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Sample records for b6 deficient plants

  1. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  2. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF- γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN- γ . Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  3. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjun Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF-γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN-γ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  4. Anemia attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hajime; Fujiwara, Noriko; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, and selenium have been known to occur as a consequence of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but vitamin B6 deficiency has not been previously reported. We report two post-PD patients who developed anemias attributed to vitamin B6 deficiency. Oral supplementations of vitamin B6 significantly improved anemias in both cases. Micronutrients including vitamin B6 should be monitored in post-PD patients, and supplementations should be carried out when necessary. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on an antibody production in mice.

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    Doke, S; Inagaki, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on an antibody production in BALB/c mice, the production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody against dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) were measured by the methods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mice fed on on a B6 deficient diet for 4 weeks were immunized intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA absorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel. The contents of anti DNP-IgE antibodies in sera of B6 deficient mice significantly increased compared to that of control mice fed on a diet containing B6. In addition, Interleukin-4, which was known to induce IgE production in allergic reactions from splenocytes of B6 deficient mice, was approximately four-fold higher than that in control mice. According to the recovery test to the B6 deficient mice, that is feeding the control diet for 21 days, all values in terms of the body, thymus, and spleen weight, total serum protein, IgG, and anti DNP-IgE content, regained almost the same levels as those of control. These results suggest that B6 deficiency in mice would have relation to the stimulation of specific IgE antibody production against DNP-OVA.

  6. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; R. Sola; V. Lemmen; M. J. Castillo; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  7. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua; Jing, Pu

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immun...

  8. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes....... We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  9. Homocysteine and cysteine loads in patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine synthase deficiency: effects of vitamin B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Longhi, R C; Sternowsky, H J; Sturman, J A; Gaull, G E

    1977-08-15

    The metabolic response of patients with homocystinuria due to cystabhionine synthase deficiency to oral loads of homocysteine indicates: that even severely affected patients with homocystinuria have pools of cystine in their tissues; that control of sulfur amino acid metabolism favors increased concentrations of methionine rather than homocystine in the plasma; and that even patients who apparently are not B-6-responsive respond differently to the loads of homocysteine when challenged during B-6-treatment compared with their response before B-6 treatment. Loading tests with homocysteine indicate that B-6 treatment be of some benefit even in individuals who do not have an obvious biochemical response to such therapy.

  10. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  11. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

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    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis B6, a Rhizobacterium That Can Control Plant Diseases.

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    Gao, Yu-Han; Guo, Rong-Jun; Li, Shi-Dong

    2018-03-22

    The draft genome of Bacillus velezensis strain B6, a rhizobacterium with good biocontrol performance isolated from soil in China, was sequenced. The assembly comprises 32 scaffolds with a total size of 3.88 Mb. Gene clusters coding either ribosomally encoded bacteriocins or nonribosomally encoded antimicrobial polyketides and lipopeptides in the genome may contribute to plant disease control. Copyright © 2018 Gao et al.

  13. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  14. The role of the pyridoxine (vitamin B6) biosynthesis enzyme PDX1 in ultraviolet-B radiation responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristilä, Mikael; Strid, Hilja; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Ake; Sävenstrand, Helena

    2011-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation regulates plant growth and morphology at low and ambient fluence rates but can severely impact on plants at higher doses. Some plant UV-B responses are related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) has been reported to be a quencher of ROS. UV-B irradiation of Arabidopsis Col-0 plants resulted in increased levels of PDX1 protein, compared with UV-A-exposed plants. This was shown by immunoblot analysis using specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant PDX1.3 protein and confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitated PDX1. The protein was located mainly in the cytosol but also to a small extent in the membrane fraction of plant leaves. Immunohistochemical analysis performed in pea revealed that PDX1 is present in UV-B-exposed leaf mesophyll and palisade parenchyma but not in epidermal cells. Pyridoxine production increased in Col-0 plants exposed to 3 days of UV-B, whereas in an Arabidopsis pdx1.3 mutant UV-B did not induce pyridoxine biosynthesis. In gene expression studies performed after UV-B exposure, the pdx1.3 mutant showed elevated transcript levels for the LHCB1*3 gene (encoding a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of the photosystem II light-harvesting antenna complex) and the pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR-5) gene, compared with wild type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    -Lepob/J leptin deficient mouse, a model of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, was correlated with development of glucose intolerance. GM composition was analyzed by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a culture independent approach, separating PCR-derived DNA amplicons of bacterial 16S r......RNA. Disease development was monitored by weekly weight and blood glucose measurements supplemented with measurements of oral glucose tolerance, HbA1c%, plasma insulin and plasma cytokines. A significant correlation was demonstrated between GM composition and glucose intolerance. Also, a significant...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  16. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  17. A Black Cohosh Extract Causes Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Consistent with a Functional Cobalamin Deficiency in Female B6C3F1/N Mice.

