive surfaces (unconformities) and transgressive ones were identified. The analysis of these results points that the upper Sergi Fm. would have subsided as consequence of the early rifting of the basin, creating space for the formation of shallow lake (Itaparica Fm.). This ancient lake undergone several forced regressions due to a continuous early tectonism (rifting), responsible by the sand input into the lake, in a coarsening up cycle topped by the expressive fluvio-eolian system of the Agua Grande Fm. Each forced regression smaller cycle is capped by lake flooding shales. Above this major CU cycle, the intensification of tectonic event subsided the basin and created a deep lake (Candeias Fm.) - the Rift Phase. So, the initial rifting would not have started during a 'Candeias time', but by earlier, in a less intense way. It must be stressed that this interpretation was based solely in only one well, but it's important to keep this new idea in mind for revision or new studies on this interval. (author)

  15. Chinese Commodities and Vietnam Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Last April, with the support of China Machinery Industry Federation and Vietnam Em bassy in China, the Society of Automotive Engineers of CCPIT successfully held "China Famous Brand Auto Vietnam Show". I am informed that the Organizing Committee plans to hold the 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in this November. According to the agenda, this activity will extend from Vietnam to other ASEAN member countries, therefore, it will have a larger scale, a longer route and a richer content. On beha...

  16. Vietnam's Labour Market in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...

  17. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  18. Internet Marketing in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Mai Lan

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is an overview of theoretical marketing, internet marketing, its characteristics and its impact on local environment. Therefore, in this chapter, it also consists of the statement of advantage and disadvantage of applying internet marketing in enterprises, particularly in developing countries. The second chapter describes a general overview of Vietnam country: the background of country’s geography, economy, history of developme...

  19. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia

    Vitale,B

    1974-01-01

    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  20. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  1. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  2. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  3. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of intracratonic rift basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.G.; Derksen, S.J.

    1984-09-01

    Significant world oil reserves have been added in recent years from rift system. Examples of petroliferous rift basins may be found on nearly every major continent. As our understanding of the mechanisms of sedimentation and structure in rift basins grows, more rift systems will be found. With a few notable exceptions, rifts that have been explored in the past are those that formed along continental margins. These contain marine sediments, and the conditions of source rock, sediment type, depositional environment, and structural style are well-known exploration concepts. Intracratonic rift systems containing continental sediments, and also because of the problems perceived to accompany continental sedimentation. A good modern analog is the East African rift system. Several companies have made significant oil discoveries in different components of the Central African rift system. Average daily production for 1982 from the basins associated with the Benue trough was 107.928 BOPD. In the Abu Gabra rift component, where Marathon is currently exploring, Chevron has drilled approximately 60 wells. Nineteen of these were discoveries and tested an average rate per well of 3,500 BOPD. The Abu Gabra rift may contain up to 10 billion bbl of oil. Research indicates that this type of rift system is present in other areas of the world. Ongoing worldwide exploration has shown that intracratonic rift basins have the potential to make a significant contribution to world oil reserves.

  5. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suex (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  6. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suez (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  7. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  8. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from 8 to 15 per park. An assessment of the risk of invasive species was made for three national parks based on an invasive species assessment protocol. Examples of highly invasive species were Chromolaena odorata and Mimosa diplotricha in Cat Ba National Park (island evergreen secondary forest over limestone; Mimosa pigra, Panicum repens and Eichhornia crassipes in Tram Chim National Park (lowland wetland forest dominated by melaleuca; and C. odorata, Mikania micrantha and M. diplotricha in Son Tra Nature Conservation area (peninsula evergreen secondary forest. Strategies to monitor and manage invasive weeds in forests and national parks in Vietnam are outlined.

  9. Rapid spatiotemporal variations in rift structure during development of the Corinth Rift, central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Casey W.; McNeill, Lisa C.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Ford, Mary; Taylor, Brian; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Ferentinos, George; Papatheodorou, George; Leeder, Mike R.; Collier, Richard E. LI.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Kranis, Haralambos

    2016-05-01

    The Corinth Rift, central Greece, enables analysis of early rift development as it is young (marine geophysical data, complemented by onshore data, is used to develop a high-resolution chronostratigraphy and detailed fault history for the offshore Corinth Rift, integrating interpretations and reconciling previous discrepancies. Rift migration and localization of deformation have been significant within the rift since inception. Over the last circa 2 Myr the rift transitioned from a spatially complex rift to a uniform asymmetric rift, but this transition did not occur synchronously along strike. Isochore maps at circa 100 kyr intervals illustrate a change in fault polarity within the short interval circa 620-340 ka, characterized by progressive transfer of activity from major south dipping faults to north dipping faults and southward migration of discrete depocenters at ~30 m/kyr. Since circa 340 ka there has been localization and linkage of the dominant north dipping border fault system along the southern rift margin, demonstrated by lateral growth of discrete depocenters at ~40 m/kyr. A single central depocenter formed by circa 130 ka, indicating full fault linkage. These results indicate that rift localization is progressive (not instantaneous) and can be synchronous once a rift border fault system is established. This study illustrates that development processes within young rifts occur at 100 kyr timescales, including rapid changes in rift symmetry and growth and linkage of major rift faults.

  10. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, H.

    2008-12-01

    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  11. Magmatism in a Cambrian Laurentian Plate Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Evidences of the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen extend over 1000km from about Dallas out to the Uncompahgre Plateau in SW Colorado. The signature of this originally extensional feature can be traced geophysically, and in some places at the present surface, petrologically and temporally, by the presence of mafic rock. It appears to have been the intracontinental third arm of a plume-generated? triple junction which helped to dismember the southern part of Laurentia on the final break-up of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent. Other parts of Laurentia rifted away and are now found in the Precordillera of Argentina. Rift magmatism appears to have been concentrated nearer the plate edge during the breakup. Perhaps as much as 40,000 km3 of mostly subaerial silicic volcanics and shallow-seated granites overlay and filled the top of the rift in the area of SW Oklahoma. The rift fill below the silicic rocks is large, layered mafic complexes and smaller, layered, hydrous gabbros, the whole set appearing as a shallow AMCG complex. Unusually, direct rift sediments are not obvious. Furthermore, silicic and mafic rocks have identical Nd signatures. Finally, about 20 Ma after rifting ceased and later into the Paleozoic during sea incursion, overlying sediments are thickened 4X compared to equivalent units 100's of kms to the rift sides. This rift appears distinct from most modern rifts. Conclusions are 1) This was a hot, narrow rift; 2) Basaltic magmatism , not sedimentation, filled the rift; 3) Magmatic intensity varied along the rift strike; 4) Silicic rocks were generated mostly directly from new mantle-derived basalt liquids through fractionation, not melting of older crustal rocks; 5) Laurentian lithosphere was weak allowing centering of the Early/Middle Paleozoic large "Oklahoma" basin (pre-Anadarko) over the rift.

  12. Classification of the rift zones of venus: Rift valleys and graben belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of rift zones of Venus, their topographic configuration, morphometric parameters, and the type of volcanism associating with rifts were analyzed. This allowed the main characteristic features of rifts to be revealed and two different types of rift-forming structures, serving for classification of rift zones as rift valleys and graben belts, to be isolated. These structural types (facies) of rift zones are differently expressed in the relief: rift valleys are individual deep (several kilometers) W-shaped canyons, while graben belts are clusters of multiple V-shaped and rather shallow (hundreds of meters) depressions. Graben belts are longer and wider, as compared to rift valleys. Rift valleys are spatially associated with dome-shaped volcanic rises and large volcanos (concentrated volcanic sources), while graben belts do not exhibit such associations. Volcanic activity in the graben belts are presented by spacious lava fields with no apparent sources of volcanism. Graben belts and rift valleys were formed during the Atlian Period of geologic history of Venus, and they characterized the tectonic style of the planet at the late stages of its geologic evolution. Formation of this or that structural facies of the rift zones of Venus were probably governed by the thickness of the lithosphere, its rheological properties, and the development degree of the mantle diapirs associating with rift zones.

  13. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  14. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of carbonatites from South Nam Xe, Lai Chau area, northwest Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi, Thuy; Wada, Hideki; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimano, Taketo

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the petrography, mineral chemistry, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope systematics of carbonatite dykes and associated rocks from the northeastern part of the Song Da intracontinental rift in South Nam Xe (northwest Vietnam) aimed at constraining the origin of the carbonatite magmas. The carbonatites are characterized by SiO2 material. Because of the lack of tectonic data and the limited number of samples studied, this conclusion is still ambiguous and requires further study.

  15. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  16. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength–velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  17. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  18. Stratigraphic Modelling of Continental Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Luke; Duclaux, Guillaume; Salles, Tristan; Thomas, Charmaine; Rey, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Interlinks between deformation and sedimentation have long been recognised as an important factor in the evolution of continental rifts and basins development. However, determining the relative impact of tectonic and climatic forcing on the dynamics of these systems remains a major challenge. This problem in part derives from a lack of modelling tools capable of simulated high detailed surface processes within a large scale (spatially and temporally) tectonic setting. To overcome this issue an innovative framework has been designed using two existing numerical forward modelling codes: Underworld, capable of simulating 3D self-consistent tectonic and thermal lithospheric processes, and Tellus, a forward stratigraphic and geomorphic modelling framework dedicated to simulating highly detailed surface dynamics. The coupling framework enables Tellus to use Underworld outputs as internal and boundary conditions, thereby simulating the stratigraphic and geomorphic evolution of a realistic, active tectonic setting. The resulting models can provide high-resolution data on the stratigraphic record, grain-size variations, sediment provenance, fluvial hydrometric, and landscape evolution. Here we illustrate a one-way coupling method between active tectonics and surface processes in an example of 3D oblique rifting. Our coupled model enables us to visualise the distribution of sediment sources and sinks, and their evolution through time. From this we can extract and analyse at each simulation timestep the stratigraphic record anywhere within the model domain. We find that even from a generic oblique rift model, complex fluvial-deltaic and basin filling dynamics emerge. By isolating the tectonic activity from landscape dynamics with this one-way coupling, we are able to investigate the influence of changes in climate or geomorphic parameters on the sedimentary and landscape record. These impacts can be quantified in part via model post-processing to derive both instantaneous and

  19. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  20. Is the Proterozoic Ladoga Rift (SE Baltic Shield) a rift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The southern part of the Baltic Shield hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpre......The southern part of the Baltic Shield hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally...... rifts, and provide alternative explanations for Mesoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of the southern Baltic Shield. We propose that Mesoproterozoic mafic intrusions in southern Fennoscandia may be associated with a complex deformation pattern during reconfiguration of (a part of) Nuna (Columbia...

  1. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  2. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  3. Launching Nuoc Phan Lan brand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Huydong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...

  4. Pre-rift basement structure and syn-rift faulting at the eastern onshore Gulf of Corinth Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranis, Haralambos; Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Gawthorpe, Robert; Leeder, Mike; Stamatakis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    %B We present results of recent field-based research with a view to providing information about and constraints on the initiation and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth (GoC) Rift. The onshore geology and structure of the GoC rift has been studied intensively and extensively; however most research efforts have focused on the western and partly the central parts. The last few years, efforts are being made to extend the scope of research in less-studied areas, such as the eastern southern onshore part of the GoC rift, trying to address two major issues in rift initiation and evolution, namely syn-rift faulting and pre-rift basement structure. While fault spacing and length appears to be well-constrained for the western and central parts of the GoC Rift, further east -and especially in the uplifted onshore southern part- this is thought to increase dramatically, as there are practically no mapped faults. We argue, however, that this may be a false image, owing to (i) the difficulty in identifying fault structures within a thick, fairly monotonous syn-rift sequence; (ii) the lesser attention this part has drawn; and (ii) the fact that the published summary geological and tectonic maps of the GoC area are based on the dated geological maps that cover the eastern and northern onshore shoulders of the Rift. Moreover, new field data provide new information on pre-rift structure: while only the topmost thrust sheet of the Hellenide nappe stack (Pindos Unit) was thought to crop out at the eastern southern onshore part, we mapped the underlying, non-metamorphic carbonate Unit (Tripolis Unit), which crops out within the footwall of a key intra-basin block (Xylokastro block). A minor outcrop further east, may also belong to this Unit, providing basement control, in connection with recently published offshore fault data. The mapping of these outcrops, combined with a revised stratigraphical framework for the early syn-rift deposits, allows the identification and mapping of faults

  5. Vietnam stock market liberalisation's effect

    OpenAIRE

    Khuc, Minh Hieu

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examine the effect of stock market liberalisation upon the Vietnam economy and shows the changes during liberalisation period. The stock return and stock return volatility were tested using a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model. The stock return was found to be increased after market was liberalised. The stock return volatility, however show no sign of increasing. The effect upon economic growth, inflation and private investment growth was also d...

  6. Discussion of Continental Rifts and Their Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    When continental crust rifts, two chief modifications of that crust occur: 1)stretching of older, existing crust; 2)addition of new rift mass--sediments and mantle mafic units. However, paleorifts, such as the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen differ from neorifts, such as the East African. Much of this difference may be reflected in the nature of the lower rift crust. Stretching of the upper crust is accomplished primarily through faulting while the lower crust flows. Concurrently addition of sediments occurs in downdropped faulted blocks in the upper crust, and of mafic magmas risen and emplaced as intrusive layered complexes through the rift and as extrusive flows. All this happens in a regime of higher temperatures and higher heat flow. Consequences of this can include either melting of the stretched existing crust, or direct fractionation of rising mafic magma or melting of already crystallized mafic complexes, forming new silicic magmas. Geochemistry of these different magmatic bodies elucidates which of these possible processes seems dominant. Most geophysical studies of rifts have two results: 1)higher gravity anomalies indicating addition of new mafic masses, usually interpreted to be concentrated in the upper rift crust; and 2)seismic characteristics indicating crustal mottling and layering of the upper rift crust. What is not clearly indicated is nature of the lower crust, and of the mantle-crust contact (M discontinuity). Comparison of paleorifts and neorifts, and later geological history of paleorifts, suggests interesting interpretations of lower rift crust,especially in paleorifts, and some of the difficulties in sorting out answers.

  7. Vietnam kan nieuwe bron voor kokkels worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Wageningse onderzoekers gaan Vietnam helpen om de puntjes op de i te zetten bij hun monitoringsprogramma voor de voedselveiligheid van schaal- en schelpdieren, en ze bijscholen in risicomanagement en HACCP-audits. Want Vietnam wil graag de controles op visproductie verbeteren en meer kokkels, mossel

  8. Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the current state and a challenge faced by teachers and teacher education in Vietnam, and analyzes international aid projects providing support to teacher education there. It is necessary to grasp changes in teacher education in Vietnam in the context of the current comprehensive reform of education, which has been greatly…

  9. Financing Vietnam's Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment; World Bank Group; United Nations Development Programme

    2015-01-01

    Climate-related hazards have adverse effects on national growth and poverty reduction, affecting the poor and several sectors of the economy simultaneously. At its current rate of growth, Vietnam will become a major global greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter. The Government of Vietnam initiated the Climate Public Expenditure and Investment Review (CPEIR) to advance an understanding of the current...

  10. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50...

  11. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  12. Constraints on the crustal structure of northern Vietnam based on analysis of teleseismic converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Duong; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Le, Tu-Son; Dinh, Van-Toan; Zhu, Lupei; Wen, Kuo-Liang

    2013-08-01

    Here we report estimates of crustal thickness and Poisson's ratios for northern Vietnam, based on teleseismic receiver function analysis of observations from a dense broadband seismic array. The seismic array comprised of 24 stations distributed evenly over northern Vietnam, from whose records we examined 190 teleseismic events of Mw > 5.5 for the period 2006-2008. Using the radial receiver functions calculated from teleseismic records at individual stations, the optimum crustal thickness and Vp/Vs (where Vp and Vs are the velocities of P- and S-waves, respectively) ratio beneath each station were determined using the H-κ (where H is crustal thickness and κ is defined as the Vp/Vs ratio) stacking algorithm. Determined values of crustal thickness range from 26.5 km to 36.4 km, with an average of 31.0 ± 2.1 km. The simple pattern of variation of crustal thickness in the northeastern region of the study area, with a mean of ~ 31 km, suggests that the sector belongs to the craton of the South China block. A highly variable crustal thickness is found over the northwestern region of northern Vietnam, ranging from ~ 29.5 km to ~ 36.4 km, implying that complex tectonic processes have taken place in this region. The thinnest crust is found in the Red River Delta, where it ranges from 26.5 km to 30.4 km, which is suggestive of a recent rifting process. The determinations of crustal thickness show a good linear correlation with Bouguer gravity anomalies. Lower values of Poisson's ratio in the northeastern and Red River Delta sectors suggest a more felsic crust, and larger values in the northwestern sector suggest lithospheric extension in the Song Da depression. The findings enhance our understanding of the geotectonic architecture of the northern Vietnam region.

  13. Petrogenesis and origin of modern Ethiopian rift basalts: Constraints from isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, D.; Jung, S.; Romer, R. L.; Kersten, F.; Pfänder, J. A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2016-08-01

    The source of continental rift-related basalts and their relation to rifting processes is a continuous matter of debate. We present major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope data for axial rift basalts from eight volcanic centres (Ayelu, Hertali, Dofan, Fantale, Kone, Bosetti and Gedemsa, from NE to SW) in Afar and Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) to assess their source regions and their genetic relationships. These lavas have geochemical characteristics, i.e., a peak at Ba, Nb and troughs at K and Rb in primitive mantle-normalised multielement diagrams, which are consistent with predominant melting of an amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle. However, the isotopic compositions for these lavas are heterogeneous (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70354-0.70431, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51280-0.51294, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28301-0.28315, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.48-19.31, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.61-39.06) and require various mantle reservoirs with distinctive isotopic signatures. The range of isotopic compositions requires the involvement of three distinct source components from the asthenospheric and veined lithospheric mantle. Progressive rifting leads to lithosperic thinning and upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle, which induces melting of the veined lithospheric mantle. The trace element characteristics of the lavas are dominated by the vein material, which has a higher trace element content than the surrounding mantle. The isotopic composition of the vein material, however, is not very different from the ambient mantle, giving rise of apparent uncoupling of trace element and isotope constraints for the melt source. The uprising basaltic liquids in part inherit a lithospheric trace element signature, while their isotopic compositions are mostly unaffected due to short residence times within the lithosphere in context with progressive rifting and lithospheric thinning. Thus, the geochemical and isotope data are consistent with a multi-component source prevailing beneath the Afar

  14. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas. One sample of the extinct arc lava is vesicular and

  15. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  16. Exporting and Productivity: Learning from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn;

    2016-01-01

    For Africa to industrialise and develop, it must learn from successful cases of structural transformation. Just two decades ago, Vietnam had a level of per capita income and structural characteristics similar to many African economies. In the meantime, Vietnam has with great success taken a very....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...

  17. The Offshore East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  18. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  19. Lessons from Vietnam's first marine park

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C

    1994-01-01

    The recent establishment of a marine park in Vietnam offers lessons for future marine reserves in the country as well as for other countries considering their establishment. These lessons are contained in this brief article.

  20. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    domestic credit, private domestic credit, and private net foreign debt, are discussed with reference to historical time series data. Accordingly, the current monograph facilitates the future implementation of the Merged Model for Vietnam by going through the main considerations necessary...

  1. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  2. Multidimensional Poverty: First Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ha; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Tung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines multidimensional poverty in Vietnam using the method of Alkire and Foster (2007, 2011) and household data from Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2010 and 2012. The poverty is analyzed in five dimensions including health, education, insurance and social support, living condition, and social participation. The result shows that multidimensional poverty has decreased slightly during the 2010-2012 period. There is a large difference between multidimensional poverty and...

  3. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  4. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-01-01

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration. PMID:27173306

  5. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  6. Volcanic field elongation, vent distribution and tectonic evolution of continental rift: The Main Ethiopian Rift example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarini, Francesco; Le Corvec, Nicolas; Isola, Ilaria; Favalli, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Magmatism and faulting operate in continental rifts and interact at a variety of scales, however their relationship is complex. The African rift, being the best example for both active continental rifting and magmatism, provides the ideal location to study the interplay between the two mechanisms. The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), which connects the Afar depression in the north with the Turkana depression and Kenya Rift to the south, consists of two distinct systems of normal faults and its floor is scattered with volcanic fields formed by tens to several hundreds monogenetic, generally basaltic, small volcanoes and composite volcanoes and small calderas. The distribution of vents defines the overall shape of the volcanic field. Previous work has shown that the distribution of volcanic vents and the shape of a field are linked to its tectonic environment and its magmatic system. In order to distinguish the impact of each mechanism, we analyzed four volcanic fields located at the boundary between the central and northern MER, three of them (Debre Zeyit, Wonji and Kone) grew in the rift valley and one (Akaki) on the western rift shoulder. The elongation and shape of the fields were analyzed based on their vent distribution using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the Vent-to-Vent Distance (VVD), and the two dimensional symmetric Gaussian kernel density estimate methods. We extracted from these methods several parameters characterizing the spatial distribution of points (e.g., eccentricity (e), eigenvector index (evi), angular dispersion (Da)). These parameters allow to define at least three types of shape for volcanic fields: strong elongate (line and ellipse), bimodal/medium elongate (ellipse) and dispersed (circle) shapes. Applied to the natural example, these methods well differentiate each volcanic field. For example, the elongation of the field increases from shoulder to rift axis inversely to the angular dispersion. In addition, the results show that none of

  7. Updating Poverty Maps of Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2002 and Population Census 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong; Van der Weide, Roy; Tran, Ngoc Truong

    2007-01-01

    Poverty map is an important for poverty targeting in developing countries. In this study, we combine the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2002 and the Population Census in 1999 to estimate poverty and inequality indexes of all provinces and districts of Vietnam in the year 2002.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonate chimneys from a continental rift (Afar Rift): Mineralogy, geochemistry, and mode of formation

    OpenAIRE

    Dekov, V. M.; Egueh, N. M.; Kamenov, G.D.; Bayon, G.; Lalonde, S. V.; Schmidt, Mark; Liebetrau, Volker; Munnik, F.; Fouquet, Y.; Tanimizu, M.; Awaleh, M. O.; Guirreh, I.; Le Gall, B.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Carbonate chimney-like deposits up to 60 m high are scattered or arranged in rows at the shores of a desiccating hypersaline and alkaline lake from a continental rift setting (Lake Abhé, Afar Rift, Djibouti). The chimneys formed sub-aqueously in the lake water body at a higher water level than observed today. Alternating calcite and low-Mg calcite + silica concentric layers compose the chimney structures. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of the chimneys, ...

  9. Geothermal resources of rifts: A comparison of the rio grande rift and the salton trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Chandler A.

    1983-05-01

    The Rio Grande Rift and the Salton Trough are the best developed rift systems in the United States and both share many features common to rifts in general, including geothermal resources. These two rifts have different tectonic and magmatic histories, however, and these differences are reflected in the nature of their geothermal resources. The Salton Trough is a well developed and successful rift. It is the landward extension of the Gulf of California spreading center, which has separated Baja, California, from the remainder of Mexico. Quaternary silicic magmatization has occurred and several of the geothermal resources are associated with recent rhyolitic intrusions. Such resources tend to be high temperature (> 200°C). Greenschist facies metamorphism has been observed in several of the geothermal wells. Localized upper crustal melting is a distinct possibility and there is increasing speculation that very high temperature (> 300°C) geothermal fluids may underlie a large portion of the central trough at depths in excess of 4 km. Low temperature geothermal resources associated with shallow hydrothermal convection are less common and tend to be located on the flanks of the trough or in the Coachella Valley to the north of the zone of active rifting. In contrast, the Rio Grande Rift is less well developed. Recent volcanism consists primarily of mantle-derived basalts, which have not had sufficient residence time within the crust to generate significant crustal melting. The geothermal resources within the Rio Grande Rift do not correlate well with these young basalts. Rather, the quantity of geothermal resources are low temperature (geothermal exploration targets.

  10. Implications of new gravity data for Baikal Rift zone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, C.; Kogan, M. G.; Mcnutt, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Newly available, 2D Bouguer gravity anomaly data from the Baikal Rift zone, Siberia, indicate that this discrete, intracontinental rift system is regionally compensated by an elastic plate about 50 km thick. However, spectral and spatial domain analyses and isostatic anomaly calculations show that simple elastic plate theory does not offer an adequate explanation for compensation in the rift zone, probably because of significant lateral variations in plate strength and the presence of subsurface loads. Our results and other geophysical observations support the interpretation that the Baikal Rift zone is colder than either the East African or Rio Grande rift.

  11. Crustal Structure of Northern Vietnam Based on Analysis of Teleseismic Converted Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, N. V.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Vietnam is located in the southeasternmost extension of the Himalayan syntaxis, which is mechanically linked to the Tibetan plateau by the Red River fault. Little is known about the detailed crustal structure in this region. Using data from 24 broadband seismic stations distributed evenly over northern Vietnam, we analyze P-wave receiver functions to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure, and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the crustal heterogeneity and its tectonic implications in northern Vietnam. The optimum crustal thickness and Vp/Vs (where Vp and Vs are the velocities of P- and S-waves, respectively) ratio beneath each station were determined using the H-k (where H is crustal thickness and k is defined as the Vp/Vs ratio) stacking algorithm. The stacked receiver functions were inverted to yield the shear wave velocity of the crust at each station. Determined values of crustal thickness range from 26.5 km to 36.4 km, with an average of 31.0 × 2.1 km. The simple pattern of variation of crustal thickness in the northeastern region of the study area, with a mean of ~31 km, suggests that the sector belongs to the craton of the South China block. A highly variable crustal thickness is found over the northwestern region of northern Vietnam, ranging from ~29.5 km to ~36.4 km, implying that complex tectonic processes have taken place in this region. The thinnest crust is found in the Red River Delta, where it ranges from 26.5 km to 30.4 km, which is suggestive of a recent rifting process. The determinations of crustal thickness show a good linear correlation with Bouguer gravity anomalies. Lower values of Poisson's ratio in the northeastern and Red River Delta sectors suggest a more felsic crust, and larger values in the northwestern sector suggest lithospheric extension in the Song Da depression. The shear velocity structure in the northwestern region is relatively slow and more complex, while the velocity in

  12. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  13. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub. PMID:26558887

  14. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    CERN Document Server

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  15. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.

  16. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  17. Structure of the central Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jerome; Wilson, Terry; Henrys, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    The Terror Rift is a zone of post-middle Miocene faulting and volcanism along the western margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. A new seismic data set from NSF geophysical cruise NBP04-01, integrated with the previous dataset to provide higher spatial resolution, has been interpreted in this study in order to improve understanding of the architecture and history of the Terror Rift. The Terror Rift contains two components, a structurally-controlled rollover anticlinal arch intruded by younger volcanic bodies and an associated synclinal basin. Offsets and trend changes in fault patterns have been identified, coincident with shifts in the location of depocenters that define rift sub-basins, indicating that the Terror Rift is segmented by transverse structures. Multiple phases of faulting all post-date 17 Ma, including faults cutting the seafloor surface, indicating Neogene rifting and possible modern activity.

