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Sample records for b6 vitamin b12

  1. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  2. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  3. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, A M; Nexo, E; Nielsen, J B

    2006-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine, treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically, these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) and B(6) deficiency because of a limited intake of animal products. Besides laboratory tests (n = 31) we obtained clinical information (n = 30) and detailed information on food consumption (n = 28). Three-quarters of the patients had early biochemical signs of vitamin B(12) deficiency. In spite of a normal folate status, 9 (29%) had a plasma homocysteine above 12 micromol/L. In accord with these findings, the food questionnaires indicated that 11 (39%) patients received less than the recommended daily vitamin B(12), and 20 (71%) received less vitamin B(6) than recommended. A significant association was found between reduced vitamin B(12) intake and both reduced serum cobalamins (p = 0.04) and reduced serum transcobalamin saturation (p = 0.03). Eleven patients took a vitamin pill daily, and these patients had a significantly lower plasma homocysteine compared to the rest. The present study suggests that adult PKU patients were at increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) deficiency, and their intake of vitamin B(6) was below the recommended daily intake. In conclusion PKU patients need continuing dietary guidance throughout adult life, and considering the risks, costs and potential benefits, daily vitamin supplementation seems justified in these patients. PMID:16601867

  4. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of vitamin B12 ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. ...

  5. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak; KAYA, Murat; ARSLAN, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin suppleme...

  6. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk Nick; Watkins Carol J; Hageman Robert J J; Sijben John C W; Kamphuis Patrick G H J; Wurtman Richard J; Broersen Laus M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA...

  7. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Turgut; Murat Kaya; Sermal Arslan; et al

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participan...

  8. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Particip...

  9. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an in...

  10. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1, B6, B12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜR, Mahmure Üstün; KOYUNCU, İkbal

    2002-01-01

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1, B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 m gml-1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin B12 at 361.7 nm (r=0.9998). The method was successfully applied for analyzing synthetic mixtures and c...

  11. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and the association with serum levels of Homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and Folate

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Markus; Hellström, Anders; Henriksson, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown hyperhomocysteinemi in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In the present study we evaluated the circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) in relation to renal function, vitamins B6, B12 and folate status in AAA patients with special regard to aneurysm size, and rupture. Hcy, Creatinine, B6, B12 and folate were measured in 119 patients with AAA and 36 controls without aneurysm matched by age, gender and smoking habit. As expected there was a weak co...

  13. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  14. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  15. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Heru Yuniati; Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM) in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb), two types of eggs (chicken, duck), an...

  16. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  17. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  18. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Suever, Barbara L.; Shaurya Prakash, Ruchika; Colcombe, Stanley J.; McAuley, Edward; Arthur F Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamin B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamin B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized ...

  19. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  20. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  1. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  2. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  3. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Suever, Barbara L; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Colcombe, Stanley J; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-03-14

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamins B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamins B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and global gray and white matter volume after correcting for age, sex, body mass index, calorie intake, and education. All participants met or surpassed the recommended daily intake for these vitamins. In the VBM analysis, we found that adults with greater vitamin B6 intake had greater gray matter volume along the medial wall, anterior cingulate cortex, medial parietal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus, whereas people with greater B12 intake had greater volume in the left and right superior parietal sulcus. These effects were driven by vitamin supplementation and were negated when only examining vitamin intake from diet. Folate had no effect on brain volume. Furthermore, there was no relationship between vitamins B6, B12, or folate intake on global brain volume measures, indicating that VBM methods are more sensitive for detecting localized differences in gray matter volume than global measures. These results are discussed in relation to a growing literature on vitamin intake on age-related neurocognitive deterioration. PMID:18281020

  4. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  5. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... ODS: ods.od.nih.gov/contact What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  6. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember a prescription medication called ... Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate ... Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5- ...

  7. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  8. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprue Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Cirrhosis Delirium Dementia Dementia due to metabolic causes Hepatitis Hyperthyroidism Malabsorption Pernicious anemia Polycythemia vera Reticulocyte count Vitamin B12 Update Date 2/24/2014 Updated by: ...

  9. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent or treat dementia. Energy and athletic performance Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way ... 24, 2011 Share This Page: E-mail Twitter Facebook Google+ Pinterest Contact Us | Accessibility | Site Policies | Disclaimer | ...

  10. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  11. Vitamin B12 for cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Malouf, RM; Areosa Sastre, A

    2003-01-01

    Background An association between neuropsychiatric disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency has been recognized since 1849 when pernicious anaemia was first described. It has been suggested that deficiency of vitamin B12 might contribute to age-associated cognitive impairment. Low serum vitamin B12 concentrations are found in more than 10% of older people. A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 levels, and other indicators of vitamin B12 deficiency have been reported among people with Alzh...

  12. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  13. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Rahime Tüten; Birol Baytan; Selin Yakarışık; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  14. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  15. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  16. The effect of melatonin and/or complex vitamin B1,B6,B12 in modulating epinephrine-induced stress in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yossef EL-Toweissy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the modulating effects of intramuscular administration of melatonin (MT(1mg/ kg and/or Tri-B (B 1 , B 6 and B 12 (20mg/kg on body weight and some biochemical changes in rats induced by Epinephrine (Epi injection. The data showed that MT and/or Tri-B treatment effectively improved the changes in malondialdehyde, lipid profile, blood sugar level and insulin. MT and/or Tri-B administration following Epi improved partially the decrease in body weight and liver glycogen levels. Tri B injection following Epi partialy improved all the tested parameters except malondialdehyde and blood sugar level that completely improved in stressed rats. It was evident that a combination of MT and vitamin B complex had protective actions and further it was better than either of them introduced alone in stressed rats. The possible interaction between MT and Tri B provided further support to MT synergistic actions with the aim of advocating MT and Tri B as a possible synergistic therapy.

  17. Vitamin B-12 in breast milk and diet, and riboflavin in breastmilk, are very low in Kenyan lactating women, although vitamin B-6 is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk B-vitamin concentrations can fluctuate with maternal intake. Low maternal intake of B-vitamins may result in low B-vitamin breastmilk concentrations and consequently B-vitamin deficiency in their infants because infants 0–6 months are recommended to be exclusively breastfed. T...

  18. Electrochemical Behavior of Vitamin B6 at Vitamin B12 Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Application%维生素B6在维生素B12修饰电极上的电化学行为及其分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 毕春燕

    2012-01-01

    采用循环伏安法研究了维生素B6在维生素B12修饰玻碳电极上的电化学行为,建立了测定痕量维生素B6的新方法.在pH 8.6的NH3-NH4Cl缓冲溶液中,维生素B6在修饰电极上产生一个灵敏的氧化峰,采用差分脉冲伏安法测定,其氧化峰电流与维生素B6的浓度在8.0×10-7~2.0×10-4 mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为2.0×10-7 mol/L.该修饰电极具有良好的选择性、灵敏度及稳定性,用于片剂中维生素B6的定量分析,结果令人满意.%A Vitamin B,2 modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. The electrochemical behavior of Vitamin B6 (VB6) was studied at the prepared electrode by cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical effect on oxidation of VB6. In NH3-NH4C1 buffer solution(pH 8.6), the anodic peak current had a linear relationship with VB6 concentration in the range of 8.0×10-7 -2.0×10-4 mol / L by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limit was 2.0×10-7mol / L. The modified electrode had good selectivity and sensitivity. The proposed method had been applied to the determination of VB6 in tablets with satisfactory results.

  19. The effect of melatonin and/or complex vitamin B1,B6,B12 in modulating epinephrine-induced stress in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Yossef EL-Toweissy; Nema Abdel-Hameed Mohamed; Wessam Mohamed Abdel-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the modulating effects of intramuscular administration of melatonin (MT)(1mg/ kg) and/or Tri-B (B 1 , B 6 and B 12 ) (20mg/kg) on body weight and some biochemical changes in rats induced by Epinephrine (Epi) injection. The data showed that MT and/or Tri-B treatment effectively improved the changes in malondialdehyde, lipid profile, blood sugar level and insulin. MT and/or Tri-B administration following Epi improved partially the decrease in body weight a...

  20. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  1. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also ... is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember ...

  2. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol), pyridoxal (an aldehyde), and pyridoxamine (a primary amine). Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other s...

  3. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  4. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  5. : Vitamine B6 et cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sujol, Guillaume; Docquier, Aurélie; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Castet-Nicolas, Audrey; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    International audience Vitamin B6 is well-known for its role as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and recently, several epidemiological studies have highlighted the importance of this vitamin as a protective agent against various cancers: elevated vitamin B6 plasma levels were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer development, for example. In vivo studies have shown that vitamin B6 decreased cell proliferation and enhanced the immune response. At the cellular level, antiox...

  6. Determination of Vitamin B1,B2,B6 and B12 in Qingda Vitamin B Capsules by HPLC%庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2、B6B12的HPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉梅; 郭澄

    2008-01-01

    建立HPLC法测定庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2、B6B12的含量.采用C18柱,乙腈-10mmol/L磷酸二氢钾(pH 3.2)为流动相,梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm.维生素B1、B2、B6B12分别在50~150、20~60、20~60和0.5~1.5μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为101.9%、98.1%、99.6%和99.4%.

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel Milanlıoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse.We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy.Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neuropsychiatric ...

  9. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  10. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  11. Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  12. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  13. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12 status.

    Vitami

  14. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  15. Vitamin B6 Related Epilepsy during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Fai Kuo; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2007-01-01

    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled withoutan extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), theactive form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes.Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrationsin the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxinephosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder oc...

  16. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Vitamin B2 ,B6, B12 and Vitamin C at Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%多壁碳纳米管修饰电极同时测定维生素B2、B6B12和维生素C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向伟; 李将渊; 马曾燕

    2007-01-01

    制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰玻碳电极(MWNT/GCE),研究了维生素B2、B6B12和维生素C共存时在该电极上的电化学行为.实验发现,在HAc-NaAc缓冲溶液中,该电极可同时测定以上四种维生素,线性范围分别为1.0×10-6~1.0×10-4 mol/L、5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L、5.0×10-5~7.5×10-4 mol/L和5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L,其检出限分别为7.0×10-7 mol/L、1.0×10-5 mol/L、2.5×10-5 mol/L和5.0×10-6 mol/L.样品分析的RSD分别为1.66%、1.71%、2.26%和1.46%.方法简便快捷,可用于四种维生素同时分析测定.

  18. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  19. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona O’Leary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.

  20. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  1. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  2. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  3. Radiometric microbiological estimation of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of vitamin B12 in blood is very important to determine in deficiency and diagnosis of anemic patients. Vitamin B12 in blood can be estimated by spectrochemical, enzymatic, radioisotopic and microbiological methods. In the present study vitamin B12 was determined in 48 normal subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad by radiometric microbiological assay (RMA) technique using a very rapid, sensitive and automated instrument Bactec 460. In this procedure 14C-glucose media and microorganisms Lactobacillus leichmannii were used. The sensitivity of the method for vitamin B12 is 1 pg/ml and the vitamin B12 found in normal subjects was in the range of 105-535 pg/ml with a median value of 246±6 pg/ml. (author) 26 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D. W.; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Suplemen Vitamin B12 Terhadap Serum Vitamin B12 dan Hemoglobin Anak Prasekolah

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulhaida; . Hardinsyah; Syarief, Hidayat; Jalal, Fasli; Muhilal

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia, and effects of vitamin B12 suplement on vitamin B12 serum and hemoglobin of preschool children. A randomized controlled trial of 32 preschool children (4-6 year) for 6 months was appliad. Subjects divided in to 2 groups, treatment group (received 10 μg vitamin B12 syrup daily) and control group (placebo). Consentration of vitamin B12 serum and hemoglobin of children was measured before and after their intervent...

  6. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  7. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  8. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  9. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE MARIE; SCOTT, JOHN MARTIN

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Impaired vitamin B12 function and decreased vitamin B12 status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B12 concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B12. Methods: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B12 for detection ...

  10. Production of vitamin B12 and labeled vitamin B12 by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the production of labeled vitamin B12 with one strain of actinomycet in a novel synthetic medium by batch fermentation method was investigated. After releasing vitamin B12 from microbial cells, the solution containing cobalamin analogues was fixed on amberlite XAD-4 exchanger and eluted by various solutions. Vitamin B12 in the collected fractions were measured by HPLC method and also in order to confirm the existence of cobalamin compounds in the samples, TLC technique was used. In the optimal conditions, production of vitamin B12 by this microorganism was 1456μg/1. The best recoveries of vitamin B12 from the column were obtained when the column was eluted by ethanol followed by acetone. The Rf, values for cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, produced by this microorganism were the same as the standard values of Rf. The desorption of labeled vitamine B12 was carried out by different eluants, including acetone, ethanol (absolute), ethanol 25% and deionized water. The activity of labeled vitamin B12 was 8.55, 6.90, 0.79, 5.75 Bq/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total specific activity of 21.99 Bq/ml was obtained for labeled vitamin B12 .

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome and vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION A 42-year-old woman with carpal tunnel syndrome tells you she has started taking a vitamin B6 supplement to relieve her symptoms. Her work in an automotive parts department involves both lifting moderately heavy packages and typing at a computer terminal. What does the research indicate about vitamin B6 as a treatment option, and what health issues should you discuss with this patient?

  12. Phenelzine reduces plasma vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, D E; Yu, P H; Bowen, R.C.; O'Donovan, C.; Hawkes, J; Hussein, M

    1994-01-01

    Plasma levels of the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) in 19 patients taking phenelzine were found to be reduced on the average to approximately 54% of the value in a control group. There was no correlation of pyridoxal phosphate level with phenelzine daily dosage over the range of 30 mg to 90 mg. No symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency peripheral neuropathy were found.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  14. New method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12 in a sample solution of serum in which a radioactive tracer of vitamin B12 and the vitamin B12 of the serum compete with respect to an intrinsic factor of limited linking capacity. The free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free vitamin B12 of the serum are separated from the intrinsic factor and from the radioactive vitamin B12 and from the serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, before the radioactivity is measured against standard values. The method consists in separating the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 of the intrinsic factor and portions of radioactive and serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, by adding an adequate quantity of bentonite to adsorb the free radioactive vitamin B12 and free serum vitamin B12 so that the intrinsic factor surface floating solution in association with the linked radioactive vitamin B12 and the linked serum vitamin B12 may be physically isolated from the solid bentonite that has adsorbed the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12

  15. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  16. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...... abnormal (AUC: 0.85 vs 0.74; P = 0.002) renal function. Similar findings were observed for detection of moderate vitamin B(12) deficiency. Whereas the positive predictive value for both holoTC and vitamin B(12) was greater for detection of probable than definite vitamin B(12) deficiency, both tests were...

  17. Preparation of vitamin B-12-free serum for the use in vitamin B-12 radioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioassays for serum vitamin B-12, the separation of free and bound vitamin is usually made with charcoal absorption. The specificity of this separation depends on the amount of charcoal and the protein content and constitution of the medium. The large difference in protein concentration between the samples for the dilution curve and the serum samples introduces an uncontrolled variable in the test. In order to equalize the experimental circumstances, the standard dilutions were made in serum freed from vitimin B-12 after boiling the serum for 20 min in a 4-fold dilution with glutamic acid buffer at pH 3.3 and subsequent passage over a CH-Sepharose 4-B column complexed with hog intrinsic factor (IF). The vitamin B-12-binding capacity of such an affinity column prepared from 1 g CH-Sepharose and 20 mg IF, suffices for the absorption of vitamin B-12 in 3000 ml serum from which 300 series of vitamin B-12 standard solutions can be made. The first results with this method confirm that the charcoal absorption radioassay has become more accurate by the use of vitamin B-12-free serum in the standard dilutions. (Auth.)

  18. Vitamin B12 and eicosanoids in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B12. The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B12 in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of [3H] 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from [3H] 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating

  19. Effects of Vitamin B12 in Neonates and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin is an essential coenzyme for nucleic acid synthesis. Animal protein is the major dietary source of vitamin B12. Deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to megaloblastic anemia, degeneration of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and abnormalities of epithelial tissues. Two factors are necessary for the cure of megaloblastic anemia: one in food (extrinsic factor and one in gastric juice (intrinsic factor. The extrinsic factor is vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor (a glycoprotein secreted by gastric parietal cells ensures cobalamin absorption by receptors in the terminal ileum. Vitamin B12 is actively transported across the placenta. Neonates have high serum levels and significant liver stores of vitamin B12. The neonates born to mothers with deficiency of vitamin B12 have deficiency of this vitamin. Pregnant women in resource-poor areas have low vitamin B12 status which is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. Supplementation of vitamin B12 had significantly higher plasma of vitamin B12 in mothers and neonates. A single intramuscularly injection of vitamin B12 of between 250 µg and 1mg and a dietary intake of 1 µg/kg per day vitamin B12 is sufficient to combat vitamin B12 deficiency. Mean DNA damage scores in infants with vitamin B12 deficiency and their mothers were significantly higher before than after supplementation with vitamin B12. There were correlations between the infants' and their mothers' DNA damage scores. The aim of this study is the review of the effects of vitamin B12 in neonates and young infants.

  20. Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  2. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparieta...

  3. Effects of Vitamin B12 in Neonates and Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential coenzyme for nucleic acid synthesis. Animal protein is the major dietary source of vitamin B12. Deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to megaloblastic anemia, degeneration of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and abnormalities of epithelial tissues. Two factors are necessary for the cure of megaloblastic anemia: one in food (extrinsic factor) and one in gastric juice (intrinsic factor). The extrinsic factor is vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor (a glycopr...

  4. Orthostatic Hypotension as a Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ganjehei, Leila; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi; James M Wilson

    2012-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman with orthostatic hypotension and near-syncope was found to have a low-normal level of vitamin B12 and no other medical findings that could explain her orthostasis. Her symptoms responded to vitamin B12 replacement therapy. This case shows that vitamin B12 deficiency can induce orthostatic hypotension and syncope that are correctable by vitamin B12 replacement.

  5. Involuntary movement in infants during vitamin B12 treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Tosun; Yusuf Ziya Aral; Emre Çeçen; Ayvaz Aydoğdu; Bilin Çetinkaya Çakmak

    2011-01-01

    Megaloblastic anemia is rare in infants and is generally due to vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in the mother. Neurologic symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include irritability, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental regression/delay. Herein we present 2 infants with vitamin B12 that developed movement disorder 5 d after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment. Symptoms included tremor and myoclonus, involving in particular the face, tongue, and hands. Clinical findings in infants as...

  6. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B12 in biological specimens is described. A sample containing folate and vitamin B12 is contacted with 125I-folate and 57Co-vitamin B12 and their respective specific binders. After separation of the bound and free portions, the radioactivity in the portions is counted and the amounts of folate and vitamin B12 then determined from standard curves. (U.K.)

  7. Oral vitamin B12 can change our practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nyholm, E.; Turpin, P; Swain, D; Cunningham, B.; Daly, S; P. Nightingale; Fegan, C

    2003-01-01

    Oral vitamin B12 can provide an effective alternative to intramuscular injections, so giving patients a choice and reducing costs in primary care. This study investigated the effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of oral vitamin B12 as replacement therapy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency in a city general practice population. Forty patients previously maintained on vitamin B12 injections were given 1000 µg of oral cyanocobalamin daily for up to 18 months. All the patients maintained...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1x10-5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1x10-3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%. (author)

  10. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  11. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  12. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  13. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy. PMID:27056859

  14. Vitamin B12 and its effects on neurological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Melike; Demirci, Serpil

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for growth and development in humans. It is required for methylation reactions and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 deficiency has a causal relationship with a variety of disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for some others. Megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders are the most prevalent disorders seen with vitamin B12 deficiency. In this review, vitamin B12's absorption, the main physiological functions and the role of it in pathog...

  15. Bound vitamin B12 absorption in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A; Furlong, D; Burrows, B A; Slingerland, D W

    1992-07-01

    In many patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12, the absorption of the free vitamin has been normal. The present study, using a total body counter 57CoB12 absorption method that clearly separated those with intrinsic factor deficiency from controls, found that of 94 patients with low B12 levels and intact stomachs in whom the absorption of free and bound B12 was determined, 44 (47%) had normal absorption of both. However, 20 of the 94 (21%) with normal absorption of free B12 had low absorption of bound B12. The remainder (32%) had low absorption of both free and bound B12. All patients with high serum gastrin levels had low bound B12 absorption, but so did 21% of those patients with normal serum gastrin levels. PMID:1609768

  16. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  17. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, M.; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, FC; van Hasselt, PM; De Sain-van Der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, NM

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6

  18. Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Wang, Hansong; Selhub, Jacob; Vogt, Thomas M.; Yokochi, Lance; Decker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy sc...

  19. Regiospecificity of Chlorophenol Reductive Dechlorination by Vitamin B12s

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mark H.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Vitamin B12, reduced by titanium (III) citrate to vitamin B12s, catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols. Reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol and of all tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol isomers was observed. Reaction of various chlorophenols with vitamin B12 favored reductive dechlorination at positions adjacent to another chlorinated carbon, but chlorines ortho to the hydroxyl group of a phenol were particularly resistant to reductive dechlorination, even if the...