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    Cora, Michelle C; Gwinn, William; Wilson, Ralph; King, Debra; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Kissling, Grace E; Brar, Sukhdev S; Olivera, Dorian; Blystone, Chad; Travlos, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Black cohosh rhizome, available as a dietary supplement, is most commonly marketed as a remedy for dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. A previous subchronic toxicity study of black cohosh dried ethanolic extract (BCE) in female mice revealed a dose-dependent ineffective erythropoiesis with a macrocytosis consistent with the condition known as megaloblastic anemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms by which BCE induces these particular hematological changes. B6C3F1/N female mice (32/group) were exposed by gavage to vehicle or 1,000 mg/kg BCE for 92 days. Blood samples were analyzed for hematology, renal and hepatic clinical chemistry, serum folate and cobalamin, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Folate levels were measured in liver and kidney. Hematological changes included decreased RBC count; increased mean corpuscular volume; and decreased reticulocyte, white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Blood smear evaluation revealed increased Howell-Jolly bodies and occasional basophilic stippling in treated animals. Plasma homocysteine and MMA concentrations were increased in treated animals. Under the conditions of our study, BCE administration caused hematological and clinical chemistry changes consistent with a functional cobalamin, and possibly folate, deficiency. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism by which BCE causes increases in homocysteine and MMA.

  18. A Mathematical Model of Tryptophan Metabolism via the Kynurenine Pathway Provides Insights into the Effects of Vitamin B-6 Deficiency, Tryptophan Loading, and Induction of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase on Tryptophan Metabolites123

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    Rios-Avila, Luisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Sitren, Harry S.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations. PMID:23902960

  19. Biochemical effects of manufactured gas plant residue following ingestion by B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, E.H.; Wu, Yun; Patel, S. (State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Goldstein, L. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palto Alto, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The toxic potential of manufactured gas plant residue (MGP) given in the diet to male and female B6C3F1 mice was evaluated. In addition, the bioavailability of chemical components of MGP were also investigated by monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in urine and DNA adduct formation in forestomach and lung tissue. Basal gel diets containing 0.05, 0.25, 0.50% benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were fed to animals for 94 and 185 d. Mice readily consumed adulterated diets without any evidence of acute toxicity. The total amount of MGP and BaP consumed by mice ranged from 118 to 2604 mg and from 12 to 29 mg, respectively. Male mice fed a control or BaP diet and female mice fed a 0.05% MGP diet had the highest body weight gains. Male and female mice fed a 0.50% MGP diet had the lowest body weight gains. the bioavailability of chemical components of MGP was evaluated by monitoring the urinary excretion of PAH metabolites by male mice fed a 0.25% MGP diet. 1-Hydroxypyrene was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to be the major fluorescent metabolite excreted by mice throughout the 185 d of diet administration. At necropsy, no chemical-related gross lesions were detected. In addition, no treatment-related microscopic lesions were evident in tissues obtained from animals fed a 0.50% MGP- or BaP-adulterated diet. The [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay was used to evaluate MGP- and BaP-induced DNA adduct formation in lung and forestomach tissue. The level of DNA adducts formed from the chemical components of MGP paralleled the amount of material ingested by animals. Lung DNA adduct levels were considerably higher than forestomach levels when mice ingested a 0.25% or 0.50% MGP diet. These studies demonstrate that the continuous ingestion of MGP or BaP for 185 d does not result in acute toxicity or chemical-related lesions at doses up to 0.50% MGP or 0.005% BaP. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit Vitamin B6 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, ...