  18. Industrial Clustering Policy and Economic Restructuring in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hong; Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the industrial agglomeration and evaluates the industrial clustering policy in Vietnam. Base on the Kuchiki flowchart on the building of industrial clustering policy for developing countries, the authors suggest a policy framework for Vietnam.

  19. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  20. Primary factors influencing online shopping behavior in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ngoc Thao Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Vietnam, e-commerce is growing significantly, and the growth rate of Vietnam online shopping is among the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this thesis was to examine and get a deep understanding of factors affecting online shopping behavior in Vietnam. Price, Trust, Convenience, and Products were identified as important factors. Another purpose of this thesis is to, based on the results, give suggestions for an electronics manufacturer and retailer in Vietnam – ...

  1. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2016-08-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  2. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  3. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  4. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  5. The Role of Rift Obliquity During Pangea Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, S.; Butterworth, N. P.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.

    2014-12-01

    Does supercontinent break-up follow specific laws? What parameters control the success and the failure of rift systems? Recent analytical and geodynamic modeling suggests that oblique rifting is energetically preferred over orthogonal rifting. This implies that during rift competition, highly oblique branches proceed to break-up while less oblique ones become inactive. These models predict that the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up is affected by the orientation and shape of individual rift systems. Here, we test this hypothesis based on latest plate tectonic reconstructions. Using PyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, we quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for continent-scale rift systems of the past 200 Myr. Indeed we find that many rift systems contributing to Pangea fragmentation involved strong rift obliquity. East and West Gondwana for instance split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 55° (measured as the angle between local rift trend normal and extension direction). While formation of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. Rifting between Australia and Antarctica involved two stages with 25° prior to 100 Ma followed by 50° obliquity and distinct increase of extension velocity. Analyzing the entire passive margin system that formed during Pangea breakup, we find a mean obliquity of 40°, with a standard deviation of 20°. Hence 50% of these margins formed with an angle of 40° or more. Considering that many conceptual models of rifting and passive margin formation assume 2D deformation, our study quantifies the degree to which such 2D models are globally applicable, and highlights the importance of 3D models where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.

  6. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ?) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at {approximately}1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  7. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at [approximately]1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  8. India-Vietnam Trade : Current Relations and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Mehta

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the level, growth and composition of India-Vietnam Trade in goods, identify sectors/products in which India has export potential in Vietnam, if a duty free regime is agreed between India and Vietnam, and examine the implication of India-Vietnam bilateral free trade agreement. Our preliminary results show that India has export potential in number of sectors, if a duty free regime is agreed between Indian and Vietnam. The identified commodity group...

  9. Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William

    1992-08-01

    A complex history of crustal extension occurred in east and central Africa during the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. Beginning in the Late Jurassic, this resulted in a large system of rifts, the Central African rift system, that spanned from central Sudan to southern Kenya. Late Jurassic rifting is best documented in the White and Blue Nile rifts of the Sudan, and records east-west extension in half-graben that were connected by large-scale shear zones and pull-apart basins. Early Cretaceous rifting re-activated Jurassic basins and spread to the large South Sudan rifts and Anza rift in Kenya. By the Late Cretaceous, the extension direction shifted to the NE-SW, and the presently observed large-scale rift geometry was established. In the early Tertiary, some Mesozoic basins were again reactivated, while other regions underwent wrench faulting and basin inversion. The large number of basins preserved in the Central African rift system can be used to construct an evolutionary model of continental rift tectonics. Early phases of extension at low strains produced alternating half-graben/accommodation zone geometries similar to those observed in most young and active continental rifts. At higher strains, some border faults were abandoned so that through-going, simpler active fault systems could evolve. This is interpreted as representing a switch from complex, oppositely dipping detachment structures, with strike dimensions of 50-150 km, to regional detachment structures that continue for hundreds of kilometers parallel to the rift. This change in the type of detachment was accompanied by a shift in the position of the subsidence away from the breakaway to a position focused further within the regional upper plate. Non-rotational, high angle, normal faulting dominates in the development of these late basin geometries. Deciphering similar rift basin histories from passive continental margins may, in many cases, exceed the limits of available reflection seismic data. East

  10. Technique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting technique in South Vietnam. Earthworms play a major role in organic matter transformation. The vermicomposting allows to combine several advantages: the management of diversified organic wastes, and the production of earthworms and vermicompost. Crop residues and other plant wastes mixed with animal manure from individual farms can be used. In South Vietnam, farmers are rearing some livestock and growing a few number of crop species. From several years, an increasing number of vermicomposting units were set in many farms from the Ho Chi Minh City region. Two kinds of infrastructure materials are used: baked clay blocks or bamboo stems with plastic covers. In South Vietnam, all conditions are pooled to ensure an efficient earthworm production: suitable climate, available organic wastes and materials to build the vermicomposting structures. Both field plot fertility and protein feed for livestock (pigs, poultry, etc. can be provided by rearing earthworms.

  11. The Independence of Vietnam Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of peaceful purposes, the activity of nuclear agencies is often divided into 2 systems: the nuclear application system and the safety system. Depending on the magnitude of atomic energy application development, the responsibility of the safety system was assigned to a few agencies in each country. In Vietnam, the nuclear safety responsibility is assigned primarily to the radiation and nuclear safety agency. However, the provisions of the normative system of law prevailing in other sectors such as investment, construction, electricity or environmental protection, many agencies are responsible for ensuring safety in each sector, leading to a conflict of interest among those agencies. This is the weakness in the management system of Vietnam compared to other countries with nuclear power development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state of Vietnam's legal framework in nuclear safety regulation and its dependence of regulatory body aspects and promoting the way to overcome it

  12. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English's environment and features. However, there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features , including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  13. English in Vietnam and Its Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    English spoken by people from different countries takes on different characteristics. Many linguists conducted researches on World Englishes. Focusing on the pronunciation,grammar, vocabulary and literature achievement, these studies present the target English’s environment and features. However,there is rare achievement of study.in English in Vietnam. Under the economy boom, Vietnamese government attached importance to the English education, which led to the wide utilization of English. This article analyzes English in Vietnam and its features,including pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, in the hope of making complements to world Englishes.

  14. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  15. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  16. Anomalous deep earthquakes beneath the East African Rift: evidence for rift induced delamination of the lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfeld, Michael; Rümpker, Georg; Schmeling, Harro; Wallner, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    The over 5000 m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System, at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During 2006/2007 a network of 27 seismological stations was operated in this area to investigate crustal and upper mantle structure in conjunction with local seismicity. The data analysis revealed unexpectedly high microseismic activity. On average more than 800 events per month could be located with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Hypocentral depths go as deep as 30 km with a pronounced concentration of activity at a depth of about 15 km. This presentation focuses on a cluster of seven earthquakes that were located at anomalous depths between 53 and 60 km. According to our present knowledge these are the deepest events so far observed within the EARS and the African Plate. Their origin might be connected to magmatic intrusions. However, the existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material close to the surface, which is not capable of seismogenic deformation. We think that these events are closely related to the evolution of the Rwenzoris. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere that is captured between two approaching rift segments. By numerical modelling we show that the RID-process is also able to bring material that is cold and brittle enough to release seismic energy into greater depth. Therefore the RID-mechanism gives a consistent explanation for the detected deep events as well as for the uplift of a mountain block in a rift setting.

  17. Numerical modeling of continental rifting: Implications for the East African Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) provides a unique system with juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either side of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded into younger lithosphere. Here we take advantage of the improvements in our understanding of deep structures, geological evolution and recent kinematics, together with new cutting edge numerical modeling techniques to design a three-dimensional ultra-high resolution viscous plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model that accounts for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures the essential geophysical features of the central EARS. Based on our experiments, we show that in case of the mantle plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, the ascending plume material is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channeled along the eastern side of the craton, leading to formation of a large rift zone characterized by important magmatic activity with substantial amounts of melts derived from mantle plume material. This model is in good agreement with the observations in the EARS, as it reproduces the magmatic eastern branch and at the same time, anticlockwise rotation of the craton. However, this experiment does not reproduce the observed strain localization along the western margin of the cratonic bloc. To explain the formation of contrasting magmatic and amagmatic rift branches initiating simultaneously on either side of a non-deforming block as observed in the central EARS, we experimentally explored several scenarios of which three can be retained as specifically pertaining to the EARS: (1) The most trivial first scenario assumes rheologically weak vertical interface simulating the suture zone observed in the geological structure along the western border of the craton; (2) The second scenario involves a second smaller plume initially shifted in SW direction; (3) Finally, a

  18. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  20. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: A model of continental disruption 1. The Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, S. E.; Fairhead, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A regional compilation of published and unpublished gravity data for Central Africa is presented and reveals the presence of a major rift system, called here, the Central African Rift System. It is proposed that the junction area between the Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra rift arms in Western Sudan forms an incipient intraplate, triple-junction with the as yet unfractured, but domally uplifted and volcanically active, Darfur swell. It is only the Darfur swell that shows any similarities to the uplift and rift history of East Africa. The other two rifts arms are considered to be structurally similar to the early stages of passive margin development and thus reflect more closely the initial processes of continental fragmentation than the structures associated with rifting in East Africa.

  1. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  2. How Is Lower Crust Modified As A Neo-Rift Becomes A Paleo-Rift and Part Of The Craton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA), at the southern end of Laurentia (present coordinates), if behaving as neo-rifts, such as the Rio Grande Rift, presumably possessed a rift structure in the Cambrian with a continental thickness of about 28km. Seismic data, though sparse, suggest a present thickness of the SOA is about 45km, indistinguishable from adjacent rifted Proterozoic crust. By what process do we add 15km to the original SOA crust: underplating, eclogite-gabbro transformation, or deformation? This question has bearing on how we understand and interpret all paleo-rifts now a part of continental cores. Geology of the southern Midcontinent of North America does not show evidence of significant thermal events in the Phanerozoic. This effectively rules out underplating and phase transformation as a cause of change in M-discontinuity depth. Present SOA outcrops are in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma, part of the easternmost Ancestral Rockies. These outcrops are in the Wichita-Amarillo crustal block uplifted about 7km in the Pennsylvanian. The Anadarko Basin to the north went down about 7km. Large Pennsylvanian thrust faults in the upper brittle crust are documented. Thus it appears that compressive deformation may be able to account for the change in crustal thickness from neo-rift type to paleo-rift and craton type. However, the accommodation made in the lower crust may be more dramatic than deformation in the upper crust because shortening, and thickening of the order of 2X, is probably required. Comparisons with other paleo-rifts in North America, such as the Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift and the NeoProterozoic Reelfoot Rift, show that their crustal thicknesses now also match their previously rifted margins. Can the same sequence, as seems to be the case with the SOA, apply to other paleo-rifts?

  3. Morphodynamic modelling for Thuan An inlet, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.N.; Stive, M.J.; Verhagen, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.

    2006-01-01

    Thuan An is a tidal inlet located in Vietnam in a tropical monsoon area. The inlet is very dynamic and variable under the influences of not only tides and waves from the sea but also flows and floods from upstream rivers. Therefore, morphodynamic behaviour of the inlet is very complicated and not we

  4. Vietnam Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Vietnam joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  5. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  6. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    This article uses panel data from a survey of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam to uncover which firms pay bribes and which do not. We also study how bribe paying evolved between 2005 and 2007 and test how the determinants of bribes changed between the two years. Three sets of insights...

  7. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  8. Gender patterns in Vietnam's child mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thong Le Pham, [No Value; Kooreman, Peter; Koning, Ruud H.; Wiersma, Doede

    2013-01-01

    We analyze child mortality in Vietnam focusing on gender aspects. Contrary to several other countries in the region, mortality rates for boys are substantially larger than for girls. The mortality rate of boys appears to be more sensitive to parents' education levels than the mortality rate of girls

  9. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  10. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  11. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad cha

  12. Vietnam : Higher Education and Skills for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The demand for skills has been increasing significantly in Vietnam, due to a combination of inter-industry employment changes, capital accumulation and some evidence which is consistent with skill-biased technical change. As a result employment opportunities for tertiary graduates now exist in most sectors. Higher education graduates are also shown to contribute positively to firm producti...

  13. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  14. MOTIVATION OF CHINESE INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China attracted a record ofUS$52.7×109 in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the year 2002, surpassing the United States to become the world's largest FDI recipient. China's success in attracting FDI has received significant attention from academics. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to explain the determinants of FDI in China.However, it seems to be ignored that China has also become a growing provider of significant FDI to the rest of the world.According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)'s 2004 report, as a developing country,replacing Japan, China has made the list of the expected top five home countries worldwide for the first time in terms of geographical coverage (2004-2005). Vietnam is second largest market and another emerging transition tiger in Southeast Asia. Both China and Vietnam were and are experiencing transitions from centrally planned economy to free market economy. This paper, therefore, attempts to explore the development of Chinese investment in Vietnam, analysing the main motives for, and characteristics of, Chinese Multinational Enterprises' (MNEs) investment in Vietnam.

  15. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  16. Technology network for machine tools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Junko

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the WTO, it accepted foreign direct investment and started to grow. Technically, it was then greatly influenced by the enterprises that entered the country through direct investment. This report shows that the technology network for machine tools is formed via direct investment and subcontracting.

  17. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  18. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  20. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Main Ethiopian Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, C.; Flesch, L. M.; Bendick, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the East African Rift System (EARS) is often cited as a type example for "narrow" rifting (where strain is localized along the rift axis), the true extent of rift-related deformation remains largely unknown due to sparse geophysical observations outside of the main rift valley. Our study, which takes this large scale approach, investigates the distribution of deformation in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and surrounding regions, including the Ethiopian Highlands to the west of the rift valley, Somali Platform to the east, and Afar Triple Junction. We first construct kinematic, self-consistent strain rate and velocity fields on a 1° by 1° grid using continuous spline interpolations of strain rate observations (earthquake and fault data, plate rotations, and GPS velocities). Next, we calculate the deviatoric stress field associated with gravitational potential energy (GPE) by integrating density as a function of depth using published crustal density structures (CRUST1.0) and newly obtained receiver functions. We then directly solve for the deviatoric stress field associated with the lateral density variations by assuming a minimum energy stress field (e.g. Flesch et al. [2001]). Finally, we look for symmetries and asymmetries in both the strain rate and GPE deviatoric stress fields to assess the source of observed, off-rift deformation. We compare our results to published global and regional models that include the East African Rift and Iceland. Results suggest that the MER is not an end-member, "narrow" type rift, and that heterogeneities in lithospheric strength likely play an important role in governing the kinematics of rifting in Ethiopia.

  1. Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Long, K.D.; Achterberg, van, T.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam are described and illustrated: W. paramplus spec. nov. from Hoa Binh Province (northern Vietnam), and W. longicentrus spec. nov. from Ha Tinh Province (North Central Vietnam).

  2. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  3. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition (δ 13C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka (14C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions

  4. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa occur Mediterranean and Red Sea metallogenic provinces. In each province distribute 47 iron- manganese- barite and lead-zinc deposits with tectonic-structural control. The author presents in this paper aspects of position of these deposits in the two provinces with Phanerozoic rifting . The Mediterranean Province belongs to two epochs, Hercynian and Alpine. The Hercynian Epoch manganese deposits in only Moroccoa- Algeria belong to Paleozoic tectonic zones and Proterozoic volcanics. The Alpine Epoch iron-manganese deposits are of post-orogenic exhalative-sedimentary origin. Manganese deposits in southern Morocco occur in Kabil-Rief quartz-chalcedony veins controlled by faults in andesitic sheets and in bedded pelitic tuffs, strata-form lenses and ore veins, in Precambrian schist and in Triassic and Cretaceous dolomites. Disseminated manganese with quartz and barite and effusive hydrothermal veins are hosted in Paleocene volcanics. Manganese deposits in Algeria are limited and unrecorded in Tunisia. Strata-form iron deposits in Atlas Heights are widespread in sub-rift zone among Jurassic sediments inter-bedding volcanic rocks. In Algeria, Group Beni-Saf iron deposits are localized along the Mediterranean coast in terrigenous and carbonate rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene age within faults and bedding planes. In Morocco strata-form hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits occur in contact zone of Tertiary andesite inter-bedding Cambrian shale, Lias dolomites and Eocene andesite. In both Algeria and Tunisia metasomatic Pb-Zn veins occur in Campanian - Maastrichtian carbonates, Triassic breccia, Jurassic limestone, Paleocene sandstones and limestone and Neogene conglomerates and sandstones. The Red Sea metallogenic province belongs to the Late Tertiary-Miocene times. In Wadi Araba hydrothermal iron-manganese deposits occur in Cretaceous sediments within 320°and 310 NW faults related to Tertiary basalt. Um-Bogma iron-manganese deposits are closely

  5. Complex seismicity patterns in the Rwenzori region: insights to rifting processes at the Albertine Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.; Batte, A. G.; Schumann, A.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous seismological studies in East Africa have focused on the northern and eastern branches of the East African Rift System (EARS). However, the seismic activity along the western branch is much more pronounced. Here, the Rwenzori Mountains are located within the Albertine rift valley, at the border between Uganda and D.R. Congo. During a seismic monitoring campaign between February 2006 and September 2007 we have recorded more than 800 earthquakes per month in the Rwenzori area. The earthquake distribution is highly heterogeneous. The majority of located events lie within faults zones to the East and West of the Rwenzoris with the highest seismic activity observed in the northeastern area, were the mountains are in contact with the rift shoulders. The hypocentral depth distribution peaks at 16 km depth and extends down to the Moho which was found at 20 - 32 km depths by teleseismic receiver functions. Local magnitudes range from -0.5 to 5.1 with a b-value of 1.1. Fault plane solutions of 304 events were derived from P-polarities and SV/P amplitude ratios. More than 70% of the source mechanisms exhibit normal faulting. T-axis trends are highly uniform and oriented WNW-ESE, which is perpendicular to the rift axis and in good agreement with kinematic rift models. The area of highest seismic activity NE of the Rwenzoris is characterized by the occurrence of several earthquake clusters in 5 -20 km depth. They have stable positions throughout time and form elongated pipes with 1-2 km diameter and vertical extensions of 3-5 km. From petrological considerations we presume that these earthquake swarms are triggered by fluids and gasses which originate from a magmatic source below the crust. The existence of a magmatic source within the lithosphere is supported by the detection of a shear-wave velocity reduction in 55-80 km depth from receiver-function analysis and the location of mantle earthquakes at about 60 km. We interpret these observations as indication for an

  6. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the......

  7. Petrogenesis of coeval sodic and potassic alkaline magmas at Spanish Peaks, Colorado: Magmatism related to the opening of the Rio Grande rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, A. Brooke Hamil; McGregor, Heath; Roden, Michael F.; Salters, Vincent J. M.; Sarafian, Adam; Leahy, Rory

    2016-07-01

    Approximately coeval, relatively primitive (∼5-10% MgO with exception of a trachyandesite) alkaline mafic dikes and sills at or near Spanish Peaks, CO are divided into relatively sodic and potassic varieties on the basis of K2O/Na2O. Many of these dikes are true lamprophyres. In spite of variable alkali element ratios, the alkaline rocks share a number of geochemical similarities: high LIL element contents, high Ba and similar Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios near that of Bulk Earth. One important difference is that the potassic rocks are characterized by lower Al2O3 contents, typically less than 12 wt.%, than the sodic dikes/sills which typically have more than 13 wt.% Al2O3, and this difference is independent of MgO content. We attribute the distinct Al2O3 contents to varying pressure during melting: a mica-bearing, Al-poor vein assemblage for the potassic magmas melted at higher pressure than an aluminous amphibole-bearing vein assemblage for the sodic magmas. Remarkable isotopic and trace element similarities with approximately contemporaneous, nearby Rio Grande rift-related basalts in the San Luis Valley, indicate that the magmatism at Spanish Peaks was rift-related, and that lithosphere sources were shared between some rift magmas and those at Spanish Peaks. High Zn/Fe ratios in the Spanish Peaks mafic rocks point to a clinopyroxene- and garnet-rich source such as lithosphere veined by pyroxenite or eclogite. Lithospheric melting was possibly triggered by foundering of cool, dense lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift during the initiation of rifting with the potassic parent magmas generated by higher pressure melting of the foundered lithosphere than the sodic parent magmas. This process, caused by gravitational instability of the lithosphere (Elkins-Tanton, 2007) may be common beneath active continental rifts.

  8. Decay of 120Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay of 120Ba has been studied with an on-line isotope separator. Its half-life was determined to be t1/2=24±2 s. A decay scheme is proposed, based on γ-γ, γ-X, and γ-β+ coincidence measurements, which takes account of all 16 observed γ rays. The total decay energy was measured to be QEC=50±0.3 MeV

  9. Combining detrital geochronology and sedimentology to assess basin development in the Rukwa Rift of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Roberts, Eric; Mtelela, Cassy; Downie, Bob

    2015-04-01

    We have employed a multifaceted approach to sedimentary provenance analysis in order to assess the timing and magnitude of tectonic events, sedimentation, and landscape development in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Our approach, termed 'Sedimentary Triple Dating', integrates: (1) U-Pb dating via LA-ICPMS; (2) fission track; and (3) (U-Th)/He thermochronology of detrital zircon and apatite. We integrate geochronology, thermochronology, and provenance analysis to relate the initiation of rifting events to regional dynamic uplift, sedimentation patterns, and interpret the far-reaching climatic and evolutionary effects of fluctuating rift flank topography in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the Western Branch. This work provides additional data to support the recent concept of synchronous development of the Western and Eastern branches of the East African Rift System ~25 Ma, and better constrains the age, location and provenance of subsequent rifting and sedimentation events in the Rukwa Rift Basin. Investigation of well cuttings and outcrop samples from the Neogene-Recent Lake Beds Succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin revealed a suite of previously unrecognized tuffaceous deposits at the base of the succession. A population of euhedral, magmatic zircons from a basal Lake Beds tuff and Miocene-Pliocene detrital zircons from well cuttings suggest that Neogene rift reactivation and volcanism began ~9-10 Ma. This timing is consistent with demonstrated rifting in Uganda and Malawi, as well as with the initiation of volcanism in the Rungwe Volcanic Province at the southern end of the Rukwa Rift, and the estimated development of Lake Tanganyika to the north. Moreover, there appear to be a suite of unconformity bounded stratigraphic units that make up the Lower Lake Beds succession, and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages from these units suggests episodic sedimentation in the rift, punctuated by long hiatuses or uplift, rather than steady subsidence and

  10. Lithologic Hydrocarbon Deposits in Rift Lake Basins in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Herong; HE Zongquan

    2004-01-01

    The rift lake basins in the eastern China have abundant hydrocarbon resources of lithologic deposits, which resulted from excellent source rocks and multi-type sandbodies developed during strong rifting. Vertically, the lithologic deposits are mainly distributed in the lowstand, lacustrine invasion and early highstand systems of third-order sequence corresponding to a secondary tectonic episode of strong rifting, and laterally they are closely related to various fans and turbidite sandbodies controlled by syn-sedimentary faults. A variety of lithologic traps have been developed in the rift lake basins, and they generally have favorable conditions of source-reservoir-seal assemblage and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics, indicating that there is a great exploration potential of lithologic deposits in the rift lake basins.In order to obtain satisfactory effects of lithologic deposit exploration, it is required to combine new theories with advanced technical methods.

  11. Anatomy of lithosphere necking during orthogonal rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal-state of rifted margin. The necking shape depends on several parameters, including the extensional strain-rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension, a quantitative description of the evolution of necking through time is still lacking. We used analogue modelling to simulate in three-dimension the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during orthogonal rifting. In our models we simulated a typical "cold and young" 4-layer lithosphere stratigraphy: brittle upper crust (loose quartz sand), ductile lower crust (silicon-barite mixture), brittle upper mantle (loose quartz sand), and ductile lower mantle (silicon-barite mixture). The experimental lithosphere rested on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. We monitored model evolution by periodic and coeval laser scanning of both the surface topography and the lithosphere base. After model completion, each of the four layers was removed and the top of the underlying layer was scanned. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for both the whole lithosphere (βz) and the crust (γ). The area of incremental effective stretching (βy) parallel to the extensional direction was obtained from the βz maps.

  12. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  13. SERVICE ISSUES: overview of electric vehicles use in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan Truong; Nguyen, Quang Hung

    2015-01-01

    Due to the problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, the automotive industry has turned to the electrically powered vehicle. Electric Vehicles (EVs) such as electric two-wheelers and electric cars provide convenient local transportation and are becoming popular means of transport in Vietnam in recent years. Electric bicycles, electric motorbikes and electric cars appeared in Vietnam since the early 2000s and are growing very quickly. As of September 2015, Vietnam's...

  14. Economic integration and trade deficit: A case of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    BUI Trinh; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Vu, Trung Dien

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a quantitative analysis in order to figure out the reasons of continuousincrease of trade deficit in the last decade in Vietnam. After a long period of unceasing economicgrowth and macroeconomic stability, Vietnam has become one of the attractive investment destinationsfor many foreigner investors. However, the country starts to worry about its overall economic situationafter overexciting the first half of 2007 when Vietnam officially joined the World Trade Orga...

  15. Public Attitudes toward a Market Economy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Hac, Pham; Thanh Nghi, Pham

    2006-01-01

    This paper first describes Vietnam's experience with the doimoi reforms, and how these reforms have affected the economy. Over the past two decades, Vietnam has undergone a profound economic transformation, and this is a continuing process. Then, the paper examines public orientations toward the market and the values underlying market competition, drawing upon the World Values Survey in Vietnam and additional survey evidence from the Institute of Human Studies

  16. Vietnam's Economic Transformation and Convergence with the Dynamic ASEAN Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn L Gates

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam's market reform process and the adoption of economic institutions that have also fueled rapid economic growth and industrialization in the dynamic ASEAN economies (DAEs) have reversed the decades of growing divergence between it and the DAEs. Nevertheless, a fundamental dichotomy or “transitional gap” between Vietnam and the DAEs remains. This is partly an outcome of Vietnam's resistance to adopt two other crucial components of the DAEs' experience: robust private sector development a...

  17. State of the environment and natural resources in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is considered as one of the countries having rich resources from forest and sea, with a high average annual rainfall. However, in view of IWRA, water volume per capita annually in Vietnam is lower than the standard for nations having water resources at average level. Vietnam was recognized by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as having three out of more than 200 biological zones of the world. Flora and fauna in Vietnam are very rich and abundant, but due to indiscriminate exploitation, al...

  18. Determinants of foreign direct investment in Vietnam 1988-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam from 1988-2009. It examines the nature, motivation and impact of FDI upon the Vietnam economy and its contribution to the subsequent leap forward in economic growth. The focus is on developing Dunning’s eclectic theory through case study analysis of Honda-Vietnam Motorbike Company and ANZ-Vietnam Bank. The prominent theories on FDI generally used in the thesis focus on Vernon’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) model, the Ma...