  20. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Gröber; Klaus Kisters; Joachim Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency ...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear

  2. Vitamin B12 Deficiency due to Chlorofluorocarbon: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hemlata Bhaskar; Rekha Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vitamin B12 is vital for optimal functioning of various organ systems but more importantly the central nervous system and the hematological system. Deficiency of vitamin B12 clinically manifests as excessive daytime fatigue, memory difficulties, encephalopathy, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy. In occupational medicine, vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported with exposure to nitrous oxide in health care workers. However, not much is known about exposure to...

  3. Racial difference in serum Vitamin B12 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the serum Vitamin B12 concentrations of 49 black and 49 white healthy adults demonstrate a significantly higher mean serum Vitamin B12 level in blacks when compared to whites. The reason for this difference appears to be genetic, although environmental factors may also be involved. It is suggested that clinical laboratories should establish their own separate reference values of serum Vitamin B12 for blacks and whites in order to prevent misinterpretation of test results

  4. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Epilepsy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    İNCECİK, Faruk; HERGÜNER, Mihriban Özlem; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The abstract presents 7 striking cases who presented with the complaint of seizures showing concomitance of B12 vitamin deficiency. Material and Methods: Participant patients were those who presented at our hospital with seizures caused by B12 vitamin deficiency. Evaluation was based on clinical, physical and neurological signs of the patients. Complete hemogram, peripheral blood view, vitamin B12 level and folic acid level measurements were performed. Cerebral magnetic r...

  5. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on otoacoustic emissions

    OpenAIRE

    KARLI, R.; Gül, A; UĞUR, B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between otoacoustic emission (OAE) values and cochlear function in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and no evidence of symptomatic hearing loss. Two groups were studied: Group 1: patients with vitamin B12 deficiency; Group 2: a matched control group of patients with normal vitamin B12 levels. There was no evidence of symptomatic hearing loss in either group. Transiently evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and spontaneous OAEs (SOA...

  6. Vitamin B-12 radioassay in the diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It became apparent in 1978 that some radioassays for Vitamin B-12 were falsely normal. This investigation was performed to assure the accuracy of our assay. False normal B-12 levels may result in permanent damage or delay in relieving distressful symptoms. False low levels result in no permanent sequalae. ''Normal'' values should be set with these consequences in mind. The authors reviewed clinical charts on patients with <300 pg/m1 serum B-12 in 1000 consecutive determinations and all patients newly diagnosed B-12 deficient 1/1/83 to 10/14/83. Simu1TRAC Radioassay, Becton Dickinson Co., modified by correction for serum nonspecific binding is used. ''Normal'' values (234-1000 pg/m1) are based on 47 outpatients. 176 of the 1000 assays resulted in levels <300 pg/m1. 87 were from other location with no clinical information. 89 assays on Marshfield Clinic patients included 2 duplicates. 45 patients were newly diagnosed B-12 deficient 1/1/83 to 10/14/83. 12 were diagnosed elsewhere and on therapy. 32 had assays <234 pg/m1. 1 with normal B-12 is ''possibly deficient'', a Schilling test is scheduled. The authors conclude that their B-12 assay has correctly identified 32 clinically accepted B-12 deficient patients. 1 possibly deficient patient was normal. 25 of 42 patients with levels below normal are deficient. The false positive rate is felt acceptable in view of the false negative rate and the consequences of the respective errors

  7. Vitamin B12 assays compared by use of patients sera with low vitamin B12 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compared four radioisotope dilution (RD) methods and a microbiological assay for measuring concentrations of vitamin B12 in a selected panel of serum samples from patients known to be deficient in the vitamin. Low (less than 100 ng/L) and borderline (100-180 ng/L) results were similar between methods, but use of the manufacturers recommended ranges for borderline results would have changed the diagnostic classifications for 22 of 38 samples. Results of all the RD methods inter-correlated well, but less so with the microbiological assay. Borderline, nondiagnostic results were common to all methods, and no apparent advantage was gained from using the microbiological assay

  8. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Heather E.; Gustashaw, Kristin A. R.; Tangney, Christy C; Breanna S. Oberlin

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol...

  9. Comparison of Injection Vitamin B12 With Symptomatic Management in Clinically Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficent Patients: an Interventional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janak Rathod , Taral Shah , Manisha Gupta, Rajendra Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study was an attempt to evaluate the advantage of empirical use of Injection. Vitamin B 12 versus symptomatic management in clinically suspected Vitamin. B 12 deficient patients. Methodology: A total of 100 patients over 20 years of age (irrespective of gender) were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, one group ( n = 50) receiving vitamin B12 injections and the other group (n = 50) received symptomatic treatment. Results: In clinically suspected ...

  10. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T1/2). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P12 treatment (P1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  11. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; Nathalie van der Velde; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assess...

  12. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  13. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  14. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  15. A vitamin B12 transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Venclovas, Česlovas; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; McKinney, John D.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. Although M. tuberculosis can access vitamin B12 in vitro, it is uncertain whether the organism is able to scavenge B12 during host infection. This question is crucial to predictions of metabolic function, but its resolution is complicated by the absence in the M. tuberculosis genome of a direct homologue of BtuFCD, the only bact...

  16. Absorption of vitamin B12 and effect of pancreatic juice on gastric vitamin B12 binder in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pancreatic juice on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in dogs. It was found that dog gastric juice as well as pancreatic juice contain vitamin B12 binding proteins which differ in the elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose columns, the former being eluted at much lower sodium chloride concentrations. When radio-active vitamin B12 was fed or instilled in the proximal bowel and vitamin B12 recovered at different bowel levels, it was found that vitamin B12-protein complex behaved like gastric juice binder in the proximal bowel and like pancreatic binder in the distal. In vitro digestion of gastric binder with pancreatic juice altered vitamin B12-protein complex in such a way that elution pattern became similar to that of pancreatic juice. It was also shown that the change was not due to transfer of vitamin B12 from gastric binder to pancreatic binder. Trypsin digestion had similar effect on gastric binder, and Sephadex G-200 gelfiltration demonstrated reduction in the molecular size. In the doz, vitamin B12 first bound to gastric binder undergoes chemical changes in the bowel and becomes a readily absorbable form in the distal bowel. (auth.)

  17. Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, N L; Roberts, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

  18. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti Rita; Torre Paola; Antonello Rodolfo; Cattaruzza Tatiana; Cazzato Giuseppe; Bava Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, low levels of folate and B12 have been shown to be associated with cognitive decline and dementia Evidence for the putative role of folate, vitamin B12 in neurocognitive and other neurological functions comes from reported cases of severe vitamin deficiencies, particularly pernicious anemia, and homozygous defects in genes that encode for enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The neurological alterations seen in these cases allow for a biological role of vitamins in ne...

  19. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Arpita Patel; Chandan Chakrabarty; Arjun Singh; Jatin Patel; Hitesh Mewada; S L Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly veget...

  20. Tryptophan metabolism in vitamin B6-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, D A; Njagi, E. N.; Danielian, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin B6 deficiency was induced in mice by maintenance for 4 weeks on a vitamin B6-free diet. Tryptophan metabolism was assessed by determining the urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, the metabolism of [14C]tryptophan in vivo and the formation of tryptophan and niacin metabolites by isolated hepatocytes. The vitamin B6-deficient animals excreted more xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine, and less of the niacin metabolites N1-methyl nicotinamide and methyl-2-pyridone-4-carboxami...

  1. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  2. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with vitamin B12 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hisaeda, Takahiro Masuko, Erika Hanashima and Takashi Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by human serum albumin (HSA and vitamin B12 derivatives. The incorporation of hydrophobic vitamin B12 derivatives, which have ester groups in place of the peripheral amide moieties of the natural cobalamin, into HSA is primarily controlled by the hydrophobicity of the peripheral ester groups. Microenvironmental property around the hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was examined by fluorescence and fluorescence polarization measurements. The hydrophobic vitamin B12 itself in HSA is in a microenvironment equivalent in medium polarity to dichloromethane. The molecular motion of hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was markedly suppressed under such microenvironmental conditions. Carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction of an alkyl radical derived from an alkyl ligand bound to the hydrophobic vitamin B12 was markedly favored in HSA aqueous solution, relative to the reactions in methanol and benzene. The 1,2-migration of the electron-withdrawing group arises from both the suppression of molecular motion and desolvation effects on the alkylated hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA.

  3. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Albersen; Marjolein Bosma; Jans, Judith J. M.; Hofstede, Floris C.; van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Gepke Visser; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem m...

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  5. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  6. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  7. Influence of Buformin retard on vitamin B12 absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 18 test persons with a healthy metabolism a significant reduction of the vitamin B12 absorption rate was observed when Buformin retard was administered 90 minutes before starting the Schilling test. This biguanide-induced reduction of vitamin B12 absorption was not detectable in preliminary examinations in which the interval between the last Buformin administration and the administering of 58Co-vitamin B12 was 14 hours. Thus could be shown that the reduction was due to the method used. There is no increased danger of an anemia provided that the therapeutic rules are obeyed i.e. Buformin should be taken after breakfast and supper, respectively

  8. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  9. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  10. Cobalamin's (Vitamin B12) Surprising Function as a Photoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Yamamoto, Haruki; Bauer, Carl E

    2016-08-01

    Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an adenosyl- or methyl-donating cofactor for many enzymes, yet many proteins with unknown or nonenzymatic function also contain B12-binding domains. Recent studies show that light excitation energy can promote covalent linkage of B12 to transcription factors with this linkage, affecting gene expression. Thus, B12 now has a newly described regulatory function. Here, our bioinformatics analysis reveals other transcription factors, photoreceptors, kinases, and oxygen sensors that harbor a B12-binding domain that could also regulate activity in response to light absorption. PMID:27217104

  11. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6. Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2. Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8 and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.

  12. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  13. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  14. La Vitamine B12 et la Santé

    OpenAIRE

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Objectifs: Révision sur le rôle de la vitamine B12 et sur les évidences qui suggèrent que la vitamine B12 peut réduire le risque de certaines maladies chroniques. Evidences: recherche dans Medline depuis 1999 jusqu'en 2013 en utilisant le mot clé vitamin B12. Les articles les plus conséquents (150) étaient associés avec le cancer, la maladie cardiovasculaire, la santé mentale et les altérations du tube neural. Résultats: Le déficit avéré de la vitamine B12 est classiquement associé à...

  15. Antiepileptic drugs and vitamin B6 plasma levels in adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Linnebank, M.; Moskau, S; Semmler, A; Widman, G; Weller, M.; Kallweit, U; Elger, C E

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with several antiepileptic drugs (AED) is associated with lower serum concentrations of folate or vitamin B12. This prospective monocenter study analyzed vitamin B6 blood levels in 400 serial patients with epilepsy, AED-treated (n=385), untreated (n=15) and healthy controls (n=233). The mean plasma vitamin B6 levels of the AED-treated (12.1±10.1; p=0.093) and the untreated patients (15.6±12.4; p=0.664) were not significantly different from the controls (13.9±15.2). These observation...

  16. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  17. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 in homozygous β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling tests were performed in ten children aged 5-12 years suffering from homozygous β-thalassemia. 57Co labelled vitamin B12 values excreted in the urine have been found much lower than normal and remained low when the same procedure was repeated with the addition of intrinsic factor. The possible factors responsible for this malabsorption of vitamin B12 seemed to be liver damage and folic acid deficiency. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of Injection Vitamin B12 With Symptomatic Management in Clinically Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficent Patients: an Interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rathod , Taral Shah , Manisha Gupta, Rajendra Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was an attempt to evaluate the advantage of empirical use of Injection. Vitamin B 12 versus symptomatic management in clinically suspected Vitamin. B 12 deficient patients. Methodology: A total of 100 patients over 20 years of age (irrespective of gender were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, one group ( n = 50 receiving vitamin B12 injections and the other group (n = 50 received symptomatic treatment. Results: In clinically suspected vitamin B12 deficient patients after giving empirical therapy of Inj. Vit B 12; generalized fatigue (96%, pareshtesia (93.48%, myalgia (93.75%, loss of appetite (88.89%, confusion (93.75% and tremor (93.55% were improved with ( p<0.001. Labored breathing and depression were also improved with Inj.Vit B 12 as compared to symptomatic management, but this difference was statistically insignificant(p = 0.052 and p = 0.201 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude and recommend from the study to treat clinically suspected Vit. B 12 deficient patients with empirical Vit. B 12 Injections without the need of costly serum Vit. B 12 estimation

  19. Indications for Vitamin B12 Therapy: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Delva, M. Dianne; Anderson, J E

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective chart audit was undertaken to determine the clinical reasons for vitamin B12 therapy in family practice. Abnormal laboratory tests and symptoms were the most common reasons for initiating therapy. The high proportion of cases with little supporting evidence of B12 deficiency suggests that other factors influence treatment decisions.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency optic neuropathy detected by asymptomatic screening

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Colin; Scanlon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bilateral optic disc swelling was detected in a 19-year-old man with type 1 diabetes through routine photographic screening for retinopathy. He was found to have significant vitamin B12 deficiency which the authors believe was the cause for the optic neuropathy. After B12 replacement, visual function and optic disc appearances returned to normal.

  1. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  2. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  3. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly vegetarian city, its population is at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. But no systematic study has been done in Ahmedabad to know whether B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels influence pregnancy. To know this answer this study was planned to know total homocysteine level and its correlation in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were measured in all the subjects using fluorescence polarized immunoassay in AxSym Immunochemistry analyzer on 60 non vitamin supplemented vegetarian women. Vitamin levels were within lower normal limit. Homocysteine level was higher among preeclampsia patient. From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that measurement of these biochemical parameter in ante natal care are useful for further management and prevention of complication of pregnancy like preeclampsia

  4. Investigation on the determination of serum vitamin B12 values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems in the determination of serum vitamin B12 values using Phadebas B12 test kit were studied. Various causes considered to influence the results were investigated. There was no release of bound 57Co-B12 from Sephadex-intrinsic factor complex. Standard curves which were expressed by percentages of each sample versus zero sample, were slightly different from each other in their forms and inclines. Variations of the percentage from the zero samples showed a standard deviation of +-9.2% of the mean value. Percentage of B/T in various concentration of B12 also showed one standard deviation of 8-9%. Presence of serum in the sample caused no inhibition of the binding ability of B12 to the Sephadex-intrinsic factor complex. It was more suitable to use 0.5 ml of extracted dilution of serum because it did not change the measured B12 values, and because the standard curve was more accurate in lower B12 concentrations than in higher. The reproducibility and the recovery of serum B12 values showed quite excellent results by this method. The Phadebas B12 test kit gave accurate serum B12 values in general without difficult techniques. It was concluded that the Phadebas B12 test kit was one of the most suitable methods for the determination of serum B12 values in clinical samples. (auth.)

  5. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an...... inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both...... Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript...

  6. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Selhub, Jacob; Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational data are inconclusive. With the use of data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we evaluated the interaction between high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 ...

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Pregnant Women in Samsun Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin; Basar Demir; Mahir igde; Banu Gulcan Oksuz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy can cause severe demyelinating central nervous system disorder. Most cases are exclusively breast-fed infants born to mothers with deficient vitamin B12 stores. As maternal vitamin B12 stores are the main determinant of neonatal vitamin B12 status, we aimed to determine the vitamin B12 status of pregnant women at term in our region. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B12, folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in addition to routine test...

  8. Vitamin-B12 deficiency following therapy in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin-B12 deficiency results from inadequate absorption of the vitamin by the distal ileum and depletion of available stores. Both radiotherapy and intestinal resection can contribute to development of this condition. The significance of this problem in gynecologic oncology is discussed and two patients are described

  9. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P < 0.001) from baseline at 6 h (11%) and 24 h (50......BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration and...... postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses of...

  10. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Rita

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In cross-sectional studies, low levels of folate and B12 have been shown to be associated with cognitive decline and dementia Evidence for the putative role of folate, vitamin B12 in neurocognitive and other neurological functions comes from reported cases of severe vitamin deficiencies, particularly pernicious anemia, and homozygous defects in genes that encode for enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The neurological alterations seen in these cases allow for a biological role of vitamins in neurophysiology. Results are quite controversial and there is an open debate in literature, considering that the potential and differential role of folate and B12 vitamin in memory acquisition and cognitive development is not completely understood or accepted. What is not clear is the fact that vitamin B12 and folate deficiency deteriorate a pre-existing not overt pathological situation or can be dangerous even in normal subjects. Even more intriguing is the interaction between B12 and folate, and their role in developing hyperhomocysteinemia. The approach to the rehabilitation of the deficiency with adequate vitamin supplementation is very confusing. Some authors suggest it, even in chronic situations, others deny any possible role. Starting from these quite confusing perspectives, the aim of this review is to report and categorize the data obtained from the literature. Despite the plausible biochemical mechanism, further studies, based on clinical, neuropsychological, laboratory and (lastly pathological features will be necessary to better understand this fascinating biochemical riddle.

  11. Vitamin B_<12> compounds in coral reef

    OpenAIRE

    Nishijima, Toshitaka

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of free- and bound-vitamin B_ in the waters of coral reef of Heron Island, Australia was investigated. The contents of total and free-vitamin B_ were fairly high: 3.2-23.8 ng/l and 1.98-22.4 ng/l, respectively. The bound-B_, which is a biologically non-active B_, ranged from O.77 to 2.31 ng/l and amounted to 5.8-47.9 % (mean: 23.5 %) of total B_. The content of free-B_ in the waters of coral reef was found to be close to the critical level which maximizes the growth of B_-req...

  12. Vitamin B6: A Molecule for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is an intriguing molecule that is involved in a wide range of metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Based on its water solubility and high reactivity when phosphorylated, it is a suitable co-factor for many biochemical processes. Furthermore the vitamin is a potent antioxidant, rivaling carotenoids or tocopherols in its ability to quench reactive oxygen species. It is therefore not surprising that the vitamin is essential and unquestionably important for the cellular metabolism and well-being of all living organisms. The review briefly summarizes the biosynthetic pathways of vitamin B6 in pro- and eukaryotes and its diverse roles in enzymatic reactions. Finally, because in recent years the vitamin has often been considered beneficial for human health, the review will also sum up and critically reflect on current knowledge how human health can profit from vitamin B6.

  13. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  14. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). PMID:27596424

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  16. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  17. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Thomas H; Pickersgill, Trevor T; J Peall, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration, mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame, and was independently mobile 8 weeks later. PMID:27247211

  18. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  19. Thermotoga lettingae Can Salvage Cobinamide To Synthesize Vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Butzin, Nicholas C.; Secinaro, Michael A.; Swithers, Kristen S.; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that the Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B12 by acquisition of genes from two distantly related lineages, Archaea and Firmicutes (K. S. Swithers et al., Genome Biol. Evol. 4:730–739, 2012). Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the cobinamide salvage gene cluster was present in the Thermotogales' most recent common ancestor. We also predicted that Thermotoga lettingae could not synthesize B12 de novo but could use the cobinamide salvage...

  20. Progress on the studies of vitamin B12%维生素B12的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕颖坚; 黄俊明

    2012-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的吸收与代谢、缺乏原因及疾病、营养水平鉴定、人群维生素B12营养状况、食物强化的研究进展进行了综述,以期提高对维生素B12的认识和重视、为解决维生素B12缺乏人群的健康问题提供参考.%In order to improve the awareness and attention on the importance of vitamin Bl2and to provide reference for solving problems of vitamin B12 deficiency, this review concentrates on five aspects of studies on vitamin B12: absorption and metabolism of vitamin BI2; cause/outcome of deficiency; biomarkers and their application; vitamin B12 status; and supplementation and fortification.

  1. Association of Biochemical B12 Deficiency With Metformin Therapy and Vitamin B12 Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstatler, Lael; Qi, Yan Ping; Williamson, Rebecca S.; Garn, Joshua V.; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of biochemical B12 deficiency in adults with type 2 diabetes taking metformin compared with those not taking metformin and those without diabetes, and explore whether this relationship is modified by vitamin B12 supplements. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analysis of data on U.S. adults ≥50 years of age with (n = 1,621) or without type 2 diabetes (n = 6,867) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2006. Type 2 diabetes was def...

  2. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, En-Pei; Smith, Donald E.; Selhub, Jacob; Dallal, Gerard; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-01-01

    Previously we observed strong and consistent associations between vitamin B6 status and several indicators of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical indicators, including the disability score, the length of morning stiffness, and the degree of pain, and biochemical markers, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, were found to be inversely correlated with circulating vitamin B6 levels. Such strong associations imply that impaired vitam...

  3. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-...

  4. Absent ileal uptake of IF-bound vitamin B12 in vivo in the Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (familial vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria).

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, J. F.; Jenkins, W. J.; Walker-Smith, J A; Phillips, A D; Sourial, N A; Williams, C B; Mollin, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A Syrian family is described with three children who had inherited selective vitamin B12 malabsorption associated with proteinuria. (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome). Although inherited the defect was apparently not present at birth. A third child had less severe vitamin B12 malabsorption, was not vitamin B12 deficient and had no proteinuria. Studies on two of the affected children with subcellular fractionation of the uptake of radioactive vitamin B12 by ileal tissue in vivo indicate a defect in...