  1. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is naturally present in many foods. The body needs vitamin B6 for more than 100 enzyme reactions involved ... immune function . How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin B6 you need depends on your age. Average ...

  2. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency....... They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we propose...... in this review a putative model of how plants sense zinc deficiency....

  3. The effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, antibodies, and natural killer cells, and phagocytosis by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C; Miller, L T; Kerkvliet, N I

    1984-05-01

    The effect of vitamin B6 on cytotoxic immune responses of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic antibody production, and macrophage phagocytosis was assessed in 5-week-old female C57B1/6 mice. Mice were fed 20% casein diets with pyridoxine (PN) added at 7, 1, 0.1, or 0 mg/kg diet, which represents 700, 100, 10, and 0% of requirement, respectively. Compared to mice fed 7 or 1 mg PN diet, animals fed 0 or 0.1 mg PN diet showed significantly reduced primary splenic and peritoneal T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Animals fed 0 mg PN diet also showed significantly depressed secondary T CMC of splenic and peritoneal lymphocytes against P815 tumor cells. Complement-dependent antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against P815 cells, phagocytosis of SRBC by macrophages, and native and interferon-induced NK cell activities against YAC cells were not affected by the level of vitamin B6 intake. The percentage of macrophages present in the peritoneal exudate cells was increased in animals fed the 0 mg PN diet. The immune responses were not enhanced or altered by the excess intake of vitamin B6 (7 mg PN). It appears that vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient for maintenance of normal T-cell function in vivo.

  4. Vitamin B6 and immune competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, L C; Meydani, S N

    1993-08-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin B6 deficiency affects both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Lymphocyte differentiation and maturation are altered by deficiency, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced, and antibody production may be indirectly impaired. Although repletion of the vitamin restores these functions, megadoses do not produce benefits beyond those observed with moderate supplementation. Additional human studies indicate that vitamin B6 status may influence tumor growth and disease processes. Deficiency of the vitamin has been associated with immunological changes observed in the elderly, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and those with uremia or rheumatoid arthritis. Future research efforts should focus on establishing the mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin B6 on immunity and should attempt to establish safe intake levels that optimize immune response.

  5. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Thomford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV and nevirapine (NVP are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL, followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL, Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL, and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL. Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17 effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the

  6. New Ways to Determine Plant Nutrient Deficiences Using Fast Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Marie

    the nutritional status of crops during the growing season, and at a stage sufficiently early not to threaten harvest yields. The purpose of this project has therefore been to develop new methods for early diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies in plants. In Paper I, a review, the most frequently used techniques...... of measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence, gradually straightens and disappears as P deficiency is induced, and this is used in the method. A similar change was found in tomato plants, indicating that this could be a general effect on photosynthesis. There are further indications that also deficiencies of Mg, Cu...... within 50-100 years if the present pattern of consumption is continued. Optimizing fertilizer addition in plant production is therefore necessary to obtain a higher production along with a reduced environmental impact. To succeed with this, it is, however, necessary to enable plant producers to diagnose...

  7. Vitamin B6 is essential for serine de novo biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Rúben J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970590; Pras-Raves, Mia L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970345; Gerrits, Johan; van der Ham, Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810533; Willemsen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993833; Prinsen, Hubertus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250628228; Burgering, Boudewijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081474547; Jans, Judith J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256345732; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, plays an essential role in brain metabolism as a cofactor in numerous enzyme reactions. PLP deficiency in brain, either genetic or acquired, results in severe drug-resistant seizures that respond to vitamin B6