  19. Reconciling the shadow of a subduction signature with rift geochemistry and tectonic environment in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasurier, Wesley E.; Choi, Sung Hi; Hart, Stanley R.; Mukasa, Sam; Rogers, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Basalt-trachyte volcanoes in the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) Cenozoic province lie along the Amundsen Sea coast on the north flank of the West Antarctic rift. Basalts here are characterized by OIB-like geochemistry, restricted ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.702535-0.703284) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512839-0.513008) and a wide range of 206Pb/204Pb (19.357-20.934). Basalts at three MBL volcanoes display two anomalies compared with the above and with all other basalts in West Antarctica. They include 143Nd/144Nd (0.512778-0.512789) values at Mt. Takahe and Mt. Siple that are 2σ lower than other West Antarctic basalts, and Ba/Nb, Ba/La, and Ba/Th values at Mt. Murphy and Mt. Takahe that are 3-8 times higher than normal OIB. Isotope and trace element data do not support crustal and lithospheric mantle contamination, or the presence of residual mantle amphibole or phlogopite as explanations of these anomalies. The apparent coincidence of these anomalies with the site of a pre-Cenozoic convergence zone along the Gondwanaland margin suggests a subduction influence. Major episodes of subduction and granitic plutonism took place in MBL during the Devonian, Permian, and Late Cretaceous. Relicts in the source region, of components from these subducted slabs, provide a credible explanation for the uncoupling of Ba from other large ion lithophile elements (LILE), for its erratic distribution, and for the anomalously low 143Nd/144Nd at Mt. Takahe. The last episode of subduction ended ~ 85 Ma, and was followed by continental break-up, rifting and lithospheric attenuation that produced the West Antarctic rift as we know it today. Thus, the enigmatic geochemical signatures in these three volcanoes seem to have been preserved roughly 61-85 m.y. after subduction ended. New calculations of source melting depth and a new determination of lithospheric thickness suggest that the source of the anomalies resides in a fossil mélange diapir that rose from the Cretaceous subducting slab, became attached to the

  20. Hierarchical segmentation of the Malawi Rift: The influence of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity and kinematics in the evolution of continental rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Al-Salmi, Haifa S.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.

    2015-12-01

    We used detailed analysis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-digital elevation model and observations from aeromagnetic data to examine the influence of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity and kinematics in the segmentation of largely amagmatic continental rifts. We focused on the Cenozoic Malawi Rift, which represents the southern extension of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. This north trending rift traverses Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic structures of different orientations. We found that the rift can be hierarchically divided into first-order and second-order segments. In the first-order segmentation, we divided the rift into Northern, Central, and Southern sections. In its Northern Section, the rift follows Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic terrains with structural grain that favored the localization of extension within well-developed border faults. The Central Section occurs within Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic terrain with regional structures oblique to the rift extent. We propose that the lack of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity favoring extension localization resulted in the development of the rift in this section as a shallow graben with undeveloped border faults. In the Southern Section, Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic rocks were reactivated and developed the border faults. In the second-order segmentation, only observed in the Northern Section, we divided the section into five segments that approximate four half-grabens/asymmetrical grabens with alternating polarities. The change of polarity coincides with flip-over full-grabens occurring within overlap zones associated with ~150 km long alternating border faults segments. The inherited lithospheric heterogeneity played the major role in facilitating the segmentation of the Malawi Rift during its opening resulting from extension.

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.

  2. Adoption of agile software development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung Hieu; Duong, Nhat Duy

    2014-01-01

    Agile software development method is considered as an essential for software companies, bringing critical benefits. The adoption and implementation of agile software development method enable organizations to adapt to the dramatically changing business environment. This thesis aims at investigating the adoption practices of agile development methods in companies in Vietnam, with three main goals. The first one is to explore the reasons and motivations determining the adoption of agile dev...

  3. Geography and economic growth in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Thu Hien Laura; Santos, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from Vietnam, this paper estimates the determinants of consumption growth for the period 2002-04, using a microgrowth model. While controlling for individual heterogeneity, particular attention is devoted to the question of whether geography, broadly defined to include natural and man-made characteristics at the level of the commune, can be responsible for lower growth rates and, consequently, poverty persistence. We find very limited support for this hypothesis. Neither publ...

  4. Checklist of the marine macroalgae of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T.V.; Le, H.N.; Lin, S. M.; Steen, F. van der; De Clerck, O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a rich seaweed flora, information about Vietnamese seaweeds is scattered throughout a large number of often regional publications and, hence, difficult to access. This paper presents an up-to-date checklist of the marine macroalgae of Vietnam, compiled by means of an exhaustive bibliographical search and revision of taxon names. A total of 827 species are reported, of which the Rhodophyta show the highest species number (412 species), followed by the Chlorophyta (180 species), Phaeoph...

  5. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Van, P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their vegetable crops from pests and disease attacks, started using more pesticides. Pesticide use in agriculture has, therefore, increased astonishingly in recent decades which causes increasing anxiet...

  6. Dairy Production in Vietnam : Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOGAWA, hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Tsunemasa

    2004-01-01

    Dairy cow raising in Vietnam has been assessed as a key occupation to neet the sosiety's denabd for high nutritive food products and to improve cash income for farmers. The overall objective of the study thus is to examine the development of dairy production in the country over last years, and then to point out its opportunities and challenges to have a good strategy for next development. The reseach results are mostly based on secondary data collected from different sources. Descriptive stat...

  7. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  8. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Returns in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Van Hang

    2008-01-01

    Capital market development, especially the appearance of Vietnamese equity market recently has a strategic importance in the economic growth and structural reform process of Vietnam (Chun et al, 2003). This dissertation focuses on the impacts of macroeconomic forces on stock market returns in Vietnamese stock market which has not been investigated in detail before, and thereby to contribute further literature on this new emerging stock market. Specifically, the research will intensively inves...

  9. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  10. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, Lydia A; Wilke, Franziska D H; Olago, Daniel O; Odada, Eric O; Mulch, Andreas; Musolff, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02-75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F(-) concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2-9.2mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27-75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from -6.2 to +5.8‰ and -31.3 to +33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750-6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management in Naivasha as well as similar active rift setting environments. PMID:26775113

  11. Seepage in Vietnam - onshore and offshore examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, J.J.; Sladen, C. [BP Exploration, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrocarbon seepages in Vietnam are generally linked to migration from Tertiary source rocks, and seeps are present both onshore and offshore. Residual oil can be observed at outcrop in breached traps within Tertiary sections and in exhumed `buried hill` traps in pre-Tertiary rocks in the onshore Hanoi Basin. There is active oil seepage on the western margin of the offshore Phu Khanh Basin through fractured granites that outcrop at the basin margin. There are examples of onshore gas seepages in southern Vietnam. These are predominantly non-hydrocarbon, mantle-derived gases, sometimes mixed with biogenic methane, and are seeping via hot springs from fractured Mezosoic igneous rocks in active fault zones. Offshore, in the Nam Con Son Basin, sonar, seismic data and sea bed cores show a variety of seepage features, including shallow gas anomalies, mounds and pockmarks on the sea bed, and gas effects in the water column, sometimes visible on sonar records. However, sea bed seepage features are not particularly common, and have a low preservation potential in the area due to powerful sea bed currents. Aircraft surveys of the sea surface have revealed several oil slicks that could be related to active oil seepages in the Nam Con Son Basin. Seepage appears to be occurring in Vietnam at two fundamentally different rates. `Background` seepages flow at low rates, typically tens of thousands of cubic feet per day of gas, and up to tens of barrels per day of oil. (author)

  12. Rifting of Continental Interiors: Some New Geophysical Data and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rifting is one of the major processes that affect the evolution of the continents. This process sometimes leads to continental breakup and the formation of new oceans, but more often does not. This is presumably due to extension not progressing sufficiently to form a new plate margin resulting in a structure, which remains isolated in an intra-plate environment. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is such a feature, and the continental portion of the East African rift system may be a modern example. As more detailed geophysical and geological studies of rifts have become available in recent years, a complex picture of rift structure and evolution has emerged. Global patterns that reveal the connections between lithospheric structure (deep and shallow), magmatism (amount and style), amount of extension, uplift, and older structures remain elusive. However, our geophysical studies of modern and paleo rifts in North America, East Africa, and Europe makes it possible to make some general observations: 1). Magmatism in rifts is modest without the presence of a (pre-existing?) thermal anomaly in the mantle. 2). Magmatic modification of the crust takes many forms which probably depend on the nature of older structures present and the state of the lithosphere when rifting is initiated (i.e. cold vs. hot; fertility), 3) There is no clear relation between amount of extension and the amount of magmatic modification of the crust. 4) Brittle deformation in the upper crustal is complex, often asymmetrical and older features often play important roles in focusing deformation. However on a lithospheric scale, rift structure is usually symmetrical. 5) A better understanding of rift processes is emerging as we achieve higher levels of integration of a wide variety of geoscience data.

  13. Controls on mineralisation during early Damara rifting in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late Proterozoic Damara Orogen in central Namibia initiated as a triple junction centred near the present coastal town of Swakopmund. Early rifting within the inland arm is believed to have been controlled by two north-northwest-dipping detachment faults. Of the two resulting asymmetric rift basins, the southern one developed into a small ocean, the Khomas sea. It is concluded that the present distribution of mineral deposits in the inland branch of the Damara Orogen was controlled by detachment faulting and associated fluid flows during the rifting stage of the basin development. Subsequent processes may have led to further concentration of initially metal-enriched protoliths. 1 fig., 10 refs

  14. Diffuse Radiation from the Aquila Rift

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothy, S N; Karuppath, Narayanankutty; Sujatha, N V

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse ultraviolet (UV) background in a low latitude region near the Aquila Rift based on observations made by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The UV background is at a level of about 2000 ph cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 \\AA^-1 with no correlation with either the Galactic latitude or the 100 micron infrared (IR) emission. Rather, the UV emission falls off with distance from the bright B2 star HIP 88149, which is in the centre of the field. We have used a Monte Carlo model to derive an albedo of 0.6 - 0.7 in the UV with a phase function asymmetry factor (g) of 0.2 - 0.4. The value for the albedo is dependent on the dust distribution while g is determined by the extent of the halo.

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  17. Teleseismic body wave tomography within a highly extended continental rift: the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Z.; Abers, G. A.; Jin, G.; Kim, Y.; Gaherty, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea, has been a region of westward-propagating continental extension for 6-8 Ma, grading westward from seafloor spreading to newly thinned continent. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands (DIs) lie immediately to the west of the youngest spreading centres in continental crust that has undergone 140-190 km of extension. These islands are dominated by metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) containing 5-6 Ma ultra-high pressure (UHP) coesite-eclogite exhumed at ~20 mm/yr coeval with extension. An array of 31 PASSCAL broadband seismometers and 8 broadband OBSs was installed around the region from 2010-2011 to investigate the thinned continent close to the onset of seafloor spreading. We present results of a teleseismic P- and S- wave tomography study that images the mantle beneath the rapidly extending continent. Preliminary observations include strong azimuthal dependence of differential travel times, indicating significant lateral velocity variations and inferred thermal gradients. Using Ps receiver functions and SsPmP reflections, we estimate variations in Moho depth to correct for the crustal effect on travel times. We observe large (>1s) travel time delays beneath the DIs in both P and S arrivals, while stations on the Trobriand Islands and Papuan Peninsula exhibit travel time deficits of 1-2 s. This indicates that lithosphere is thinnest beneath the DIs, along the axis of the rift, in agreement with the location of Quaternary volcanism and consistent with results from surface waves [Ge et al., AGU2013 abstract] and a previous, lower-resolution tomographic study nearby. There is also evidence for moderately thinned lithosphere in the basin immediately south of the DIs. We have previously established strong, spreading-parallel anisotropy from SKS splitting caused by mantle olivine fabric beneath the DIs and the Trobriand Platform, inferred to represent asthenospheric flow in response to rifting. Detailed tomography will reveal how thinning of

  18. Phenotypic characterization of goat breeds in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are eight goat breeds in Vietnam with more than 1.5 thousand heads and about 95% of them are indigenous breeds. As one of the important livestock species, goat also plays an important role in income earning and poverty alleviation in the rural areas and is potential resource for supplying high quality meat. The Vietnamese indigenous goat breeds were created many years ago by indiscriminate crossbreeding under natural selection or crossbreeding with imported breeds. Therefore, This study is being carried out to phenotypic characterize the goat populations of the country as part of Characterization of Small Ruminant Genetic Resources in Asia supported by Vietnamese basis research project in life sciences and IAEA. Methods: Survey and distribute the questionnaires for interviewing, collect data, morphology description of the breeds and their productivity performance, where available. The research was carried out in five provinces in different geographic areas as follows: Northern Vietnam: Ha Giang province; Red river delta: HaTay province; Western Vietnam: Son la province, center Vietnam: Thanh Hoa and Ninh Thuan Provinces. The results showed that the goat population in the North is 72,5%, the south is 27,5%, in which 12,3% is in Tay Nguyen, 8,9% is in Central Coast, 2,5 % and 3,8% are in East and West Southern part consequently. The Goat population distributes mainly in the Northern Mountains, about 48% of all over country and 67% of the North (MARD). Co native goats, the most common goat breed of the country, are reared under semi-intensive or extensive system by rural peoples. The Co goat population distributes all over the country, but concentrates mainly in the North Mountains and midland provinces; they are raised for meat. There are several kinds of Co goat breeds separate by colours and figures. The Bach Thao goat population is raised mainly in central coastal provinces for both meat and milk. Six breeds were introduced to Vietnam for milk and meat

  19. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  20. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has become more…

  1. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  2. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  3. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  4. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  5. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  6. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  7. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...... are striking. A ‘one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  8. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  9. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  10. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  11. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). \\2\\ See, generally, Goldenquality... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and...

  12. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  13. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  14. Serpentized mantle at rifted margins: The Goban Spur example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, A. D.; Minshull, T. A.

    2002-12-01

    The crustal structure of rifted continental margins can tell us about the processes that operated from continental extension to eventual break-up and sea floor spreading. Variations between margins may record different processes operating during extension or indicate changes in the external geological controls such as mantle plume influence. Extension between Europe and North America began in the mid Cretaceous, dated at the Goban Spur-Flemish Cap rift as late Hauterivian-early Barremian (126-128 Ma) from deep sea drilling (DSDP leg 80) results on the Goban Spur margin. Marine magnetic anomaly 34 can be identified clearly on both margins and indicates that sea floor spreading began no later than 83 Ma. Syn-rift volcanism is limited to a 20 km basaltic body, with considerable lateral extent, at the foot of the continental slope, emplaced at the end of continental rifting. \

  15. Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payment...

  16. Water balance of lakes in the Kenya Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rift Valley of Kenya contains lakes which cover the spectrum from comparatively fresh to hypersaline (here denoting high bicarbonate rather than chloride concentration). Lake water chemistry is the product of the balance between inflows, outflows and evaporation, and therefore provides a key to the understanding of lake hydrology. Isotope techniques are particularly important in an area like the Rift Valley, where lakes have no surface egress, but may have considerable subsurface outflow. 1 fig

  17. Exploring the contrasts between fast and slow rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.; de Monserrat, Albert; White, Lloyd; Hall, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Researchers are now finding that extension sometimes occurs at rates much faster than the mean rates observed in the development of passive margins. Examples of rapid and ultra-rapid extension are found in several locations in Eastern Indonesia. This includes in northern and central Sulawesi as well as in eastern- and westernmost New Guinea. The periods of extension are associated with sedimentary basin growth as well as phases of crustal melting and rapid uplift. This is recorded through seismic imagery of basins offshore Sulawesi and New Guinea as well as through new field studies of the onshore geology in these regions. A growing body of new geochronological and biostratigraphic data provide some control on the rates of processes, indicating that rates of extension are typically at least twice as fast and potentially an order of magnitude faster than the fastest rates applied for more commonly studied rift settings (e.g. Atlantic opening, East African Rift, Australia-Antarctica opening). Here we explore a suite of experiments more appropriate for rifting episodes in Eastern Indonesia, and compare the evolution of these 'fast' (20-100 mm/year full rate) rifting models to experiments with the same crustal geometries rifting at ~5-20 mm/year. In particular, we explore to what depths hot lower crust and mantle can be exhumed by fast rifting, and whether we can produce the p-T-t paths implied by recent onshore geological studies.

  18. Frog value chain case study in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Frog is valuable product in Vietnam but the natural frogs are overexploited thus, the new model to raising frog is desired. Many species of frogs are cultured in Vietnam, especially in Ho Chi Minh City, for trial of the adaptive ability of exotic species in Vietnam condition. Recently, the frogs’ species from Thailand and Taiwan are prepotent and spread out Vietnam. Nowadays, frog culture becomes one of the newest industries in Vietnam. With a short life cycle, frog culture is farming as econ...

  19. The Central Lake Malawi (Nyasa) Rift: single or multiple rift segments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, T.; Scholz, C. A.; Shillington, D. J.; Accardo, N. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.

    2015-12-01

    Accommodation zones connect rift segments, which are fundamental elements of continental rift architecture. The sedimentary record aids our assessment of the evolution of this linkage. The central basin of Lake Malawi is one of the most structurally complex regions of the Malawi Rift. Border fault margins have been interpreted on both shorelines; three structures within the basin have been interpreted as segments of a corresponding accommodation zone. We investigate these structures by integrating single- and multi-channel reflection seismic data, including new MCS acquired in 2015 for the SEGMeNT project. The stratigraphic record in the central basin, inferred from seismic reflection profiles, provides compelling evidence that most fault-related subsidence is accommodated by the western border fault. Strata on both sides of all three structures dip to the west. The pre-rift basement in the sub-basin west of the central structure is considerably deeper (~ 4 s TWTT sub-bottom) than that in the broader eastern sub-basin (~ 2.5 s TWTT sub-bottom). A syncline in the eastern sub-basin shows little variation in seismic facies, particularly over the last 1.3 m.y. In contrast, the western sub-basin exhibits seismic facies indicative of fluvial input from two major rivers, siliciclastic input from the border fault footwall rising > 1000 m above lake level, and mud diapirs in the deepest part of the sub-basin. Horizons pierced by these diapirs onlap the central structure, suggesting diapir rise postdates relative uplift of the structure. Correlations with the age model from a 2005 scientific drilling project will better constrain this timing. The structural high helps focus siliciclastic sediments into the sub-basin, resulting in the overpressure conditions required for mud diapirism. We hypothesize that the diapirs are the result of sediment loading in the deep main depocenter of the central basin rather than fault mechanisms. The basement highs in the central basin control

  20. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  1. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment......This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...

  2. Land Titling and Rural Transition in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quy-Toan; Iyer, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    We examine the impact of the 1993 Land Law of Vietnam, which gave households the power to exchange, transfer, lease, inherit, and mortgage their land-use rights. We use household surveys before and after the law was passed, together with the considerable variation across provinces in the speed of implementation of the reform, to identify the impact of the law. We find that the additional land rights led to statistically significant increases in the share of total area devoted to long-term cro...

  3. The South China sea margins: Implications for rifting contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D.E.; Nissen, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Implications regarding spatially complex continental rifting, crustal extension, and the subsequent evolution to seafloor spreading are re-examined for the northern and southern-rifted margins of the South China Sea. Previous seismic studies have shown dramatic differences in the present-day crustal thicknesses as the manifestations of the strain experienced during the rifting of the margin of south China. Although the total crustal extension is presumed to be the same along the margin and adjacent ocean basin, the amount of continental crustal extension that occurred is much less along the east and central segments of the margin than along the western segment. This difference was accommodated by the early formation of oceanic crust (creating the present-day South China Sea basin) adjacent to the eastern margin segment while continued extension of continental crust was sustained to the west. Using the observed cross-sectional areas of extended continental crust derived from deep penetration seismics, two end-member models of varying rift zone widths and varying initial crustal thicknesses are qualitatively examined for three transects. Each model implies a time difference in the initiation of seafloor spreading inferred for different segments along the margin. The two models examined predict that the oceanic crust of the South China Sea basin toward the west did not begin forming until sometime between 6-12 my after its initial formation (???32 Ma) toward the east. These results are compatible with crustal age interpretations of marine magnetic anomalies. Assuming rifting symmetry with conjugate margin segments now residing along the southern portions of the South China Sea basin implies that the total width of the zone of rifting in the west was greater than in the east by about a factor of two. We suggest the most likely causes of the rifting differences were east-west variations in the rheology of the pre-rift crust and associated east-west variations in the

  4. Rift Valley fever ecology and early warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rift Valley fever (RVF) once again dramatically affected the Horn of Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania) in 2006-2007. This outbreak was linked to unusual rainfall associated with climatic events (El Nino), which affected the populations of the mosquitoes acting as vectors and reservoirs of the disease. The disease also reappeared in Sudan in the autumn of 2007, following excessive rainfall driven by a post-El Nino, unusually warm sea temperature in the Indian Ocean. In the same year and in 2008, the disease affected southern Africa countries (Swaziland, South Africa) and islands in the Indian Ocean (Comoros, Mayotte, Madagascar). Based on near real-time climatic data, forecasting models and Early Warning Systems were available at the continental level and proved to be efficient in raising the alert before the onset of the epidemic, at least for the coastal countries of eastern Africa. In addition, these recent events gave an opportunity to review the natural history of RVF, especially in some places where its ecology was poorly documented. FAO and WHO officers widely use outcomes from the different models and then identified gaps or needs that could be filled in order to improve the use of these predictions. A brainstorming meeting was organized in Rome in September 2008 to discuss adjustments and complementarities of the existing models, as forecasting and early warning systems are the key points that may provide a time window for preventive measures, before the amplification of the virus is out of control. (author)

  5. Bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerlicher Widerstand in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Berghuber

    2015-01-01

    Ausgehend vom Commonsdiskurs und von anarchistischen Vorstellungen über bäuerliches Leben als Vorbild für eine solidarische Gesellschaft untersucht der vorliegende Artikel bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerliche Kämpfe gegen herrschende Schichten auf dem Gebiet von Belarus seit der Abschaffung der Leibeigenschaft 1861. Anhaltspunkte bäuerlicher Selbstorganisation stellen die Obschtschina sowie Kooperationen bei der Produktion und der Maschinennutzung...

  6. Band-overlap metallization of BaS, BaSe and BaTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Wilkins, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The insulator-metal transition volumes for BaS, BaSe, and BaTe are calculated for the first time, using the self-consistent augmented spherical wave technique. The metallized transition volumes are smaller than those corresponding to the NaCl yields CsCl structural transitions, but, 10 to 15% larger than those obtained by the Herzfeld dielectric theory. The calculated equilibrium energy gaps in the NaCl structure underestimate the measured ones by 50 to 60%.

  7. Desperately seeking model countries: The World Bank in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Cling; Mireille Razafindrakoto; François Roubaud

    2009-01-01

    (english) Vietnam is a very important country for the World Bank. It is the first recipient of IDA credits. It is also presented by the Bank as a model country for development success, especially in terms of poverty reduction. At the same time, the Bank is very active in Vietnam: it is the first provider of development aid; it is also the leader in economic research. Starting from a detailed diagnosis on the Bank’s activities in Vietnam and on the contents of policies it promotes in this coun...

  8. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  9. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  10. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  11. Orogenic structural inheritance and rifted passive margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Mora, Claudio A.; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Structural inheritance is related to mechanical weaknesses in the lithosphere due to previous tectonic events, e.g. rifting, subduction and collision. The North and South Atlantic rifted passive margins that formed during the breakup of Western Gondwana, are parallel to the older Caledonide and the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic belts. In the South Atlantic, 'old' mantle lithospheric fabric resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine is suggested to play a role during rifted margin formation (Tommasi and Vauchez, 2001). Magnetometric and gravimetric mapping of onshore structures in the Camamu and Almada basins suggest that extensional faults are controlled by two different directions of inherited older Brasiliano structures in the upper lithosphere (Ferreira et al., 2009). In the South Atlantic Campos Basin, 3D seismic data indicate that inherited basement structures provide a first order control on basin structure (Fetter, 2009). Here we investigate the role of structural inheritance on the formation of rifted passive margins with high-resolution 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments. The numerical domain is 1200 km long and 600 km deep and represents the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Model experiments were carried out by creating self-consistent orogenic inheritance where a first phase of orogen formation is followed by extension. We focus in particular on the role of varying amount of orogenic shortening, crustal rheology, contrasting styles of orogen formation on rifted margin style, and the time delay between orogeny and subsequent rifted passive formation. Model results are compared to contrasting structural styles of rifted passive margin formation as observed in the South Atlantic. Ferreira, T.S., Caixeta, J.M., Lima, F.D., 2009. Basement control in Camamu and Almada rift basins. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás 17, 69-88. Fetter, M., 2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution

  12. Mid-lithospheric Discontinuity Beneath the Malawi Rift, Deduced from Gravity Studies and its Relation to the Rifting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njinju, E. A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Mickus, K. L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The World Gravity Map satellite gravity data were used to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath the Cenozoic-age Malawi Rift which forms the southern extension of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. An analysis of the data using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum methods indicates the two distinctive discontinuities at depths of 31‒44 km and 64‒124 km as defined by the two steepest slopes of the power spectrum curves. The shallower discontinuity corresponds to the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) and compares well with Moho depth determined from passive seismic studies. To understand the source of the deeper discontinuity, we applied the 2D power spectrum analysis to other rift segments of the Western Branch as well as regions with stable continental lithospheres where the lithospheric structure is well constrained through passive seismic studies. We found that the deeper discontinuity corresponds to a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), which is known to exist globally at depths between 60‒150 km and as determined by passive seismic studies. Our results show that beneath the Malawi Rift, there is no pattern of N-S elongated crustal thinning following the surface expression of the Malawi Rift. With the exception of a north-central region of crustal thinning (Malawi Rift forming a N-S trending zone with depths of 64‒80 km, showing a broad and gentle topography. We interpret the MLD as representing a sharp density contrast resulting from metasomatized lithosphere due to lateral migration along mobile belts of hot mantle melt or fluids from a distant plume and not from an ascending asthenosphere. These fluids weaken the lithosphere enhancing rift nucleation. The availability of satellite gravity worldwide makes gravity a promising technique for determining the MLD globally.

  13. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... Communication and Grammar' class in Denmark, a 'Financial Management' class in Vietnam and a 'Marketing Management' class in Egypt. To analyze the data collected, the researcher developed a model based on a constructivist understanding of learning processes. Three detailed descriptions of observations made...... in the above mentioned classes by the researcher are offered in this paper. In the "Learning Situations" (LS) observed in Denmark, the interaction is interpreted as arranged in agreement with basic constructivist principles, whereas the interaction in Vietnam is predominantly student-teacher centered...