  5. Systematic review on daily vitamin B12 losses and bioavailability for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake with the factorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Szczecinska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the literature on daily losses and bioavailability of vitamin B12. These estimates could be used for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake for adults and elderly. Methods: We identified publications on daily vitamin B12 losses (July 2011) and publications on t

  6. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Ilio Vitale; Laura Senovilla; Ken André Olaussen; Guillaume Pinna; Tobias Eisenberg; Aïcha Goubar; Isabelle Martins; Judith Michels; Gueorgui Kratassiouk; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez; Marie Scoazec; Erika Vacchelli; Frederic Schlemmer; Oliver Kepp

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B...

  7. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.

  8. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  9. Evaluation of vitamin B 12 deficiency in various clinical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low levels of vitamin B 12 have been associated with several clinical conditions. However no single symptom or group of symptoms can be made responsible. Reported causes of deficiency among older population are hematologic or neurological, followed by gastrointestinal and possibly vascular symptoms. The present prospective observational study was, hence, initiated to evaluate the underlying clinical condition or symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was prospective observational and carried out on 121 patients (males, n=63 and females, n=58) for the period from January 1, 2004 to January 24, 2007. Age ranges were between 16 - 70 years, and categorized as > 60 yrs and < 60 years. All blood parameters were analyzed by standardized methods on automated analyzers. The deficiency was found to be more prevalent in males and increased from 52.06% to 58.10% in individuals with vitamin B12 <150 pg/ml. Mal nourishment was noted among the most subjects and weakness and anemia were frequent clinical findings (35.55%, n=43, 14%, n=51). Other clinical conditions were neuropsychiatric. Whereas less frequent findings were paraesthesia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypertension was more prevalent in vitamin B12 deficient individuals followed by diabetes, dementia, stroke, ischemic heart disease and Parkinson's disease. (author)

  10. Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Haye H.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B-12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause m

  11. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  12. Prognostic Impact of Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK, the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  13. Dietary source of vitamin B12 intake and vitamin B12 status in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and older living in rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Lee, Hae Jeung; Whang, Jin Yong; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found and analyzed vitamin B12 in some Korean traditional plant foods which had not reported, yet. This study was to investigate vitamin B12 intake and its dietary sources and the vitamin B12 status in the very old elderly Koreans. We measured serum vitamin B12 level and estimated the amounts of vitamin B12 intake from different dietary sources in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and over who had consumed a relatively low animal traditional diet for the whole life. The average age ...

  14. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl...

  15. The role of Vitamin B12 in the critically ill-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, M; Sviri, S; Linton, D M; Stav, I; van Heerden, P V

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient, as humans have no capacity to produce the vitamin and it needs to be ingested from animal proteins. The ingested Vitamin B12 undergoes a complex process of absorption and assimilation. Vitamin B12 is essential for cellular function. Deficiency affects 15% of patients older than 65 and results in haematological and neurological disorders. Low levels of Vitamin B12 may also be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. High levels of Vitamin B12 are associated with inflammation and represent a poor outlook for critically ill patients. Treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency is simple, but may be lifelong. PMID:27456173

  16. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzelcan Yener

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherlands. Aim To examine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Turkish descent and compare it to the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Dutch descent. Methods The present study is a comparative cross-sectional study of 47 patients of Turkish descent and 28 of Dutch descent. The depressive disorder diagnosis and differential diagnosis were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition text revision (SCID. The severity of the depressive symptoms was determined using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21. Serum baseline vitamin B6 and B12, folic acid and total serum homocysteine (tHcy levels were measured. Results The average ages of the patients of Turkish and Dutch descent were 40.57 and 44.75 years, respectively. There were no demonstrable differences between the serum vitamin B6, folic acid and tHcy levels in the two groups. The serum vitamin B12 levels were however clearly lower in the patients of Turkish descent than in those of Dutch descent. Vitamin B12 deficiency was however observed in 14 patients of Turkish descent and 1 of Dutch descent. This difference was significant. On the BDI, the patients of Turkish descent scored significantly higher than those of Dutch descent. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and those with hyperhomocysteinaemia had a significantly higher BDI score than patients with normal vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels. No relationship was observed with vitamin B12 and tHcy. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs more frequently in depressive

  17. Folate and vitamin B12 status and dietary intake of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in the delta region of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Min Kyaw; Fahmida, Umi; Thurnham, David I; Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Akib, Arwin; Utomo, Budi; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 and, simultaneously, the nutrient intake adequacy of folate, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium in 391 adolescent anaemic (Hbvitamin B12 concentrations were 6·5 (4·6, 8·5) nmol/l and 612·8 (443·2, 795·2) pmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of folate deficiency defined as vitamin B12 deficiency defined as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Red meat or poultry was rarely consumed, but fish was consumed on a daily basis. Green leafy vegetables were also consumed frequently but consumption of dairy products was uncommon. Folate deficiency was high, and the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate among other key micronutrients was relatively common in this sample of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls. Appropriate strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are needed to improve the micronutrient status of these young women to ensure optimal health and future reproductive success. PMID:26481660

  18. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Randaccio; Silvano Geremia; Nicola Demitri; Jochen Wuerges

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl) are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, wit...

  19. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyun-soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer’s dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4′-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication,...

  20. Vitamin B6: A Long Known Compound of Surprising Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Jan-Erik Leuendorf; Christopher Hendrickson; Hanjo Hellmann

    2009-01-01

    In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound’s critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back a...

  1. Serum Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate levels were determined in a group of healthy women eating a balanced diet. Approximately 50% were using oral contraceptives. Vitamin B12 levels were lower in the oral contraceptive users. However, their folate levels were no different from those of non-users. Age had no effect on either vitamin B12 or folate levels. Oral contraceptive users taking multiple vitamin tablets containing vitamin B12 and folate had slightly higher folate levels, but their vi...

  2. Potentiation of cellular radiosensitivity by nitroprusside and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two cyano-metal complexes, sodium nitroprusside and vitamin B12 on the radiosensitivity of plateau-phase V-79 monolayers were studied. Cells were irradiated under aerobic conditions or hypoxic conditions following degassing and purging with nitrogen. Concentrations of nitroprusside as low as 10-6M resulted in potentiation of radiation cell killing under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Potentiation of radiation cell killing was also observed with the less-toxic vitamin B12 at concentrations of 10-3M; this effect was observed only under anoxic irradiation conditions. These results suggest that cyanide-releasing compounds might be used to augment the effect of radiation therapy, providing a different effect on aerobic compared to hypoxic cells

  3. Decreased Vitamin B12 Levels in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Altunoluk; Mehmet Davutoglu; Mesut Garipardic; Vedat Bakan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Nocturnal enuresis is a common pediatric problem, the etiology of which is unclear. In the present study, vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured in children with nocturnal enuresis and compared with those in healthy control group children to investigate whether there was any relation with enuresis and neurogenic maturation as a first time in the literature. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included thirty children (16 girls, 14 boys) who had presented with primary n...

  4. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Loukili, Noureddine Henoun; Noel, Esther; Kaltenbach, Georges; Abdelgheni, Maher Ben; Perrin, Anne Elisabeth; Noblet-Dick, Marie; Maloisel, Frédéric; Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Blicklé, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    VITAMIN B12 OR COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY occurs frequently (> 20%) among elderly people, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. Causes of the deficiency include, most frequently, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome (> 60% of all cases), pernicious anemia (15%–20% of all cases), insufficent dietary intake and malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption, whic...

  5. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kam S. Woo; Timothy C.Y. Kwok; Celermajer, David S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabo...

  6. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  7. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  8. [Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C; Mary, S; Brazo, P; Dollfus, S

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestations are frequently associated with pernicious anemia including depression, mania, psychosis, dementia. We report a case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency, who has presented severe depression with delusion and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania successively, during a period of two Months. Case report - Mme V., a 64-Year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital because of confusion. She had no history of psychiatric problems. She had history of diabetes, hypertension and femoral prosthesis. The red blood count revealed a normocytosis with anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl). At admission she was uncooperative, disoriented in time and presented memory and attention impairment and sleep disorders. She seemed sad and older than her real age. Facial expression and spontaneous movements were reduced, her speech and movements were very slow. She had depressed mood, guilt complex, incurability and devaluation impressions. She had a Capgras' syndrome and delusion of persecution. Her neurologic examination, cerebral scanner and EEG were postponed because of uncooperation. Further investigations confirmed anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl) and revealed vitamin B12 deficiency (52 pmol/l) and normal folate level. Antibodies to parietal cells were positive in the serum and antibodies to intrinsic factor were negative. An iron deficiency was associated (serum iron=7 micromol/l; serum ferritin concentration=24 mg/l; serum transferrin concentration=3,16 g/l). This association explained normocytocis anemia. Thyroid function, hepatic and renal tests, glycemia, TP, TCA, VS, VDRL-TPHA were normal. Vitamin B12 replacement therapy was started with hydroxycobalamin 1 000 ng/day im for 10 days and iron replacement therapy. Her mental state improved dramatically within a few days. After one week of treatment the only remaining symptoms were lability of mood, delusion of persecution, Capgras' syndrome but disappeared totally 9 days after the

  9. Literatuuroverzicht analysemethoden voor vitamine B-6 in voedingsmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.

    1983-01-01

    In dit literatuuronderzoek wordt een overzicht gegeven van recente ontwikkelingen (vanaf ca. 1970) in de analytiek van vitamine B-6. Een aantal alternatieven voor de tot op heden meest gebruikte microbiologische methoden is beschreven in de literatuur. Selektieve methoden op basis van vloeistofchrom

  10. Formation of a vitamin B-12-serum complex on heating at alkaline pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of vitamin B-12 to serum proteins during heating at alkaline pH was investigated by gel filtration of serum supplemented with cyano[57Co]-cobalamin. Heating for 5 min at 1000C destroyed most of the vitamin B-12 binding activity of serum but, with further heating, the vitamin B-12 became incorporated into a complex that did not correspond in molecular size to the original vitamin B-12 binding proteins. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 in heated serum showed correspondingly first an increase then a progressive decrease in the apparent vitamin B-12 level suggesting that, on heating, vitamin B-12 was initially released then subsequently complexed by the serum. The formation of complexed vitamin B-12 was abolished by the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol during the heating step. (Auth.)

  11. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisa...

  12. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    OpenAIRE

    M. Albersen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, frequently, developmental delay. Disturbances of vitamin B6 metabolism may be missed by biochemical profiling of the secondary effects of functional vitamin B6 deficiency. Direct analysis of the dif...

  13. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. ...

  14. Negative symptoms presenting as neuropsychiatric manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Manoj Kumar; Avasthi, Ajit; Singh, Parampreet

    2011-01-01

    Long lists of psychiatric illness or symptoms have been documented to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. We describe an atypical case of a young adult who presented with predominant negative symptoms followed by neurological symptoms consistent with vitamin B12 deficiency. The symptoms showed complete remission after vitamin B12 supplementation. The uniqueness of this case is that vitamin B12 deficiency presented with predominant negative symptoms without other psychotic and manic symptoms,...

  15. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women

  16. VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TOXICOSIS IN FALCONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Perlman, Janine; Kinne, Jörg; Baskar, Vijay; Wernery, Ulrich; Dorrestein, Gerry

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections. Three individuals vomited frothy, partially digested blood and had clonic spasms and convulsions. Postmortem and histopathology revealed multifocal severe hepatic necrosis, splenic lymphoid tissue depletion and hemorrhages with arterial necrosis, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Following administration of a different, oral, mineral-vitamin supplement, a total of 21 peregrine falcons in two separate European facilities died suddenly. Histology of the liver showed diffuse congestion and multifocal coagulative necrosis with mild infiltration of heterophils. The particular nutritional supplement, used by both breeders, was analyzed and found to contain 5-9.7% Vit B6. Other randomly selected lots of the product contained 0.007-0.27% Vit B6. According to the product label, Vit B6 should have been present at 0.004%. To confirm the hypothesis that Vit B6 was responsible for the deaths of the falcons in Abu Dhabi, Vit B6 (British Pharmacopoeia [BP] grade) in powder form was diluted in water for injection and administered IM to four groups of falcons. Groups of four gyrfalcon × peregrine hybrid falcons or gyrfalcons (or both) were given a single IM dose of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Vit B6 or received an oral dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg of Vit B6. Only birds in the lowest

  17. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment. PMID:27115686

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  19. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  20. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer's dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4'-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  1. Kynurenines and vitamin B6: link between diabetes and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; Ratner, Rebecca; Summergrad, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The increased association between depression and diabetes mellitus is generally acknowledged. Recent studies suggest that depression leads to diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this association remain unclear. Literature and our data indicate that inflammatory and/or stress factors in depression up-regulate tryptophan (TRP) conversion into kynurenine (KYN), a substrate for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Deficiency of vitamin B6, a cofactor of the...

  2. Translational regulation of genes in salmonella typhimurium by vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Ravnum, Solveig

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis I have studied the mechanism by which vitamin B12 regulates the expression of the cob operon and the btuB gene in Salmonella typhimurium. The cob operon encodes most of the 25 genes required for the de novo synthesis of vitamin B12, and the butB gene encodes the outer membrane protein needed for transport of exogenous vitamin B12 into the cell. Vitamin B12 is used as a cofactor in four enzymatic reactions in Salmonella typhimurium. The regulation by vitamin B12 of the cob opero...

  3. Clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease, the concentration of serum vitamin B12 and folate in 32 patients with cerebrovascular disease was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the changes in folate in all groups were not significant. The content of vitamin B12 in multi-infarct dementia was markedly lower than that in cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Moreover, the level of vitamin B12 was lower in paralytic patients with muscular strength of grade 0-III. It can be concluded that serum vitamin B12 level had association with intelligent disorder and paralytic degree

  4. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content an...

  5. Simultaneous radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioassays of vitamin B12 and folic acid can be carried out in a single tube to give the simultaneous assay of both vitamins in 100 μl of serum. Release of bound vitamins from their endogenous binders and the destruction of these binders are effected by a heating step at pH 9.3. The subsequent binding reactions with hog intrinsic factor and milk binder protein proceed advantageously and simultaneously in the same tube at pH 9.3. A single set of dual reagents replaces two sets of reagents that would normally be used for separate radioassays. Complete separation of bound radioactivities, [57Co] cyanocobalamin and 125I-labeled folate derivative, is obtained in a dual-channel gamma counter with no requirement for any correction for spill-over of counting data. Analytical results are comparable to those found for previously developed individual radioassays. The simultaneous assay has decreased technical time of analysis for these interrelated vitamins by about 50%

  6. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Idiris; Kurutaş, Ergül Belge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  7. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idiris Altun; Ergl Belge Kuruta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury;n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was per-formed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were signiifcantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were signiifcantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was signiifcantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  8. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm. PMID:27486161

  9. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group than the diabetic group who did not receive oral B12 supplementation. Low serum vitamin B12 is commonly overlooked in the elderly, with or without diabetes. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect BMD in the elderly. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and BMD among diabetics.

  10. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Najafi; Vahid Shaygannajad; Maryam Mirpourian; Ali Gholamrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin) deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B 12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B 12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Serum B 12 concentration was measured with R...

  11. Assessment of a radioisotopic assay for vitamin B12 using an intrinsic factor preparation with R proteins blocked by vitamin B12 analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Barbara; Broom, GN; Woodside, Jackie; Litwinczuk, RA; Wickramasinghe, SN

    1982-01-01

    A competitive protein binding radioassay kit for serum vitamin B12 has been assessed. Precision, linearity, sensitivity, and specificity have been found to be satisfactory. Falsely-normal assay results in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have not been observed.

  12. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  13. Electron addition to alkyl cobalamins, coenzyme B12 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of dilute solutions of methyl and ethyl cobalamins and coenzyme B12 in dilute solutions (D2O+CD3OD) to 60Co #betta#-rays at 77 K gave a single broad feature in the free-spin region assigned to electron-capture species with the excess electron largely confined to a π* corrin orbital. On warming above 77 K the methyl derivative gave a novel species with spectral features characteristic of an unpaired electron in the Co(dsub(x2-y2)) orbital. The other two substrates gave spectra due to Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) both on warming and after photolyses with visible light. The acetyl derivative gave an electron-capture species whose e.s.r. spectrum was characteristic of an electron in the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, which on warming above 77 K changed to the normal Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) spectrum. The cyano derivative (vitamin B12) gave electron addition into the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, as evidenced by the large hyperfine coupling to 13C from 13CN ligands. On annealing, cyanide ions were lost irreversibly, Bsub(12r) being detected by e.s.r. spectroscopy. In contrast, the dicyano derivative on electron addition at 77 K gave a species containing only one 13CN ligand. Hence in this case one CN- ligand was lost at 77 K, with no return of the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand. These results are discussed in terms of a new mechanism for electron-addition to alkyl cobalamins. (author)

  14. Application status of Vitamin B6%维生素B6的临床应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status of the relevant domestic Vitamin B6. Methods Reviewing the domestic literature, summarizing and analyzing related data. Results The clinical Vitamin B6 had many new uses where we could draw lessons from. Conclusion Vitamin B6 has very good sight of clinical application and research.%目的:了解国内有关维生素B6的临床应用现状。方法复习国内文献,总结和分析相关资料。结果维生素B6有不少临新用途,可以借鉴。结论维生素B6有很好的临床应用和研究前景。

  15. The content determination of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 gels%维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪万里; 要辉; 沈定文

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定方法。方法:采用卡波姆940为基质,以维生素 B6为主药,制备成维生素 B6凝胶剂,采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6的含量。结果:卡波姆为基质制备的凝胶剂质地均匀细腻、质量稳定;采用紫外分光光度法,以291nm 作为维生素 B6检测波长,含量测定方法可行,维生素 B6在5~25μg/ml 浓度范围内,线性关系良好,平均回收率为98.79%,RSD 为0.46%。结论:采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6含量方法简单可行,结果准确。%Objective To establish the method for the content determination of vitamin B6 gels.Method Using the matrix of Car-bopol 940 and vitamin B6 -based medicine to prepare vitamin B6 gels,and using the UV to evaluate content determination of vitamin B6 .Results Using carbopol gels as matrix to prepare the gels which is uniform,exquisite and stable quality.Using the UV spectro-photometry to 291nm as wavelength to detect the content determination of vitamin B6 ,which is feasible and the calibration curve are linear within a well range of vitamin B6 in 5 -25μg/ml,the average recovery is 98.79%,RSD is 0.46%.Conclusion Using the UV spectrophotometry to detect the ointmen of vitamin B6 ,which is simple,feasible and accurate.

  16. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B2 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2-2H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1-2H]ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B12 showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) [1'-13C, 5-15N]riboflavin incorporated and 13C-NMR showed that 13C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio

  17. Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5'-O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H2O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2'C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2'C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5'-O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV

  18. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  19. Serum thymidine kinase in vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In DNA synthesis deoxythymidine kinase (TK) catalyses the conversion of deoxythymidine to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) via the 'salvage pathway'. Serum deoxythymidine kinase (S=TK) was measured in this study in 75 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency by a new, very sensitive method, using 125I-deoxyuridine as substrate. Elevated S-TK levels were found in those patients who had developed haemolysis and anaemia and the more advanced the disease the higher the S-TK value. Thus there was a highly significant correlation between S-TK, haemoglobin level and lactic dehydrogenase activity. These findings are consistent with the theory that elevated levels of S-TK are due to release from unstable proliferating tissue. (author)

  20. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rumeau Dominique; Szewczyk Agnieszka; Ksas Brigitte; Havaux Michel; Franck Fabrice; Caffarri Stefano; Triantaphylidès Christian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2). These results raise the important question as to whether...

  1. The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J.B.; van der Merwe, A.; Delport, R; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Riezler, R; Vermaak, W J

    1996-01-01

    Homocysteine, an atherogenic amino acid, is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine by the transsulfuration pathway. The biochemical conversion of homocysteine to cysteine is dependent upon two consecutive, vitamin B-6-dependent reactions. To study the effect of a selective vitamin B-6 deficiency on transsulfuration, we performed oral methionine load tests on 22 vitamin B-6-deficient asthma patients treated with theophylline (a vitamin B-6 antagonist) and 24 age- and sex-...

  2. MEASUREMENT OF VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION: A REVIEW ON AVAILABLE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Karmi O et al

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of the eight vitamins of vitamin B complex, needed for blood and cell maturation. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and it is needed in DNA replication. Its deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia (amidst others health issues). For these and many similar reasons, it sometimes becomes necessary to measure its concentration. This article has carefully reviewed the different methods used for measuring vitamin B12 concen...

  3. Vitamin B12, folate and folate-binding proteins in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Arkbåge, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are two important B vitamins for maintaining good health, being involved in amino acid metabolism and DNA synthesis. Milk and dairy products are good sources of vitamin B12 and folate. Moreover, they are of interest due to their content of folate-binding proteins (FBP), since it was hypothesised that these promote folate bioavailability. Furthermore, fermentation of milk is a way to increase the content of both vitamins. Vitamin analysis in fermented dairy products is c...

  4. Vitamin B6: a challenging link between nutrition and inflammation in cardiovasular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present review is to highlight the relationship between low vitamin B6 status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through its link with inflammation. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in clinical practice, increasing evidence suggests that mild vitamin B6 deficiency is ...