  8. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  9. Can silicon partially alleviate micronutrient deficiency in plants? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Silicon protects plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses, including metal toxicity. Under a high metal concentration, Si can externally decrease metal availability to the plant by its precipitation in the growth media, and Si also affects the metal distribution inside the plant, diminishing the damage. Could Si also protect plants against metal deficiency stress? Recently, the physiological role of Si in relation to micronutrients deficiency symptoms has been assessed in several plant species in hydroponics. In cucumber, Si supply mitigated the symptoms of Fe deficiency, but this effect was not clear under Zn- or Mn-deficiency conditions. The main factor controlling this beneficial effect seems to be the Si contribution to the formation of metal deposits in the root and/or leaves apoplast and its role in their following remobilization when required. The enhancement of the content of long-distance transport molecules (such as citrate) due to Si addition should also contribute to the metal transport from root to shoot, which will diminish deficiency symptoms.

  10. Boron deficiency in woody plants: various responses and tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is an essential microelement for higher plants, and its deficiency is widespread around the world and constrains the productivity of both agriculture and forestry. In the last decades, accumulating studies on model or herbaceous plants have contributed greatly to our understanding of the complex network of B-deficiency responses and mechanisms for tolerance. In woody plants, however, only a few studies have been conducted and they are not well synthesised. Trees have a larger body size, longer lifespan and more B reserves than do herbaceous plants, indicating that woody species might undergo long-term or mild B deficiency more commonly and that a more complicated B reserves must accordingly be developed to cope with B deficiency. In addition, the highly heterozygous genetic background of tree species suggests that they may have a more complicated mechanism of response and tolerance to B deficiency than do model plants.B-deficient trees usually exhibit two key visible symptoms: depression of growing points (root tip, bud, flower, and young leaf and deformity of organs (root, shoot, leaf, and fruit. These symptoms may be ascribed to B functioning in the cell wall and membrane, and B deficiency results in damage to vascular tissues and the suppression of both B and water transport. B deficiency also affects metabolic processes, such as increased lignin and phenol, and decreased leaf photosynthesis. These negative effects will influence the quality and quantity of wood, fruit and other agricultural products.B efficiency probably originates from a combined effect of three processes: B uptake, B translocation and retranslocation, and B utilization. Root morphology and mycorrhiza can affect the B uptake efficiency of trees. During B translocation from the root to shoot, differences in B concentration between root cell saps and xylem exudates, as well as water use efficiency, may play key roles in tolerance to B deficiency. In addition, B

  11. Methadone N-Demethylation by the Common CYP2B6 Allelic Variant CYP2B6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel, Sarah; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The long-acting opioid methadone displays considerable unexplained interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Methadone metabolism clinically occurs primarily by N-demethylation to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), catalyzed predominantly by CYP2B6. Retrospective studies suggest that the common allele variant CYP2B6*6 may influence methadone plasma concentrations. The catalytic activity of CYP2B6.6, encoded by CYP2B6*6, is highly substrate-dependent. This investigation compared methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 with that by wild-type CYP2B6.1. Methadone enantiomer and racemate N-demethylation by recombinant-expressed CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 was determined. At substrate concentrations (0.25–2 µM) approximating plasma concentrations occurring clinically, rates of methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6, incubated individually or as the racemate, were one-third to one-fourth those by CYP2B6.1. For methadone individual enantiomers and metabolism by CYP2B6.6 compared with CYP2B6.1, Vmax was diminished, Ks was greater and the in vitro intrinsic clearance was diminished 5- to 6-fold. The intrinsic clearance for R- and S-EDDP formation from racemic methadone was diminished approximately 6-fold and 3-fold for R- and S-methadone, respectively. Both CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 showed similar stereoselectivity (S>R-methadone). Human liver microsomes with diminished CYP2B6 content due to a CYP2B6*6 allele had lower rates of methadone N-demethylation. Results show that methadone N-demethylation catalyzed by CYP2B6.6, the CYP2B6 variant encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, is catalytically deficient compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. Diminished methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of altered methadone disposition in individuals carrying the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism. PMID:23298862

  12. Nitrate deficiency reduces cadmium and nickel accumulation in chamomile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Stork, Frantisek; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-05-11