  14. Small modular reactor for developing countries as Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology with SMRs less than 300 MWt is an advanced development of nuclear power. What the role do SMRs play among developing countries such as Vietnam? Some comments and assessment are subjects for discussion in this paper. (author)

  15. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  16. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migr

  17. Tectonics and sedimentology of post-rift anomalous vertical movements: the rifted margin of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Charton, Remi; Luber, Tim; Arantegui, Angel; Redfern, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Roughly 15 years ago it was discovered that substantial parts of the Morocco passive continental margin experienced km-scale, post-rift exhumation. It was predicted that the sands resulting from the associated erosion would be present in the offshore and potentially form hydrocarbon reservoirs. At the same time, anomalous post-rift vertical movements have been documented in various localities of the world and rifted continental margins are at present exciting objects of research. Following intense research efforts the knowledge of the kinematics of vertical movements and their implications for sedimentary systems is increasing. The low-T geochronology initially limited to the classical Meseta-Massif Ancien de Marrakech transect has been expanded reaching the Reguibate Massif to the S and covering, possibly more importantly, one transect in E-W direction along the Anti Atlas. Exhumation occurred along two dominant trends. In N-S direction a several hundred-kilometers long exhuming domain developed roughly parallel to the Atlantic margin. Changes in magnitude and timing of exhumation are observed along this elevated domain associated with E-W trending undulations. The timing of main stage of upward movement of E-W trending highs seems to be Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in the Meseta and High Atlas and somewhat older, Early to Middle Jurassic, in the Anti-Atlas and Reguibate. The discovery of E-W trending highs and lows has major implication for sediment distribution and dispersal. At the large scale, it means that the drainage basins were smaller than initially predicted. This seems to be compatible with the paucity of sands encountered by recent exploration wells drilled offshore Morocco. At the scale of several kilometers, W-E trending anticlines and synclines developed in a generally subsiding coastal environment. These folds often had an expression at the sea floor documented by ravinement surfaces and (Jurassic) reef build-ups on top of the anticlines

  18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  19. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  20. Students' expectation toward service of recruiment agencies in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to explore the expectations of students studying abroad to recruitment agencies in Vietnam. The study aims at recommend the right service for recruit-ment agencies offer to students to find a job and explore the culture obstacles for their career development when return home. The study originated from author’s own experience when finding an internship in Vietnam. The theoretical framework is based on relevant areas of theories of recruitment process, na-...

  1. Vietnam: An Emerging Economy at a CrossRoads

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Truong

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the institutional structure of the business system of Vietnam. It explores the role of the state, the financial system, ownership and corporate governance, the internal structure of the firm (management), employment relations, education and skills formation, inter-company relations (networks), and social capital. It highlights the critical crossroads Vietnam is facing, after a period of steady growth, in a desperate effort to save its economy from going virt...

  2. Review of Rice Policies in China, Thailand and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Xie; Orachos Napasintuwong

    2014-01-01

    China, Thailand, and Vietnam are key players in world rice market in terms of production and trade. In the past few decades, rice policies in these three countries have changed significantly resulted in changes in production, exports and influences in the world market. This paper reviews major rice policy reforms in China, Thailand and Vietnam during past five decades. It is observed that although each country has practiced different policies at different periods, with the economic developmen...

  3. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.;

    2013-01-01

    Miocene carbonate platforms cover a large part of the Central Vietnamese South China Sea margin. Early carbonate deposition took place on two regional platforms separated by a narrow depression developed along the trace of the East Vietnam Boundary Fault Zone. West of the East Vietnam Boundary...... nutrient input derived from the uplifted mainland, possibly enhanced by deteriorated climatic conditions and rapid sea-level fluctuations promoting platform drowning....

  4. Networks of Enterprises and Innovations: Evidence from SMEs in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Quang Hung; Vu, Hoang Nam

    2016-01-01

    By using the latest dataset from the survey of SMEs conducted in Vietnam in 2011, we show that a firm both participating in a wider network of input suppliers, buyers, and associations of enterprises and conducting innovative activities in production has higher labor productivity than others, implying that networks of enterprises and innovation are complementary to each other in affecting performance of SMEs in Vietnam. We also find that supports of the government including providing better i...

  5. Factors Affecting Outsourcing Software Development from Finland to Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a steady trend in the growth of Offshore Outsourcing Soft-ware Development projects from Finland. At the same time, Vietnam has been quickly growing as a competitive outsourcing destination. Many outsourcing vendors from Vietnam want to enter Finnish software development market through contracts of outsourcing projects. They have neither had a competitive edge of international business relation nor a deep understanding of the Finnish market. The objectives of the ...

  6. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  7. Lessons from enterprise reforms in China and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper surveys a few key features of SOE reforms in China and Vietnam, focusing particularly on the evolution of ownership structures and on the relative weight of market regulatory mechanisms, and discusses their general implications for socialist development. It tentatively concludes that some broad principles informing and constraining any feasible socialist-oriented economic strategy can indeed be identified. Keywords. Socialism SOEs China Vietnam.JEL. P20, P30, P31 O10, O25.

  8. Use of draft and working animals in agriculture of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Thanh Nga

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains analyzes the use of animals for agricultural development. Vietnam has been moving towards a market economy and modernization of agriculture. The rate of use of mechanization in agriculture is increasing; however, animals are used primarily on small farms. More than 50% of the total agriculture areas in Vietnam are still cultivated by draft animals, while only about 30% are cultivated by mechanization. The soil preparation by draft animals positively effects on yi...

  9. From rifting to passive margin: the examples of the Red Sea, Central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, P.; Stampfli, G. M.

    1992-12-01

    Evolution of the Red Sea/Gulf of Suez and the Central Atlantic rift systems shows that an initial, transtensive rifting phase, affecting a broad area around the future zone of crustal separation, was followed by a pre-oceanic rifting phase during which extensional strain was concentrated on the axial rift zone. This caused lateral graben systems to become inactive and they evolved into rift-rim basins. The transtensive phase of diffuse crustal extension is recognized in many intra-continental rifts. If controlling stress systems relax, these rifts abort and develop into palaeorifts. If controlling stress systems persist, transtensive rift systems can enter the pre-oceanic rifting stage, during which the rift zone narrows and becomes asymmetric as a consequence of simple-shear deformation at shallow crustal levels and pure shear deformation at lower crustal and mantle-lithospheric levels. Preceding crustal separation, extensional denudation of the lithospheric mantle is possible. Progressive lithospheric attenuation entails updoming of the asthenosphere and thermal doming of the rift shoulders. Their uplift provides a major clastic source for the rift basins and the lateral rift-rim basins. Their stratigraphic record provides a sensitive tool for dating the rift shoulder uplift. Asymmetric rifting leads to the formation of asymmetric continental margins, corresponding in a simple-shear model to an upper plate and a conjugate lower plate margin, as seen in the Central Atlantic passive margins of the United States and Morocco. This rifting model can be successfully applied to the analysis of the Alpine Tethys palaeo-margins (such as Rif and the Western Alps).

  10. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  11. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  12. Shear zone reactivation during South Atlantic rifting in NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, D.; Passchier, C. W.; Salomon, E.

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of inherited structures during rifting as well as an influence of inherited structures on the orientation of a developing rift has long been discussed (e.g. Piqué & Laville, 1996; Younes & McClay, 2002). Here, we present a qualitative and quantitative study of shear zone reactivation during the South Atlantic opening in NW Namibia. The study area comprises the Neo-Proterozoic rocks of the Kaoko Belt which was formed during the amalgamation of Gondwana. The Kaoko Belt encompasses the prominent ~500 km long ductile Purros shear zone and the Three Palms shear zone, both running sub-parallel to the present continental margin. The Kaoko Belt is partly overlain by the basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province, which with an age of ~133 Ma were emplaced just before or during the onset of the Atlantic rifting at this latitude. Combining the analysis of satellite imagery and digital elevation models with extensive field work, we identified numerous faults tracing the old shear zones along which the Etendeka basalts were down-faulted. The faults are often listric, yet we also found evidence for a regional scale basin formation. Our analysis allowed for constructing the geometry of three of these faults and we could thus estimate the vertical offsets to ~150 m, ~500 m, and ~1100 m, respectively. Our results contribute to the view that the basement inheritance plays a significant role on rifting processes and that the reactivation of shear zones can accumulate significant amounts of displacement. References: Pique, A. and E. Laville (1996). The Central Atlantic rifting: Reactivation of Paleozoic structures?. J. Geodynamics, 21, 235-255. Younes, I.A. and K. McClay (2002). Development of accommodation zones in the Gulf of Suez-Red Sea rift, Egypt. AAPG Bulletin, 86, 1003-1026.

  13. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  14. Lower crustal intrusions beneath the southern Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The Cenozoic Baikal Rift Zone (BRZ) is situated in south-central Siberia in the suture between the Precambrian Siberian Platform and the Amurian plate. This more than 2000-km long rift zone is composed of several individual basement depressions and half-grabens with the deep Lake Baikal at its...... of the crust and uppermost mantle. Previous interpretation and velocity modelling of P-wave arrivals in the BEST data has revealed a multi layered crust with smooth variation in Moho depth between the Siberian Platform (41 km) and the Sayan-Baikal fold belt (46 km). The lower crust exhibits normal seismic...

  15. Lithosphere Response to Intracratonic Rifting: Examples from Europe and Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.; Herceg, M.;

    2012-01-01

    of basaltic magmas and consequently in a change in mantle density and seismic velocities. Although kimberlite magmatism is commonly not considered as a rifting events, its deep causes may be similar to the mantle-driven rifting and, as a consequence, modification of mantle density and velocity structure may...... is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. We also use global shear-wave tomography models, gravity constraints based on GOCE data, and thermal models for the lithosphere to speculate on thermo...... in it seismic wave velocity and density structure....

  16. No Moho uplift below the Baikal Rift Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Thybo, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The late Cenozoic Baikal Rift Zone (BRZ) in southern Siberia is composed of several individual topographic depressions and half grabens with the deep Lake Baikal at its center. We have modeled the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle along a 360 km long profile of the Baikal...... Explosion Seismic Transects (BEST) project across the rift zone in the southern part of Lake Baikal. The seismic velocity structure along the profile is determined by tomographic inversion of first arrival times and 2-D ray tracing of first arrivals and reflections. The velocity model shows a gently...

  17. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  18. Distribution of trace metals and methylmercury in soft tissues of the freshwater eel Anguilla marmorata in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Nguyen, Duc Cu; Harino, Hiroya; Kakutani, Naoya; Chino, Naoko; Arai, Takaomi

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated trace metals in water, sediment, and various organs of the mature eel Anguilla marmorata in the Ba River, Vietnam. The metal concentrations in water and sediment did not exceed the Vietnam water criteria and sediment background concentration, except for Mn and Pb in sediment. The results of metal analysis in eel specimens indicated that the liver and kidney were the dominant organs for almost all trace metals, whereas muscle tended to accumulate high levels of Hg and approximately 87.4-100% of Hg was methylmercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle and age were found, but there was no correlation between mercury and body size. Interestingly, a high concentration of Zn was found in the gonad and liver; this indicated that high levels of Zn in the liver might play a physiologically important role in the eel's biological mechanisms during gonadal maturation. Though almost none of the metal concentrations in the muscle exceeded the reference doses of the U.S. EPA, approximately 80% of eels from the river contained mercury exceeding the recommended levels (0.30 microg/g) of the U.S. EPA and might present a risk for human consumption.

  19. Ba isotopic signature for early differentiation between Cs and Ba in natural fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2008-08-01

    Ba isotopic studies of the Oklo and Bangombé natural fission reactors in east Gabon provide information on the geochemical behavior of radioactive Cs ( 135Cs and 137Cs) in a geological medium. Large isotopic deviations derived from fissiogenic Ba were found in chemical leachates of the reactor uraninites. The fissiogenic Ba isotopic patterns calculated by subtracting the non-fissiogenic component are classified into three types that show different magnifications of chemical fractionation between Cs and Ba. In addition, the isotopic signatures of fissiogenic 135Ba, 137Ba and 138Ba suggest an early differentiation between Cs and Ba of less than 20 years after the production of fissiogenic Cs and Ba. On the other hand, only small excesses of 135Ba ( ɛ < +1.8) and/or 137Ba ( ɛ < +1.3) were identified in some clay samples, which might have resulted from selective adsorption of 135Cs and 137Cs that migrated from the reactors by differentiation.

  20. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  1. Andesite petrogenesis in a hybrid arc-rift setting: the Western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tuena, A.; Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.; Mori, L.

    2011-12-01

    The western sector of the Mexican subduction zone is characterized by the steep subduction of one of the youngest slabs on the planet (Rivera plate), and by the existence of a continental rift at ~230 km to the north from the trench (the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift, TZR), under which the subducted slab is either extremely deep or even absent (>250 km). The volcanic front is located at ~170 km from the trench and contains abundant potassic-alkaline lamprophyres with strong subduction (Ba/Ta= 1600-6000) and garnet signatures (Gd/Yb= 2-8), that have been recently interpreted as influenced by deep K2O-rich slab melts or supercritical fluids (Gómez-Tuena et al., 2011, GCA). In contrast, the most mafic rocks within the TZR are high-Nb, intraplate-like basalts that appear to derive from low extents of melting of a dryer (Ba/Ta= 800-60) and shallower (Gd/Yb= 2-2.5) mantle source. Even though a simple transition from an arc environment to an extensional tectonic regime is apparent when only the most primitive volcanic rocks are taken into account, the scenario becomes more complicated since at least five stratovolcanoes have been erupting typical arc andesites within the TZR over the last million years (San Juan, Sanganguey, Tepetiltic, Ceboruco and Tequila). Surprisingly, true calc-alkaline basalts that could be parental to andesites have not been found, indicating that andesites may have a direct mantle origin. Indeed, mayor and trace element compositions of volcanic rocks from western Mexico arrange in discrete suites with linear trends that are indicative of mixing, but they form sub-parallel arrays that do not converge to a common primitive basaltic melt, and often follow diverging trends in trace element-ratio plots. Melt-crust interactions likely occurred during magma ascent, since the volcanic rocks frequently include xenoliths and disequilibrium textures, but correlations among isotopic compositions and indexes of fractionation are not clearly observed in the

  2. Vietnam Vets with PTSD More Than Twice As Likely to Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Tuesday, June 25, 2013 Vietnam vets with PTSD more than twice as likely to ... a risk factor for heart disease among Vietnam vets. Computer-generated map of the heart of a ...

  3. The decay of 120Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    120Ba was produced by bombarding a 2 mg/cm2 thick 106Cd target with a 68 MeV 16O beam and fluorated in a helium-jet ion source. The decay of on-line mass separated activity 120Ba has been studied by γ-X, γ-γ and γ-β coincidence measurements. Its half-life was measured to be 24 ± 2s. The total decay energy was extracted to be QEG 5.0 ± 0.3 MeV. A simple decay scheme has been proposed

  4. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  5. The Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forum Held in Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2015-01-01

    The CPA FFC,the China Vietnam Friendship Association(CVFA),Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations(VUFO)and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association(VCFA)jointly held the Sixth Meeting of China-Vietnam People’s Forumin Nanning,capital of China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,from December1 to 3,2014,attracting delegates from political,economic,academic

  6. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  7. Extensional tectonics and collapse structures in the Suez Rift (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, P. Y.; Colletta, B.; Desforges, G.; Ousset, E.; Zaghloul, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Suez Rift is a 300 km long and 50 to 80 km wide basin which cuts a granitic and metamorphic shield of Precambrian age, covered by sediments of Paleozoic to Paleogene age. The rift structure is dominated by tilted blocks bounded by NW-SE normal faults. The reconstruction of the paleostresses indicates a N 050 extension during the whole stage of rifting. Rifting began 24 My ago with dikes intrusions; main faulting and subsidence occurred during Early Miocene producing a 80 km wide basin (Clysmic Gulf). During Pliocene and Quaternary times, faulting is still active but subsidence is restricted to a narrower area (Present Gulf). On the Eastern margin of the gulf, two sets of fault trends are predominant: (1) N 140 to 150 E faults parallel to the gulf trend with pure dip-slip displacement; and (2) cross faults, oriented NOO to N 30 E that have a strike-slip component consistent with the N 050 E distensive stress regime. The mean dip cross fault is steeper (70 to 80 deg) than the dip of the faults parallel to the Gulf (30 to 70 deg). These two sets of fault define diamond shaped tilted block. The difference of mechanical behavior between the basement rocks and the overlying sedimentary cover caused structural disharmony and distinct fault geometries.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L; Marston, Denise A; Johnson, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger

    2016-04-14

    Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is reported here. Originally reported as an attenuated antigenic variant strain from Uganda, genomic sequence analysis shows that Lunyo clusters together with other Ugandan isolates.

  9. The role of inherited crustal structures and magmatism in the development of rift segments: Insights from the Kivu basin, western branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Benoît; Delvaux, Damien; Ross, Kelly Ann; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2016-06-01

    The study of rift basin's morphology can provide good insights into geological features influencing the development of rift valleys and the distribution of volcanism. The Kivu rift segment represents the central section of the western branch of the East African Rift and displays morphological characteristics contrasting with other rift segments. Differences and contradictions between several structural maps of the Kivu rift make it difficult to interpret the local geodynamic setting. In the present work, we use topographic and bathymetric data to map active fault networks and study the geomorphology of the Kivu basin. This relief-based fault lineament mapping appears as a good complement for field mapping or mapping using seismic reflection profiles. Results suggest that rifting reactivated NE-SW oriented structures probably related to the Precambrian basement, creating transfer zones and influencing the location and distribution of volcanism. Both volcanic provinces, north and south of the Kivu basin, extend into Lake Kivu and are connected to each other with a series of eruptive vents along the western rift escarpment. The complex morphology of this rift basin, characterized by a double synthetic half-graben structure, might result from the combined action of normal faulting, magmatic underplating, volcanism and erosion processes.

  10. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  11. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  12. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order... Vietnam: Amended Antidumping Duty Orders in Accordance with Final Court Decision, 76 FR 23227 (April 26... Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,'' dated February 28, 2012. Non-Market Economy...

  13. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report regarding discussions held with third party experts concerning banking in Vietnam. See Memorandum.... Injury Test Because Vietnam is a ``Subsidies Agreement Country'' within the meaning of section 701(b) of... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74...

  14. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). The preliminary results are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 30, 2012....

  15. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  16. Water management problems in the Ethiopian rift: Challenges for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2007-06-01

    The Ethiopian rift is characterized by many perennial rivers and lakes occupying volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable hydrogeological setting. The rift lakes and rivers were the focal points for relatively large-scale water resources development. They are used for irrigation, soda abstraction, commercial fish farming, recreation and support a wide variety of endemic birds and wild animals. Ethiopia's major mechanized irrigation farms and commercial fishery are confined within the rift. A few of the lakes have shrunk as a result of excessive abstraction of water; others expanded due to increased surface runoff and groundwater flux from percolated over-irrigated fields and active tectonism. Excessive land degradation and deforestation have also played a role. Human factors, in combination with the natural conditions of climate and geology have influenced the water quality. The chemistry of some of the lakes has been changed dramatically. This paper tries to present the challenges of surface water resources development with particular reference to environmental problems caused in the last few decades. The methods employed include field hydrological mapping supported by aerial photograph and satellite imagery interpretations, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical data analysis and catchment hydrological modeling. A converging evidence approach was adapted to reconstruct the temporal and spatial variations of lake levels and the hydrochemistry. The result revealed that the major changes in the rift valley are related mainly to recent improper utilization of water and land resources in the rivers draining the rift floor and the lakes' catchment, and to direct lake water abstraction, aggravated intermittently by natural factors (climate and tectonism). These changes appear to have grave environmental consequences, which demand urgent integrated basin-wide water management practice.

  17. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  18. Phase formation in the BaB2O4-BaF2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, T. B.; Fedorov, P. P.; Kokh, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that the BaB2O4-BaF2 system is quasi-binary with the following eutectics coordinates: 760°C, 59 mol % BaF2, 41 mol % BaB2O4. Due to the intense pyrohydrolysis during the growth of β-BaB2O4 crystals from the 55.6 mol % BaB2O4-44.4 mol % BaF2 composition, the Ba5B4O11 compound is formed in the system. This process leads to the cocrystallization of the β-BaB2O4 and Ba5B4O11 phases and impedes the formation of high-quality crystals.

  19. Backarc rifting, constructional volcanism and nascent disorganised spreading in the southern Havre Trough backarc rifts (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysoczanski, R. J.; Todd, E.; Wright, I. C.; Leybourne, M. I.; Hergt, J. M.; Adam, C.; Mackay, K.

    2010-02-01

    High resolution multibeam (EM300 and SEABEAM) data of the Southern Havre Trough (SHT), combined with observations and sample collections from the submersible Shinkai6500 and deep-tow camera, are used to develop a model for the evolution and magmatism of this backarc system. The Havre Trough and the associated Kermadec Arc are the product of westward subduction at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Detailed studies focus on newly discovered features including a seamount (Saito Seamount) and a deep graben (Ngatoroirangi Rift, > 4000 m water depth floored with a constructional axial volcanic ridge > 5 km in length and in excess of 200 m high), both of which are characterised by pillow and lobate flows estimated at Mass balance modelling indicates a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 11 km to magmatism within deep SHT rifts, we propose that the SHT is in an incipient phase of distributed and "disorganised" oceanic crustal accretion in multiple, ephemeral, and short but deep (> 4000 m) spreading systems. These discontinuous spreading systems are characterised by failed rifts, rift segmentation, and propagation. Successive episodes of magmatic intrusion into thinned faulted arc basement results in defocused asymmetrical accretion. Cross-arc volcanic chains, isolated volcanoes and underlying basement plateaus are interpreted to represent a "cap" of recent extrusives. However, they may also be composed entirely of newly accreted crust and the spatially extensive basement fabric of elongated volcanic ridges may be the surface expression of pervasive dike intrusion that has thoroughly penetrated and essentially replaced the original arc crust with newly accreted intrusives.

  20. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  1. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  2. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  3. The oil and gas market in Vietnam : market brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy plans of Vietnam were presented. In order to meet the country's increasing demand for energy, Vietnam plans to spend $19.5 billion to restructure its energy sector between 2001 and 2021 by exploiting natural gas and crude oil, and through oil refining and power generation. Opportunities exist for Canadian oil and gas equipment and service suppliers, given the fact that the trade environment has become more open and that there has been an increase in approvals for foreign investment. The strongest commercial potential lies in service companies, particularly those in exploration, drilling, training, transportation and high-tech services. The major players in Vietnam have been the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, India, Korea, the United States and Germany. In 1999, Canada exported $6.5 million of oil and natural gas equipment to Vietnam. It is recommended that foreign investors make use of a local agent to conduct business in Vietnam to facilitate market entry. Imports of oil and gas equipment are subject to a value added tax of 10 per cent. Rates vary from 0 to 20 per cent for their goods and services. refs., tabs

  4. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  5. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez

    2016-04-01

    This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2

  6. A refinement of the chronology of rift-related faulting in the Broadly Rifted Zone, southern Ethiopia, through apatite fission-track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Philippon, Melody

    2016-03-01

    To reconstruct the timing of rift inception in the Broadly Rifted Zone in southern Ethiopia, we applied the fission-track method to basement rocks collected along the scarp of the main normal faults bounding (i) the Amaro Horst in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift and (ii) the Beto Basin in the Gofa Province. At the Amaro Horst, a vertical traverse along the major eastern scarp yielded pre-rift ages ranging between 121.4 ± 15.3 Ma and 69.5 ± 7.2 Ma, similarly to two other samples, one from the western scarp and one at the southern termination of the horst (103.4 ± 24.5 Ma and 65.5 ± 4.2 Ma, respectively). More interestingly, a second traverse at the Amaro northeastern terminus released rift-related ages spanning between 12.3 ± 2.7 and 6.8 ± 0.7 Ma. In the Beto Basin, the ages determined along the base of the main (northwestern) fault scarp vary between 22.8 ± 3.3 Ma and 7.0 ± 0.7 Ma. We ascertain through thermal modeling that rift-related exhumation along the northwestern fault scarp of the Beto Basin started at 12 ± 2 Ma while in the eastern margin of the Amaro Horst faulting took place later than 10 Ma, possibly at about 8 Ma. These results suggest a reconsideration of previous models on timing of rift activation in the different sectors of the Ethiopian Rift. Extensional basin formation initiated more or less contemporaneously in the Gofa Province (~ 12 Ma) and Northern Main Ethiopian Rift (~ 10-12 Ma) at the time of a major reorganization of the Nubia-Somalia plate boundary (i.e., 11 ± 2 Ma). Afterwards, rift-related faulting involved the Southern MER (Amaro Horst) at ~ 8 Ma, and only later rifting seemingly affected the Central MER (after ~ 7 Ma).

  7. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  8. Albertine Rift, Uganda: Deformation-Sedimentation-Erosion relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Brendan; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dauteuil, Olivier; Nalpas, Thierry; Bourges, Philippe; Bez, Martine; Lays, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The Albertine Rift is the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift that runs over a distance of around 2000 km from Lake Albert in the north to Lake Malawi in the south. Lake Albert Basin is assumed to be a classical half-graben initiated around 12 Ma and oriented NNW-SSW, with a major northwesterly bounding fault - the Bunia fault - located along the western Congolese shoreline (Ebinger, 1989; Pickford & al., 1993). The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between deformation, erosion, and sedimentation of the rift through time by restoring (1) the timing and amplitude of vertical movements (subsidence, uplift), (2) the geometry and paleo-environmental evolution (including climate) of the sedimentary infilling and (3) the geomorphological evolution of the surrounding area and associated erosion budget. Seismic data and outcrops studies suggest a much more complex history than previously described. (1) The age model, mainly based on mammal fossils (Pickford et al., 1993; Van Damme and Pickford, 2003), is debated, but the early stage of the rift is probably Middle Miocene. (2) No half-graben geometry has been characterized: the infilling consists of juxtaposed tabular compartments with sharp thicknesses variations along bounding faults, in response of either low rate extensional or combined strike-slip/extensional movements. The following onshore-offshore evolution is proposed: - Middle Miocene (~ 13 Ma) to Late Miocene (?): rifting 1 - differential subsidence along N60° faults - major deepening from fluvio-deltaic to deep lacustrine environments (maximum flooding at 8 Ma) - uplift, erosion and reworking of weathered profiles - first generation of pediments. - Late Miocene (?) to Late Pliocene (~ 3 Ma): quiescence phase - homogenous subsidence - lacustrine clays interbedded with sandy flood-lobes - uplift, erosion and reworking of ferruginous laterite (iron duricrusts) - second generation of pediments. - Late Pliocene (~ 3Ma) to

  9. Operation homecoming: psychological observations of repatriated Vietnam prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R S

    1975-02-01

    While in military service as a psychiatrist stationed at Scott Air Force Base, I had the opportunity to do the psychiatric evaluations on a number of the prisoners of war returning from North Vietnam. Scott Air Force Base is an area medical center (North Central United States), and was responsible for administering the medical and psychiatric examinations on all the men whose homes were in this area. Our hospital processed 29 returning POWS, of whom I saw 14. This group of POWS was probably unique in military history in that it was comprised almost entirely of officers. Their period of confinement was considerably longer than that of the prisoners of World War II and the Korean War, with the typical Vietnam POW being in captivity about six or seven years. This paper is an attempt to share my observations and thoughts on the experience of being a Vietnam Prisoner of War. PMID:1114192

  10. Vietnam: opportunities in a developing oil and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to act as an introduction to Vietnam and its oil industry opportunities for manufacturing, contracting, service and supplies companies which are seeking entry into other markets. The chapters of the report present an overview of the country, its recent history and formative events; in addition, the country's economy, industries and rebuilding process are reviewed. Detailed attention is given to trade, investment and finance, as these factors directly influence all business ventures in Vietnam, and are essential considerations in the assessment of the overall business environment. The appendices contain an extensive list of organisational contacts in Vietnam, the U.K. and elsewhere, and other useful information to support these activities. (author)

  11. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothen......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...... smoothening. The determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A 'one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  12. Fault evolution in the Potiguar rift termination, Equatorial margin of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. de Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transform shearing between South American and African plates in the Cretaceous generated a series of sedimentary basins on both plate margins. In this study, we use gravity, aeromagnetic, and resistivity surveys to identify fault architecture and to analyse the evolution of the eastern Equatorial margin of Brazil. Our study area is the southern onshore termination of the Potiguar rift, which is an aborted NE-trending rift arm developed during the breakup of Pangea. The Potiguar rift is a Neocomian structure located in the intersection of the Equatorial and western South Atlantic and is composed of a series of NE-trending horsts and grabens. This study reveals new grabens in the Potiguar rift and indicates that stretching in the southern rift termination created a WNW-trending, 10 km wide and ~40 km long right-lateral strike-slip fault zone. This zone encompasses at least eight depocenters, which are bounded by a left-stepping, en-echelon system of NW- to EW-striking normal faults. These depocenters form grabens up to 1200 m deep with a rhomb-shaped geometry, which are filled with rift sedimentary units and capped by post-rift sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the rift termination is consistent with the right-lateral shearing of the Equatorial margin in the Cretaceous and occurs not only at the rift termination, but also as isolated structures away from the main rift.