  5. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Since 2008, approximately 30,000 Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. Routine medical examinations of refugees after arrival in resettlement states indicated hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. These cases were reported by examining physicians and state health departments to CDC, which initiated an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation. Sera from overseas medical examinations, postarrival examinations in three state health departments (Minnesota, Utah, and Texas), and medical records and interviews at a health clinic in St. Paul, Minnesota, were evaluated. Vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as serum vitamin B12 concentration Bhutanese refugees screened for vitamin B12 deficiency at the St. Paul clinic. Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. Additionally, infection with Helicobacter pylori might play a role. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for vitamin B12 deficiency in Bhutanese refugees. All Bhutanese refugees should be given nutrition advice and should receive supplemental vitamin B12 upon arrival in the United States. In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy. PMID:21430638

  7. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  8. Drugs and vitamin B12 and folate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbaum, J

    1983-01-01

    Deficiency of either folic acid or vitamin B12 may interfere with DNA synthesis and result in megaloblastic anemia or other conditions. These 2 vitamins have dissimilar molecular structures and are present in different foods; they are also absorbed and metabolized differently. In 201 consecutive cases of megaloblastic anemia, for 90% the cause was alcoholism and poor diet; 0.5% (1 case) was related to oral contraceptives (OCs). Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency has occasionally been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and has been attributed to poor diet, impaired absorption, and increased tissue utilization of folate. Sulfasalazine, a compound containing a sulfa drug and a salicylate that is broken down to its active components by the gut flora, is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and has been shown to impair the absorption of folic acid, polyglutamyl folate, and methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in patients with these disorders. There is also evidence suggesting an interaction between anticonvulsant drugs and folate balance. A number of cases of megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency have been reported in women taking OCs. While in some cases no apparent cause for the megaloblastic anemia other than contraceptive therapy was demonstrated, in many patients other underlying disorders that were likely to disturb folate balance such as celiac disease, decreased dietary vitamin intake, and the administration of other drugs known to affect folate status have also been present. There is no convincing evidence that sex steroids affect folate absorption; about 20% of women taking OCs were found to have mild megaloblastic changes on Papanicolaou smears. These changes disappered after folic acid therapy, suggesting that OCs may cause an increased demand for folate limited to the reproductive system. Another finding is of low serum cobalamin levels in women using OCs; this appears however to be a laboratory abnormality

  9. Interaction of conjugated bile acids and detergents with a radiosorbent assay of vitamin B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of conjugated bile acids and detergents on the radiosorbent technique for the determination of vitamin B-12 activity is reported. It is shown that whereas the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has no effect on the vitamin B-12-radiosorbent assay, the addition of ionic detergents, e.g. glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid or sodium lauryl sulfate, results in a falsely-elevated vitamin B-12 activity presumably due to the disruption of the binding of vitamin B-12 to the intrinsic factor-Sephadex complex. This effect may be of importance not only to the radiosorbent assaying of vitamin B-12, but to the in vivo intestinal absorption of vitamin B-12 as well

  10. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  11. CAUSES AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED LEVEL OF VITAMIN B12: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Belwal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an important role in building of genetic material, in development of normal red blood cells and in maintenance of nervous system. Major deficiency symptoms of Vitamin B12 include anemia and neurological disorders. The daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 for an adult is 1.5μg a day. Eating a diet containing required amount of vitamin B12 is the best way to treat the conditions associated with its low level. Vitamin B12 found only in animal based foods such as meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters and shellfish. Hence, vegetarians are more likely to have low level of Vitamin B12.

  12. Evidence for intestinal origin of transcobalamin II during vitamin B12 absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma binding of newly absorbed, radioactively labelled vitamin B12 was studied during a urinary excretion (Schilling) test. Vitamin B12, after being absorbed from the gut, enters blood attached to transcobalamin II, which seemed to be derived from the ileal enterocyte. The absorbed B12 re-entered the blood stream after the transcobalamin II-B12 complex was cleared by the liver and it was then excreted into the urine during the Schilling test. (author)

  13. New metabolites of vitamin B6 in cat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma from adult cats and from humans with adult onset hypophosphatasia has low alkaline phosphatase activity and high pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). Since the cats do not show the bone disease seen in humans, the authors initiated a study of vitamin B6 metabolism in cats. 14C-pyridoxine HCL was donated by Hoffmann LaRoche (Nutley, NJ) and purified by HPLC. Following oral doses of 14C-pyridoxine HCL ranging from .97 to 486 μmol, urinary pyridoxic acid (PA) accounted for only 1 to 5% of the dose. Cation exchange HPLC of the urine revealed about 50% of the dose in a very fast eluting peak (X) and another 20 to 25% of the dose in a very slow eluting peak (Y). X elutes faster than PLP, is stable in base, but is hydrolyzed by acid to pyridoxal and pyridoxine. These properties are similar to those of 3-sulfate esters. Y is not altered by treatment with acid or base. In cation-exchange HPLC Y does not elute with the common B6 vitamers but does elute with N-methyl-pyrdoxine. Y moves with N-methyl-pyridoxine in 3 TLC solvents. Both Y and N-methyl-pyridoxine fail to give an orange spot with diazotized p-nitroaniline. Further attempts to characterize X and Y are in progress. The low concentrations of PA in cat plasma and urine suggest a very limited capacity to oxidize vitamin B6. This limitation apparently forces the use of alternate metabolic pathways

  14. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gregor Issac; Soundararajan Soundarya; Rita Christopher; Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 d...

  15. Do MCI patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have distinctive cognitive deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dina; Albers, Ulrike; Santana, Isabel; Vicente, Margarida; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Verdelho, Ana; Guerreiro, Manuela; de-Mendonça, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older people, and may be responsible for reversible dementia. Low serum vitamin B12 levels were also observed in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). It is not known whether patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have a distinctive profile of cognitive impairment different from the episodic memory deficit usually observed in MCI. Results From a cohort of 310 patients with MCI followed in a memory clinic in Lisbon, only 10 cases with vitam...

  16. A case of acute psychosis due to vitamin b12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sayın, Selim; Arslan, Erol; Demirbaş, Şeref; ESER, Mithat; Kenan SAĞLAM

    2014-01-01

    Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may present with hematologic, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular symptoms. A clinical Picture of acute psychosis can be seen in rare cases and if not corrected, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to permanent demage. Acute psychosis and symptoms of anemia with sixty-year-old male patient was evaluated and found that vitamin B12 deficiency due to the terminal ileitis. The patient was healed without permanent damage with replacement therapy.The diagnosis and t...

  17. An audit to determine if vitamin b12 supplementation is necessary after sleeve gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Eltweri, Amar M.; Bowrey, David J.; Christopher D Sutton; Graham, Lisa; Williams, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sleeve gastrectomy has increased in popularity over the last five years and it is likely to supersede gastric banding. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether vitamin B12 supplementation is required after surgery. The aim of this short report is to identify any vitamin B12 deficiency and highlight the necessity of post laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy vitamin B12 monitoring. Patients and methods A review of 66 patients underwent LSG in our institution. 25 patients were excluded as they ha...

  18. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Şükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, ...

  19. Long-term outcome in children with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Şahin Erdöl; Özlem Özdemir; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently observed in developing countries. Herein we report the long-term clinical and laboratory outcomes in 45 children presented with various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.Materials and Methods: Symptoms and physical findings, and percentiles for weight, height, and head circumference at presentation were recorded. The educational level of the patients’ mothers, vitamin B12 deficiency-related diseases and family income data were collected. Compl...

  20. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions?1234

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of folic acid fortification of flour 10 y ago, an initiative to consider fortifying flour with vitamin B-12 has gained momentum in the United States. The impetus for this move stems from several considerations, including some evidence that a proportion of neural tube defect pregnancies may be the result of vitamin B-12 rather than folate deficiency. However, no interventional trials have taken place to show the efficacy of vitamin B-12 supplementation or fortification i...

  1. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) or selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin) malabsorption with proteinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency commonly resulting in megaloblastic anemia, which is responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy and appears in childhood. Other manifestations include failure to thrive and grow, infections and neurological damage. Mild proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease) is present in about half of the patients. Anatom...

  2. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Y; Hodgson N.W.; Trivedi M.S.; Abdolmaleky H.M.; Fournier M.; Cuenod M.; Do K.Q.; Deth R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal...

  3. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Marc J. M.; Bouwman, Aniek C; R Corinne Sprong; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visker, Marleen H. P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial...

  4. A general review on vitamin B12 deficiency with focus on the situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that is only obtained from foods of animal origin, such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis and neurological function. Thus its deficiency can lead to several neurological symptoms such as memory loss, dizziness and in severe cases may lead to dementia. Many factors can cause or lead to vitamin B-12 deficiency. Among these are malabsorption, several gastron intestinal problems (i.e. celiac disease, Crobn's disease) and gastrointestinal surgeries. diagnosis of vitamin B-12 status depends commonly on serum vitamin B12 which is nonspecific tool for the deficiency. Other more specific tests, which reflect true deficiency, include serum and urine methylmalonic aci de, total serum homocysteine and serum holotranscobalamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a worldwide public health problem; epidemiological studies showed that its prevalence in industrialized countries ranges from 5-60% of the population depending on the used cutoff point of cobalamin level. In Jordan, many reports were published on vitamin B 12 deficiency. However, these reports gave different results of its prevalence ranging from 16-48% depending on the serum vitamin B12 cutoff point used. A recent study showed a prevalence of true deficiency of 32.7% based on measuring both serum vitamin B12 level and plasma methylmalonic acid. (authors).

  5. Transport of vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: cloning of the btuCD region.

    OpenAIRE

    DeVeaux, L C; Kadner, R J

    1985-01-01

    The transport of vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli requires a specific vitamin B12 receptor protein in the outer membrane and the tonB gene product. In addition, the btuC gene, located at min 38 on the genetic map, has been found to influence vitamin B12 uptake or utilization. The btuC function is required for the growth response to vitamin B12 when the outer membrane transport process (btuB or tonB function) is defective. However, even in a wild-type strain, btuC is required for proper transpo...

  6. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead, a...... transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  7. Effect of X-irradiation on vitamin B12 binding capacity to intrinsic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of whole-body X-irradiation on vitamin bB12-protein complex formation in gastric juice after oral administration of [57Co]-B12 have been studied. Two proteins with B-12-binding activity have been isolated by gel filtration from gastric juice. 57Co-activity, recovered from B12-protein complex in gastric juice, is found to be about 30 percent less in the X-irradiated rat. In serum, vitamin B12 is mainly associated with alpha1-globulin. Radioactivity distribution in serum globulins after intraperitoneal injection of [57Co]-B12 was similar in control and X-irradiated rats. (author)

  8. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  9. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita,Kiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA or a hyperventilation attack (HVA are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs. Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6 and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences.

  10. Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences. PMID:23603926

  11. Novel method for bioproduction labelled vitamin B12 with cobalt-57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first stage of project 'investigation for preparation and production of radio-kit vitamin B12 with med-grade', isolation and purification of solution containing vitamin B12 after fermentation by using different resins such as XAD-4, XAD7 was achieved. After extensive researches on Amberlite-XAD and eluation of the column by different solvents, the purified cyanocobalamin was prepared. The second stage of this research concerns with the bioproduction of radioactive form of vitamin B12 in which the nonradioactive cobalt atom present in the vitamin B12 molecule is replaced by a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 which is generated in 30 MeV p-Cyclotron. Such radioactive form of vitamin is used extensively in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency states in nuclear medicine

  12. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... = 18) were divided into two groups and given daily subcutaneous injections with metformin or saline (control) for three weeks. Following this, the animals received an oral dose of radio-labeled B(12) ((57)[Co]-B(12)), and urine and feces were collected for 24 h. Plasma, bowel content, liver, and...... kidneys were collected and analyzed for B(12), unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity, and (57)[Co]-B(12). RESULTS: Three weeks of metformin treatment reduced plasma B(12) by 22% or 289 [47-383] pmol/L (median and [range]) (p = 0.001), while no effect was observed on unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity...

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  14. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  15. If high folic acid aggravates vitamin B12 deficiency what should be done about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is malabsorption of food-bound vitamin B12. Thus, it is suggested that the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 microg/d be met primarily with crystalline vitamin B12, which is believed to be well absorbed in individuals who have food-bound malabsorption. There is concern that high intakes of folic acid from fortified food and dietary supplements might mask the macrocytic anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency, thereby eliminating an important diagnostic sign. One recent study indicates that high serum folate levels during vitamin B12 deficiency exacerbate (rather than mask) anemia and worsen cognitive symptoms. Another study suggests that once vitamin B12 deficiency is established in subjects with food-bound malabsorption, 40 microg/d to 80 microg/d of oral crystalline vitamin B12 for 30 d does not reverse the biochemical signs of deficiency. Together, these studies provide further evidence that public health strategies are needed to improve vitamin B12 status in order to decrease the risk of deficiency and any potentially adverse interactions with folic acid. PMID:17972439

  16. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  17. Acute Reversible Mania as a Presenting Feature Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with hematological or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common clinical presentations include pernicious anemia, myelopathy (Subacute combined degeneration of the cord, myeloneuropathy, optic atrophy, dementia and psychosis. An uncommon manifestation of Vitamin B12 deficiency-acute onset mania-in a 25-years old man that responded to treatment is reported. Relevant literature is also reviewed.

  18. Acute Reversible Mania as a Presenting Feature Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with hematological or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common clinical presentations include pernicious anemia, myelopathy (Subacute combined degeneration of the cord), myeloneuropathy, optic atrophy, dementia and psychosis. An uncommon manifestation of Vitamin B12 deficiency-acute onset mania-in a 25-years old man that responded to treatment is reported. Relevant literature is also reviewed.

  19. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Szczecinska, A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Souverein, O.W.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 µg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cogniti

  20. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  2. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  3. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  4. Development of radiolabelled vitamin B12 and derivatives on oncology and tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current study and clinical application of the radiolabelled Vitamin B12 and derivative are summarized. The biological activity of Vitamin B12 and the application of 111In, 10B, 99Tcm (Re) labelling derivatives on oncology and tumor therapy are mainly reviewed

  5. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W J; de Rooij, S E J A; Huijmans, J G M; Fischer, C; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum vit

  6. Inhibition of the vitamin B12 binding capacity of proteins by the hydrolysis product of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide hydrolysis product (CPHP) on vitamin B12 binding ability to proteins has been established. The ester N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(3-phosphopropyl)-etheylenediamine hydrochloride is probably responsible, in vitro, for blocking the protein binding sites. Preincubation of proteins with vitamin B12 prevents the inhibitory effect of CPHP. (au)

  7. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  8. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Kesiktaş; Nurten Eskiyurt; Ayşe Karan; Semih Akı; Halim İşsever

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12) is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to ou...

  9. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12 in serum, with use of radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radioassays for vitamin B12 with use of any of several binding proteins have been available for many years, a radioimmunoassay for B12 has not been reported. We describe here such a radioimmunoassay, incorporating, for the first time, a radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of B12 as the radioactive tracer. Polypropylene tubes are coated with antiserum raised in a rabbit against B12/bovine serum albumin to simplify the separation of bound and free radioactivity. Factors affecting the preparation of coated tubes are described. The assay is accurate, sensitive, precise, and specific for vitamin B12. Accuracy of the assay is unaffected by the presence of denatured protein. The advantages of this radioimmunoassay over conventional radioassays are discussed

  10. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  11. Subhyaloid haemorrhage in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency: a unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Wadood Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pancytopenia and also is also assocciated with platelet dysfunction. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl, who presented with fatigue and sudden painless, non-progressive loss of vision in the left eye. An ophthalmologic evaluation revealed bilateral subhyaloid haemorrhage, with macular involvement on the left eye. Earlier Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were suggestive of partially treated vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia. The patient had received four doses of vitamin B12 injections. She was given a complete course of vitamin B12 injections. Both the pancytopenia and subhyaloid haemorrhage improved completely with restoration of normal vision. This case documents the rare occurrence of subhyaloid haemorrhage in vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. Biochemical Impedance on Intracellular Functions of Vitamin B12 in Chronic Toxigenic Mold Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere C. Anyanwu; Ijeoma Kanu

    2007-01-01

    A majority of patients with neurological disorders with chronic exposures to toxigenic molds and mycotoxins has vitamin B12 deficiency that is unrelated to dietary insufficiency. Vitamin B12 is a source of coenzymes, and participates in intracellular recycling of methionine, and in methionine synthase reactions. The biochemical processes that lead to B12 depletion and deficiency are not fully understood. This paper examines and assesses various most likely biochemical reasons that could imped...

  13. DETECTION OF VITAMIN B12 IN DIFFERENT COW MILK USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİ, Göknur; KAMBER, Ufuk; NİSBET, Cevat; ÇENESİZ, Sena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. It contains cobalt, and is also known as cobalamin. It is exclusively synthesised by bacteria and is found primarily in fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products. Vitamin B12 deficiency have an underlying stomach or intestinal disorder that limits the absorption of vitamin B12 and might be caused to megaloblastic anemia. In this study cow milk samples were collected from in two different region in Turkey. In milk samples the a...

  14. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  15. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality. PMID:27003215

  16. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in normal population of northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency can not be made unless reference ranges of these vitamins in a given population are known. These serum levels depend upon the dietary intake of these vitamins which in turn depends upon the availability of foods containing these vitamins and the methods of cooking/processing. The latter vary in different populations. Therefore serum level of these vitamins would vary in different populations. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate were estimated by radioimmunoassay technique in 30 normal subjects of different age groups. The levels of vitamin B12 were found to be 215.2 pg/ml and that of folate 3.9 ng/ml. These values are much lower than those described for European population. It is therefore concluded that the cut off point of the levels of these vitamins should be different than the European figures. (author)

  17. Plasma content of B6 vitamers and its relationship to hepatic vitamin B6 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Lumeng, L.; Lui, A; Li, T K

    1980-01-01

    The plasma content of B6 vitamers is governed by, among other factors, dietary supply and metabolic interconversion. This study examines the effect of pyridoxine supplementation on the plasma content of B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in man, and the metabolic conversion and release of B6 compounds in isolated rat hepatocytes. Six healthy human subjects were given 100 mg pyridoxine-HCl/d orally for 1--3 wk. Before pyridoxine supplementation, the mean total plasma level of B6 vitamers was 114 +...

  18. Vitamin B12 absorption after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, D W; Quick, A; Barnard, D L

    1987-01-01

    The B12 absorption test (Schilling test) with intrinsic factor was used to examine ileal B12 absorption in 26 patients after allogeneic transplantation. The test was well tolerated and showed a profound fall in B12 absorption, which was maximal at two weeks after transplantation and recovered by eight weeks. The predominant influence on absorption at this stage was probably the conditioning schedule, and the presence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) was not associated with a further ...

  19. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B 12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B 12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Serum B 12 concentration was measured with Radioimmunoassay Dual Isotope method. The cutoff value for low serum vitamin B 12 concentrations was 75 pg/mL. Patients were in remission at the time of blood draw. Results: There were 13 (21.6% MS patients and 10 (26.3% controls with low serum B 12 concentration with no significant difference between the groups; P>0.05. The mean serum vitamin B 12 concentration in MS patients (108.9±45.3 pg/mL was not significantly different compared with controls (98.9±44.4 pg/mL; P=0.284. Likewise, there was no correlation between the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and disease′ age of onset, duration, subtypes, or disability status. Conclusions: In contrast to some previous reports, our findings did not support any association between B 12 deficiency and MS.

  20. Evaluation of bioadhesive capacity and immunoadjuvant properties of vitamin B(12)-Gantrez nanoparticles.

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, H.H. (Hesham H.); Gamazo, C; de Smidt, P C; Russell-Jones, G. (Gregory); J.M. Irache

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To design bioadhesive Gantrez AN (poly[methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride], PVM/MA) nanoparticles (NP) coated with Vitamin B12 (Vit B12), and investigate their application in oral antigen delivery. METHODS: The association of Vit B12 to Gantrez AN nanoparticles was performed by the direct attachment of reactive Vit B12 to the surface of the nanoparticles (NPB), or linking to the copolymer chains in dimethylformamide prior to NP formation (NPBDMF). Nanoparticles ...

  1. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Tanner, Rikki M.; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  2. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  3. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57Co-vitamin B12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B12 was unimpaired. (author)

  4. Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Maureen M.

    2008-01-01

    Folate deficiency in the periconceptional period contributes to neural tube defects; deficits in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have negative consequences on the developing brain during infancy; and deficits of both vitamins are associated with a greater risk of depression during adulthood. This review examines two mechanisms linking folate and vitamin B12 deficiency to abnormal behavior and development in infants: disruptions to myelination and inflammatory processes. Future investigations should f...

  5. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in ...

  6. Gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia: different types of responsiveness to vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, S.; Saito, T.; Nakajima, H.; Takaku, Y; Shiono, T; Mizuno, K; Ohmura, K.; Tada, K

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of Japanese patients with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia were studied clinically and biochemically. The types of disease differed in responsiveness to vitamin B6. In-vivo responsiveness to vitamin B6 was correlated with in-vitro data. It is suggested that the in-vitro examination of the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on ornithine ketoacid transaminase activity in cultured fibroblasts may be useful in ascertaining the efficacy of vitamin B6 treat...