    The effect of nitrogen (nitrate) deficiency (-N) on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in chamomile ( Matricaria chamomilla ) plants was studied. Elimination of N from the culture medium led to decreases in N-based compounds (free amino acids and soluble proteins) and increases in C-based compounds (reducing sugars, soluble phenols, coumarins, phenolic acids, and partially flavonoids and lignin), being considerably affected by the metal presence. Proline, a known stress-protective amino acid, decreased in all -N variants. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was stimulated only in -N control plants, whereas the activities of polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol peroxidase were never reduced in -N variants in comparison with respective +N counterparts. Among detected phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid strongly accumulated in all N-deficient variants in the free fraction and caffeic acid in the cell wall-bound fraction. Mineral nutrients were rather affected by a given metal than by N deficiency. Shoot and total root Cd and Ni amounts decreased in -N variants. On the contrary, ammonium-fed plants exposed to N deficiency did not show similar changes in Cd and Ni contents. The present findings are discussed with respect to the role of phenols and mineral nutrition in metal uptake.

  13. New Ways to Determine Plant Nutrient Deficiences Using Fast Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Marie

    In a global perspective, the agricultural sector is right now facing its biggest challenge ever. The world population is rapidly increasing, and food production has to grow at the same, or higher, speed to be able to feed everyone. At the same time, the effect on environmental and natural resources...... for soil and plant analysis are described and the usability of each technique is discussed. Focus is put particularly on the newest methods for plant analysis based on fast spectroscopy, such as visual and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance and chlorophyll a fluorescence. These methods enable easy, fast...... of the added fertilizer. This is presented along with a discussion of the perspectives in the new approach to plant analysis, which is possible using fast spectroscopy. Paper II demonstrates that Cu deficient plants can be separated from healthy plants by measuring NIR reflectance directly on fresh barley...

  14. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  15. Iron Deficiency Prolongs Seed Dormancy inArabidopsisPlants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Irene; Morandini, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of seed dormancy, germination and longevity are important goals in plant biology, with relevant applications for agriculture, food industry and also human nutrition. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key molecules involved in the release of dormancy, when their concentrations fall within the so called 'oxidative window.' The mechanisms of ROS distribution and sensing in seeds, from dormant to germinating ones, still need elucidation. Also, the impact of iron (Fe) deficiency on seed dormancy is still unexplored; this is surprising, given the known pro-oxidant role of Fe when in a free form. We provide evidence of a link between plant Fe nutrition and dormancy of progeny seeds by using different Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants with different dormancy strengths grown in control soil or under severe Fe deficiency. The latter condition extends the dormancy in several genotypes. The focus on the mechanisms involved in the Fe deficiency-dependent alteration of dormancy and longevity promises to be a key issue in seed (redox) biology.

  16. Iron Deficiency Prolongs Seed Dormancy in Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Murgia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of seed dormancy, germination and longevity are important goals in plant biology, with relevant applications for agriculture, food industry and also human nutrition. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS are key molecules involved in the release of dormancy, when their concentrations fall within the so called ‘oxidative window.’ The mechanisms of ROS distribution and sensing in seeds, from dormant to germinating ones, still need elucidation. Also, the impact of iron (Fe deficiency on seed dormancy is still unexplored; this is surprising, given the known pro-oxidant role of Fe when in a free form. We provide evidence of a link between plant Fe nutrition and dormancy of progeny seeds by using different Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants with different dormancy strengths grown in control soil or under severe Fe deficiency. The latter condition extends the dormancy in several genotypes. The focus on the mechanisms involved in the Fe deficiency-dependent alteration of dormancy and longevity promises to be a key issue in seed (redox biology.