  13. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Vo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  14. Diverse Eruptions at Approximately 2,200 Years B.P. on the Great Rift, Idaho: Inferences for Magma Dynamics Along Volcanic Rift Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. E. Kobs; Borg, C.; Mallonee, H. C.; Purcell, S.; Neish, C.; Garry, W. B.; Haberle, C. W.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Compositionally and morphologically diverse lava flows erupted on the Great Rift of Idaho approximately 2.2 ka (kilo-annum, 1000 years ago) during a volcanic "flare-up" of activity following an approximately 2 ky (kiloyear, 1000 years) hiatus in eruptions. Volcanism at Craters of the Moon (COTM), Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields around this time included primitive and evolved compositions, separated over 75 kilometers along the approximately 85 kilometers-long rift, with striking variability in lava flow emplacement mechanisms and surface morphologies. Although the temporal associations may be coincidental, the system provides a planetary analog to better understand magma dynamics along rift systems, including that associated with lunar floor-fractured craters. This study aims to help bridge the knowledge gap between ancient rift volcanism evident on the Moon and other terrestrial planets, and active rift volcanism, e.g., at Hawai'i and Iceland.

  15. Interaction between an incipient rift and a cratonic lithosphere : The North Tanzania Rift seen from some seismic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Stéphanie; Plasman, Matthieu; Tiberi, Christel; Lopez, Marie; Peyrat, Sophie; Perrot, Julie; Albaric, Julie; Déverchère, Jacques; Deschamps, Anne; Ebinger, Cindy; Roecker, Steven; Mulibo, Gabriel; Wambura, Richard Ferdinand; Muzuka, Alfred; Msabi, Michael; Gama, Remigius

    2016-04-01

    The North Tanzania part of the East African Rift is the place of an incipient break up of the lithosphere. This continental rifting happens on the edge of the Tanzanian craton, and their interaction leads to major changes in the surface deformation. The evolution of the rift and its morphology is strongly linked to the inherited structures, particularly the Proterozoic belts and the craton itself. It is thus of prime interest to image the structure of the craton edges to fully understand its impact on the localisation of the current deformation at the surface. Since 2007 different multidisciplinary projects have taken place in this area to address this question. We present here a work based on a collaborative work between French, American and Tanzanian institutes that started in 2013. About 35 seismological stations were installed for 2 years in the Natron lake region, and 10 short period instruments were added for 9 months in the Manyara area to record local and telesismic events. We have analysed more than a hundred teleseismic events to compute the receiver function, and we finally obtain a Moho map of the region as well as azimuthal distribution of converted phases. The stations located on the edge of the rift and near the craton present a continuous evolution of their crustal pattern in the RF signal. Especially, we identify a clear phase at about 7s for those stations that corresponds to an interface separating a normal upper mantle from a very slow mantle at about 70 km depth. We first model those receiver functions to perfectly fit the signal, and more precisely the transverse component, which shows a strong and coherent pattern. Second, the local seismic network we have installed for 9 months in Manyara region advantageously completed the 2007 SEISMOTANZ network. In this part of the rift the seismicity is deep (20-30 km) and clustered without any magmatism record at the surface, opposite to Natron area. We could then relocalize the deep seismicity observed

  16. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  17. DYNAMICS OF A KIND OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is studied, which is an ordinary differential equation model for a population of mosquito species and the hosts. A disease-free equilibrium is discussed as well as its local stability. The prevalence of disease is proved under some conditions. Finally the vertical transmission is considered in a model for such a mosquito population.

  18. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  19. Geophysical exploration of the Boku geothermal area, Central Ethiopian Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiye, Tamiru A. [School of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Box Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Tigistu Haile [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-12-15

    The Boku central volcano is located within the axial zone of the Central Ethiopian Rift near the town of Nazareth, Ethiopia. An integrated geophysical survey involving thermal, magnetic, electrical and gravimetric methods has been carried out over the Boku geothermal area in order to understand the circulation of fluids in the subsurface, and to localize the 'hot spot' providing heat to the downward migrating groundwaters before they return to the surface. The aim of the investigations was to reconstruct the geometry of the aquifers and the fluid flow paths in the Boku geothermal system, the country's least studied. Geological studies show that it taps heat from the shallow acidic Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Rift floor. The aquifer system is hosted in Quaternary Rift floor ignimbrites that are intensively fractured and receive regional meteoric water recharge from the adjacent escarpment and locally from precipitation and the Awash River. Geophysical surveys have mapped Quaternary faults that are the major geologic structures that allow the ascent of the hotter fluids towards the surface, as well as the cold-water recharge of the geothermal system. The shallow aquifers are mapped, preferred borehole sites for the extraction of thermal fluids are delineated and the depths to deeper thermal aquifers are estimated. (author)

  20. Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.

    1985-11-01

    Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

  1. Origins and implications of zigzag rift patterns on lava lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Manga, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The distinctive rift patterns observed on newly formed lava lakes are very likely a product of interaction between heat transfer (cooling of lava) and deformation of the solid crust in response to applied stresses. One common pattern consists of symmetric "zigzag" rifts separating spreading plates. Zigzags can be characterized by two measurable parameters: an amplitude A, and an angle θ between segments that make up the zigzags. Similar patterns are observed in analog wax experiments in which molten wax acts as cooling and solidifying lava. We perform a series of these wax experiments to find the relationship between θ, A, and the cooling rate. We develop a model to explain the observed relationships: θ is determined by a balance of spreading and solidification speeds; the amplitude A is limited by the thickness of the solid wax crust. Theoretical predictions agree well with experimental data; this enables us to scale the model to basaltic lava lakes. If zigzag rifts are observed on the surface of lava lakes, and if physical properties of the lava crust can be measured or inferred by other means, measurements of θ and A make it possible to calculate crust-spreading velocity and crust thickness.

  2. Evolution of the East African Rift System With Special Emphasis on the Central Rift of Kenya: A new Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East African rift system has been of immense interest to geoscientist since its first account was given by Gregory (1896). Several recent views have followed, showing continuing interest in its evolution Baker et al. 19971; Baker et al. 1972; Baker and Wohlenberg 1971; McConnell 1972; Nyabok 1983; Williams and Truckle 1980; Williams, MacDonald and Leat 1983). This interest is being refueled by modern views which are emerging from our better understanding of plate tectonic processes. The major tectonic events took place during the Miocene and late Pliocene with the attendant volcanism which continued into the late Pleistocene. The late Pleistocene volcanism provided the heat source for the long on-going geothermal activity in the rift zone

  3. Structural evolution of the Rio Grande rift: Synchronous exhumation of rift flanks from 20-10 Ma, embryonic core complexes, and fluid-enhanced Quaternary extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jason William

    The Rio Grande rift in Colorado and New Mexico is one of the well-exposed and well-studied continental rifts in the world. Interest in the rift is driven not only by pure scientific intrigue, but also by a desire and a necessity to quantify earthquake hazards in New Mexico as well as to assess various water related issues throughout the state. These motivating topics have thus far led to the publication of two Geological Society of America Special Publication volumes in 1994 and 2013. This dissertation aims at building on the wealth of previous knowledge about the rift, and is composed of three separate chapters that focus on the structural evolution of the Rio Grande rift at several different time and spatial scales. At the largest scale, apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data suggest synchronous extension along the entire length of the Rio Grande rift in Colorado and New Mexico from 20-10 Ma, which is important for understanding and evaluating possible driving mechanisms which are responsible for the rift. Previous tectonic and magmatic events in western North America were highly influential in the formation of the Rio Grande rift, and the new thermochronologic data suggest that its formation may have been closely linked to foundering and removal of the underlying Farallon Plate. A fundamental result of rift development at these scales is a concentration of strain is some regions of the rift. In these regions of maximum extension, fault networks display a geometry involving both high- and low-angle fault networks. These geometries are similar to the early stages in the development of metamorphic core complexes, and thus these regions in the rift link incipient extensional environments to highly extended terranes. At shorter time scales, heterogeneous strain accumulation may be governed in part by fluids in fault zones. As an example, along the western edge of the Albuquerque basin, travertine deposits are cut by extensional veins that record anomalously high

  4. The Corinth Rift Laboratory, Greece (CRL) : A Multidisciplinary Near Fault Observatory (NFO) on a Fast Rifting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Deschamps, A.; Briole, P.; Lambotte, S.; Ford, M.; Scotti, O.; Beck, C.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Boiselet, A.; Godano, M.; Matrullo, E.; Meyer, N.; Albini, P.; Elias, P.; Nercessian, A.; Katsonopoulou, D.; Papadimitriou, P.; Voulgaris, N.; Kapetanidis, V.; Sokos, E.; Serpetsidaki, A.; el Arem, S.; Dublanchet, P.; Duverger, C.; Makropoulos, K.; Tselentis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The western rift of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most active tectonic structures of the euro-mediterranean area. Its NS opening rate is 1.5 cm/yr ( strain rate of 10-6/yr) results into a high microseismicity level and a few destructive, M>6 earthquakes per century, activating a system of mostly north dipping normal faults. Since 2001, monitoring arrays of the European Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL, www.crlab.eu) allowed to better track the mechanical processes at work, with short period and broad band seismometers, cGPS, borehole strainmeters, EM stations, …). The recent (300 kyr) tectonic history has been revealed by onland (uplifted fan deltas and terraces) and offshore geological studies (mapping, shallow seismic, coring), showing a fast evolution of the normal fault system. The microseismicity, dominated by swarms lasting from days to months, mostly clusters in a layer 1 to 3 km thick, between 6 and 9 km in depth, dipping towards north, on which most faults are rooting. The diffusion of the microseismicity suggests its triggering by pore pressure transients, with no or barely detected strain. Despite a large proportion of multiplets, true repeaters seem seldom, suggesting a minor contribution of creep in their triggering, although transient or steady creep is clearly detected on the shallow part of some majors faults. The microseismic layer may thus be an immature, downward growing detachment, and the dominant rifting mechanism might be a mode I, anelastic strain beneath the rift axis , for which a mechanical model is under development. Paleoseismological (trenching, paleoshorelines, turbidites), archeological and historical studies completed the catalogues of instrumental seismicity, motivating attempts of time dependent hazard assessment. The Near Fault Observatory of CRL is thus a multidisciplinary research infrastructure aiming at a better understanding and modeling of multiscale, coupled seismic/aseismic processes on fault systems.

  5. Ambient noise tomography of the East African Rift in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana; Silveira, Graça; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Chang, Sung-Joon; Custódio, Susana; Fonseca, João F. B. D.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic ambient noise tomography is applied to central and southern Mozambique, located in the tip of the East African Rift (EAR). The deployment of MOZART seismic network, with a total of 30 broad-band stations continuously recording for 26 months, allowed us to carry out the first tomographic study of the crust under this region, which until now remained largely unexplored at this scale. From cross-correlations extracted from coherent noise we obtained Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for the period range 5-40 s. These dispersion relations were inverted to produce group velocity maps, and 1-D shear wave velocity profiles at selected points. High group velocities are observed at all periods on the eastern edge of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, in agreement with the findings of previous studies. Further east, a pronounced slow anomaly is observed in central and southern Mozambique, where the rifting between southern Africa and Antarctica created a passive margin in the Mesozoic, and further rifting is currently happening as a result of the southward propagation of the EAR. In this study, we also addressed the question concerning the nature of the crust (continental versus oceanic) in the Mozambique Coastal Plains (MCP), still in debate. Our data do not support previous suggestions that the MCP are floored by oceanic crust since a shallow Moho could not be detected, and we discuss an alternative explanation for its ocean-like magnetic signature. Our velocity maps suggest that the crystalline basement of the Zimbabwe craton may extend further east well into Mozambique underneath the sediment cover, contrary to what is usually assumed, while further south the Kaapval craton passes into slow rifted crust at the Lebombo monocline as expected. The sharp passage from fast crust to slow crust on the northern part of the study area coincides with the seismically active NNE-SSW Urema rift, while further south the Mazenga graben adopts an N-S direction

  6. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  7. The timing of uplift, volcanism, and rifting peripheral to the Red Sea: a case for passive rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R.G.; Naeser, C.W.; Schmidt, D.L.; Zimmermann, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the formation of the Red Sea the northeastern Afro/Arabian continent had low relief and was largely below sea level from the Late Cretaceous to the early Oligocene. The events leading to the formation of the Red Sea followed the sequence (1) alkaline volcanism and rifting beginning about 30-32 Ma affecting a narrow linear zone in the continent, (2) rotational block faulting and detachment faulting, well underway by 25 Ma, (3) gabbro and diorite magmatism, andesite to rhyolite volcanism, and fine-grained nonmarine sedimentation in the rift between 20 and 25 Ma, (4) fine-grained marine sedimentation in the rift as the early shelves started to subside in the middle Miocene, and (5) uplift of the adjacent continents (about 3 km) and subsidence of the shelves (about 4 km) between 13.8 and 5 Ma. The youth of the uplift is suggested by 44 fission track dates on apatites from rocks of the Proterozoic Arabian Shield that range in age from 13.8 to 568 Ma. The youngest of these ages, coupled with the present high relief along the Arabian escarpment and published heat flow measurements, indicate that 2.5-4 km uplift has occurred in the last 13.8 m.y. -from Authors

  8. Constraints on agricultural production in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Tan, Y.; Visser, S.M.; Hoanh, C.T.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Uplands of Vietnam form one of the largest ecological regions in the country, characterized by complex biophysical conditions and a high diversity in ethnic minorities, cultures, and farming systems. The Doi moi (“renovation”) program has, since the early 1980s, resulted in significant

  9. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, D.H.; Phuong, C.N.;

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  10. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a su

  11. A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Nguyen; P. Oosterhoff; A. Hardon; H.N. Tran; R.A. Coutinho; P. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still concentrated among high risk populations, including IDU and FSW. The response of the government has focused on the recognized high risk populations, mainly young male drug users. This concentration on one high risk population may leave other populatio

  12. Partnerships for sustainable design in Vietnam: leveraging culture and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses need and relevance of new local-global collaborations for sustainable design. Future Living Studio is a case study that explores how to enable cross-cultural collaboration in Vietnam towards addressing sustainable design and production issues. This paper presents the first empir

  13. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from medic

  14. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  15. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  16. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Phuong; P.J. de Vries; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; T.Q. Binh; N.V. Nam; N. Nagelkerke; P.A. Kager

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thu

  17. The Feminist Sophistic Enterprise: From Euripides to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Audrey

    1992-01-01

    Uses feminist sophistic historiography to open the doors of two distant historical movements onto each other, reading tensions between masculinity and femininity in Athens during the Peloponnesian war and in the United States during the Vietnam War. Foregrounds the possibility of forestalling arbitrary closure on gender questions which determined…

  18. Risk analysis of coastal flood defences: A Vietnam case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, C.V.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.; Mai, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at risk analysis and the investigation of safety aspects of coastal flood defences in Vietnam. The sea dike system has been actually designed by a 20 to 25 years return period. From the current situation it seems that the dike system is not sufficient to withstand the actual sea boun

  19. Human papillomavirus infection among women in South and North Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, TH; Nguyen, T.H.; Herrero, R; Vaccarella, S; Smith, J.S.; Thuy, TT Nguyen; Nguyen, HN; Nguyen, BD; Ashley, R; Snijders, P.J.F.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Parkin, DM; Franceschi, S

    2003-01-01

    The incidence rate of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) is 4-fold higher in Ho Chi Minh City, in the South of Vietnam, than in Hanoi, in the North. Thus, we explored the prevalence of and the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these 2 areas. A population-based random sample of

  20. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…

  1. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  2. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  3. Groundwater arsenic in the Red River delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren

    Afhandlingen omhandler problemerne med høje koncentrationer af arsen i grundvandet i Den Røde Flod deltaet (Vietnam), der bebos af omkring 11 millioner mennesker. Forgiftning med arsen fra grundvand brugt til drikkevand kan give alvorlige og ultimativt dødelige sygdomme. Afhandlingen beskriver hv...

  4. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis...

  5. International Briefing 18: Training and Development in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Ngoc; Quang, Truong

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam provides a typical case of an emerging economy, which has attempted to develop the country and join the world economic mainstream with a highly agricultural base, large and young labour force, and a dynamically growing private sector. After a long period of quantitative growth, it is now focusing on achieving quality of development, with a…

  6. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  7. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  8. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  9. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  10. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are collecte

  11. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  12. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  13. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is nece

  14. Integrated Coastal Management in the Province Ca Mau - Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.; Bouziotas, D.; Hanssen, J.L.J.; Dunnewolt, J.; Postma, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The province of Ca Mau is the southernmost part of Vietnam and the Mekong Delta. The water system of Ca Mau faces multiple challenges, both in its coastal zone and in its inland regions. the coastal zone in the province. In view of this, this study presents an integrated approach for combined coasta

  15. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  16. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are giv

  17. The organization of the liberalized rice market in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, L.T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Gedurende de eerste tien jaar na afloop van de oorlog stond de rijstmarkt in Vietnam onder sterke controle van de overheid en werd de handel gedomineerd door overheidsbedrijven. Ongeveer 20 jaar geleden is een proces van liberalisering in gang gezet. De rijstproductie is sterk gestegen. In de 80er j

  18. Strength of the landward slopes of sea dikes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Cat, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The landware slopes of sea dikes in the north of Vietnam are steep and solely constructed by soil covered with grass due to the budget constraints and also the out-of-date design guidelines.The resistance against erosion due to wave overtopping of several grass covered slopes were tested with the Wa

  19. Rifting cycle and storeyed texture of copper deposits and their geochemical evolution in Kangdian region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉崇英; 刘卫华; 张智筠; 何明勤; 陈好寿

    1995-01-01

    Along with the evolution of the earth crust, in the south of Kangdian Axis the polycyclic rifting occurred: Ptd-Ptk, Jinshajiang continental margin sea type aulacogen, Ptk2Dongchuan-Yimen intercontinental aulacogen, Z Chengjiang postorogenic rift and T3-E1 Kangdian continental rift. In these rifts respectively produced Dahongshan-Lala type volcanic-sedimentary-metamorphosed/hydrothermal sedimentary Cu-Fe deposits. Dongchuan-Yimen type, Lanniping type and Dayao-Mouding type sedimentary-reworked copper deposits, which form the storeyed texture whose geochemistry of the trace elements, isotopes of S, Pb, H, O, C. ore-forming fluid and organic matter were regularly evolved with the crust evolution.

  20. Seismic structure of the Central US crust and shallow upper mantle: Uniqueness of the Reelfoot Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2014-09-01

    Using seismic surface waves recorded with Earthscope's Transportable Array, we apply surface wave imaging to determine 3D seismic velocity in the crust and uppermost mantle. Our images span several Proterozoic and early Cambrian rift zones (Mid-Continent Rift, Rough Creek Graben-Rome trough, Birmingham trough, Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, and Reelfoot Rift). While ancient rifts are generally associated with low crustal velocity because of the presence of thick sedimentary sequences, the Reelfoot Rift is unique in its association with low mantle seismic velocity. Its mantle low-velocity zone (LVZ) is exceptionally pronounced and extends down to at least 200 km depth. This LVZ is of variable width, being relatively narrow (∼50 km wide) within the northern Reelfoot Rift, which hosts the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). We hypothesize that this mantle volume is weaker than its surroundings and that the Reelfoot Rift consequently has relatively low elastic plate thickness, which would tend to concentrate tectonic stress within this zone. No other intraplate ancient rift zone is known to be associated with such a deep mantle low-velocity anomaly, which suggests that the NMSZ is more susceptible to external stress perturbations than other ancient rift zones.

  1. Crustal Structure at a Young Continental Rift: A Receiver Function Study from Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, I. D. S.; Illsley-Kemp, F.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Tanganyika, in western Tanzania, spans a large section of the Western rift yet there are very few constraints on bulk crustal and upper mantle structure. The Western rift system has no surface expression of magmatism, which is in stark contrast to the Eastern branch. This observation is difficult to reconcile with the approximately coeval initiation of rifting of the two branches. The variation in the nature of rifting provides a perfect setting to test current hypotheses for the initiation of continental breakup and early-stage development of continental rifts. The deployment of a seismic network of 13 broadband instruments on the south eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, for 16 months, between 2014 and 2015 provides a unique opportunity to investigate extensional processes in thick continental lithosphere. We present here results from a P to S receiver function study that provides information on bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio along the rift; a property that is sensitive to the presence of magmatic intrusions in the lower crust. Additionally this method allows us to map variations in crustal thickness both parallel and perpendicular to the rift axis. These results thus provide unprecedented insight into the large-scale mechanics of early-stage continental rifting along the non-volcanic Western rift.

  2. Analysis of the pre-rift/rifte transition interval (Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations) from the Sergipe-Alagoas basin; Analise da secao de transicao pre-rifte/rifte (formacoes Serraria e Barra de Itiuba) da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, C.B.; Mizusaki, A.M.P. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: camilita@terra.com.br; ana.misuzaki@ufrgs.br; Garcia, A.J.V. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: garcia@euler.unisinos.br

    2003-07-01

    The pre-rift/rift transition is represented by the Serraria and Barra de Itiuba formations. This interval was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative descriptions of cores, electric log analysis and studies of outcropping sections. The integration of surface and subsurface data allowed the stratigraphic characterization of sandstone bodies in the pre-rift/rift. These sandstones bodies were deposited by fluvial braided, lacustrine and deltaic systems (delta plain, delta front and pro delta). The sedimentary deposits characterized in the Serraria Formation are of channel, flooding of the fluvial system and eolic. The upper interval of this formation is characterized by to coarse medium-grained sandstones identified as the Caioba Sandstone. The Barra de Itiuba Formation contains lake, pro delta, frontal bar, distributary mouth, crevasse and distributary channel deposits. The sandstone units were specifically characterized in terms of their potential reservoir quality, and they were characterized the reservoirs R1 (good to medium quality) and Caioba (good quality) from the pre-rift phase, and reservoirs R2 (medium quality) and R3 (medium to good quality) from the rift phase. The reservoirs from pre-rift phase phase show the better reservoirs quality potential of the pre-rift/rift transition in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. (author)

  3. Seismological Investigations of Crustal and Mantle Structures Beneath the Incipient Okavango Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S. S.; Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Reed, C. A.; Moidaki, M.; Mickus, K. L.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rifting plays a significant role in the evolution of sedimentary basins. However, our current understandings on rifting mechanisms are mostly based on studies of mature rifts. Here we report results from the first teleseismic investigations of the incipient Okavango rift zone (ORZ), which is located at the southwestern terminal of the East African Rift System in northern Botswana. Data used in the study were recorded by the 17 broadband seismic stations deployed along a NW-SE profile traversing the ORZ with a recording duration of 2 years starting in the summer of 2012. Receiver function and shear wave splitting techniques have been employed to explore upper mantle thermal anomalies and anisotropy. The resulting dominantly absolute plate motion-parallel fast polarization orientations and normal mantle transition zone thickness ruled out the possible existence of one or more mantle plumes in the upper mantle or mantle transition zone beneath the ORZ. The Moho beneath the Okavango rift zone is uplifted by 4-5 km and is symmetric with regard to the rift axis, favoring a pure shear model of early-stage continental extension. The observations favor a passive model for rift initiation in which rifts develop inside ancient orogenic zones as the result of relative movements between Archean cratonic blocks.

  4. Critically evaluated atomic transition probabilities for Ba I and Ba II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden lines of Ba I and Ba II are tabulated, based on a critical evaluation of recent literature sources. The data are presented in multiplet format and are ordered by increasing excitation energies. (author)

  5. Nephelinite lavas at early stage of rift initiation (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Céline; Parat, Fleurice; Denis, Carole M. M.; Mangasini, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    North Tanzanian Divergence is the first stage of continental break-up of East African Rift (alkaline lavas with zoned clinopyroxene, nepheline, andradite-schorlomite, titanite, apatite, and pyrrhotite. Lavas are low MgO-nephelinite with low Mg# and high silica content (Mg# = 22.4-35.2, SiO2 = 44.2-46.7 wt%, respectively), high incompatible element concentrations (e.g. REE, Ba, Sr) and display Nb-Ta fractionation (Nb/Ta = 36-61). Major elements of whole rock are consistent with magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization from a parental melt with melilititic composition. Although fractional crystallization occurred at 9-12 km and can be considered as an important process leading to nephelinite magma, the complex zonation of cpx (e.g. abrupt change of Mg#, Nb/Ta, and H2O) and trace element patterns of nephelinites recorded magmatic differentiation involving open system with carbonate-silicate immiscibility and primary melilititic melt replenishment. The low water content of clinopyroxene (3-25 ppm wt. H2O) indicates that at least 0.3 wt% H2O was present at depth during carbonate-rich nephelinite crystallization at 340-640 MPa and 1050-1100 °C. Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang represent an early stage of the evolution path towards carbonatitic magmatism as observed in Oldoinyo Lengai. Paragenesis and geochemistry of Hanang nephelinites require the presence of CO2-rich melilititic liquid in the southern part of North Tanzanian Divergence and carbonate-rich melt percolations after deep partial melting of CO2-rich oxidized mantle source.

  6. AMiBA, XMM, and Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, H

    2001-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an interferometric array of 19 dishes co-mounted on a steerable platform and operating at 95GHz. One of the main scientific aims of AMiBA is to conduct cluster surveys using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Here we explore the potential of AMiBA as a tailor-made SZ instrument for the study of cluster physics and cosmology via cluster surveys out to the epoch of cluster formation. In particular, we explore the potential of combining AMiBA cluster surveys with the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure) survey.

  7. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  8. AMiBA: System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the an...