  7. Evaluation of vitamin B6 intake and status of 20- to 64-year-old Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-OK

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent research regarding vitamin B6 status including biochemical index is limited. Thus, this study estimated intakes and major food sources of vitamin B6; determined plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); and assessed vitamin B6 status of Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h diet recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (n = 254) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, cities of Kwangju and Gumi, Korea. Vit...

  8. Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldby Ida K; Fosnes Gunvor S; Ligaarden Solveig C; Farup Per G

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6) and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders) in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® ), physical activity, activ...

  9. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  10. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 40C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 50C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  11. Genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content of bovine milk and its association with SNP along the bovine genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J M Rutten

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland.

  12. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  13. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  14. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B......12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  15. Dietary Intake of Vitamin B6 and Risk of Breast Cancer in Taiwanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yang, Tsan; Chou, Wan-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Ping; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Sun, Chien-An

    2011-01-01

    Background B vitamins, including vitamin B6, are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiencies in B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Methods We examined the association of dietary vitamin B6 intake with overall breast cancer risk and breast cancers stratified by hormone receptor status. This case-control study included 391 breast cancer cases and 782 control subjects enrolled at the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Energy-adjusted intake o...

  16. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  17. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using 57CoB12 and 51CrCl3, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%)

  18. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Morad; Mark Gringols; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower th...

  19. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with...... cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  20. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD; Randa Ali-Labib, MD; Tamer M. Farid, MD; Doha Rasheedy, MD; Mohammad F. Tolba, MSc

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: There have been many conflicting reports on the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and the level of vitamin B12 on bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly patients. Moreover, conflicting data exists regarding the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly diabetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between vitamin B12 levels, type 2 DM, and BMD in elderly patients. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 61 participants, ≥60 years of ...

  1. Microbiological Method for Assay of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin Drinks%微生物法测定维生素饮料中的维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚波; 周敏; 杨彤

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To establish a microbiological method for assay of vitamin B6 in vitamin drinks.[Method] The Saccharomyces Carlsbrgensis (ATCC 9080) has great sensitivity for vitamin B6 in materials.According to this specificity,it can be assay vitamin B6 in samples.Prepare standard concentrate-response curve by plotting absorbance reading for each level of standard solution.Determine the amount of vitamin B6 activity for each level of assay solution by interpolating from standard curve.[Result] The precision were 1.5%,1.1% and 1.5%.The RSD was 0.788 7%.The recoveries were all above 96.5%.[Conclusion] Microbiological method can be used to determination of vitamin B12 in vitamin drinks and this method has high sensitivity.The results are precise.%[目的]建立维生素饮料中维生素B6的微生物检测法.[方法]利用卡尔斯伯酵母菌(ATCC 9080)对维生素B6极高的灵敏性和特异性,定量测定出试样中维生素B6含量.即以不同浓度标准溶液的吸光度相对于各浓度水平标准物质的浓度绘制标准曲线,再根据标准曲线计算出试样中维生素B6的含量.[结果]试验方法精密度分别为1.5%、1.1%及1.5%,相对标准偏差为0.788 7%,回收率在96.5%以上.[结论]微生物法可以作为维生素饮料中维生素B6的检测方法,且灵敏度高、测定结果准确.

  2. [The vitamin B6 allowance of hypertension patients and the effect of dietotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleeva, V L; Piatnitskaia, I N; Bogdanov, N G

    1990-01-01

    A total of 111 patients with essential hypertension (the II stage) and obesity (the II degree) were investigated for providing with vitamin B6. The functional methods used for the vitamin assay (ACT activity of red blood cells and pyrodoxale-5-phosphate effect) have revealed significant vitamin B6 deficiency in 81.1% of the patients. Vitamin B6 deficiency was intensified in the course of the dietotherapy. Correction of vitamin B6 deficiency with a therapeutic dose of pyridoxine (20 mg/day) during 20-22 days, in the presence of the diet, has promoted optimization of providing with vitamin B6: normalization of pyrodoxale-5-phosphate effect. The hypotensive effect and decrease of excessive body mass in patients who received dietotherapy and pyridoxine (20 mg/day) were more pronounced than in those who received the same diet and the multivitamin "Undevitum". PMID:2399675

  3. Megalin-mediated endocytosis of transcobalamin-vitamin-B12 complexes suggests a role of the receptor in vitamin-B12 homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moestrup, S K; Birn, H.; Fischer, P B; Petersen, C M; Verroust, P. J.; Sim, R. B.; Christensen, E I; Nexø, E.

    1996-01-01

    Kidney cortex is a main target for circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in complex with transcobalamin (TC). Ligand blotting of rabbit kidney cortex with rabbit 125I-TC-B12 and human TC-57Co-B12 revealed an exclusive binding to megalin, a 600-kDa endocytic receptor present in renal proximal tubule epithelium and other absorptive epithelia. The binding was Ca2+ dependent and inhibited by receptor-associated protein (RAP). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a high-affinity interacti...

  4. Vitamin B12 And Folate Deficiency In a Hospital Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia RS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of B12 and folate deficiency in a hospital population. We studied the incidence of their deficiency by evaluating blood levels in every tenth hospital admission. Among the 450 patients chosen, 417 had normal levels of both, 2 had deficiency of folate alone (folate < 3ng.ml, 3 had B12 deficiency alone (B12<200pg/mland 11 had deficiency of both (total 3.5%. In addition 12 had borderline b12 level(200-300pg/ml, 2 had borderline folate level (3-4ng/ml(0.44%and 3 had borderline levels for both (0.66% . Thus 33% had definite or borderline deficiency. This deficiency was more common in the elderly and in patients on vegetarian diet (5.7% definite deficiency, 8.8% borderline levels compared to those on a non-vegetarian diet. During the 2 1/2 years of the study a total of 99 definite deficiency and 69 borderline deficiency were seen. In the definite deficiency group, 22.3% had neuropathy, 6.1% had evidence of myelopathy, 18.2% had neuropsychiatric changes (memory defect, dementia, behavioural abnormalities, depression and 4.1% had cerebellar signs. The neurologic findings in the borderline group were almost similar (neuropathy 29%, myelopathy 8.6% and neuropsychiatric changes 18.4%. High mean corpuscular volume (MCV> 95 was seen in 69% of those with both B12 and folate deficiency, 43.4% with B12 deficiency and 61.15 with folate deficiency. Hypersegmented polymorphs were seen in 21.7% with B12 deficiency, 27.5% with folate both B12 and folate deficiency had either megaloblastosis or dimorphic picture. It is to be noted that B12 and folate deficiency in this population was more frequent than we previously considered and reliance on haematologic parameters will miss half to one third of all cases. As expected B12 deficiency is more frequent in vegetarians than non-vegetarians.

  5. On the influence of ionizing irradiation on the vitamin B6 metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 50 female patients suffering from an endometrium carcinoma in stage I to IV, the vitamin B6 level was determined by the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and its activation coefficients at different instants before and during radiation therapy were calculated. Simultaneously the haemoglobin content of the blood and the behaviour of the leukocytes and thrombocytes was investigated under the high voltage irradiation. To 49 patients 300 mg pyridoxin were administered perorally every day during the irradiation treatment which lasted several weeks. It resulted that in endometrium carcinomas the vitamin B6 levels in the blood are decreased, and in proceeded stages more often vitamin B6 deficits are observed. Even after daily administrations of vitamin B6 the values of the activation coefficients of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase only slowly return to normal. Thus apparently relatively high pyridoxin doses seem to be necessary in order to remove the irradiation-induced vitamin B6 disorder. After daily oral administration of 300 mg pyridoxin in no case a biochemical vitamin B6 deficit under radiation therapy was observed. The leukocytes show under radiotherapy the expected decrease. Leukopenia requiring the discontinuation of interruption of the radiation treatment did not occur during vitamin B6 administration. A careful control of the thrombocytes is also under vitamin B6 administration necessary, but fatal thrombocytoponia could not be observed. With reference to the haemoglobin content in most cases a decrease was found, which apparently can not be prevented by the application of vitamin B6. An influence on the vitamin B6 level by the patient's age could not be found. Finally it has to be indicated that by determining the activation coefficient of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, indirectly the vitamin B6 deficiency can be detected without any serious disturbance for the patient. (orig./MG)

  6. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  7. [Vitamin B12, folic acid and mental function in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti

    2005-03-01

    Elderly people is a vulnerable population group to specific nutrient deficiencies as vitamin B12 and folic acid, which are closely related to mental functions deterioration, especially of cognitive functions. This study was aimed to measure B12 vitamin and folic acid indicators and to establish relationships to mental function. 53 elderly, older than 60 years, living in a geriatric home were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by the direct weighed method, serum B12 vitamin and folic acid by radioimmunoanalysis and mental function by Foltein's mini-mental test. Dietary intake for Vit B12 was adequate and deficient for folic acid while serum levels were within normal range. Vitamin B12 levels were at marginal or deficiency values in 26,4% of the elderly and folic acid deficiency was present in 43.4%. 49% of the elderly had mental function alterations and B12 vitamin levels were significantly lower in this group. A positive association between age and mental function (elderly below 80 years had lower risk of mental impairment) and between serum B12 and mental function were found. Elderly were at risk of deficiency for both vitamins and age and mental function were associated to this risk. Further evaluation including other nutrients should be performed. PMID:15782537

  8. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  9. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  10. Evaluation of Mean Platelet Volume Before and After Cobalamin Treatment in Patients with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Yuce; Medine Cumhur Cure; Erkan Cure; Sefa Kiztanir; Abdulkadir Basturk; Hasan Efe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the population. Vitamin B12 therapy may stimulate all cell types in the bone marrow. We investigated whether young, active and large platelets are released into the peripheral blood during vitamin B12 treatment and measured the level of mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of the presence of these platelets. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 patients (40 males, 160 females) with vitamin B12 deficiency were in...

  11. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Dangour, AD; Allen, E; Clarke, R.; Elbourne, D; Fletcher, Ae; Letley, L.; Richards, M; Whyte, K.; Uauy, R.; Mills, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12-deficient older people. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East Englan...

  12. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Greibe, E; Miller, J. W.; Foutouhi, S H; Green, R.; Nexo, E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats.METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 18) were divided into two groups and given daily subcutaneous injections with metformin or saline (control) for three weeks. Following this, the animals received an oral dose of radio-labeled B(12...

  13. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kesiktaş

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12 is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to our outpatient clinic because of chronic low back pain were examined and divided with vitamin B-12 levels over or below 400 pg/ml. 26 participant who met all inclusion criteria with vit-B12 level below 400pg/ml were assigned to case group. Among the patients that vit-B12 levels were over 400pg/ml, 20 participants were randomly selected to control group. Bone mineral density (BMD, biochemical measurements, causes of osteoporosis and vit-B12 defiencies were investigated. A computer program was used for statistic evaluation. Results: There was not statistically significant difference between BMD’s of case and control groups (p>0.05. When the vit-B12 levels were grouped with over 400 pg/ml, below 200 pg/ml and between 200-400 pg/ml, osteodensimetric examinations of femur neck BMD (p<0.05 were achieved statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this trial highlight an association of vitamin B-12 status with osteoporosis. Vit-B12 defiency is an easy and cheap treatable condition so that reason we suggest that levels of vit-B12 should be investigated. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:1-6

  14. Development on Fermentation Process of Vitamin B12%维生素B12发酵工艺进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑶

    2012-01-01

    综述了维生素B12(VB12)发酵工艺路线、菌种选育、工艺优化等方面的研究进展,展望了VB12发酵工艺发展前景。%To Summary the fermentation process route,process optimization and strain transformation of vitamin B12. To prospect the development of vitamin B12.

  15. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  16. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  17. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  18. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  19. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    Het Ministerie van VWS overweegt om bepaalde voedselbestanddelen te verrijken met foliumzuur. Foliumzuurverrijking houdt echter een gezondheidsrisico in, omdat het vitamine B12 deficientie maskeert, waardoor het de incidentie van megaloblastische anemie en perifere neuropathie kan verhogen. Dit ra

  20. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha Jm

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. PMID:27383050

  1. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  2. Is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible for cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Khattar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs and serum Vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in them. Results: Vitamin B12 levels were found to be deficient, and latencies of waves P200 and P300 were prolonged in the diabetics as compared to the controls. The dose and duration of metformin had no association with the ERPs. Conclusions: Although the Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in diabetics on metformin, this is not the reason behind the cognitive impairment found in them.

  3. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison′s pigmentation: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Agrawala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis.

  4. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  5. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status. PMID:26995945

  6. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  7. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  8. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  9. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yasar; Kamer Gunduz; Ece Onur; Mehmet Calkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time ...

  10. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE MARIE

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED PubMed ID: 17991650 BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Exa...

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Kibirige, Davis; Mwebaze, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient required for optimal hemopoetic, neuro-cognitive and cardiovascular function. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from impaired memory, dementia, delirium, peripheral neuropathy, sub acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia. This review ar...

  12. Association of vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and cognition in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Lökk, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Normal and subnormal serum levels of vitamin B12 and/or folate do not exclude functional deficiency, and elderly people are specifically exposed to deficiency owing to impaired nutrition, malabsorption, accompanying diseases and current medication. Several studies report that low levels of vitamin B12 are more common in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than in non-demented people. Low levels of folate are also correlated with other types of dementia. Current studies suggest that low level...

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with an acute reversible extrapyramidal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joy M.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with pernicious anemia or various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Commonly seen neuropsychiatric manifestations include large fiber neuropathy, myelopathy (subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord), dementia, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, psychosis and mood disorders. The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency- acute onset extrapyramidal syndrome in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 10-day...

  14. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    OpenAIRE

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency related pernicious anaemia by folic acid. aggravate neurological manifestations comes from publications in the mid-1940s, when folic acid was first used to treat patients with pernicious anaemia. This ...

  15. The role of holotranscobalamin in examination of vitamin B12 status

    OpenAIRE

    Čabarkapa Velibor; Stošić Zoran; Uzurov Vera; Sakač Vladimir; Đerić Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Holotranscobalamin contains biologically available cobalamin because only holotranscobalamin promotes the uptake of the cobalamin therein by all cells, via specific receptors. Therefore holotranscobalamin has been proposed as a potentially useful alternative indicator of vitamin B12 status. The aim of the present study was to assess usefulness of holotranscobalamin in the evaluation of vitamin B12 status. Material and methods. We examined serum level of holotranscobalamin in 135...

  16. Is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible for cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Khattar; Farah Khaliq; Neelam Vaney; Madhu, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were eva...

  17. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET gro...

  18. Premarital screening of 466 Mediterranean women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Karabulut, Aysun; GÜLER, ÖMER TOLGA; KARAHAN, HATİCE TUBA; ÖZKAN, SEVGİ; KOYUNCU, HASAN; DEMİRCİLER, İBRAHİM

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 serum levels are closely related with dietary habits and have an essential role in the healthy development of a fetus. We aimed to investigate hemoglobin, ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in preconceptional women in an area where a plant-based diet referred to as Mediterranean cuisine is commonly used. Materials and methods: The study population included 466 women between the ages of 18 and 45 years admitted for thalassemia screening. So...

  19. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydroge...

  20. AB156. Homocysteine and vitamin B12: risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheng; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing levels of homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with cardiovascular disease, and erectile dysfunction (ED) has close relation with cardiovascular disease, therefore, high homocysteine may be one of the risk factors of ED. During the metabolism of homocysteine, vitamin B12 plays an important role and could be the main factor in causing erectile dysfunction as well. Purpose To investigate the relationship between Hcy, vitamin B12 and ED in sample. Methods The study included 1,4...

  1. Visual Evoked Potentials in Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Results of a Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Değirmenci, Yıldız; Örs, Ceyda Hayretdağ; Yılmaz, Yeliz; Karaman, Handan Işın Özışık

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and P100 latency and amplitudes with visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with B12 vitamin deficiency without optic neuritis (ON). Material and Methods: Patients who presented to the outpatient neurology clinic of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Research Hospital underwent initial evaluation. Among those, complete blood count, full biochemistry (blood glucose, liver and kidne...

  2. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B12-sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B12-sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B12-sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B12-sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B12-bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B12-sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B12-sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B12-sepharose which was made by coupling B12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B12-sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Voltammetry of Vitamin B12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, -0.41 V in a 0.01 mol l-1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1. The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21 V by a one-electron transfer accomplished by CN- cleavage into the cyanocob(II)alamin. The latter species then equilibrated with the base-off B12r, which was immediately reduced into B12s at 0.16 V. The wave at -0.41 V might be a catalytic hydrogen wave. The cathodic peak currents at 0.21 V were controlled by the diffusion of Vitamin B12. On the base of its diffusion behavior, the semi-derivate voltammetric method for the detection of Vitamin B12 was presented. The semi-derivate voltammetric peak current of the wave at 0.21 V was linear with the content of Vitamin B12 in the range of 4.0 x 10-9 to 4.0 x 10-5 mol l-1. The detection limit was 1.0 x 10-9 mol l-1. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the content of Vitamin B12 in pharmaceutical preparations

  4. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency with...

  5. Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Clarke, R.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has reduced the number of neural tube defects in North America. Concerns that high intakes of folic acid might mask vitamin B-12 deficiency in older persons have delayed the introduction of fortification in many European countries. Coforti

  6. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Liyuan Chen; Christina Kühn; Roy Navarre; N. Richard Knowles; Hanjo Hellmann

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  7. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  8. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  9. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  10. Validity of transcobalamin II-based radioassay for the determination of serum vitamin B12 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valid radioassay for the estimation of serum vitamin B12 in the presence of naturally occurring vitamin B12 (= cobalamin) analogues can be operated if serum transcobalamin II (TC II) is used as the binding protein. Serum samples that gave diagnostically discrepant results when their vitamin B12 content was analysed (i) by a commercial radioassay known to be susceptible to interference from cobalamin analogues, and (ii) by microbiological assay, were further analysed by an alternative radioassay which uses the transcobalamins (principally TC II) of diluted normal serum as the assay binding protein. Concordance between the results from microbiological assay and the TC II-based radioassay was found in all cases. In an extended study over a three-year period, all routine serum samples sent for vitamin B12 analysis that had a vitamin B12 content of less than 320 ng/l by the TC II-based radioassay (reference range 200-850 ng/l) were reanalysed using an established microbiological method. Over 1000 samples were thus analysed. The data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the TC II-based radioassay results in this group of patients, serum samples from which are most likely to produce diagnostically erroneous vitamin B12 results when analysed by a radioassay that is less specific for cobalamins. (author)

  11. B12 Vitamin and Folat Prevelance of Children and Adolescents in Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Öncel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood are vitamin B12 and folat deficiency. Folat and vitamin B12 play a role in DNA synthessis in gastrointestinal, urogenital,nerves and hemotopoetic cells. The diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia is easy and the treatment cost is low.In this study, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folat deficiencies in 889 students were determined. Vitamin B12 and folat levels in blood samples were measured via RİAThe average age were betwen 12 and 22 years. Of this students 294(%33,1 were female and 595 (%66,9 were male. The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be 2.2%, while folat deficiency was 21.8%. The mean vitamin B12 level was 331,51±144,05 pg/mL (325,60±138,91 in pg/mL male, 343,48±153,48 pg/mL in female, the mean folat level was 5,42±2,12 ng/ml (5,23±2,11 ng/ml in male, 5,80±2,10 ng/ml in female.The prevelance of folat deficiency in our region was higher than other countries, possibly due to low socioeconomical status, improper or inadequate food intake and low educational status.

  12. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; Sola, R.; V. Lemmen; Castillo, M.J.; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  13. Vitamin B6-Dependent Enzymes in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: A Druggable Target?

    OpenAIRE

    Thales Kronenberger; Jasmin Lindner; Meissner, Kamila A.; Zimbres, Flávia M.; Coronado, Monika A.; Sauer, Frank M.; Isolmar Schettert; Carsten Wrenger

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a deadly infectious disease which affects millions of people each year in tropical regions. There is no effective vaccine available and the treatment is based on drugs which are currently facing an emergence of drug resistance and in this sense the search for new drug targets is indispensable. It is well established that vitamin biosynthetic pathways, such as the vitamin B6 de novo synthesis present in Plasmodium, are excellent drug targets. The active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal...