  9. The NE Rift of Tenerife: towards a model on the origin and evolution of ocean island rifts; La dorsal NE de Tenerife: hacia un modelo del origen y evolucion de los rifts de islas oceanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Rodriguez Badiola, E.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, A.; Peris, R.; Troll, V.; Wiesmaier, S.; Delcamp, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The NE Rift of Tenerife is an excellent example of a persistent, recurrent rift, providing important evidence of the origin and dynamics of these major volcanic features. The rift developed in three successive, intense and relatively short eruptive stages (a few hundred ka), separated by longer periods of quiescence or reduced activity: A Miocene stage (7266 {+-}156 ka), apparently extending the central Miocene shield of Tenerife towards the Anaga massif; an Upper Pliocene stage (2710{+-} 58 ka) and the latest stage, with the main eruptive phase in the Pleistocene. Detailed geological (GIS) mapping, geomagnetic reversal mapping and stratigraphic correlation, and radioisotopic (K/Ar) dating of volcanic formations allowed the reconstruction of the latest period of rift activity. In the early phases of this stage the majority of the eruptions grouped tightly along the axis of the rift and show reverse polarity (corresponding to the Matuyama chron). Dykes are of normal and reverse polarities. In the final phase of activity, eruptions are more disperse and lavas and dykes are consistently of normal polarity (Brunhes chron). Volcanic units of normal polarity crossed by dykes of normal and reverse polarities yield ages apparently compatible with normal subchrons (M-B Precursor and Jaramillo) in the Upper Matuyama chron. Three lateral collapses successively mass-wasted the rift: The Micheque collapse, completely concealed by subsequent nested volcanism, and the Guimar and La Orotava collapses, that are only partially filled. Time occurrence of collapses in the NE rift apparently coincides with glacial stages, suggesting that giant landslides may be finally triggered by sea level chan-ges during glaciations. Pre-collapse and nested volcanism is predominantly basaltic, except in the Micheque collapse, where magmas evolved towards intermediate and felsic (trachytic) compositions. Rifts in the Canary Islands are long-lasting, recurrent features, probably related to primordial

  10. DESIRE – Dead Sea Rift Integrated Research Project: A multidisciplinary geo-scientific project to reveal the structure of the Dead Sea Rift utilizing helicopter-borne gravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, U.; I. Heyde; C. Köhler; H.-J. Götze; Choi, S.;  

    2008-01-01

    The Dead Sea Rift has been considered since a long time as one of the world’s most unique geological sites. Until today the mechanisms that drive the transform fault generating the Dead Sea Rift and its valley are not fully understood. Some of the few established facts are that the fault extends down to the upper mantle and that the offset generated by the transform is longer than 100 km. Within this rift large extensional basins were formed with the Dead Sea or Lake of Galilee being the most...

  11. Bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerlicher Widerstand in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Berghuber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend vom Commonsdiskurs und von anarchistischen Vorstellungen über bäuerliches Leben als Vorbild für eine solidarische Gesellschaft untersucht der vorliegende Artikel bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerliche Kämpfe gegen herrschende Schichten auf dem Gebiet von Belarus seit der Abschaffung der Leibeigenschaft 1861. Anhaltspunkte bäuerlicher Selbstorganisation stellen die Obschtschina sowie Kooperationen bei der Produktion und der Maschinennutzung während der sowjetischen „neuen Wirtschaftspolitik“ dar. Lokales Erfahrungswissen wird ebenso in der Obschtschina und in den privaten Nebenlandwirtschaften der Kolchosen- und Sowchosenarbeiter_innen verortet. Offenen Widerstand gegen die Herrschenden leisteten Bauern und Bäuerinnen aufgrund ihrer Situation bis in die 1930er Jahre. Er erreichte seine Höhepunkte während der Revolutionen 1905-07 und 1917, während der Kollektivierung der Landwirtschaft und während der Wirtschaftskrise Anfang der 1930er Jahre. Danach hatten die Widerstandshandlungen eine verdecktere Form. Diese Kämpfe von Bauern und Bäuerinnen um Land und Unabhängigkeit sind vergleichbar mit bäuerlichen Kämpfen in anderen Ländern.

  12. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  13. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  14. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  15. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  16. Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960–2010 and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr−1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr−1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide. The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

  17. Stress perturbation associated with the Amazonas and other ancient continental rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.L.; Richardson, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The state of stress in the vicinity of old continental rifts is examined to investigate the possibility that crustal structure associated with ancient rifts (specifically a dense rift pillow in the lower crust) may modify substantially the regional stress field. Both shallow (2.0-2.6 km depth) breakout data and deep (20-45 km depth) crustal earthquake focal mechanisms indicate a N to NNE maximum horizontal compression in the vicinity of the Paleozoic Amazonas rift in central Brazil. This compressive stress direction is nearly perpendicular to the rift structure and represents a ???75?? rotation relative to a regional E-W compressive stress direction in the South American plate. Elastic two-dimensional finite element models of the density structure associated with the Amazonas rift (as inferred from independent gravity modeling) indicate that elastic support of this dense feature would generate horizontal rift-normal compressional stresses between 60 and 120 MPa, with values of 80-100 MPa probably most representative of the overall structure. The observed ???75?? stress rotation constrains the ratio of the regional horizontal stress difference to the rift-normal compressive stress to be between 0.25 and 1.0, suggesting that this rift-normal stress may be from 1 to 4 times larger than the regional horizontal stress difference. A general expression for the modification of the normalized local horizontal shear stress (relative to the regional horizontal shear stress) shows that the same ratio of the rift-normal compression relative to the regional horizontal stress difference, which controls the amount of stress rotation, also determines whether the superposed stress increases or decreases the local maximum horizontal shear stress. The potential for fault reactivation of ancient continental rifts in general is analyzed considering both the local stress rotation and modification of horizontal shear stress for both thrust and strike-slip stress regimes. In the Amazonas

  18. Basin Modelling of the Laptev Sea Rift, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Gaedicke, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Laptev Sea Rift in the northeastern Arctic shelf area of Russia is a standard example for an oceanic rift system that propagates into a continent and plays an important role in the geodynamic models for the opening of the Eurasia Basin. To better understand the evolution of this rift, a basin modelling study was carried out with the software PetroMod®. The software simulates and analyses the burial history and temperature evolution of a sedimentary basin. It is a dynamic forward simulation based on the finite element method. The modelled section used in this study is based on a depth converted seismic section, acquired by the BGR. The section covers the Anisin Basin and is characterized by listric normal faults. The numerical simulation was supported by tectonic and sedimentological field data sets that were collected in outcrops during the CASE 13 expedition in 2011. Normal faults in outcrops were analysed using fault-slip inversion techniques to derive the paleo-extension direction. The presence of normal faults in relatively unconsolidated Paleogene sediments and in Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, indicate very young extension in the area of the New Siberian Islands. The conceptual model for the simulation was built on the basis of the seismic data and the properties of the rocks and sediments observed in the outcrops. Initial results show that the present-day temperature field in the area of the Anisin Basin is characterized by seafloor-parallel isotherms. In the central part of the graben structure, the isotherms are slightly bent down and the heat-flow is reduced, probably due to blanketing effects. An extracted geohistory curve is almost linear and implies that subsidence controlled by faults is the dominating mechanism. From the simulation, sedimentation rates are derived that were highest in the early Paleocene phase of graben development and decreased in the late Eocene.

  19. Book review: the psychology of strategy: exploring rationality in the Vietnam War by Kenneth Payne

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In The Psychology of Strategy: Exploring Rationality in the Vietnam War, Kenneth Payne utilises the case study of the Vietnam War to show how psychology affects warfare, including discussion of confirmation bias, social identity and the psychology of fear. The book’s extensive subject matter and effective use of the Vietnam War as an illuminating prism offers an important contribution to the study of decision-making in International Relations, writes Michael Warren.

  20. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one fourth of the total population of the country and locate about 50% of the major towns and cities of Vietnam. Most of the people currently living in the coastal zone have their livelihood mainly rely...

  1. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on ...

  2. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  3. Exporting Procedure for an Out-of-Gauge Cargo from Vietnam to Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh

    2014-01-01

    Exporting has played a critical role for industrial projects in Vietnam. The developing economy has been opened for many global freight forwarders to join its logistics and supply chain market. As a global freight forwarder in Vietnam, Geodis Wilson has potentials to develop its industrial project operations to meet customers’ special demand for handling heavy lift or out-of-gauge shipments. The research aim was to improve industrial project operating system in Vietnam. This aim was reache...

  4. High spin states of 120Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very neutron deficient nucleus 120Ba has been investigated in a high-spin γ-spectroscopic study. The yrast band of 120Ba is extended up to spin 22 ℎ and one tentatively assigned negative-parity side band is observed up to spin 15 ℎ. The experimental results are compared with Total Routhian Surface calculations. (orig.)

  5. Restriction of Rift Valley Fever Virus Virulence in Mosquito Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Gerrard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses are maintained in a natural cycle that requires blood-sucking arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses are believed to persistently infect their arthropod host without overt pathology and cause acute infection with viremia in their vertebrate host. We have focused on elucidating how a specific arbovirus, Rift Valley fever (RVF virus, causes cytopathic effect in cells derived from vertebrates and non-cytopathic infection in cells derived from arthropods. We demonstrate that the vertebrate virulence factor, NSs, is functional in arthropod cells but is expressed at significantly lower levels in infected arthropod versus infected vertebrate cells.

  6. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and Emergence of Rift Valley Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sall AA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral disease which manifested itself during recent epidemics and revealed its significant potential of emergence. Studies on molecular epidemiology undertaken to better understand the factors leading to RVF emergence, have confirmed the mode of circulation of the virus and highlithted probable risks and obstacles for prevention and control. As for several other viral agents, molecular epidemiology is becoming a useful tool in the study of the emergence of RVF as a serious infectious disease.

  8. CONTRAST STUDY ON CT AND BA IN 3000 PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical applied value on CT and BA in diagnosis of diseases. Methods:CT and BA were examined in 3000 patients. Results: There were some differences between CT and BA in diagnosis of diseases. Conclusions: BA can supplement shortage of CT. The combination of CT and BA can heighten diagnostic level of diseases.KEY WORDS brain atlas (BA); computed tomography (CT)

  9. Rift valley fever in the US: Commerce networks, climate, and susceptible vector and host populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic viral disease with substantial negative impacts on public and animal health in its endemic range of sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) could enter the United States and lead to widespread morbidity and mortality in humans, domes...

  10. Rifting and Post-Rift Reactivation of The Eastern Sardinian Margin (Western Tyrrhenian Back-Arc Basin) Evidenced by the Messinian Salinity Crisis Markers and Salt Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, V.; Chanier, F.; Vendeville, B.; Lymer, G.; Lofi, J.; Sage, F.; Maillard, A.; Thinon, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Sardinian margin formed during the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea, a back-arc basin created by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system from middle Miocene to Pliocene times. We carried out the "METYSS" project aiming at better understanding the Miocene-Pliocene relationships between crustal tectonics and salt tectonics in this key-area, where rifting is pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma) and Messinian salt décollement creates thin-skinned tectonics. Thereby, we use the MSC seismic markers and the deformation of viscous salt and its brittle overburden as proxies to better delineate the timing of rifting and post-rift reactivation, and especially to quantifying vertical and horizontal movements. Our mapping of the Messinian Erosion Surface and of Messinian Upper and Mobile Units shows that a rifted basin already existed by the Messinian times, revealing a major pre-MSC rifting episode across the entire domain. Because salt tectonics can create fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined in order to decipher the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and salt tectonics. Our data surprisingly showed that there are no clues for Messinian syn-rift sediments along the East-Sardinia Basin and Cornaglia Terrace, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Nevertheless, widespread deformation occurred during the Pliocene and is attributed to post-rift reactivation. Some Pliocene vertical movements have been evidenced by discovering localized gravity gliding of the salt and its Late Messinian (UU) and Early Pliocene overburden. To the South, crustal-scale southward tilting triggered along-strike gravity gliding of salt and cover recorded by upslope extension and downslope shortening. To the North, East of the Baronie Ridge, there was some post-salt crustal activity along a narrow N-S basement trough, bounded

  11. Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Ranka, L. S.; Onguso, B.; Kanda, I.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in

  12. Cenozoic extension in the Kenya Rift from low-temperature thermochronology: Links to diachronous spatiotemporal evolution of rifting in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Acosta, Verónica; Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Parra, Mauricio; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Stuart, Finlay; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-12-01

    The cooling history of rift shoulders and the subsidence history of rift basins are cornerstones for reconstructing the morphotectonic evolution of extensional geodynamic provinces, assessing their role in paleoenvironmental changes and evaluating the resource potential of their basin fills. Our apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data from the Samburu Hills and the Elgeyo Escarpment in the northern and central sectors of the Kenya Rift indicate a broadly consistent thermal evolution of both regions. Results of thermal modeling support a three-phased thermal history since the early Paleocene. The first phase (~65-50 Ma) was characterized by rapid cooling of the rift shoulders and may be coeval with faulting and sedimentation in the Anza Rift basin, now located in the subsurface of the Turkana depression and areas to the east in northern Kenya. In the second phase, very slow cooling or slight reheating occurred between ~45 and 15 Ma as a result of either stable surface conditions, very slow exhumation, or subsidence. The third phase comprised renewed rapid cooling starting at ~15 Ma. This final cooling represents the most recent stage of rifting, which followed widespread flood-phonolite emplacement and has shaped the present-day landscape through rift shoulder uplift, faulting, basin filling, protracted volcanism, and erosion. When compared with thermochronologic and geologic data from other sectors of the East African Rift System, extension appears to be diachronous, spatially disparate, and partly overlapping, likely driven by interactions between mantle-driven processes and crustal heterogeneities, rather than the previously suggested north-south migrating influence of a mantle plume.

  13. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joël

    2016-08-05

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries.

  14. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Joël; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-08-01

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries.

  15. LATE CREATACEOUS-CENOZOIC SEDIMENTS OF THE BAIKAL RIFT BASIN AND CHANGING NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor D. Mats

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediments of fossil soils and weathering crusts of the Baikal rift have been subject to long-term studies. Based on our research results, it is possible to distinguish the following litho-stratigraphic complexes which are related to particular stages of the rift development: the late Cretaceous–early Oligocene (crypto-rift Arheo-baikalian, the late Oligocene–early Pliocene (ecto-rift early orogenic Pra-baikalian, and the late Pliocene-Quaternary (ecto-rift late orogenic Pra-baikalian – Baikalian complexes. Changes of weathering modes (Cretaceous-quarter, soil formation (Miocene-quarter and differences of precipitation by vertical and lateral stratigraphy are analysed with regard to specific features of climate, tectonics and facial conditions of sedimentation. Tectonic phases are defined in the Cenozoic period of the Pribaikalie.

  16. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    the cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...... a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable...

  17. Raymond Carver's "Vitamins" and the Discourses of the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shariati-Rad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the discourses of the Vietnam War into the texture of his short story "Vitamins," Raymond Carver would like to emphasize that the war was not only fought outside the United States. The present paper is an attempt to show how Carver connects the mechanics of the battlefield to the discourses of similar kind present in the individual and social spheres of the latter part of the twentieth century in America – a view consistent with Carver's interest in drawing attention to the contextual motives behind his characters' moods and actions. Providing an understanding of both Carver's short narrative and the period in which it was written and received, this paper investigates the various clashes of the story's characters within the broader social conflicts surrounding the issues of poverty, racism, and sexism.Keywords: Carver, "Vitamins," America, Vietnam, discourse, context, conflict (clash, working class, race, sexism

  18. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  19. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market. PMID:21141776

  20. Vietnam in the 1980s: price reforms and stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LEUNG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the 1980s, Vietnam was modelled as a centrally-planned economy (CPE along the same lines as the Soviet economy. During the 1980-88 period a kind of 'modified' planned economy (MPE developed in which some partial reforms were effected within the CPE framework. These reforms and Vietnam's latest plans and reforms are surveyed. Economic reform measures in 1985 focused on the insignificant monetary overhang problem, which involved 'forced' money holdings by households owing to shortages in consumer goods. At the same time, it failed to address the problem of 'flow' of net domestic credit extended to the government and state-owned enterprises. Confiscatory monetary reform aggravated the situation as it reduced the demand for real balances. Budgetary and credit limits and shifts in asset portfolio choices by the Vietnamese, on the other hand, were responsible for the success of the 1989 reforms.

  1. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  2. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  3. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  4. SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM STUDY OF CRUSTAL DEFORMATION IN VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Dinh Trieu; Le Van Dung; Nguyen Huu Tuyen; Pham Nam Hung

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the authors present some results of strain monitoring within the territory of Vietnam from 1984 to 2001. Data analysis shows that (1) the Phu Lien area is tectonically stable with low strain rate, 1×10-6/a; (2) the Hoa Binh area has indication of tectonic instability with relatively high strain rate of the earth crust: absolute value of the strain reaching 100 × 10-6 , usual average strain amplitude of 60 × 10-6 , whereas the monthly average strain intensity varies in a range from 30× 10-6 to 50× 10-6 (3) there are clear indications of the strain state of the earth crust before occurrence of earthquakes of medium or higher magnitude. This is a very important indication in the research and short-term prediction of earthquakes, especially for the areas with low seismic stability like the NW of Vietnam.

  5. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  6. Race-related PTSD: the Asian American Vietnam veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C M

    1994-10-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework by which to understand race-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the Asian American Vietnam veteran. The framework draws from cognitive schema theory, social behaviorism, the notion of cumulative racism as trauma, and the assumption that bifurcation and negation of one's bicultural identity is injurious. Classifications of race-related stress or trauma that may be experienced by Asian American Vietnam veterans, with exemplifying clinical case material, are presented. These types of stressors include being mistaken for Vietnamese, verbal and physical assaults that are race-related, death and near-death experiences that are race-related, racial stigmatization, dissociation from one's Asian identity, and marginalization. As studies of combat trauma and sexual assault forced the psychological stresses attendant to war and sexist oppression into public consciousness, so this article addresses psychological stress and trauma attendant to racism. PMID:7820354

  7. Geomechanical and Petrophysical Properties of Rift Basin Mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D.; Collins, D.; Malkewicz, N.

    2015-12-01

    Mudstone caprocks are important components of reservoir systems in a variety of geologic and geoingeneering applications, but their properties and behavior under in situ conditions remain only partially understood. This study presents a detailed analysis of geomechanical and petrophysical properties of 20 lacustrine mudstones from the Mesozoic Newark Rift Basin, the largest of exposed rift basins in eastern North America, considered as a potential CO2 sequestration site. The samples were selected to represent variable lithology, organic content, redox state, structure (massive and thinly bedded), degree of matrix anisotropy, and burial depths. An extensive characterization program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and included laboratory CT scans, XRD, SEM, MICP, porosity, permeability, and acoustic velocity measurements, as well as geomechanical testing of both matrix and fracture strength under a range of confining pressures. Core measurements were integrated with available logging data to allow for multiscale comparison and correlation. Most of the analyzed mudstones have the clay content of 50-70%, with abundant mica and detrital grains. The pore system is dominated by narrow micropores (mostly information for caprock stability modeling in these basins.

  8. An Epidemiological Model of Rift Valley Fever with Spatial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a category A agent in the Center for Disease Control bioterrorism list, Rift Valley fever (RVF is considered a major threat to the United States (USA. Should the pathogen be intentionally or unintentionally introduced to the continental USA, there is tremendous potential for economic damages due to loss of livestock, trade restrictions, and subsequent food supply chain disruptions. We have incorporated the effects of space into a mathematical model of RVF in order to study the dynamics of the pathogen spread as affected by the movement of humans, livestock, and mosquitoes. The model accounts for the horizontal transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV between two mosquito and one livestock species, and mother-to-offspring transmission of virus in one of the mosquito species. Space effects are introduced by dividing geographic space into smaller patches and considering the patch-to-patch movement of species. For each patch, a system of ordinary differential equations models fractions of populations susceptible to, incubating, infectious with, or immune to RVFV. The main contribution of this work is a methodology for analyzing the likelihood of pathogen establishment should an introduction occur into an area devoid of RVF. Examples are provided for general and specific cases to illustrate the methodology.

  9. What drives strategic foreign bank investments in Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    山口, 昌樹

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:This paper examines foreign banks' market entry motives into Vietnam and gives evidence showing whether the efficiency hypothesis or the market power hypothesis better explains strategic investments by foreign banks. The efficiency hypothesis suggests that efficient foreign banks target inefficient local banks to transfer their superior technologies and management practices. On the other hand, the market power hypothesis explains that foreign banks target large local banks irrespecti...

  10. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  11. Clay Mineralogy of Various Marginal Soils in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quang Hai; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Various marginal soils derived from different parent materials were collected from different landforms and agro-ecological regions in Vietnam and were subjected to clay mineral analysis in addition to particle-size analysis. The result showed that the particle-size distribution of the soils had a close relationship with the landform. The clay content was highest for the soils from the meander floodplain and inland valley, followed by the soil from the hill and lowest for the soils from the ...

  12. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  13. Inequity in maternal health care utilization in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goland Emilia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vietnam has succeeded in reducing maternal mortality in the last decades. Analysis of survey data however indicate that large inequities exist between different segments of the population. We have analyzed utilization of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance among Vietnamese women of reproductive age in relation to social determinants with the aim to reveal health inequities and identify disadvantaged groups. Method Data on maternal health care utilization and social determinants were derived from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS conducted in Vietnam in 2006, and analyzed through stratified logistic regressions and g-computation. Results Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Vietnam. Ethnicity, household wealth and education were all significantly associated with antenatal care coverage and skilled birth attendance, individually and in synergy. Although the structural determinants included in this study were closely related to each other, analysis revealed a significant effect of ethnicity over and above wealth and education. Within the group of mothers from poor households ethnic minority mothers were at a three-fold risk of not attending any antenatal care (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27–7.41 and six times more likely not to deliver with skilled birth attendance (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.37–16.6. The association between ethnicity and lack of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance was even stronger within the non-poor group. Conclusions In spite of policies to out rule health inequities, ethnic minority women constitute a disadvantaged group in Vietnam. More efficient ways to target disadvantaged groups, taking synergy effects between multiple social determinants into consideration, are needed in order to assure safe motherhood for all.

  14. Mobile Gaming in Vietnam : Launching and Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of the Vietnamese mobile game market from the launching and marketing perspective in order to provide a comprehensive view of the mobile gaming industry in Vietnam. Additionally, the reader can acquire information about digital marketing approaches for a mobile game in gen-eral. As the purpose is to conduct a practical research, this study covers only the most critical factors of digital marketing for mobile gaming that the writer concl...

  15. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Bui T. T.; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M.; Doan T. T. Duong; Duc, Duong M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation.Desig...

  16. A Review of Foodborne Bacterial and Parasitic Zoonoses in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Bryant, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale ‘backyard’ enterprises with mixed crop–livestock or livestock–aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet...

  17. Vietnam As A Potential Market For Finnish Education Export

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Huong

    2016-01-01

    The project aims at discovering the potentiality of Vietnamese market of a case company from company A in exporting Finnish educational expertise. The research will support decision makers and audience in getting a general view of business market in Vietnam, as well as business culture and business practices. Furthermore, the thesis provides a better understanding of the current situation in the education market particularly. The implementation of the research is conducted in both ways of...

  18. Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl

    2014-01-31

    Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and

  19. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  20. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  1. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  2. The Cattle Challenge: Controling Backyard Pollution in North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quoc Chinh

    2005-01-01

    As anyone who has stood in a field of cows will tell you, cattle manure can be a particularly unpleasant pollution problem. In many countries across Southeast Asia, it has become a significant environmental challenge because cattle are being reared in ever-larger ' numbers close to human habitation. In an effort to improve the situation, this study from Vietnam has looked at several pollution control options available to farmers. It finds that pollution caused by cattle husbandry is having a ...

  3. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Engaged Learning and Filmmaking by Way of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Wesleyan professor Steven Emmanuel and five students spent four weeks in Vietnam in the summer of 2007. Their work, supported by an ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Grant, resulted in a documentary film that won several awards in national and international film festivals. In the following piece, he describes the project and talks about how the grant experience gave him a new perspective on study abroad.

  5. Price Elasticity Estimates for Cigarette Demand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Eozenou; Burke Fishburn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a complete demand system to estimate the price elasticity for cigarette demand in Vietnam. Following Deaton (1990), we build a spatial panel using cross sectional household survey data. We consider a model of simultaneous choice of quantity and quality. This allows us to exploit unit values from cigarette consumption in order to disentangle quality choice from exogenous price variations. We then rely on spatial variations in prices and quantities demanded to estimate...

  6. Mitigation of climate change: which technologies for Vietnam?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the countries suffering from the most serious adverse effects due to climate change and sea level rise. The main cause of climate change is the increased activities generating greenhouse gases. Organic waste is the main source of carbon dioxide emission, which has the largest concentration among different kinds of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The conversion of organic waste and biomass into energy contributes not only to supply cleaner energy but also to reduc...

  7. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui T. T. Ha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design: The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results: Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions: Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  8. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, The Bach; Bui, Thu Ha; Ha,Bui Thu; Rodda,Michele

    2016-01-01

    Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with its five congeners. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis differs distinctly from congeners by the longer peduncles (14–18 cm vs. 4 cm at most in J. pilosa and J. saxatilis, salmon-pink color of the inner corolla lobes (white or greenish in the other species), and corolla tube length (12.0–14.5 mm vs. shorter or longer in congeners).

  9. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  10. Essays on the innovation and intellectual property system in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh, Vu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provide not only a comprehensive overview on concepts and models of innovation, but it also provide critical analysis on the intellectual property system with an emphasize on the patent system and enforcement system in Vietnam. The empirical findings have suggested that legal business types, firm's age are amongst the determinant characteristics that indicate manufacturing innovation. Furthermore, a number of factors including rewarding scheme,average employee education,coll...

  11. Incentives for Wastewater Management in Industrial Estates in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quang Thong; Nguyen Anh Ngoc

    2004-01-01

    This study provides information on the level and effectiveness of wastewater pollution control in industrial estates in four provinces of Vietnam. It finds low levels of wastewater treatment in many industrial estates in the areas surveyed and identifies significant negative effects on many rivers. It investigates why many estates and the factories that operate inside them have not invested in wastewater treatment plants. It also looks at why many companies (even those connected to treatments...

  12. Organizational Culture : a case study of standard chartered (Vietnam) Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kien Doan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the definition of organizational culture and examine organizational culture of Standard Chartered Bank (Vietnam) Ltd (SCB). Organizational culture has become a interesting topic. The company now are aware of its important role as a competitive advantage. The thesis will go though definitions of various researcher to find out the common understanding. A few methods of approaching organizational culture are considered to find a prooer framework for ca...

  13. 早安,越南%Good Morning,Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BARRY HILLENBRAND

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ithought returning to Vietnam would be difficult.After all,my first attempt had not gone well.In October 1974,1 left the country newly married to Nguyen thi Phuong Nga and for a new assignment in Rio de Janeiro.I had just completed two years in Saigon for TIME,reporting the chaotic1 endgame2 of a cruel war.