  14. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  15. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  16. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and ferritin levels in patients with migraine

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    Abdullah Acar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that disability due to migraine may be reduced with homocysteine-lowering treatment including folic acid and vitamin B12. In addition, recently the periaqueductal gray matter iron deposits have been found to be increased in migraine patients. There are few studies regarding vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine. The aims of this study was to measure vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine and compare them with the control group. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive newly diagnosed migraine patients who did not receive any vitamin supplement medication were enrolled. The study group consisted of 51 patients, suffering from migraine with aura (n= 23 and migraine without aura (n= 28. The control group consisted of 28 healthy participants without history of headache, anemia and vitamin supplement. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferin levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B12 and folic acid compared with the healthy controls (for vitamin B12; 215.6±133.7 pg/ml vs. 289.9±12 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.005; for folic acid; 6.74 ± 4.31 pg/ml vs. 8.47 ± 1.85 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.048. The vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (177.3 ± 139.2 pg/ml vs 252.5 ± 119.5 pg/ml, p=0.043. There were no differences in folic acid, ferritin, and transferritin levels between during attacks and in interictal period of patients with migraine (p>0.05. The ferritin levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (43.4 ± 41.1 mg/ml, vs 75.4 ± 51.7, mg/ml, p=0.018. CONCLUSION: Migraine patients had lower serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels than healthy subjects. These findings supported that vitamin B12

  17. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  18. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  19. Application of Vitamin B12 to Oral Ulcer%维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓田; 杨为民; 胡伊乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的实际效果。方法将口腔溃疡患者随机分成4组,分别外敷维生素B12、维生素B2、冰硼散、氯已定含片,对比各组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面差别。结果外敷维生素 B12组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面明显优于其他组。结论维生素 B12在治疗口腔溃疡时不但愈合时间短于其他药物,而且能有效地抑制疼痛,可以作为一种治疗方法在临床应用。%Objective To explore the actual result of vitamin B12 in curing oral ulcer. Methods The groups in which the patients were divided in to four at random were external by applied Vitamin B12,Vitamin B2 ,Bingpeng powder,Chlorhexidine mouth lozenge differently to compare the differences of every group in healing time and pain suppression. Results The group externally applied by Vitamin B12 was better than the other groups in healing time and pain suppression. Conclusion When curing the oral ulcer,the healing time of Vitamin B12 is shorter than other drugs and Vitamin B12 and can suppress pain effectively.So the method of applying Vitamin B12 may become a new therapeutic method in clinical application in future.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in elderly: cross-sectional study in Eastern Croatia

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    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients and it has recently been connected with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients from Eastern Croatia and to evaluate whether there is a connection between this deficiency and the occurrence of depressive symptoms among them.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013, among 140 elderly patients from Vukovar-Srijem County (47.9%, 67/140 males and 52.1%, 73/140 females; mean age 71.0±6.7 years. The anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, data regarding socio-economic status and personal history of diseases of study participants as well as data pertaining to the existence of depressive symptoms among them. The competitive immunoassay vitamin B12 kit was used to determine serum levels of vitamin B12.Results: Among all study participants there were 7.1% (10/140 of them with B12 deficiency and 70.0% (98/140 of them with the symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms occurred in 100.0% (10/10 patients with the vitamin B12 deficiency and 67.7% (88/130 of patients without it.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the existence of depressive symptoms and vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients. This finding points to the need for frequent vitamin status evaluation in this age group and its consequent correction that could improve overall health of this population subgroup.

  1. Inclusion compound of vitamin B6 in {beta}-CD. Physico-chemical and structural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe; Kacso, Irina; Farcas, Sorin I; Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.bratu@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Structural and physico-chemical characterization of supramolecular assembly of vitamin B6 with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) prepared by different methods (kneading, co-precipitation and freeze-drying) has been performed by using several spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction and DSC in order to evidence the inclusion compound formation. An analysis of the chemical shifts observed in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectra and of the vibrational frequency shifts led to the tentative conclusion that the vitamin B6 probably enters the cyclodextrin torus when forming the {beta}-CD-vitamin B6 inclusion complex.

  2. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    OpenAIRE

    Wanying Li; Shengke Li; Wyman, Ian W.; Macartney, Donal H.; Qingwen Zhang; Ying Zheng; Ruibing Wang

    2015-01-01

    A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot) and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 ...

  3. Indicators for assessing folate and vitamin B-12 status and for monitoring the efficacy of intervention strategies123

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies of folate or of vitamin B-12 are widespread and constitute a major global burden of morbidity that affect all age groups. Detecting or confirming the presence of folate or vitamin B-12 deficiency and distinguishing one from the other depends, ultimately, on laboratory testing. Tests to determine the presence of folate or vitamin B-12 deficiency are used singly or in combination to establish the nutritional status and prevalence of deficiencies of the vitamins in various populatio...

  4. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-10-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B(12)) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B(12) levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 1970 itself. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B(12) deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vit B(12) levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12). PMID:21264109

  5. Metabolic engineering of cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Malten, Marco; Barg, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Martens, Jan-Henning; Deery, Evelyne; Leech, Helen; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) production in Bacillus megaterium has served as a model system for the systematic evaluation of single and multiple directed molecular and genetic optimization strategies. Plasmid and genome-based overexpression of genes involved in vitamin B(12) biosynthesis, including cbiX, sirA, modified hemA, the operons hemAXCDBL and cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR, and the regulatory gene fnr, significantly increased cobalamin production. To reduce flux along the heme branch of the tetrapyrrole pathway, an antisense RNA strategy involving silencing of the hemZ gene encoding coproporphyrinogen III oxidase was successfully employed. Feedback inhibition of the initial enzyme of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, HemA, by heme was overcome by stabilized enzyme overproduction. Similarly, the removal of the B(12) riboswitch upstream of the cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR operon and the recombinant production of three different vitamin B(12) binding proteins (glutamate mutase GlmS, ribonucleotide triphosphate reductase RtpR and methionine synthase MetH) partly abolished B(12)-dependent feedback inhibition. All these strategies increased cobalamin production in B. megaterium. Finally, combinations of these strategies enhanced the overall intracellular vitamin B(12) concentrations but also reduced the volumetric cellular amounts by placing the organism under metabolic stress. PMID:21255303

  6. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  7. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12. PMID:26988471

  8. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  9. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  10. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  11. Clinical Significances of Serum Vitamin B12, Folate and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the clinical significances of the serum vitamin B12, folate and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors, the levels were measured in 10 normal control subjects, 70 patients with malignant tumors, 7 patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 patients with other benign diseases. The results are as follows: 1) In normal control subjects, mean serum values for vitamin B12, folate and ferritin level were 588.80±131.58 pg/ml, 5.59±1.52 ng/ml and 89.22±42.78 ng/ml retrospectively. 2) There was no significant difference in serum levels between patients with benign diseases and normal control subjects. 3) The serum vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than in normal control, and the serum folate levels in these patients were lower than in normal control subjects. 4) The serum vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors were significantly higher than in normal control subjects, and the serum folate levels in these patients were significantly lower than in normal control subjects. The above results suggest that the serum vitamin B12 and ferritin may be useful as tumor markers in patients with malignant tumors.

  12. Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B12 (Coblamin Deficiency with a Re-appraisal of its Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divate p

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a study 25 patients, all clinically suspected to have vitamin B12 deficiency; they were investigated hematologically, biochemically, & by gastric biopsy and MRI. Most of the patients were more than 40 years of age, were either vegetarian or non-vegetarian; 21 patients were belonging to the middle-income group. The total number of males in the study was 22 and there were three females. The clinical features of vitamin B12 deficiency are described. Clinical evidence of pyramidal tract involvement was found in six patients (24%. MRI confirmed cord involvement in 12 of the 17 patients (70.5%: follow up MRI of two patients showed marked reductions in signals after one year of treatment. These patients showed improvement after receiving injectable vitamin b12. Nerve conduction studies (N.C.V showed evidence of neuropathy in fifteen of eighteen (83% patients. Gastric biopsy was abnormal in all except one in the 20 patients in whom it was conducted. Anti intrinsic factor blocking antibodies (AIFBA were elevated in 11/24 (45.8% and anti parietal cell antibodies (APCAB were elevated in 19/24 patients (79%. The possible etiological factors responsible for vitamin B12 deficiency are age and pernicious anemia. As concluded in this study, diet was not found to be a contributory factor in the causation of cobalamin deficiency. We conclude that pernicious anemia is probably an important etiological factor as a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in Indians. The male predominance is intriguing.

  13. [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, J B; Fønnebø, V

    1991-01-10

    Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet. PMID:2000592

  14. Relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 levels with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) with coronary artery disease and the mechanism, whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 in 94 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were measured and compared with normal controls. The relationship of folate, Vit. B12 levels with the number of coronary vessel stenosis was also studied. Homocysteine(Hcy) and lipid levels in 57 subjects randomly selected were measured and the correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy and lipid levels was analyzed. The results showed that whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 concentrations in CHD patients were significantly lower than those in normal controls. There were no significant differences in whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 levels between patients with different number of coronary vessel stenosis. There was negative correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy, but no significant correlation was found with lipid. The results demonstrated that low blood folate and Vit. B12 levels were associated with the coronary heart disease, and that high plasma Hcy caused by deficiency of folate and Vit. B12 may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. (authors)

  15. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  16. Evaluation of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in the treatment of primary liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hejun Shao; Guohu Hong; Xinhua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the treatment effectiveness of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in patient with middle/late stage primary liver cancer. Materials and Methods: A 3-month follow-up study on 104 patients with primary liver cancer was carried out. Regular medication treatment was applied to 41 patients and sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 combined with the regular medication was applied to 63 patients. The treatment effectiveness and prognosis were evaluated using the s...

  17. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adu...

  18. Vitamin B12-catalyzed synthesis of some peracetylated alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA STEVANOVIC

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin B12-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of brominated b-D-xylose peracetate with alkanols ROH (C1-C8 has been studied. The catalytically active species in this reaction was cob(Ialamin, obtained by chemical reduction of Vitamin B12 with NaBH4 (Co(III to Co(I. The reaction was carried out with 2 mol% of vitamin B12, with respect to xylosyl bromide 1, under argon at room temperature. Under these conditions, peracetylated C1-C8-alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides (3a–3f were obtained in moderate yield (55–70 %. In all cases 3,4-di-O-acetyl-D-xylal (4 was obtained, as the product of reductive elimination of peracetylated xylosyl bromide (15–25 %.

  19. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  20. Diagnosis of SDAT by HMPAO SPECT and vitamin B12 serum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is quite difficult to confirm the diagnosis of demential disorders, including senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) by clinical means only. Through the combination of 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT and serum vitamin B12 determination it was hoped to speed up and improve the diagnosis of SDAT. 116 patients who had been divided into four groups according to their defect pattern in the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT 17 very probably had SDAT; of these 15 showed a defect pattern with brain SPECT which could be associated to SDAT. The majority of SDAT patients had serum vitamin B12 levels in the lower normal range or pathologically below that range. Both investigations contributed to establishing the SDAT diagnosis without replacing other investigations. The determination of serum vitamin B12 does not require any major additional effort. (orig.)

  1. The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular disease and the serum levels of homocysteine(Hcy), folate and vitamin B12, the serum levels of Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 in 148 patients with cerebrovascular disease were measured by fluorescence polarization immuno- assay and chemiluminescence and were compared with those in healthy controls. The result showed that the serum Hcy levels in patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and vertebrobasilar ischemiay were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P12 levels were signifieantly lower (P0.05). No significantly higher ratio of increased Hcy levels was observed in patient with complications (P> 0.05). Our conclusion is that hyperhomocysteinemia may be a new and an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The serum Hcy level is correlated with decreased levels of folate and vitamin B12 but not obviously correlated with hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. (authors)

  2. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  3. Algorithm for the early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Palacios

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elderly population is particularly at risk for developing vitamin B12-deficiency. Serum cobalamin does not necessarily reflect a normal B12 status. The determination of methylmalonic acid is not available in all laboratories. Issues of sensitivity for holotranscobalamin and the low specificity of total homocysteine limit their utility. The aim of the present study is to establish a diagnostic algorithm by using a combination of these markers in place of a single measurement. Methods: We compared the diagnostic efficiency of these markers for detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in a population (n = 218 of institutionalized elderly (median age 80 years. Biochemical, haematological and morphological data were used to categorize people with or without vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: In receiver operating curves characteristics for detection on vitamin B12 deficiency using single measurements, serum folate has the greatest area under the curve (0.87 and homocysteine the lowest (0.67. The best specificity was observed for erythrocyte folate and methylmalonic acid (100% for both but their sensitivity was very low (17% and 53%, respectively. The highest sensitivity was observed for homocysteine (81% and serum folate (74%. When we combined these markers, starting with serum and erythrocyte folate, followed by holotranscobalamin and ending by methylmalonic acid measurements, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm, which combines erythrocyte folate, serum folate, holotranscobalamin and methylmalonic acid, but eliminate B12 and tHcy measurements, is a useful alternative for vitamin B12 deficiency screening in an elderly institutionalized cohort.

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Prevalence among South Asians at a Toronto clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil K.; Damji, Alkarim; Uppaluri, Aparna

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in adult South Asian patients. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Family practice clinic in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Records of 988 South Asian patients. INTERVENTION: Of 1000 randomly selected records, we found 988 charts. From charts with at least one documented B12 level, we extracted data on age, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin and ferritin levels, and diet (if available). Descriptive and analytic stati...

  5. Correlations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and thrombopoietin to platelet count in HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Somayh S. Eissa; Olfat M. Hendy; Fatma Younis; Aziza K. Omar Samy; Ayat R. Abdallah; Laila A. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionThe platelet count is known to decrease in proportion to the advancement of the stage of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) viral infection. The platelet count is currently used as an index for fibrosis staging. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not completely understood. PurposeThis work aimed to study the correlations of folic acid (FA), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), homocysteine (Hcy), and thrombopoietin to t...

  6. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated p...

  7. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Regland; Sara Forsmark; Lena Halaouate; Michael Matousek; Birgitta Peilot; Olof Zachrisson; Carl-Gerhard Gottfries

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six m...

  8. Resistance imparted by vitamin C, vitamin e and vitamin B12 to the acute hepatic glycogen change in rats caused by noise.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu,Bei-Wei; Piao, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yu; Han, Song; An, Qing-Da; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 on the noise-induced acute change in hepatic glycogen content in rats were investigated. The exposure of rats to 95 dB and 110 dB of noise acutely reduced their hepatic glycogens. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha -tocopherol) attenuated the noise-inducedacute reduction in the hepatic glycogen contents. This result suggests that antioxidants could reduce the change via reactive oxygen species. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) delayed the...

  9. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B12 on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Hon-Nami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B12, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B12 alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  10. Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Rosaria; Biagioni, Francesca; Carrizzo, Albino; Lorusso, Massimo; Spadaro, Angelo; Micelli Ferrari, Tommaso; Vecchione, Carmine; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mascio, Giada; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Madonna, Michele; Fornai, Francesco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Lograno, Marcello Diego

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury. PMID:24486457

  11. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. [Determination of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by non boil (new standard) radioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Y; Tuchii, K; Endo, N; Ikeda, R; Yasuda, K

    1994-06-01

    On purpose to study the radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid using non boil methods in with these two vitamins were released from their endogenous binding proteins with alkaline denaturation and separated the bound vitamins from the free ones with the magnetic iron particles coated these vitamin binders (purified hog intrinsic factor and beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk) were evaluated on precision and accuracy, compared with boil radioassay. 1. The reproducibilities of non boil method were 4.5 +/- 2.5% on vit. B12 and 3.5 +/- 0.2% on folate (n = 10), respectively. 2. The recovery test of the two serum vitamins with the use of cyanocobalamin and pteroylglutamic acid (J.P.) were finely showed the rations of 95.2-99.0% for vit. B12 and 101.0-108.0% for folic acid. And that of folic acid use of 5-methyl-tetrahydro-pteroylglutamic acid was showed the ratios of 101.0-104.0%. The values of folic acid measured by this method were found slightly higher than non boil method using conventional standard. 3. The correlation coefficient between non boil method and boil method were 0.987 and regression equation was showed y = 0.97x + 73.59 for vit. B12 (n = 75) and r = 0.932, y = 1.02x-0.08 (n = 78) for folic acid. 4. Normal range of serum total vit. B12 concentration was 210-920 (484 +/- 160 pg/ml, n = 259) and that of folic acid was 2.5-9.2 (5.2 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, n = 257), as well as boil method. 5. Accordingly it was considered that non boil (new standard) method was excellent for estimation of vitamin B12 and folic acid clinical status. PMID:8072237

  13. [A case of subacute combined degeneration with normal serum vitamin B12 level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Akiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuo; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2003-09-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Two months later she complained of rapidly progressive gait disturbance and numbness in the distal part of limbs. She also told that her hair had turned totally gray in the third decade. Neurologically, mental state, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Superficial sensations were impaired below the lower thoracic level and deep sensations were completely lost in the lower limbs. Moderate weakness was found in the lower limbs, symmetrically. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs. Babinski's reflex was positive bilaterally. MR images of the spinal cord showed hyperintensity in the posterior column below the thoracic cord. Although the serum level of vitamin B12 was within normal range, serum homocysteine level was elevated markedly. Under the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) due to possible vitamin B12 deficiency, the treatment with intravenous injections of 500 micrograms/day of mecobalamin was undertaken. Muscle strength and sensory impairment improved progressively and she became able to walk with a cane. The coloration of her gray hair was also noted. After treatment, pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia also markedly improved. Vitamin B12 became high in serum concentration and the serum level of homocysteine became normal. These clinical and laboratory findings support the diagnosis of SCD with normal serum level of vitamin B12 in our case, suggesting that the level of vitamin B12 in serum does not always correlate with that in tissue and, therefore, SCD should not be excluded just only by the reason of normal serum vitamin B12 level. PMID:14727562

  14. Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeldby Ida K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6 and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® , physical activity, activity of daily living (Katz Index, dietary habits, use of drugs, and psychiatric and somatic diseases were recorded. A blood sample was collected for haematological and biochemical screening, including B6 (p-PLP; p-PLP values Results Sixty-one residents (men/women: 22/39 with an age of 85.3 (6.8 years and BMI 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2 were included. Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were present in 11.5% and 61% respectively. Dietary intake of B6 (mg/day in men and women were 1.60 (0.30 and 1.18 (0.31 (recommended 1.6 and 1.2 respectively, and 14 (23% used B6 supplements. Median p-PLP was 20.7 (range Conclusions Half of the residents had vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin supplement was effective prophylaxis for deficiency and should be recommended to all elderly people in nursing homes.

  15. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  16. Determination of pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12 in nutritional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T S; Subramanian, S; Allen, R J

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, liquid chromatographic (LC) methodology for pantothenic acid, biotin, and B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been only marginally successful. These vitamins are difficult to determine by conventional LC techniques and UV detection at 254 or 280 nm, because either the chromophore is inadequate for detection or interference from co-eluting vitamins is overwhelming. Biotin and B12 are usually present in pharmaceutical products at concentrations 100-1000 times lower than other commonly occurring water-soluble vitamins. Co-extraction of all water-soluble vitamins results in gross interferences, especially in LC when the interfering vitamins co-elute with biotin or B12. In addition, pantothenic acid and biotin are colorless in solution and do not exhibit strong UV absorption above 240 nm. As a result, they must be quantitated either by using a low UV wavelength for detection or by derivatizing the vitamin to obtain an adequate chromophore. A description of procedures for LC determination of pantothenic acid, panthenol, cyanocobalamin, and biotin in pharmaceutical products is presented. Pantothenic acid has been measured by using both a derivatization technique and low UV wavelength detection. Biotin has been quantitated by using low UV wavelength detection. The limitations of these techniques are also discussed. Chromatographic separation of cyanocobalamin is complicated by co-eluting vitamins such as riboflavin. It is detected by using the 546 nm wavelength where riboflavin does not interfere. PMID:6501166

  17. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türksoy N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation, which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  18. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% 2H2O and 13C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin

  19. Metabolic engineering of cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium

    OpenAIRE

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Malten, Marco; Barg, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Martens, Jan‐Henning; Deery, Evelyne; Leech, Helen; Warren, Martin J.; Jahn, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium has served as a model system for the systematic evaluation of single and multiple directed molecular and genetic optimization strategies. Plasmid and genome‐based overexpression of genes involved in vitamin B12 biosynthesis, including cbiX, sirA, modified hemA, the operons hemAXCDBL and cbiXJCDETLFGAcysGAcbiYbtuR,and the regulatory gene fnr, significantly increased cobalamin production. To reduce flux along the heme branch of t...

  20. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H;

    2013-01-01

    the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed...... in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT......, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find...

  1. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B12) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B12 levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 197...

  2. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were inc...

  3. A pediatric patient with recurrent pseudotumor cerebri and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Derman, Orhan; Dogan, Muhsin

    2006-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid values, and a normal cerebral ventricles on brain imaging studies. A patient with a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri was admitted to the authors' hospital twice within a 2.5-year interval and treated with vitamin B12 (vit-B12). At the second admission she also presented with a cerebral venous thrombosis that might have been explained by vit-B12 deficiency, homocysteinemia, and an increased level of lipoprotein-a. PMID:16326411

  4. Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, J; Kubota, K; Murakami, H; Sawamura, M; Matsushima, T; Tamura, T; Saitoh, T; Kurabayshi, H; Naruse, T

    1999-04-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity. PMID:10209501

  5. Genotype-specific changes in vitamin B6 content and the PDX family in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with...

  6. A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Sanket K.; Aundhakar, Swati C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study summarizes the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population coming to tertiary care center in Western Maharashtra along with the main presenting symptom routinely misinterpreted in daily practice. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in the population of western Maharashtra. 2. To correlate the symptoms with serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cro...