  14. Price Elasticity Estimates of Cigarette Demand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Eozenou, Patrick; Fishburn, Burke

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a complete demand system to estimate the price elasticity for cigarette demand in Vietnam. Following Deaton (1990), we build a spatial panel using cross sectional household survey data. We consider a model of simultaneous choice of quantity and quality. This allows us to exploit unit values from cigarette consumption in order to disentangle quality choice from exogenous price variations. We then rely on spatial variations in prices and quantities demanded to estimate...

  15. Biogas in Vietnam : a proposed business model in biogas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thi Thanh Thao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to discover a biogas opportunity in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. The discussed biogas production is derived from organic waste and targeted to fullfill the demand for gas for cooking in condition of non-pipeline system. However, different products from this production were introduced to maximize the technology profitability. Another aim was to propose a business model to foreign investors who own advanced technologies in biogas production. Qualitative r...

  16. Dynamics of Agrarian Systems in Hai Duong Province, North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Han Quang, Hanh

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the agrarian systems have evolved considerably during the socio-economic transformation period initiated in the late 1980s with the political reform (Doi Moi). In a region around the capital, where the process of industrialization, urbanization, and international integration has been accelerating, a number of questions about the sustainability of agrarian systems are raising. By diagnosing and analysing the dynamics of agrarian systems from 1980 to 2010, this study aims to provid...

  17. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  18. Examine the Agriculture, Poverty, and Climate Change Nexus in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Zhu, Tingju; Breisinger, Clemens; Manh Hai, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is likely to be among the hardest hit countries by climate change, which may threaten the recent progress it has made in accelerating agricultural growth and poverty reduction. To examine how agriculture and the rural poor may be affected by a changing climate, this paper measures Vietnamese farmers’ adaptation behavior in terms of adjustments to the production portfolio and input usage. Specifically, the paper estimates a rice yield function based on household-level crop production, ...

  19. How oblique extension and structural inheritance control rift segment linkage: Insights from 4D analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. A previous study of ours (Zwaan et al., in prep) investigated the influence of dextral oblique extension and rift offset on rift interaction. Here we elaborate upon our previous work by using analogue models to assess the added effects of 1) sinistral oblique extension as observed along the East African Rift and 2) the geometry of linked and non-linked inherited structures. METHODS Our set-up involves a base of foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying model materials: a sand layer for the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture for ductile lower crust. A mobile base plate allows lateral motion for oblique extension. We create inherited structures, along which rift segments develop, with right-stepping offset lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous layer. These seeds can be connected by an additional weak seed that represents a secondary inherited structural grain (model series 1) or disconnected and laterally discontinuous (over/underlap, model series 2). Selected models are run in an X-ray computer topographer (CT) to reveal the 3D evolution of internal structures with time that can be quantified with particle image velocitmetry (PIV) techniques. RESULTS Models in both series show that rift segments initially form along the main seeds and then generally propagate approximately perpendicular to the extension direction: with orthogonal extension they propagate in a parallel fashion, dextral oblique extension causes them to grow towards each other and connect, while with sinistral oblique extension they grow away from each other. However, sinistral oblique extension can also promote rift linkage through an oblique- or strike-slip zone oriented almost parallel to

  20. Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent rise in the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam and relates its emergence to kinship systems and ethnic composition using 2009 census micro-data. Presentation of the main socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in birth masculinity is followed by a review of the three intermediate factors leading to increases in the sex ratio at birth: prenatal technology, declining fertility, and gender bias. An indirect measurement of fertility behavior is used to demonstrate the close association between levels of the sex ratio at birth and the intensity of son preference. Data on household composition indicate that Vietnam is characterized by the co-existence of kinship patterns typical of East and Southeast Asia. Son preference in Vietnam is found to be related to the prevalence of more traditional patrilineal systems. The article concludes by considering the implications of the cultural dimensions of prenatal sex selection for policy responses and for the likely future change in the sex ratio at birth.

  1. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  2. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  3. Researchers report HIV and STD statistics from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-20

    Vietnam will experience an extensive rise in the projected HIV and AIDS rates as reported by researchers. Although the country has already seen an extensive HIV spread among injecting drug users, the heterosexual HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in its early phase. Researchers estimated that by the end of 1997 between 64,000 and 78,000 Vietnamese had contracted HIV and 3000-5000 people had developed AIDS. By the year 2000, the number is estimated to reach a cumulative total of 135,000-160,000 HIV-infected people, with 14,000-21,000 AIDS cases. In addition, there were 119,188 reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998, of which 3088 were syphilis, 6859 were gonorrhea, and 108,152 were other STDs. Researchers also reported an alarming increase in penicillin-resistant gonococcal strains, reaching up to 80-90%. Meanwhile, gonococcal resistance to quinolon increased from 3% to 7% during 1994-97 according to recent documentations. Based on the findings, researchers pointed out the need to improve STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam for the years 2000-05 in the areas of surveillance; STD services; information, education, and communication; safe blood supply; and program management.

  4. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  5. A preliminary description of the Gan-Hang failed rift, southeastern china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, P. C.; Gilder, S.; Fang, X.

    1991-10-01

    The Gan-Hang failed rift, as defined by present-day topography, extends at least 450 km in length and 50 km in width. It is a northeast-southwest trending series of features spanning from Hangzhou Bay in Zhejiang province into Jiangxi province through Fuzhou City. Southwest of Fuzhou, the rift splits into two portions: one continuing along the southwestern trend, and the other diverging westward. The total extent of the rift cannot be defined at this time. The rift is superimposed upon a major suture zone of Caledonian or early Mesozoic age. The suture represents the fusing of the South China (Huanan) and Yangtze cratons. Perhaps in Late Triassic, but for sure by Late-Middle Jurassic time, the rifting was initiated and followed this older suture, in part. This time corresponds roughly to the middle stage of the Yanshanian orogeny and to the subduction of the postulated Pacific- Kula ridge southeast of the continental margin. The total thickness of the sediments and volcanics filling the rift valley reaches more than 10,000 m. Peak intensity of extension was between Late-Middle Jurassic and Middle to Late Cretaceous. Sedimentation within the rift was not continuous and is marked with periodic unconformities. Sediments within the rift include red beds, sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, conglomerates, breccias, tuffs, and ignimbrites. Vertebrate fossils and dinosaur eggs are also found. Contemporaneous volcanics within and flanking the rift include basalts, rhyolites, granites, gabbros, dacites, and andesites. Silicic volcanics are mostly attributed to caldera systems. Early basalts are tholeiitic and later change to alkaline-olivine basalt. Bimodal volcanism is recognized. Peak intensity of volcanism ranges between 135 and 75 Ma. In Early Cenozoic time, the area was a topographic low. Paleocene- Eocene sediments and evaporites are the last rocks to be deposited in the rift. Today the rift is delineated by major, high-angle faults (the Pingxiang-Guangfeng deep fault

  6. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  7. Stable isotope variation in tooth enamel from Neogene hippopotamids: monitor of meso and global climate and rift dynamics on the Albertine Rift, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas Christian; Brügmann, Gerhard B.; Mertz, Dieter F.; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Ssemmanda, Immaculate; Taubald, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability. Variations in African-Asian monsoon intensity over the last 7 Ma have been deduced from patterns of eolian dust export into the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea as well as from lake level records in the East African Rift System (EARS). However, lake systems not only depend on rainfall patterns, but also on the size and physiography of river catchment areas. This study is based on stable isotope proxy data (18O/16O, 13C/12C) from tooth enamel of hippopotamids (Mammalia) and aims in unravelling long-term climate and watershed dynamics that control the evolution of palaeolake systems in the western branch of the EARS (Lake Albert, Uganda) during the Late Neogene (7.5 Ma to recent). Having no dietary preferences with respect to wooded (C3) versus grassland (C4) vegetation, these territorial, water-dependant mammals are particularly useful for palaeoclimate analyses. As inhabitants of lakes and rivers, hippopotamid tooth enamel isotope data document mesoclimates of topographic depressions, such as the rift valleys and, therefore, changes in relative valley depth instead of exclusively global climate changes. Consequently, we ascribe a synchronous maximum in 18O/16O and 13C/12C composition of hippopotamid enamel centred around 1.5-2.5 Ma to maximum aridity and/or maximum hydrological isolation of the rift floor from rift-external river catchment areas in response to the combined effects of rift shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift valley floor. Structural rearrangements by ~2.5 Ma within the northern segment of the Albertine Rift are well constrained by reversals in river flow, cannibalisation of catchments, biogeographic turnover and uplift of the Rwenzori horst. However, a growing rain shadow is not obvious in 18O/16O signatures of the hippopotamid teeth of the Albertine Rift. According to our interpretation, this is the result of the overriding effect of evaporation on 18

  8. Long-term cooling history of the Albertine Rift: new evidence from the western rift shoulder, D.R. Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. U.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Ring, U.; Grobe, R. W.; Mambo, V. S.; Starz, M.

    2016-09-01

    To determine the long-term landscape evolution of the Albertine Rift in East Africa, low-temperature thermochronology was applied and the cooling history constrained using thermal history modelling. Acquired results reveal (1) "old" cooling ages, with predominantly Devonian to Carboniferous apatite fission-track ages, Ordovician to Silurian zircon (U-Th)/He ages and Jurassic to Cretaceous apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages; (2) protracted cooling histories of the western rift shoulder with major phases of exhumation in mid-Palaeozoic and Palaeogene to Neogene times; (3) low Palaeozoic and Neogene erosion rates. This indicates a long residence time of the analysed samples in the uppermost crust, with the current landscape surface at a near-surface position for hundreds of million years. Apatite He cooling ages and thermal history models indicate moderate reheating in Jurassic to Cretaceous times. Together with the cooling age distribution, a possible Albertine high with a distinct relief can be inferred that might have been a source area for the Congo Basin.

  9. Rifting and Subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico: Implications for Syn-rift, Sag, and Salt Sections, and Subsequent Paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, J. L.; Graham, R.; Horn, B.

    2013-05-01

    Thick (up to 5 km), rapid (subsea (shown by backstripping), and (2) deepest abyssal sediments over ocean crust onlap the top of distal salt, demonstrating that the salt itself was rapidly drowned after deposition. Study of global ION datasets demonstrates the process of "rapid outer marginal collapse" at most margins, which we believe is achieved by low-angle detachment on deep, landward-dipping, Moho-equivalent surfaces such that outer rifted margins are hanging walls of crustal scale half-grabens over mantle. The tectonic accommodation space produced (up to 3 km, separates the traditional "rift" from "drift" stages during continental margin creation. Importantly, this 2-3 km of subsidence presently is neither treated as tectonic nor as thermal in traditional subsidence analysis; thus, Beta estimates may be excessive at many outer margins. Outer marginal collapse was probably eastwardly diachronous with initiation of spreading in the GoM. Additionally, recent paleo-climate studies suggest humid Early/Middle Jurassic conditions in equatorial GoM, hindering air-filled chasm development, but North America's northward flight into middle latitudes initiated Callovian aridity.

  10. 78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003) (``Order... calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a non-market economy (``NME... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 71 FR...

  11. 77 FR 75984 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Department considers Vietnam to be a non-market economy (``NME'') country.\\10\\ In accordance with section 771... Postponement of Final Determination: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 37116 (June 23, 2003). Section 776(b) of the Act provides that,...

  12. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  13. Anomalous magnetic moment at Ba in Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, A. K.; Kaur, J.; Bansal, N.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Kumar, V.; Dey, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique is employed to measure the local susceptibility at the recoil implanted Ba ions in Au following the nuclear reaction 120Sn(12C, 3nγ)129Ba. We have observed first time the local paramagnetic susceptibility of 5.26(18) at Ba ions comparable to 4f-ions in any non-ferromagnetic metal at room temperature which seems to be related to the electronic s-d and s-f transfer at positive lattice pressure.

  14. Quasiparticle Band Structure of BaS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Tie-Yu; CHEN De-Yan; HUANG Mei-Chun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We calculate the band structure of BaS using the local density approximation and the GW approximation (GWA),i.e. in combination of the Green function G and the screened Coulomb interaction W. The Ba 4d states are treated as valence states. We find that BaS is a direct band-gap semiconductor. The result shows that the GWA band gap (Eg-Gw = 3.921 eV) agrees excellently with the experimental result (Eg-EXPT = 3.88 eV or 3.9eV).

  15. AMiBA, XMM, and Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Haida

    2001-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an interferometric array of 19 dishes co-mounted on a steerable platform and operating at 95GHz. One of the main scientific aims of AMiBA is to conduct cluster surveys using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Here we explore the potential of AMiBA as a tailor-made SZ instrument for the study of cluster physics and cosmology via cluster surveys out to the epoch of cluster formation. In particular, we explore the potential of combining A...

  16. Mode of rifting in magmatic-rich setting: Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Central Afar rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Leroy, Sylvie; Ayalew, Dereje

    2014-05-01

    Observation of deep structures related to break-up processes at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is often a troublesome exercise: thick pre- to syn-breakup seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) usually mask the continent-ocean boundary and hide the syn-rift tectonic structures that accommodate crustal stretching and thinning. Some of the current challenges are about clarifying 1) if tectonic stretching fits the observed thinning and 2) what is the effect of continuous magma supply and re-thickening of the crust during extension from a rheological point of view? The Afar region in Ethiopia is an ideal natural laboratory to address those questions, as it is a highly magmatic rift that is probably close enough to breakup to present some characteristics of VPM. Moreover, the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are out-cropping, onshore and well preserved. In this contribution, we present new structural field data and lavas (U-Th/He) datings along a cross-section from the Ethiopian Plateau, through the marginal graben down to the Manda-Hararo active rift axis. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series unconformably overlain by tilted Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. It is itself overlain by flat lying Pliocene series, including the Stratoid. Balanced cross-sections of those areas allow us to constrain a surface stretching factor of about 2.1-2.9. Those findings have the following implications: - High beta factor constrained from field observations is at odd with thinning factor of ~1.3 predicted by seismic and gravimetric studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened by the emplacement of underplated magma and SDR. - The deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time. It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient

  17. Volcanic evolution of an active magmatic rift segment on a 100 Kyr timescale: exposure dating of lavas from the Manda Hararo/Dabbahu segment of the Afar Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Vye, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is already organised along rift segments which morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation here results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well documented 2005 event on the Dabbahu rift segment. During this tectono-volcanic crisis, a megadyke was injected, followed by 12 subsequent dike intrusions, sometimes associated with fissure flow eruptions. Despite the accurate surveying of the magmatic and tectonic interplay during this event via remote sensing techniques, there is a lack of data on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of a rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. It is possible to constrain the timing of fault growth relative to the infilling of the rift axial depression by lava flows, and to assess the influence of the different magma bodies involved in lava production along the rift-segment. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He) to determine the ages of young (cartography (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), the rift geomorphology can be linked to the magmatic and tectonic history defined by surface exposure dating. The results show that over the last 100 ka the Northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by two different magma reservoirs which can be identified based on their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. This magmatic centre supplies magma to most of the northern third of the rift segment. The second reservoir is located further south, on the axis, close to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. This second magmatic centre supplies magma to the remaining 2/3 of the segment, but scarcely impacts its Northern termination (where the Dabbahu

  18. New perspectives on the evolution of narrow, modest extension continental rifts: Embryonic core complexes and localized, rapid Quaternary extension in the Rio Grande rift, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.

    2013-12-01

    Updated models for continental rift zones need to address the role and development of low-angle normal fault networks, episodicity of extension, and interaction of 'active and passive' driving mechanisms. In the Rio Grande rift, USA, low-angle normal faults are found throughout the entire length of the rift, but make up a small percentage of the total fault population. The low-angle Jeter and Knife Edge faults, for example, crop out along the SW and NE margins of the Albuquerque basin, respectively. Apatite fission track (AFT) age-elevation data and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages from these rift flank uplifts record cooling between ~21 - 16 Ma in the NE rift flank and ~20 - 10 Ma in the SW, which coincides with times of rapid extension and voluminous syntectonic sedimentation. The timing of exhumation is also similar to rift flanks farther north in active margins based on AFT data alone. In addition, synthetic faults in the hanging wall of each low-angle fault become progressively steeper and younger basinward, and footwall blocks are the highest elevation along the rift flanks. These observations are consistent with a model where initially high-angle faults are shallowed in regions of maximum extension. As they rotate, new intrabasinal faults emerge which also can be rotated if extension continues. These relationships are similarly described in mature core complexes, and if these processes continued in the Rio Grande rift, it could eventually result in mid-crustal ductily deformed rocks in the footwall placed against surficial deposits in the hanging wall across faults that have been isostatically rotated to shallow dips. Although existing data are consistent with highest strain rates during a pulse of extension along the entire length of the rift 20-10 Ma., GPS-constrained measurements suggest that the rift is still actively-extending at 1.23-1.39 nstr/yr (Berglund et al., 2012). Additional evidence for Quaternary extension comes from travertine deposits that are

  19. Syntheses, crystal structure, and electronic properties of the five ABaMQ4 compounds RbBaPS4, CsBaPS4, CsBaVS4, RbBaVSe4, and CsBaVSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Adel; Prakash, Jai; Rocca, Dario; Lebègue, Sébastien; Beard, Jessica C.; Lewis, Benjamin A.; Ibers, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Five new compounds belonging to the ABaMQ4 family were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. The compounds RbBaPS4, CsBaPS4, CsBaVS4, RbBaVSe4, and CsBaVSe4 are isostructural and have the TlEuPS4 structure type. They crystallize in space group D162h - Pnma of the orthorhombic system. Their structure consists isolated MQ4 tetrahedra separated by A and Ba atoms to form a salt-like structure. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures with the use of the HSE functional suggest that the compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps of 3.3 eV (RbBaPS4), 3.4 eV (CsBaPS4), 2.3 eV (CsBaVS4), and 1.6 eV (RbBaVSe4).

  20. Electrochemical Oxidation of BaFeO2.5 to BaFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect perovskite-type BaFeO2.5 was oxidized to BaFeO3 by an electrochemical method in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte at 25 °C. With increase in the charge transfer q (electrons/formula unit), BaFeOz showed monoclinic (at nearly q = 0), rhombohedral (at around q = 0.34), pseudo-cubic (at 0.78 ≤ q ≤ 0.89), and true cubic (at q ≥ 0.89) structures. While an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) started at ca. q = 0.80, the oxidation of BaFeOz could concurrently be continued with the OER and BaFeO3 was obtained at q = 1.2. Further, the chemical potential of oxygen in BaFeOz could be estimated in the range of 2.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.87 without OER

  1. Transient cracks and triple junctions induced by Cocos-Nazca propagating rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, H.; Smith, D. K.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Mitchell, G. A.; Cann, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Galapagos triple junction is a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction where the Cocos, Nazca, and Pacific plates meet around the Galapagos microplate (GMP). On the Cocos plate, north of the large gore that marks the propagating Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, a 250-km-long and 50-km-wide band of NW-SE-trending cracks crosscuts the N-S-trending abyssal hills of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These appear as a succession of minor rifts, accommodating some NE-SW extension of EPR-generated seafloor. The rifts successively intersected the EPR in triple junctions at distances of 50-100 km north of the tip of the C-N Rift. We proposed a simple crack interaction model to explain the location of the transient rifts and their junction with the EPR. The model predicts that crack locations are controlled by the stress perturbation along the EPR, induced by the dominant C-N Rift, and scaled by the distance of its tip to the EPR (Schouten et al., 2008). The model also predicts that tensile stresses are symmetric about the C-N Rift and thus, similar cracks should have occurred south of the C-N Rift prior to formation of the GMP about 1 Ma. There were no data at the time to test this prediction. In early 2009 (AT 15-41), we mapped an area on the Nazca plate south of the C-N rift out to 4 Ma. The new bathymetric data confirm the existence of a distinctive pattern of cracks south of the southern C-N gore that mirrors the pattern on the Cocos plate until about 1 Ma, and lends support to the crack interaction model. The envelope of the symmetric cracking pattern indicates that the distance between the C-N Rift tip and the EPR varied between 40 and 65 km during this time (1-4 Ma). The breakdown of the symmetry at 1 Ma accurately dates the onset of a southern plate boundary of the GMP, now Dietz Deep Rift. At present, the southern rift boundary of the GMP joins the EPR with a steep-sided, 80 km long ridge. This ridge releases the stress perturbation otherwise induced along the EPR by elastic

  2. 31 CFR 500.413 - Participation in certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is completed, Vietnam hires a U.S. marketing firm to develop marketing strategies for the product worldwide. It further asks the marketing firm to execute the strategies it devises and to represent the product in South-East Asia, including the domestic market in Vietnam. The marketing firm in turn...

  3. Transparency of State Owned Enterprises in Vietnam : Current Status and Ideas for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Information disclosure by State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) is part of a broader agenda to promote greater public sector transparency in Vietnam. Recent studies by the World Bank and others have shown that despite progress, compliance with legal requirements for transparency remains a challenge across a wide range of public sector governance areas in Vietnam. However, the marginal benefit to ...

  4. Past Perspectives on Teaching about the Vietnam War: Implications for Teaching about Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    During the Vietnam War, and the years following the conflict, history teachers were often hesitant to examine the war in the classroom for a variety of reasons. This article explores some of the factors that prohibited the effective teaching of the Vietnam War. Implications regarding how these inhibiting factors might affect teaching about the…

  5. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections among women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent...... system, while also pointing to important cultural paradoxes in the understanding of womanhood in contemporary Vietnam....

  6. The Vietnam War: A Four Week Instructional Unit. Grades 11-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Darrell

    This 4-week curriculum is designed to help 11th and 12th grade students reach an understanding of the history and culture of Vietnam and the roots of U.S. military involvement there, and also to draw lessons from U.S. actions during the war in Vietnam. Students are encouraged to engage in critical thinking, evaluation, drawing conclusions, taking…

  7. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless...

  8. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31574... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure...

  9. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00,...

  10. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Register on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50715). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 13, 2012... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam,...

  11. Limitation on the Development of Skills in Higher Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of higher education students, recent graduates and employers in Vietnam on the issue of skill development in the higher education system in Vietnam. Enhancing skill development is considered essential for students, not only to pursue their study, but also for their success later, at work and in life. The…

  12. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-16527 Filed 7-2-12...--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam Memorandum for the...

  13. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for...

  14. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63410). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00...

  15. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Vietnam, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  16. Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Oh, Juhwan; Tran, Tuan Anh; Tran, Thi Giang Huong; Ha, Anh Duc; Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong

    2015-11-01

    Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam.

  17. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one f

  18. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context. PMID:27026899

  19. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  20. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  1. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR... Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam, USITC Publication 4144, Investigation Nos. 701... carrying merchandise from retail establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners....

  2. Foreign wage premium, gender and education : insights from Vietnam household surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Fukase,Emiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), ...

  3. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a nonmarket economy... Vietnam: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 12726... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  4. 77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... Economy Inputs, Expected Non-Market Economy Wages, Duty Drawback; and Request for Comments, 71 FR 61716... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 64307 (October 18, 2011) (``Fifth Vietnam...

  5. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam'', dated March 8, 2010. Non-Market Economy Country Status In every case... Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries. 70 FR 17233 (April 5, 2005); see also Notice of Final...: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 37116 (June 23, 2003). In...

  6. Education and Earnings in a Transition Economy: The Case of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moock, Peter R.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Venkataraman, Meera

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the return to education of liberalization of the labor market in Vietnam. Finds, for example, that private rate of return to schooling is greater for primary education than for either secondary or higher education. Overall, estimated returns to schooling in Vietnam are low compared with those for other developing countries. (Contains 6…

  7. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become on

  8. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  9. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Determination, 77 FR at 46054-55; and Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 75980 (December 26, 2012) (``Vietnam Hangers Final Determination... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 46044 (August...

  10. Child Poverty in Vietnam: Providing Insights Using a Country-Specific and Multidimensional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Keetie; Gassmann, Franziska; de Neubourg, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Despite a wide under-prioritization, the issue of child poverty has received increasing attention worldwide over the last decade. The acknowledgement in Vietnam that child-specific poverty measurement is crucial for poverty efforts directed towards children, and the current lack thereof, instigated the development of a Vietnam child poverty…

  11. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  12. Does Combat Exposure Make You a More Violent or Criminal Person? Evidence from the Vietnam Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study exploits the differential effects of the Vietnam War across birth cohorts to measure the effects of combat exposure on later violence and crime. Combat exposure and violent acts are measured using self-reports from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. I find large positive effects on violence for blacks, suggestive evidence…

  13. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  14. Impacts of farmer-based training in seed production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin Huynh Quang,

    2009-01-01

    Key words: farmer seed production school, farm-saved seed, formal seed sector, impact assessment, improved practice, local practice, rice (Oryza sativa), seed production, seed quality, Vietnam Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important food and cash crop of Vietnam. It is cultivated in all province

  15. We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam. Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned ec

  16. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  17. Cost Function and Its Use for Intergovernmental Educational Transfers in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, although many cost function studies have been done in developed countries, there has been no such study for the developing countries such as Vietnam. This paper will make the first attempt at conducting a cost function analysis for Vietnam. Second, it also demonstrates how the results of the cost…

  18. 77 FR 55186 - Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement, 77 FR, No. 131, July 9... Statement, 77 FR, No. 131, July 9, 2012, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe for Recruitment and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development...

  19. Tuberculosis epidemiology in six provinces of Vietnam after the introduction of the DOTS strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Huong; B.D. Duong; N.V. Co; H.T. Quy; L.B. Tung; J.F. Broekmans; M.C. Bosman; C. Verhage; N. Kalisvaart; M.W. Borgdorff; F.G.J. Cobelens

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Six Provinces in Vietnam where the DOTS strategy was introduced in 1989. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of improved tuberculosis (TB) control on TB epidemiology in Vietnam. METHODS: Data from the surveillance system in the period 1990-2003 were analysed to assess trends of notification rat

  20. Superposed deformation in the northern Suez Rift, Egypt: relevance to hydrocarbons exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, A.R. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Geology; Khalil, M.H. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-07-01

    Detailed subsurface studies of the northern part of the Suez Rift and adjacent areas indicate the superposition of two different episodes of deformation. During the earlier (Late Cretaceous) phase of deformation, folds with NE-SW oriented axes were formed in northern Egypt as a result of convergence between Africa and Eurasia and the closure of the Neotethys. During the later (early Miocene) deformation, NW-oriented normal faults were formed as a result of the opening of the Suez Rift. Borehole data have shown that a belt of NE en echelon folds with NE-SW axes exists in the subsurface in the northernmost part of the rift, between Ayun Musa and the Sukhna-1 well, south of Gebel Ataqa. This fold belt represents the SW continuation of the en echelon folds exposed in the Mitla Pass, to the NE of the rift. Another pre-rift structure is the offshore extension of the Wadi Araba structure as a SE-facing monocline. This offshore structure also represents the continuation of the Gebel Somar structure, on the eastern shoulder of the Suez Rift. The Gebel Somar and Wadi Araba structures represent the southernmost pre-rift folds in northern Egypt. Pre-rift folds in the study area stood high above sea-level during the Palaeocene and early Eocene. Upper Cretaceous and/or older rocks in the cores of these folds were later uncomfortably covered by middle Eocene rocks. The presence of Late Cretaceous folds should be taken into consideration when exploring for hydrocarbons in this part of the Suez Rift. Borehole data in NE Egypt also indicate the presence of Late Cretaceous folds underneath the almost flat-lying Tertiary rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Desert. These folds are considered to be potential hydrocarbon traps in this relatively poorly-explored area. (Author)

  1. Distributed deformation ahead of the Cocos-Nazca Rift at the Galapagos triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Schouten, Hans; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Cann, Johnson R.