  7. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  8. The effect of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is commonly known as a Swiss-type cheese ripening culture, and is also frequently applied in the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin). One way to increase vitamin B12 productivity is the supplementation of medium with 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI), the lower ligand of cobalamin. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of exogenous DMBI on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in type strain of P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenre...

  9. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Taş; Emre Sarandöl; Melahat Dirican

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6) on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6), diabetes (D), and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6). Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight) was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0...

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency: An important reversible co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L, 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe, 150-200 (moderate, and 201-220 pmol/L (mild in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson′s disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS, 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%, memory loss in 20 (33.9%, and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%, and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67% and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043 which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2% patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%, 10 (16.7%, and 13 (21.7% patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019 and was

  11. MEASUREMENT OF VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION: A REVIEW ON AVAILABLE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmi O et al

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of the eight vitamins of vitamin B complex, needed for blood and cell maturation. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and it is needed in DNA replication. Its deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia (amidst others health issues. For these and many similar reasons, it sometimes becomes necessary to measure its concentration. This article has carefully reviewed the different methods used for measuring vitamin B12 concentration, and the unique principles involved. The principles, basically, depend on the molecular structure of Vitamin B12 and its reactions with other substances. The methods include microbiological assay and spectrophotometric methods – these are old methods: they were the first available methods, but they are still in use for reference purposes. Another method is electroluminescent (ECL which involves highly reactive materials. However, inductive-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS is a very important method, which is used routinely, even in many research. On the other hand, atomic absorption spectroscopy depends on measuring the amount of energy involved in the reaction; while radioimmunoassay (RIA is a highly sensitive immunoassay technique. In addition, there are different techniques for separating and preparing samples to be used in the various measurement methods. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is used for non-validate analyst, while capillary-electrophoresis (CE that have high resolving power than traditional electrophoresis, which when they are coupled with certain detectors they afford us another principle for measuring this vitamin. Choosing the best method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration depends on many factors – including the type of sample, purpose of the test, necessity of pre-processing, time limitations, cost, sensitivity, specificity.

  12. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Kamchatnov; I.V. Damulin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin metabolic disorders can cause diverse dysfunctions of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. There is conclusive evidence that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) and folic acid deficiencies may lead to diminished cognitive functions even to the extent of developing dementia. Cognitive impairments may be accompanied by involvement of other regions of the central nervous system, the corticospinal tract in particular, less frequently by brainstem and cerebellar disorders. Changes in ...

  13. Vitamin B12ointment containing avocado oil in the therapy of plaque psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Stücker, Markus; Memmel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Matthias; Hartung, Joachim; Altmeyer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Background: There are already many effective topical therapies available for use in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Unfortunately, these treatments are often associated with a not insignificant risk of undesirable effects. Objective and methods: In the randomized, prospective clinical trial discussed in the following, the therapeutic effects of the standard vitamin D3 analog calcipotriol were evaluated against those of a recently developed vitamin B12 ointment containing avocado oi...

  14. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent. PMID:27306229

  15. Folate, vitamin B6, multivitamin supplements, and colorectal cancer risk in women

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shumin M.; Moore, Steven C.; Lin, Jennifer; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated associations between intakes of folate and vitamin B6 and colorectal cancer risk in women enrolled in a randomized trial of aspirin and vitamin E. During an average of 10.1 years of follow-up, 220 colorectal adenocarcinoma cases were documented among 37,916 women, aged 45 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease, who provided dietary information at baseline. Intakes of total folate and vitamin B6 were not significantly associated with the risk of colorec...

  16. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Murray T Webber; Alison J Ratcliff; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian...

  17. Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Nexø, Ebba; Greibe, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering...... metformin. Methods: Male Wistar rats aged 16 weeks at sacrifice was treated for 6 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (n = 10) or metformin (n = 10). We collected plasma and organs for analyses of B12, and we explored the fraction of protein-bound B12 in selected organs. In addition we...... examined the effect of four weeks administration of metformin (n = 10= or sline (n = 10) by intra-peritoneal osmotic pumps on levels of B12 in plasma, liver, and kidneys of rats aged 14 weeks at sacrifice. Results: Median concentration of B12 in the 16 weeks old control rats was highest in the kidney (1350...

  18. Vitamin B12 in Obese Adolescents with Clinical Features of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Ho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates an association between obesity, metformin use and reduced vitamin B12 status, which can have serious hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric consequences. This study aimed to examine B12 status in obese adolescents with pre-diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Serum B12 was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 103 (43 male, 60 female obese (mean body mass index (BMI z-score ± SD (2.36 ± 0.29, adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, median (range insulin sensitivity index of 1.27 (0.27 to 3.38 and 13.6% had pre-diabetes. Low B12 (<148 pmol/L was identified in eight (7.8% and borderline status (148 to 221 pmol/L in an additional 25 (24.3% adolescents. Adolescents with borderline B12 concentrations had higher BMI z-scores compared to those with normal concentrations (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.32 ± 0.30, p = 0.008 or those with low B12 concentration (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.27 ± 0.226, p = 0.041. In conclusion, nearly a third of obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance had a low or borderline serum B12 status. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to explore the cause and the impact of low B12 status in obese pediatric populations.

  19. Common variant in FUT2 gene is associated with levels of vitamin B(12) in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Chand, Mandeep P; Kumar, Jitender; Garg, Gaurav; Seth, Sandeep; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B(12) is an essential micronutrient synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals including humans have evolved ways for transport and absorption of this vitamin. Deficiency of vitamin B(12) (either due to low intake or polymorphism in genes involved in absorption and intracellular transport of this vitamin) has been associated with various complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fucosyl transferase 2 gene (FUT2) to be associated with levels of vitamin B(12)-the strongest association was with a non-synonymous SNP rs602662 in this gene. In the present study, we attempted to replicate the association of this SNP (rs602662) in an Indian population since a significant proportion has been reported to have low levels of vitamin B(12) in this population. A total of 1146 individuals were genotyped for this SNP using a single base extension method and association with levels of vitamin B(12) was assessed in these individuals. Regression analysis was performed to analyze the association considering various confounding factors like for age, sex, diet, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease status. We found that the SNP rs602662 was significantly associated with the levels of vitamin B(12) (p valuevegetarian diet with GG (homozygous major genotype) have significantly lower levels of vitamin B(12) in these individuals. Thus, our study reveals that vegetarian diet along with polymorphism in the FUT2 gene may contribute significantly to the high prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficiency in India. PMID:23201895

  20. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamim B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Eussen, S.J.; Groot, de, H.L.F.; Joosten, L.W.; Bloo, R.; Clarke, R.; Ueland, P.M.; Schneede, J.; Blom, H. J.; Hoefnagels, W. H.; Staveren, van, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether daily supplementation with high doses of oral vitamin B-12 alone or in combination with folic acid has any beneficial effects on cognitive function in persons aged 70 y with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design: I...

  1. Simplified Assay for Vitamin B12 in Plastic Tubes Coated with Intrinsic Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric surfaces of some plastic test tubes can be firmly coated with protein solutions. Catt and Tregear have described a radioimmunoassay for polypeptide hormones using plastic tubes coated with specific antihormone antibody. We have developed a competitive binding assay for vitamin B12 using plastic tubes coated with intrinsic factor (I.F.). The method is simple and economical. I. F .-coated tubes are prepared by placing an I.F. solution in plastic test tubes overnight. After pouring out and rinsing twice with normal saline, the coated tubes are drained, dried and stored at 4°C until ready for use. The assay for serum B12 is run with a set of known B12 standard solutions in albumin. The B12 is liberated from protein binders by acidification and boiling. The freed B12 is then mixed with 1000 pg high specific activity 57Co B12 at pH 7.4 and poured into the I.F . -coated tubes. After standing for 24 h to allow for equilibration and competitive binding of hot and cold B12, the plastic tubes are emptied and rinsed twice with tap water. The wall-bound radioactivity is counted in a gamma counter. Tube counts/min are plotted for each B12 standard. An almost straight line curve is obtained. Tube counts/min of test sera are located on the standard curve and their B12 content read off. Serum B12 levels in 28 blood donors ranged from 400 to 2280 pg/m l with a mean of 1341 pg and a standard deviation of 503. Predicted B12 values for dilutions of normal sera agreed closely with levels experimentally determined. This test has proved stable and useful in clinical haematology. (author)

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans results in loss of fertility, extended life cycle, and reduced lifespan ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bito, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Yohei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, metabolic abnormalities, and neuropathy; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans grown under B12-deficient conditions for five generations develop severe B12 deficiency associated with various phenotypes that include decreased egg-laying capacity (infertility), prolonged life cycle (growth retardation), and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes resemble the consequences of B12 defic...

  3. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; HOLZ, GEORGE G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like ...

  4. Vitamin B12 Replacement Therapy and Its Rehabilitative Effects on Psychiatric and Neurologic Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Nelly

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin b12 (cobalamin) deficiency has been associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric symptoms such as peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy, altered mental status, depression and dementia. Potentially irreversible neuropsychiatric changes due to low cobalamin levels are avoidable. Despite some controversy over the effectiveness of cobalamin therapy, there is growing evidence that subjects with low serum cobalamin levels suffering from dementia, displayed significant cognitive improve...

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with an acute reversible extrapyramidal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with pernicious anemia or various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Commonly seen neuropsychiatric manifestations include large fiber neuropathy, myelopathy (subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, psychosis and mood disorders. The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency- acute onset extrapyramidal syndrome in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 10-day history of slowness of all activities including a slow gait, mild tremors of hands and low volume speech. On examination, he had features of mask-like facies, reduced blink rate and cogwheel rigidity. He was investigated for the possible causes and was found to have laboratory features of vitamin B12 deficiency. Other causes for acute onset parkinsonism were excluded by appropriate investigations. He showed a dramatic improvement following treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. At a five-year follow up, he was found to be functionally independent with no neurological deficits.

  6. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  7. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  8. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  9. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina;

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin and...

  10. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  11. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  12. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14C or 3H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  13. Disappearance of cerebral cortical atrophy following replacement therapy with vitamin B12 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin deficiency during infancy is seen most commonly in exclusively breast-fed infants born to mothers with inadequate vitamin B12 stores. In addition to megaoblastic anemia, physical, social and neuromotor retardation may be seen in affected patients. In severe cases, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia may accompany anemia mimicking leukemia or aplastic anemia. Patients may rarely develop cerebral cortical atrophy evident on neuroimaging. In this article, a 12-month-old female infant with psychomotor developmental retardation who was referred to our hospital with the initial diagnosis of leukemia due to the finding of pancytopenia is presented. Further investigations revealed severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in this case. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed cerebral cortical atrophy. Replacement therapy with vitamin B12 resulted in marked improvement of psychomotor status, and cranial MRI performed 7 months following the diagnosis and treatment initiation revealed resolution of cortical atrophy. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 152-160

  14. Low-temperature heat capacity and thermodynamic functions of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B12 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B12 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 343 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B12, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation...

  16. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh

    OpenAIRE

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina,; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh.

  17. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  18. Long-term outcome in children with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently observed in developing countries. Herein we report the long-term clinical and laboratory outcomes in 45 children presented with various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.Materials and Methods: Symptoms and physical findings, and percentiles for weight, height, and head circumference at presentation were recorded. The educational level of the patients’ mothers, vitamin B12 deficiency-related diseases and family income data were collected. Complete blood count, serum vitamin B12, folate, iron, iron binding capacity and ferritin, and plasma homocysteine levels were recorded measured at presentation. The patients were treated with vitamin B12, as follows: 1 mg/d IM for 1 week, followed by 1 mg IM QWK for 2 weeks, and then monthly 1mg injections. Patients were neurologically and hematologically re-evaluated after treatment. The visual evoked potential (VEP test was used to examine the integrity and function of the visual pathway. Brainstem evoked potential (BAEP responses were used to analyze auditory function. Neuromotor development was assessed using Denver II Development Screening Test. Results: The mean age of 20 male and 25 female patients was 5.6±5.9 years (range: 1.4 months-17 years. The most common symptoms at presentation were weakness, failure to thrive, and hematologic manifestations (pallor, petechiae, ecchymosis. Abnormal neurologic findings at presentation were observed in 20% of the patients, and were more commonly observed in those <2 years. VEP, BAEP, and Denver II Development tests were performed in 66% of the patients one year after vitamin B12 replacement was started. VEP and BAEP interval prolongation was observed in 37% and 17% of the cases, respectively. Denver II Development Test results showed developmental delay in 20% of the patients tested.Conclusion: All the patients achieved full hematologic recovery within 1 month of treatment onset. Neurological symptoms resolved

  19. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing a...... cobinamide (4.25nmol/h), saline or cobalamin (1.75nmol/h) the spinal cords were analyzed for cobalamin and for the mRNA levels of cobalamin related proteins and members of the EGF system using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The median spinal cord cobalamin content was 17, 32, and 52pmol/gr of...

  20. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gdańsk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child. PMID:15738604

  1. Enhanced pharmacological activity of Vitamin B12 and Penicillin as nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv I

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inbar Yariv,1 Anat Lipovsky,2 Aharon Gedanken,2,3 Rachel Lubart,4 Dror Fixler11Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 2Department of Chemistry, Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Physics and Chemistry Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, IsraelAbstract: Sonochemistry has become a well-known technique for fabricating nanomaterials. Since one of the advantages of nanomaterials is that they have higher chemical activities compared with particles in the bulk form, efforts are being made to produce nano organic compounds with enhanced biological activities that could be exploited in the medical area. This study uses the sonication technique to prepare nano Vitamin B12 and nano Penicillin, and demonstrates their enhanced biological and pharmacological activity. The size and morphology of the nano Penicillin and nano Vitamin B12 were investigated using electron microscopy as well as dynamic light scattering techniques. The sizes of Penicillin and Vitamin B12 nanoparticles (NPs were found to be 70 and 120–180 nm, respectively. The bactericidal effect of nano Penicillin was studied and found to be higher than that of the bulk form. Reducing the size of Vitamin B12 resulted in their enhanced antioxidative activity as observed using the electron paramagnetic spectroscopy technique. The penetration depth of these organic NPs can be detected by an optical iterative method. It is believed that nano organic drugs fabrication will have a great impact on the medical field.Keywords: sonochemistry, antibacterial, antioxidant, Vitamin B12, Penicillin, nanomaterials

  2. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  3. Effects of vitamin B-6 nutrition on benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 promotes seizure activity in neonatal animals and human infants. Previous studied have shown that neonatal vitamin B-6 deprivation results in reduced levels of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased binding at the GABA site of the GABA/BDZ receptor complex. Since the GABA and BDZ receptors are allosterically linked, this study was undertaken to determine if vitamin B-6 deprivation had an effect on BDZ receptor binding. Benzodiazepine receptor binding isotherms using 3H-flunitrazepam as ligand were performed in the presence and absence of 10 μM GABA. The results indicate a significant increase in the binding affinity (Kd) in the presence of GABA in cerebellar membranes from deficient rat pups at 14 days of age with no effect on receptor number (Bmax). By 28 days of age, the increase in Kd was no longer present. No change in Kd or Bmax was observed in cortical tissue from deficient animals at 14 or 28 days of age. Preliminary studies of GABA-enhancement of 3H-flunitrazepam binding indicate that vitamin B-6 deficiency also induces alterations in the ability of GABA to enhance BZD receptor binding. In summary, these results indicate that the effects of vitamin B-6 deprivation on BDZ receptor binding are region specific and age related

  4. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  5. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Joosten, L.W.; Bloo, R.J.; Clarke, R.; Ueland, P.M.; Schneede, J.; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether daily supplement

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors. PMID:25838876

  7. Does B12 vitamin limit phytoplankton growth in the new Iberian Peninsula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barber Lluch

    2014-07-01

    Surface autotrophic microbial populations were monthly collected and exposed to known nutrient concentrations and incubated under in situ light and temperature conditions. The experimental addition treatments included: a inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and phosphate; b B12 vitamin (cobalamin and c inorganic nutrients and cobalamin. On two occasions, four additional treatments were included: d organic nutrients (glucose and amino acids; e a combination of inorganic and organic nutrients; f organic nutrients and cobalamin; g inorganic and organic nutrients plus cobalamin. Amendment experiments lasted 4 days. Samples were collected every 24h for Chlorophyll-a concentration, pico- and nanoplankton abundance and heterotrophic bacterial abundance determination. Our results suggest that phytoplankton growth is co-limited by inorganic nutrients and B12-vitamin. This co-limitation varied along the study period likely related to changes in community composition and ambient nutrient and B-vitamins concentrations.

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, ...

  9. Stability of pyridoxal-5-phosphate semicarbazone: applications in plasma vitamin B6 analysis and population surveys of vitamin B6 nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink, J B; Serfontein, W J; de Villiers, L S

    1985-08-01

    The determination of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL) in plasma requires the availability of dark room facilities, due to the photosensitivity of these vitamin B6 vitamers. The fact that the semicarbazone forms of PL and PLP are more strongly fluorescent than the underivatized B6 vitamers has been exploited in plasma analyses, but it was not previously realised that these semicarbazone forms are also very stable even under conditions that lead to rapid decomposition of free PL and PLP. The stabilisation of PLP and PL obtained in this manner is sufficient and fully adequate to meet the practical requirements of clinical field studies. We report a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for plasma PLP and PL determinations based on precolumn semicarbazone formation and fluorescence detection. The method is sensitive enough for quantitative plasma PLP determinations even in B6-deficient patients. PMID:4055950

  10. Vitamin B12 Status in a Tertiary Care Center in Central Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Liggy, Tintu Thomas , Haridas Nambudiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with pernicious anemia or various neuropsychiatric manifestations such as neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, pscyhosis and mood disorders. Hence vitamin B12 deficiency should be identified. The local population in our area mainly comprises of vegetarians, this study was initiated with a view to assess their B12 status early, to rule out its deficiency and help to prevent further complications. Methodology: We analyzed serum B12 levels in 396 cases by competitive chemiluminescent immunometric method using Immulite instrument. Result: It was found that B12 levels were significantly low in 260(65.6% patients (P<0.000. Majority 225 (86.5% of the deficient patients were vegetarians and the deficiency was found less in non vegetarians (P<0.000. The B12 deficiency was evident more in patients below 50years (199 out of 396 i.e. 76.5% of age as compared to those who are above 51 years of age (60 out of 396 i.e. 23.4%, with a P value <0.000. The deficiency was prevalent more in females 179 (68.8% in comparison to males 81(31.1% and the P<0.000. Our study found that B12 deficiency is quiet prevalent in local population (65.6%, the condition being worse in females. And it was also noticed that deficiency was relatively more in vegetarians. Conclusion: The early detection of B12 deficiency could help in warding off the resultant complications.

  11. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  12. 维生素B_6的合成研究进展%Process in Synthesis of Vitamin B_6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇智; 范卫东; 党登峰; 张晓增

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of important water-soluble vitamin,vitamin B6 was necessary for human and animals,and was widely used for pharmaceutical,food,feed additive and other fields.The progress in synthesis of vitamin B6 in recent decades was reviewed.Chemical and biological methods for synthesis of vitamin B6 were introduced,and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed.Finally,the further prospects in synthesis of vitamin B6 were stated.%维生素B6是一种重要的水溶性维生素,为人体和动物生长所必需,因此被广泛用于医药、食品及饲料添加剂等领域。本文综述了近年来维生素B6的合成研究进展,分别介绍了化学合成方法及微生物法在维生素B6合成中的应用,比较了各法的优缺点,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  13. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p L-FABP/Cr, NAG/Cr and NGAL/Cr were found in CD group (p <0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between levels of serum B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p <0.05). Increased urinary kidney injury molecules and electrolytes in children with B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests. PMID:27606644

  14. Effect of calcium deficiency on vitamin B12 absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, O; Schjønsby, H; Schjerven, L

    1990-03-01

    The influence of calcium on vitamin B12 absorption was investigated in two experiments. In the first we investigated whether B12 malabsorption in rats with biliary diversion through choledochocolic fistula is caused by deficiency of calcium in the small intestine. Calcium concentrations were measured in 10 fistula- and 10 sham-operated rats. Fistula rats had steatorrhea, but the concentration of calcium in the intestinal lumen was increased. In the second experiment we studied the effect of calcium deficiency on B12 absorption. Ten young rats were fed a low-calcium diet and 10 rats a control diet for 4 weeks. Rats on the low-calcium diet had moderately reduced calcium concentration in the blood and in the intestinal juice but unaltered calcium concentration in the cytosol fraction of intestinal mucosal scrapings. The absorption of 57CoB12 was unimpaired. This suggests that moderate calcium deficiency does not influence the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 in the rat. PMID:2320946

  15. Determination of vitamin B12 (cobalamine) absorption by means of a simple double-isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background, practical instruction and clinical results of a simplified method of determining the absorption of cobalamine (vitamin B12) are presented. The simultaneous administration of 57CO-CN-cobalamine, a non-absorbable marker (51CrCl3), and red carmine tablets enable quantitative assessments of the cobalamine absorption by collection of a small red feaces sample. In contrast to the classical Schilling-test, this vitamin B12 absorption test (B12-ABS-test) or faeces-spot-test is, independent of fasting, flushing dose, renal function and diurnal urinary collection. This is documented in a series of clinical studies. The B12-ABS-test provides accurate and precise results compared to the reference method (whole-body-counting). The Schilling test, on the contrary, gives approximately 50% false low values in a reference group of elderly hospitalized patients. A modification of the B12-ABS-test, has been used to determine the cobalamine absorption in children, and a set of age-related reference intervals have been established, together with quantitative measurements of the cobalamine absorption in children with small bowel diseases. Based on several years of practical experience, we recommend replacement of the Schilling test by this simple double-isotope technique. (author)

  16. Effect of Vitamin-B12 and Vitamin-H on the Growth and Astaxanthin Content of Haematococcus Pluvialis CH-1

    OpenAIRE

    Li-xin Li; Zhi-wei Song; You Zhan; Shun-shan Duan; Qian-shen Zhao; Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    An economic microalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis CH-1 was used as experimental material. An experiment of adding six grades of concentrations of Vitamin-B12 and Vitamin-H respectively was conducted. Cell density, biomass and astaxanthin content were measured. The results showed that the growth of H. Pluvialis was accelerated significantly by adding of Vitamin-B12 and Vitamin-H, respectively. The optimal adding concentration of Vitamin-B12 and Vitamin-H respectively for H. Pluvialis and 500 &mug...

  17. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status

  18. 维生素B12对抑郁症的辅助治疗%Vitamin B12 as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春燕; 赵约翰; 徐广军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察抑郁症患者血清维生素B12水平,探讨抗抑郁剂合并维生素B12治疗维生素B12缺乏抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法对400名抑郁症患者进行血清维生素B12浓度测查,将筛查出的维生素B12缺乏的抑郁症患者70例,随机分为两组,各35例。对照组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,治疗8周;研究组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,同时合并使用维生素B12,治疗8周。研究组及对照组治疗前后1,2,4,8周末分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)评定;治疗后1,2,4,8周末分别评定副反应量表(TESS);治疗前及治疗后4,8周末分别查血清维生素B12浓度。结果抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平(359.7±183.2)pg/ml,维生素B12缺乏发生率为19.5%,研究组与对照组第1周末汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),治疗第2,4、8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),研究组有效率为94.3%,对照组为74.3%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.01),血清维生素B12浓度治疗后4,8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),且研究组汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分与血清维生素B12浓度负相关。两组不良反应均较轻微,TESS评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平较正常明显降低,维生素B12缺乏发生率高,维生素B12辅助抗抑郁剂治疗可明显提高疗效,且不增加不良反应。%Objective To observe serum vitamin B 12 levels in patients with depression and explore the curative effects and safety of antidepressant combined with vitamine B 12 in the treatment of depression with vitamin B 12 deficiency.Methods Serum vitamin B12 lev-els in 400 patients with major depressive disorder were determined at baseline .70 depressive patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency were randomly divided into research

  19. Congenital disorders of vitamin B12 transport and their contributions to concepts. II.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Congenital deficiencies of Transcobalamin II (TC II) and R binders of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) have been described in several families. The deficiency of TC II exists as at least three variants. The deficiency of TC II is expressed by a profound megaloblastic pancytopenia during the first few weeks of life, but the serum Cbl is normal. In contrast, the deficiency of R binder is asymptomatic, tissues are replete in Cbl, but the serum Cbl is low. All of the R binder in the several body...

  20. Effects of oestrogen administration on vitamin B6 and tryptophan metabolism in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, D A; Tagoe, C. E.; Vale, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    1. In order to assess the effects of oestrogens on the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin B6, ovariectomized rats have been maintained on diets providing known amounts of tryptophan, nicotinamide and vitamin B6. They received oestrone sulphate, 210 micrograms/kg body-wt per d, either incorporated in the diet for 8 weeks, or by daily intraperitoneal injection for periods of 1-3 d. 2. Oestrone sulphate administration caused a slight reduction in the concentration of pyridoxal phosphate in pla...

  1. Dietary supplemental vitamin B6 increases carnosine and anserine concentrations in the heart of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suidasari, Sofya; HASEGAWA, Tomoko; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary level of vitamin B6 on the concentrations of carnosine and anserine, antioxidants, in the heart of rats. Analysis using UPLC–MS/MS showed that the concentrations of these dipeptides in the 7 and 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg groups were significantly higher than those in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, implying the novel role of dietary vitamin B6 as a determinant of the dipeptides favorable for heart.

  2. Study on the receptor required for vitamin B12 intestinal absorption in the small intestinal mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One and half hours after feeding of ''Co-vitamin B12 to rats, small intestines were extirpated. Using Weiser's method, gradient isolation of the intestinal epithelial cells from villus to crypt areas were carried out and five different levels of the villus and crypt areas were obtained. The uptakes of 57Co-vitamin B12 and the formations of Receptor-Intrinsic factor-57Co-vitamin B12 complex were measured, indicating that the upper villus cells have a higher uptake of 57Co-vitamin B12 and more increased formation of it than crypt cells of showing a gradient from crypt to villus. Alkaline phosphatase activity of these levels of epithelial cells also showed the same pattern. These results suggest that the receptor activity for vitamin B12 absorption in the intestinal epithelial cells indicate a gradient increase from crypt to villus areas. (auth.)

  3. Clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment in patients presenting with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron S; Kumar Sudhir; Vijayan J; Jacob J; Alexander M; Gnanamuthu C

    2005-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and laboratory features of patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related (B12def) neurological syndromes. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A hospital-based retrospective and prospective study conducted at a referral teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted with vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurological disorders during a three-year period from June 2000 to May 2003 were included. Data regarding clinical and laboratory fea...

  4. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurological patients with special reference to multiple sclerosis and dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijst, T Q; Wevers, R A; Schoonderwaldt, H C; Hommes, O R; de Haan, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 293 neurological patients. Serum and CSF vitamin B12 concentrations showed a positive correlation. In individual patients CSF B12 concentrations varied considerably for a given serum concentration. The median serum vitamin B12 concentration of the Alzheimer's type dementia group was significantly lower compared with that of a control group. Lower median CSF vitamin B12 concentrations were found in gr...

  5. Holotranscobalamin, a marker of vitamin B-12 status: analytical aspects and clinical utility 1 2 3 4 5

    OpenAIRE

    Nexo, Ebba; Hoffmann-Lücke, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of circulating cobalamin (vitamin B-12) binds to transcobalamin (holoTC) and is thereby available for the cells of the body. For this reason, holoTC is also referred to as active vitamin B-12. HoloTC was suggested as an optimal marker of early vitamin B-12 deficiency >20 y ago. This suggestion led to the development of suitable assays for measurement of the compound and clinical studies that aimed to show the benefit of measurement of holoTC rather than of vitamin B-...

  6. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  7. Effect of lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on serum vitamin B12 concentrations – five-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliusz Przysławski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Avoiding of meat is the basic principle of vegetarian diet with several variants existing.In the present study we have focused on lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV diet which includes dairy products and eggs. We have aimed to assess its long-term effect on vitamin B12 status and intended to verify the influence of natural and vitamin B12-fortified food. Material and methods. The prospective study was carried out comprising 16 healthy omnivores (12 females, 4 males who intentionally declared to follow strict LOV diet for at least 5 years. The studied group was divided into 2 subgroups. First subgroup followed LOV diet based entirely on natural products while the second consumed food fortified with B12 vitamin. Evaluation of vitamin B12 concentration was performed before and after 6, 12, 24 and 60 months from LOV diet implementation. Results. Five-years of LOV diet resulted in significant decrease of serum vitamin B12 concentrations in the whole studied group (p < 0.05. However, the significant drop of vitamin B 12 level was in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p < 0.05. In none of the subjects abnormal serum vitamin B12 levels were observed. Conclusions. Five-year lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet did not result in a risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in healthy subjects. However, the levels of serum vitamin B12 concentrations in a subgroup consuming natural diet tend to be significantly lower as compared with the group consuming fortified food. It confirms the need of follow-up (and potentially vitamin B12 fortification of food and/or its supplementation in long-term lacto-ovo-vegetarians.

  8. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Vitamin B12 Compound Ointment- Ⅰ by HPLC%复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谊; 李兵; 史学慧

    2004-01-01

    建立了HPLC法测定复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的含量.采用Hypersll BDS C18柱,流动相为乙腈-0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(15:85),检测波长360nm.维生素B12在0.16~0.8μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率为98.4%,RSD为0.9%.

  9. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12)-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, L; Speak, AO; Selek, RM; Cambridge, EL; McIntyre, Z; Kane, L; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Grove, C; A. Colin; Brandt, C; Duque-Correa, MA; Forbester, J; Nguyen, TA; Hale, C; Vasilliou, GS

    2016-01-01

    Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif), a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl), have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Gif(tm1a/tm1a) mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1) mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2) equivalents. Low Cb...

  10. Radioisotope dilution technique for determination of vitamin B12 in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope dilution (RID) method for the determination of vitamin B12 is presented. The method combines a standard extraction procedure (AOAC 43.108, 12th ed.) with a commercially available RID assay kit. The method was evaluated on a wide range of fortified and unfortified food products. Recovery studies on both groups yielded average recoveries of 98.1 and 95.8%, respectively. Reproducibility data generated from replicate analysis on both groups gave a relative standard deviation of 6.9% for the fortified group and 9.2% for the unfortified group. For the samples studied, the mean vitamin B12 content determined by the RID method was 8.01 μ/100 g vs a mean of 7.54 μg/100 g by the AOAC microbiological method; the correlation coefficient was r = 0.983

  11. Diffusion of Vitamin B12 Across a Mesoporous Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Valencia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the rate of uptake and the rate of release of a Vitamin B12 solution (dissolved in water at 2 different temperatures (room temperature and 37°C by the mesoporous metal organic framework TbMOF-100 at 1-hour intervals using a spectrophotometer. Using the Beer-Lambert law, we calculate the concentration of the stock solution based on the absorbance values obtained with the spectrophotometer. These values allow for the quantification of the initial rate of uptake and the rate of uptake at a random incubation time of the Vitamin B12 by the TbMOF-100. We also calculate the value of the coefficient of diffusion for this 2-phase system using Fick’s laws of diffusion.

  12. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  13. Marginal Vitamin B-6 Deficiency Decreases Plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA Concentrations in Healthy Men and Women123

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A.; Coats, Bonnie S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Keith E. Muller; Bain, James R.; Shankar, Meena N; Newgard, Christopher B.; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fe...

  14. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: a dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Boycheva, Svetlana; Li, Kuan-Te; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the a...

  15. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé eVanderschuren; Svetlana eBoycheva; Kuan-Te eLi; Nicolas eSzydlowski; Wilhelm eGruissem; Teresa Bridget Fitzpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the a...

  16. Ultrafast electronic relaxation of excited state vitamin B12 in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of electronically excited vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been observed for the first time in the gas phase. It reveals an ultrafast decay to a state corresponding to metal excitation. This decay is interpreted as resulting from a ring to metal electron transfer. This opens the observation of the excited state of other complex biomimetic systems in the gas phase, the key to the characterisation of their complex evolution through excited electronic states

  17. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory l...

  18. Folate, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine as Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Su-Jin; Park, Woo-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have shown that the dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism is associated with cognitive impairment. However, the findings of longitudinal studies investigating this association have been inconsistent. This study investigated the prospective associations between cognitive decline and the levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine both at baseline and over course of the study period. Methods A total of 607 (83%) elderly individuals were selected from a grou...

  19. Immunohistochemical localisation of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, H; Inada, M; Ohshio, G; Wakatsuki, Y; Ogawa, K; Hamashima, Y.; Miyake, T

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract was studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive staining for R-binder was found in the mucous cells and ductal epithelial cells of the salivary glands and the oesophageal glands. In normal gastric mucosa, no positive staining for R-binder was found, but in the area with intestinal metaplasia, the columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells showed positive staining. Epithelial cells of the gallbladder, intr...

  20. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Vitamin B12, Folate and Immunoglobulins in Individuals with Giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most important intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IgA, IgE, zinc, copper, vitamin B12 and folate in individuals with giardiasis in comparison to normal subjects.Methods: The study was carried out among 49 Giardia positive and 39 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Examination of stool samples was done by direct wet smear and formol-ether concentration method. Serum samples were obtained for further laboratory examination. IgA levels were measured by Single Radial Immune Diffusion (SRID. IgE levels were measured by ELISA kit. Zinc and copper levels was measured by Ziestchem Diagnostics Kit and colorimetric endpoint-method respectively. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured by DRG Diagnostics Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay method respectively. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in IgA, IgE, copper and zinc levels between positive and negative groups (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between vitamin B12 and folate levels between the two groups. Mean values of Giardia positive and negative groups for IgA were 309.26 and 216.89 mg/dl, IgE 167.34 and 35.49 IU/ml, copper 309.74 and 253.61 µg/dl and zinc 69.41 and 144.75 µg/dl respectively.Conclusion: The results showed levels of IgA may correlate more closely with giardiasis than IgE. Regarding trace elements, giardiasis elevated serum copper levels, while it decreased serum zinc. Finally, there was no significant difference in serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid between the two groups.

  1. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawther El-Shafie; Nafisa Samir; Ritu Lakhtakia; Robin Davidson; Ahmed Al-Waili; Muna Al-Mamary; Mohammed Al-Shafee

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two...

  2. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; L Filipe C Castro

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  3. Characterization of the cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, J R; Lawrence, J. G.; Rubenfield, M; Kieffer-Higgins, S; Church, G M

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) de novo under anaerobic conditions. Of the 30 cobalamin synthetic genes, 25 are clustered in one operon, cob, and are arranged in three groups, each group encoding enzymes for a biochemically distinct portion of the biosynthetic pathway. We have determined the DNA sequence for the promoter region and the proximal 17.1 kb of the cob operon. This sequence includes 20 translationally coupled genes that encode the enzymes involved in part...

  4. Thermolability of mutant MMACHC protein in the vitamin B12-responsive cblC disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, D.S.; Healy, S.; McDonald, M; Kochan, G; Oppermann, U.; Niesen, F.H.; Gravel, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, is the most common inborn error of cellular vitamin B12 metabolism. We previously showed that the protein carrying the mutation responsible for late-onset cblC (MMACHC-R161Q), treatable with high dose OHCbl, is able to bind OHCbl with wild-type affinity, leaving undetermined the disease mechanism involved [Froese et al., Mechanism of responsiveness, Mol. Genet. Metab. (2009).]. To assess whether the mutation renders the protein unstable, w...

  5. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Chhillar; Neeraj Kumar Singh; Basu Dev Banerjee; Kiran Bala; Mitra Basu; Deepika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of to...

  6. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: De Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, Wulffelé MG, van der Kolk J, Bets D, Verburg J, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 May 20;340:c2181.

  7. Expeditious Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Using Vitamin B12 under Microwave Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Changseok Han; Varun Nagendra; R. B. Nasir Baig; Varma, Rajender S.; Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2015-01-01

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized Ag, Au, and Pd samples were thoroughly characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission microscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometry, c...

  8. Effect of Vitamin B12 and Folate on Homocysteine levels in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chandy, Sunil; Sadananda Adiga, M. N.; Ramaswamy, Girija; C Ramachandra; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Folate and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) are two essential micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, which affects heart disease, neural tube defects and cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, the key enzyme involved in one carbon metabolism produces methyl tetrahydrofolate from methylene tetrahydrofolate, which in turn donates methyl group to homocysteine to generate methionine. There exist two common low function polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene i...

  9. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age, primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY. Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  11. Mielopatia por deficiência de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa Myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Rocha Vasconcellos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações neurológicas associadas à deficiência de vitamina B12 incluem polineuropatia, mielopatia, demência e neuropatia óptica. O diagnóstico laboratorial é feito através da dosagem sérica de cianocobalamina ou homocisteína e da excreção urinária de ácido metilmalônico. No estudo anatomopatológico observa-se na microscopia a destruição da mielina e de axônios vistos na substância branca. A região mais comumente afetada é o cordão posterior cervical e/ou torácico. O acometimento da coluna lateral é raro, ocorrendo em casos graves e avançados. O tratamento consiste na reposição de vitamina B12 e a resposta depende da gravidade do quadro e do tempo transcorrido entre o inicio dos sintomas e inicio do tratamento. Relatamos o caso de um paciente que apresentou, como manifestação de deficiência de vitamina B12, mielite transversa. O estudo morfológico da medula demonstrou comprometimento dos tractos cortico-espinhais lateral e anterior, da coluna dorsal e ainda do tracto espino-talâmico.Vitamin B12 deficiency may induce neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia and optic neuropathy. The diagnosis is established by vitamin B12, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid measurements. Myelin and axon destruction in the white matter of the spinal cord are observed. The posterior column of the cervical and thoracic level is the most common involved area. The involvement of the anterior column is restricted to advanced and relatively severe cases. Treatment is based on vitamin B12 injections, and the prognosis depends on the stage of vitamin deficiency and deterioration at treatment onset. We report a case with transverse myelitis due to vitamin B12 deficiency. This picture is relatively uncommon, however, we believe patients with transverse myelitis should have vitamin B12 studies as part of the diagnosis work up.

  12. Platelet MAO-B activity and vitamin B12 in old age dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnetti, L; Mecocci, P; Reboldi, G P; Santucci, C; Brunetti, M; Gaiti, A; Cadini, D; Senin, U

    1992-01-01

    Platelet MAO-B activity, serum vitamin B12 levels, and plasma folate were measured in patients suffering from presenile (AD) and senile (SDAT) dementia of Alzheimer-type, and vascular dementia (VD). MAO-B was higher in the SDAT group than in AD and controls. An inverse relationship between MAO-B activity and vit. B12 levels was documented in the whole group and in each category studied; furthermore, MAO-B was positively related to age. All the patients were then divided into two groups, according to vit. B12 levels (Group I: less than 200 pg/mL; Group II: greater than or equal to 200 pg/mL); Group I showed a significantly higher MAO-B activity with respect to Group II. The results indicate the existence of a negative association between platelet MAO-B activity and serum levels of vitamin B12 and confirm the existence of biological differences between presenile and senile dementia of Alzheimer type. PMID:1520404

  13. Optic neuropathy in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, S; Roongpisuthipong, C; Churdchu, K; Thanomsak, W

    1992-12-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with blurring of vision for 2 weeks. He also complained of anorexia with weight loss during the past 4 months. Eight years ago, his small bowel from midportion of the jejunum, ileum, ascending colon and transverse colon were resected because of gangrene. He gave no history of exposure to tobacco, alcohol or other toxins. The bone marrow aspiration showed hypocellular with panhypoplasia. Serum vitamin B12 level was low while serum and red cell folate were within normal limits. His visual acuity was 5/200 in both eyes with centrocecal scotomas in both eyes. Other neurologic and ophthalmic examinations were found to be normal. The patient was given intramuscular injections of 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin. Four months later, his visual acuity improved, serum vitamin B12 level and the bone marrow returned to be normal. This is a frank case of optic neuropathy in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency due to a massive small bowel resection. PMID:1308541

  14. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  15. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  16. Studying the antiemetic effect of vitamin B6 for morning sickness: pyridoxine and pyridoxal are prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason G; Hankins, Gary; Mattison, Donald R; Koren, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B6 has been known to possess antiemetic effects since 1942. This water soluble compound has several forms in the circulation including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate. The active antiemetic form of vitamin B6 is unknown. This was a pre-specified substudy of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the antiemetic effect of the doxylamine-vitamin B6 combination (Diclectin®) (n = 131) to placebo (n = 126) in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) and doxylamine were measured on Days 4, 8, and 15. With Diclectin® exhibiting a significant antiemetic effect in pregnancy, serum concentrations of pyridoxine were unmeasurable in almost all patients and those of pyridoxal were undetectable in half of patients. In contrast, PLP was measurable at sustained, stable steady-state levels in all patients. Our data suggest that there is a correlation between PLP levels and PUQE score of morning sickness symptoms when pyridoxine and pyridoxal levels are undetectable, and hence they might be prodrugs of PLP, which may be the active antiemetic form of vitamin B6. PMID:25052410

  17. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.; Moller, R. S.; Boor, R.; Muhle, H.; Jahn, J. A.; Klitten, Laura Line; Hjalgrim, H.; Lindhout, D.; Stephani, U.; van Kempen, M. J. A.; Helbig, I.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes....

  18. Vitamin B6 is Associated with Depressive Symptomatology in Massachusetts Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the cross-sectional relationship between dietary vitamin B6 and plasma pyridoxyl-5’-phosphate concentrations (PLP) with depressive symptomatology among a representative sample of 618 elderly Caribbean Hispanics and a neighborhood based comparison group of 251 non-Hispanic white (NHW) old...

  19. Ontwikkeling methode voor het bepalen van vitamine B6 in levensmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnendijk, R.; Hollman, P.

    1985-01-01

    Twee reversed phase HPLC-systemen voor de scheiding van pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxamine (PM) en pyridoxal (PL) werden onderzocht lolaarbij de invloed van een aantal variabelen in kaart gebracht werd. De voor de analyse van vitamine B6 wenselijk geachte hydrolyse van de fosfaatesters werd onderzocht me

  20. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010