    2011-11-01

    The Galapagos triple junction is not a simple ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction. The Cocos-Nazca Rift (C-N Rift) tip does not meet the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Instead, two secondary rifts form the link: Incipient Rift at 2°40‧N and Dietz Deep volcanic ridge, the southern boundary of the Galapagos microplate (GMP), at 1°10‧N. Recently collected bathymetry data are used to investigate the regional tectonics prior to the establishment of the GMP (∼1.5 Ma). South of C-N Rift a band of northeast-trending cracks cuts EPR-generated abyssal hills. It is a mirror image of a band of cracks previously identified north of C-N Rift on the same age crust. In both areas, the western ends of the cracks terminate against intact abyssal hills suggesting that each crack initiated at the EPR spreading center and cut eastward into pre-existing topography. Each crack formed a short-lived triple junction until it was abandoned and a new crack and triple junction initiated nearby. Between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma, the pattern of cracking is remarkably symmetric about C-N Rift providing support for a crack interaction model in which crack initiation at the EPR axis is controlled by stresses associated with the tip of the westward-propagating C-N Rift. The model also shows that offsets of the EPR axis may explain times when cracking is not symmetric. South of C-N Rift, cracks are observed on seafloor as old as 10.5 Ma suggesting that this triple junction has not been a simple RRR triple junction during that time.

  2. [Medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Xia; Dai, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There were many medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods. For example, in the Li Period, Vietnam established the Imperial Medical Department according to medical administration in China and to the Chen Period, the name was changed to Imperial Academy of Medicine. Through tribute and trade, many medicines circulated between the two countries. Many medicines from Vietnam, especially the spices and perfumes, could be found in prescriptions in China during those periods. Except for herb exchange, Chinese doctors also brought TCM theory to Vietnam and they offered medical attention for people and the Emperor. At the same time, Vietnamese doctors also had treated disease for a Chinese Empress in the Song Dynasty. In the area of the Sino-Vietnam border, people are used to chewing betel, which has been recorded in Chinese medical books. PMID:22613476

  3. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  4. Tectonic focusing of voluminous basaltic eruptions in magma-deficient backarc rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa O.; Hannington, Mark D.; Haase, Karsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Augustin, Nico; McConachy, Timothy F.; Allen, Katie

    2016-04-01

    The Coriolis Troughs of the New Hebrides subduction zone are among the youngest backarc rifts in the world. They reach depths of >3 km, despite their small size (Pacific, occur on the youngest lava flows. Comparison with similar axial volcanoes on the mid-ocean ridges suggests that the 46 ×106 m3 of sheet flows in the caldera could have been erupted in ridge. This study shows that the upper plate stresses can result in dramatic variability in magma supply and hydrothermal activity at the earliest stages of arc rifting and could explain the wide range of melt compositions, volcanic styles and mineral deposit types found in nascent backarc rifts.

  5. The DIRC detector at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dedicated particle identification system based on the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov (DIRC) light will be used in the BaBar detector. We provide an overview of the DIRC concept, design, and expected performance of the production device and a status report on its construction and commissioning. The DIRC is expected to be operating in the BaBar detector on beam line at the PEP-II B Factory in late spring 1999

  6. AMiBA First SZ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.-Y.; Wu, J.-H. P.; Umetsu, K.; Kock, P.; Liu, G.-C.; Nishioka, H.; Huang, C.-W.; Liao, Y.-W.; Wang, F.-C.; Ho, P.

    2008-10-01

    Y.T.Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an array utilizing the 90GHz band to measure the CMB power spectrum and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of galaxy clusters. The first stage with seven antennae has been completed, and the second stage with thirteen antennae is being constructed. Using the seven-element array, AMiBA has performed observations on six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09 - 0.32 during 2007.

  7. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    AMiBA is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components -- the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform -- and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the defo...

  8. AMiBA: System Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on time scales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hours per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hours for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using extern...

  9. Aedes mosquito saliva modulates Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Le Coupanec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. METHODS: C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. FINDINGS: After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. INTERPRETATION: Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV.

  10. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.

    2011-12-01

    An integral part of plate tectonic theory is that the fate of rifted margins is to be accreted into mountain belts. Thus, rift-related inheritance is an essential parameter controlling the evolution and architecture of collisional orogens. Although this link is well accepted, rift inheritance is often ignored. The Pyrenees, located along the Iberian and European plate boundary, can be considered as one of the best places to study the reactivation of former rift structures. In this orogen the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary convergence overprints a Late Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous complex intracontinental rift system related to the opening of the North Atlantic. During the rifting, several strongly subsiding basins developed in the axis of the Pyrenees showing evidence of extreme crustal extension and even locale mantle exhumation to the seafloor. Although the exact age and kinematics of rifting is still debated, these structures have an important impact in the subsequent orogenic overprint. In our presentation we discuss the example of the Mauléon basin, which escaped from the most pervasive deformations because of its specific location at the interface between the western termination of the chain and the Bay of Biscay oceanic realm. Detailed mapping combined with seismic reflection, gravity data and industry wells enabled to determine the 3D rift architecture of the Mauléon basin. Two major diachronous detachment systems can be mapped and followed through space. The Southern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) develops first, starts to thin the crust and floors the Southern Mauléon sub-Basin (SMB). The second, the Northern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) is younger and controls the final crustal thinning and mantle exhumation to the north. Both constitute the whole Mauléon basin. Like at the scale of the overall Pyrenees, the reactivation of the Mauléon Basin increases progressively from west to east, which enables to document the progressive reactivation of an aborted hyper

  11. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra

    2016-04-01

    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibrated to hydraulic

  12. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  13. No thermal anomalies in the mantle transition zone beneath an incipient continental rift: evidence from the first receiver function study across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Moidaki, M.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms leading to the initiation and early-stage development of continental rifts remain enigmatic, in spite of numerous studies. Among the various rifting models, which were developed mostly based on studies of mature rifts, far-field stresses originating from plate interactions (passive rifting) and nearby active mantle upwelling (active rifting) are commonly used to explain rift dynamics. Situated atop of the hypothesized African Superplume, the incipient Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) of northern Botswana is ideal to investigate the role of mantle plumes in rift initiation and development, as well as the interaction between the upper and lower mantle. The ORZ developed within the Neoproterozoic Damara belt between the Congo Craton to the northwest and the Kalahari Craton to the southeast. Mantle structure and thermal status beneath the ORZ are poorly known, mostly due to a complete paucity of broad-band seismic stations in the area. As a component of an interdisciplinary project funded by the United States National Science Foundation, a broad-band seismic array was deployed over a 2-yr period between mid-2012 and mid-2014 along a profile 756 km in length. Using P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by the stations, the 410 and 660 km discontinuities bordering the mantle transition zone (MTZ) are imaged for the first time. When a standard Earth model is used for the stacking of RFs, the apparent depths of both discontinuities beneath the Kalahari Craton are about 15 km shallower than those beneath the Congo Craton. Using teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals obtained by this study and lithospheric thickness estimated by previous studies, we conclude that the apparent shallowing is the result of a 100-150 km difference in the thickness of the lithosphere between the two cratons. Relative to the adjacent tectonically stable areas, no significant anomalies in the depth of the MTZ discontinuities or in teleseismic P- and S-wave traveltime residuals are

  14. Príčiny neúspechu budovania štátu v Južnom Vietname

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    The USA started nation-building in South Vietnam in 1954 after the Geneva Agreements. The USA wanted to build a state which would prevent expansion of communism to other states in Asia. This program failed and finally, in 1976 South Vietnam and North Vietnam were reunited into a single communist Vietnam. The goal of this bachelor thesis is to identify factors that caused nation-building in South Vietnam to fail. The causes of failure of nation-building are classified in three main levels - Am...

  15. Larval morphology and complex vocal repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), a rare flying frog from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Anna B; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-01-01

    We present new data on the distribution, reproduction, larval morphology and vocalization of Rhacophorus helenae (Rhacophoridae), a narrowly distributed frog from southern Vietnam. Two new populations of R. helenae were discovered during field surveys in the lowland monsoon forests in Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces in 2010-2013. Spawning was observed in May 2013. Egg clutches containing small (2.3±0.1 mm) unpigmented eggs were embedded in a foam nest and suspended high on trees above temporary ponds. The tadpoles of R. helenae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling Rhacophorus larvae with a moderate tail length and a labial tooth row formula of 5(2-5)/3. Postmetamorphic juveniles differed from adult frogs in the features of their coloration and less developed webbing. The complex vocal repertoire of R. helenae included five types of tonal, wideband and pulsed calls and several transitional signal types differentiated by frequency and amplitude parameters. Calls were uttered as singular signals (pulsed calls) or within non-stereotyped series of variable duration (other call types). The complex structure of the advertisement call markedly distinguishes R. helenae from other members of the Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex. PMID:27395638

  16. Sedimentation in large rift lakes: example from the middle pleistocene - modern deposits of the Tanganyika trough, East African rift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouroullec, J.L. (Societe Nationale Elf-Aquitaine (France)); Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. (Brest Univ., 29 (France)); Soreghan, M.; Cohen, A.S. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Recent and Modern sedimentation of the second largest rift lake in the world, Lake Tanganyika, East Africa Rift System, has been studied during the GEORIFT Project of Elf-Aquitaine (1983-1986). This study was mainly based on several hundreds of kilometres of high resolution (5 kHz) seismic profiles, associated with multiple gravity coring and dredging. The modern geomorphology of Lake Tanganyika is characterized by two main bathymetric basins, North and South, subdivided in a mosaic of seven strongly asymmetric sub-basins. These sub-basins are separated by more or less developed and/or sediment-buried ridges of basement rocks. Such tectonic arrangement defines several morphological elements within the Tanganyika structure such as border fault margins, littoral platforms, midlake structural highs and axial-deep basins. Such present geomorphology strongly influences the drainage pattern, as well as the hydrology of the lacustrine domain. Sedimentation associated with border fault margins includes piedmont deposits, colluvial rockfalls, fan deltas and downslope bars, and locally, at N-S/NW-SE crossing faults, hydrothermal sediments and mineralization. Sedimentation related to littoral platforms is characterized by fan deltas and deltas associated with lateral littoral platforms, as well as by prograding deltas associated with axial littoral platforms. Sedimentation related to axial-deep basins is mainly of autochthonous origin, formed by homogeneous or laminated organic-rich muds, under anoxic conditions. Such sediments have a high petroleum potential, possibly explaining the oil occurrence in the area of Cape Kalamba, Northern Tanganyika. Such sediments and sedimentary bodies are discussed in terms of the influences of climate, tectonism and volcanism. Implications for hydrocarbon exploration in synrift series are analyzed, mainly in terms of source rocks and reservoirs. 90 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Sequential Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Eastern Africa Caused by Multiple Lineages of the Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nderitu, Leonard; Lee, John S.; Omolo, Jared; Omulo, Sylvia; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Hightower, Allen; Mosha, Fausta; MOHAMED, Mohamed; Munyua, Peninah; Nganga, Zipporah; Hiett, Kelli; Seal, Bruce; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2010-01-01

    Background. During the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic of 2006–2007 in eastern Africa, spatial mapping of the outbreaks across Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania was performed and the RVF viruses were isolated and genetically characterized.

  18. Triassic rift-related sedimentary basins in northern Chile (24° 29°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M.; Bell, C. M.

    1992-10-01

    Triassic rocks in northern Chile (latitude 24°-29°S) include marine and continental rift-related sedimentary deposits, associated with basaltic, andesitic, and silicic volcanic rocks. Five main successions include the deposits of two marine basins (Profeta and San Félix) separated by three continental basins (Cifuncho, La Ternera, and La Coipa). The marine strata include turbidites and debris flow deposits interpreted as coarse-grained fan-delta sediments. The continental sediments include lacustrine fan delta, open lake, braided river, alluvial fan, and sabkha deposits. The widespread fan-delta systems (both marine and lacustrine), together with abrupt lateral and vertical facies discontinuities and large-scale depositional cycles, are indicative of rift-controlled sedimentation. The associated magmatic activity indicates that this rifting was the product of subduction-related extension or strike-slip movement on the active plate margin. Triassic rifting was followed in Late Triassic to Early Jurassic times by widespread thermotectonic subsidence.

  19. Inflation rates, rifts, and bands in a pāhoehoe sheet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Denlinger, Roger P.; Hon, Ken; Cervelli, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The margins of sheet flows—pāhoehoe lavas emplaced on surfaces sloping Inflation and rift-band formation is probably cyclic, because the pattern we observed suggests episodic or crude cyclic behavior. Furthermore, some inflation rifts contain numerous bands whose spacing and general appearances are remarkably similar. We propose a conceptual model wherein the inferred cyclicity is due to the competition between the fluid pressure in the flow's liquid core and the tensile strength of the viscoelastic layer where it is weakest—in inflation rifts. The viscoelastic layer consists of lava that has cooled to temperatures between 800 and 1070 °C. This layer is the key parameter in our model because, in its absence, rift banding and stepwise changes in the flow height would not occur.

  20. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Phuong-Lan Nguyen

    Full Text Available The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension.Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a survey using Quality Metric's Short-form 36v2TM translated into Vietnamese. Health-state utilities were estimated by applying a previously published algorithm.The mean utility of the 691 patients interviewed was 0.73. Controlling for age, sex, blood pressure (BP stage, and history of stroke, the utilities in older patients were lower than those in younger ones, and statistically significantly different between the extremes of youngest and oldest groups (p = 0.03. Utility in males was higher than in females (p = 0.002. As expected, patients with a history of stroke appeared to exhibit lower utilities than patients without such history, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.73. Patients with more than three comorbidities did have lower utilities than patients without comorbidity (p = 0.01.Health-state utilities found among hypertensive patients in Vietnam were similar to those found in other international studies. It is suggested that lower of health-state utilities exist among those patients who were older, female or had more than three comorbidities in comparison with respective reference groups. However, further research for confirmation is required. The data from this study provide a potential reference on health-state utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam as an input for future cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions. Also, it may serve as a reference for other similar populations, especially in the context of similar environments in low income countries.

  1. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  2. The Transition from Initial Rifting to Ultra-Slow Seafloor Spreading within Endeavor Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Endeavor Deep is a NW-SE trending, 3 km-deep rift basin located along the divergent portion of the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary. The rift basin is the result of the propagation of the East Ridge toward the northwest with relative motion across the ridge defined by a rapidly rotating (5.5 degrees/myr) Euler Pole located ~100 km to the northwest. The close proximity of Endeavor Deep to this Euler Pole results in a rapidly varying velocity field along the length of the deep and represents a unique location to study the effect of varying divergence rates on initial crustal extension. Recently collected EM300 bathymetry, DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics and JASON II observations have documented 4 distinct stages of rifting along the 70 km length of Endeavor Deep. These stages include (from NW to SE): amagmatic rifting, distributed initial volcanism, centralized waxing volcanism, and crustal formation by ultra-slow seafloor spreading. Amagmatic extension, evolving to rifting, occurs at spreading rates less than 13 km/myr and is characterized by rapidly deepening rift depths from NW to SE with an overall increase in depth of about 2.5 km. Extension is accommodated over a width of about 10-15 km and some flexural uplift of the defining scarps is observed. Distributed initial volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 13-14 km/myr and is characterized by coalesced volcanic constructs (100-200 m-high, 1-2 km-wide) across the width of the rift floor. The depth of the rift basin becomes fairly constant, but the cross-sectional area of the deep continues to increase. Centralized waxing volcanism occurs at spreading rates from 14-17 km/myr and is characterized by pillow ridges and tectonic lineations along the central portion of the rift floor which are oriented parallel to the long axis of the rift basin (orthogonal to the direction of extension). The floor of the rift basin begins to shoal and the cross-sectional area of the deep decreases initially and then

  3. After the Storm. Natural Disasters and Development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Uy Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the many processes which happen when a natural disaster occurs. Fieldwork was done in Ben Tre province, one year after a typhoon had hit the coastal province in the Mekong Delta in Southern Vietnam. During the 4 ½ months in the region, I talked to the many people and organisations whom have been affected. I found out that many people were not ready for the storm, but the post-disaster work had gone well, with everyone pitching in to help one another. This made me aware o...

  4. Linkages between precipitation and discharge trends in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Maxime; Freer, Jim; Cloke, Hannah; Laux, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Trend detection in precipitation and river discharge datasets can provide important insights into the impacts of climatic variability and change. Regions with poor observed hydrometeorological data coverage, often coincident with developing countries, are particularly prone to affects of changes in rainfall and temperature. In such regions, e.g. Central Vietnam, which are frequently affected by floods and droughts, knowledge about climate trends and their evolution over time is essential to project potential impacts on local water availability, agricultural productivity and risk analysis. Consequently, the quantification of the impact of global climate change in poorly gauged regions is of crucial importance for stakeholders and policy makers. In this study, we analyse change in rainfall, temperature and river discharge over the last three decades in Central Vietnam. To overcome the limited data availability, the high resolution APHRODITE gridded dataset is used in addition to the existing rain gauges network. Finally, linkages between discharge changes and trends in rainfall and temperature are explored. Results are indicative of an intensification of rainfall (+15%/decade), with more extreme and longer events. A significant increase in winter rainfall and a decrease in consecutive dry days provides strong evidence for a lengthening wet season in Central Vietnam. In addition, trends based on APHRODITE suggest a strong orographic signal in winter and annual trends. These results underline the local variability in the impacts of climatic change at the global scale. Consequently, it is important that change detection investigations are conducted at the local scale. A very weak signal is detected in the trend of minimum temperature (+0.2°C/decade). River discharge trends show an increase in mean discharge (31% to 35%/decade) over the last decades. Between 54 and 74% of this increase is explained by the increase in precipitation. The maximum discharge also responds

  5. The role of Stakeholders on implementing Universal Services in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated...... in performing the policy. The authors are to examine the stakeholders such as the national government, international organizations, policy intermediaries, companies, and customers/citizens via applying the qualitative method to gather data and analyse the secondary document. The qualitative approach...... of interviews on some officials was also conducted. The results demonstrate that stakeholders had a huge impact on the success of the universal service policy....

  6. A Real Options Analysis of Coffee Planting in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Quoc; Tauer, Loren W.

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam grew from an insignificant to the world’s second largest coffee producer during the 1990s. To understand this growth, this paper examines Vietnamese coffee growers’ investment decisions using real options theory. The study finds that producers, with variable costs of 19 cents/lb and total cost of 29.3 cents/lb, would enter coffee production at a coffee price of 47 cents/lb and exit at a coffee price of 14 cents/lb. Most Vietnamese growers appear to be sufficiently efficient to continu...

  7. Agricultural knowledge transfer and innovation processes in Vietnam's northwestern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses processes of adoption of agricultural innovations introduced to the northwestern uplands of Vietnam since the late 1950s as a result of external driving forces and the motivation of adopting farmers. We found that innovations which meet the immediate needs of food security...... and income generation in the uplands are adopted by a high number of farmers, but tend to be less environmentally sound. Innovations driven by political and ecological interests, i.e. of the type “adoption for political and social rewards” and “adoption for a sustainable environment,” are accepted by only...

  8. CREATIVE  EXERCISES ON PHYSICS AT HIGH SCHOOLS  IN  VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research and development of innovative training concepts by V.G. Razumopsky who makes proposal to Physics teaching in secondary schools in Vietnam; The authors have detailed two types of creative exercises  of Razumopsky into the 6 signs, which both reflect their impact on fostering the qualities of creative thinking, and easily operate in the selection, construction and use  of  teachers  in order to establish and develop innovative capabilities to their students.

  9. Adapting the innovation systems approach to agricultural development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friederichsen, Rupert; Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive...... into the still-dominant transfer of technology model. We show how extensionists draw selectively on these diverse discourses to foster interaction with outsiders and clients, and bolster their livelihood strategies. We conclude that the conceptual framework suggested by the innovation systems (IS) approach......’ ability to mediate between the conflicting principles of farmers’ self-organization and government control is identified as a key challenge for increasing innovative capacity in rural upland Vietnam....

  10. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change and institutional bias towards capital-intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  11. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change, and institutional bias toward capital intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  12. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...... that dependence and bolster the domestic economy while continuing to restructure the economy toward greater emphasis on the private sector. Growth, employment and poverty alleviation have been maintained at the expense of renewed inflation, larger budget deficits, and currency depreciation. The ‘stop-go’ nature...

  13. Building Connections While Conducting Qualitative Health Fieldwork in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Boggiano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are increasingly embarking on international qualitative health research projects, where unknown social structures and government systems make inquiry uniquely challenging. In this article, we document our experiences conducting two related studies on HIV/AIDS in Northern Vietnam. We describe how our research relied on harnessing the social capital of vital community stakeholders, such as key informants, interpreters, and host organizations, to effectively engage with government bodies on a macro level and with local communities on a microlevel. By highlighting our processes, pitfalls, and successes, we provide current and future scholars with strategies to use when conducting cross-national field research.

  14. Disordered eating behaviors in university students in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Nayeong; Tam, Duong Minh; Viet, Nguyen Kim; Scheib, Peter; Wirsching, Michael; Zeeck, Almut

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine disordered eating behaviors in university students in Vietnam. Methods A total of 244 female university students participated, and 203 data could be analyzed. The Body Mass Index, the SCOFF screening questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 were used to explore disordered eating behaviors. Results 45.3% of the participants were underweight, 53.2% were normal weight and 1.5% were overweight. 48.8% of students reported two or more yes-resp...

  15. Factors affecting customer trust in online shopping in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le Nhat Minh

    2013-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology, especially in a developing country like Vietnam, e-commerce plays a very important part to the business particularly and to the overall economy in general. It has only been over a decade since Vietnamese people had access to the internet but at the current state the growth rate is rapidly growing, leading to the improvement of e-commerce and online business. It is essential to note that e-commerce is one of the major keys for t...

  16. Apocalypse now, Vietnam and the rhetoric of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Childs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Readings of Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979 often confront the difficulty of having to privilege either its aesthetic context (considering, for instance, its relation to Conrad's Heart of Darkness [1899] or to the history of cinema or its value as a representation of the Vietnam War. In this paper, I will argue that viewing the film as a meditation on the nature and rhetoric of influence allows us to bridge this gap and provides us with valuable insights into both the film's aesthetic precursors and the circumstances of its historical setting.

  17. Transfer zones and fault reactivation in inverted rift basins: Insights from physical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, Elena A.; Harris, Lyal B.; Poulin, Jimmy; Ivanov, Gennady M.

    2007-08-01

    Lateral transfer zones of deformation and fault reactivation were investigated in multilayered silicone-sand models during extension and subsequent co-axial shortening. Model materials were selected to meet similarity criteria and to be distinguished on CT scans; this approach permitted non-destructive visualisation of the progressive evolution of structures. Transfer zones were initiated by an orthogonal offset in the geometry of a basal mobile aluminium sheet and/or by variations of layer thickness or material rheology in basal layers. Transfer zones affected rift propagation and fault kinematics in models. Propagation and overlapping rift culminations occurred in transfer zones during extension. During shortening, deviation in the orientation of frontal thrusts and fold axes occurred within transfer zones in brittle and ductile layers, respectively. CT scans showed that steep (58-67°) rift-margin normal faults were reactivated as reverse faults. The reactivated faults rotated to shallower dips (19-38°) with continuing shortening after 100% inversion. Rotation of rift phase faults appears to be due to deep level folding and uplift during the inversion phase. New thrust faults with shallow dips (20-34°) formed outside the inverted graben at late stages of shortening. Frontal ramps propagated laterally past the transfer structure during shortening. During inversion, the layers filling the rift structures underwent lateral compression at the depth, the graben fill was pushed up and outwards creating local extension near the surface. Sand marker layers in inverted graben have showed fold-like structures or rotation and tilting in the rifts and on the rift margins. The results of our experiments conform well to natural examples of inverted graben. Inverted rift basins are structurally complex and often difficult to interpret in seismic data. The models may help to unravel the structure and evolution of these systems, leading to improved hydrocarbon exploration

  18. Deformation during the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, measured from historical optical imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sébastien; Ayoub, François; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We measure the displacement field resulting from the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, using optical image correlation. Images are processed using the COSI-Corr software package. Surface extension is accommodated on normal faults and fissures which bound the rift zone, in response to dike injection at depth. Correlation of declassified KH-9 spy and SPOT5 satellite images reveals extension between 1977–2002 (2.5 m average opening over 80 km), while correlation of aerial photos betwe...

  19. Characterization of Water Level Variability of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta Dadi Belete; Bernd Diekkrüger; Jackson Roehrig

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the water level fluctuations of eight Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes were analyzed for their hydrological stability in terms of water level dynamics and their controlling factors. Long-term water balances and morphological nature of the lakes were used as bases for the analyses. Pettit’s homogeneity test and Mann–Kendall trend analysis were applied to test temporal variations of the lake levels. It is found that the hydrological stability of most of the Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes...

  20. Teleseismic Investigations of the Malawi and Luangwa Rift Zones: Ongoing Observations From the SAFARI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; Mutamina, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of crustal and mantle heterogeneities upon the initiation of the Malawi rift zone (MRZ) and reactivation of the Zambian Luangwa rift zone (LRZ) subject to Cenozoic plate boundary stress fields and mantle buoyancy forces, we installed and operated 33 Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation (SAFARI) three-component broadband seismic stations in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia from 2012 to 2014. During the twenty-four month acquisition period, nearly 6200 radial receiver functions (RFs) were recorded. Stations situated within the MRZ, either along the coastal plains or within the Shire Graben toward the south, report an average crustal thickness of 42 km relative to approximately 46 km observed at stations located along the rift flanks. This implies the juvenile MRZ is characterized by a stretching factor not exceeding 1.1. Meanwhile, P-to-S velocity ratios within the MRZ increase from 1.71 to 1.82 in southernmost Malawi, indicating a substantial modification of the crust during Recent rifting. Time-series stacking of approximately 5500 RFs recorded by the SAFARI and 44 neighboring network stations reveals an apparent uplift of 10 to 15 km along both the 410- and 660-km mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities beneath the MRZ and LRZ which, coupled with an apparently normal 250-km MTZ thickness, implies a first-order high-velocity contribution from thickened lithosphere. Preliminary manual checking of SAFARI shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements provides roughly 650 high-quality XKS phases following a component re-orientation to correct station misalignments. Regional azimuthal variations in SWS fast orientations are observed, from rift-parallel in the vicinity of the LRZ to rift-oblique in the MRZ. A major 60° rotation in the fast orientation occurs at approximately 31°E, possibly resulting from the modulation of mantle flow around a relatively thick lithospheric keel situated between the two rift zones.