  17. Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2012-01-01

    The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

  18. Deficiency and toxicity of boron: Alterations in growth, oxidative damage and uptake by citrange orange plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asad; Wu, Xiuwen; Ullah, Abid; Fahad, Shah; Muhammad, Riaz; Yan, Lei; Jiang, Cuncang

    2017-11-01

    Boron (B) deficiency and toxicity are the major factors that affect plant growth and yield. The present study revealed the effect of B deficiency and toxicity on plant growth, morphology, physiology, and cell structure. A hydroponic culture experiment was conducted with five B levels, B deficient (B0), sufficient (B20, B10, B40) and toxic (B100). Our results show that both B deficient as well as excess level inhibit plant growth. In B deficiency, the major visible symptoms were appeared in roots, while B excess burned the leaf margin of older leaves. The antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased at B deficiency and also decreased up to some extent at B excess, while in sufficient treatments, the higher antioxidant enzymes were found at B20. In addition, the MDA concentration decreased at B deficiency and increased with B concentration. Moreover, the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf gas exchange and intercellular CO 2 were reduced at both B deficiency as well as excess and higher at sufficient B20 treatment significantly. The chlorophyll and carotenoid content increased at B20 treatment, while decreased at B deficiency and excess. The middle lamellae of cell wall were found thick at B excess and normal at B20. The current study revealed that B deficiency as well as excess concentration affect plant growth and various morpho-physiological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New borohydride anion B6H7-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Vinitskij, D.M.; Solntsev, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The [Ni(Bipy) 3 ] (B 6 H 7 ) 2 , (Ph 4 P)B 6 H 7 , [Ni(Phen) 3 ](B 6 H 7 ) 2 crystals (where Bipy = bipyridine, Phen = phenathroline, Ph = phenyl) are obtained via the exchange reaction with a subsequent recrystallization from aqua-acetonic and acetonic solutions. The structure is studied of a new borohydride anion B 6 H 7 - possessing a four-valence bond unique for polyhedral borohydride anions. A triangular face of boride skeleton coordinating a hydrogen atom is considerably larger than other faces, and the electron density on this hydrogen atom is evidently much higher than at the end hydride hydrogen atoms. The trend of B 6 H 7 - anion to form statistically disordered structurs testifies to a rather slight effect of the seventh hydrogen atom position on the structure pattern of the ionic crystal lattice

  20. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  1. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRENE eMURGIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of Somatic Homologous Recombination (SHR events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants.Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity.

  2. Diagnostics of nitrogen deficiency in mini-cucumber plant by near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In protected agriculture, deficiency of an essential element may drastically affect plant growth, appearance and most importantly yield. Information about nutrient deficiencies in crops grown in controlled environment is essential to optimize food productivity. In this study, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis ...

  3. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the methods for determination of vitamin B6 in foods. To achieve this, the literature review focused on sample treatment and liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin B6 related compounds. In the experimental part, the chosen sample pretreatment and the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method were validated, and used to produce vitamin B6 data on various food items commonly consumed in Finland. The main emphasis of the sample treatment was on the extraction efficiency and the maintenance of the original concentration profile of the vitamers. Several acid extraction procedures were tested for this purpose. Perchloric acid was chosen as the extraction agent. Routine food analysis was then performed using dilute ice-cold perchloric acid extraction followed by an internally standardized ion-paired reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Food samples were hydrolyzed with takadiastase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, phosphorylated and glycosylated vitamers were quantitated before and after the enzymatic digestion. This procedure enabled the extraction of vitamin B6 compounds in their intact forms, and the measurement of free, phosphorylated and glycosylated forms. The maintenance of the concentration profile of the vitamers was verified by using 14C -labeled pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the examination of the extraction procedure. The extraction efficiency and laboratory performance were confirmed by interlaboratory studies. Up-to-date data on vitamin B6 content of about fifty common food items was produced. The data includes the results from meat and poultry, fish and fish product, dairy product, cereal and vegetable, and ready-to-eat food samples. Free and phosphorylated vitamin B6 compounds were measured in all food groups, and the glycosylated vitamer fraction was analyzed in all plant-derived foods. The results obtained in this work showed that vitamin B6 content of nearly all foods of plant

  4. Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, Maite; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-01-01

    The essential micronutrient vitamin B6 is best known in its enzymatic cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, vitamin B6 comprises the amine pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and the alcohol pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in addition to PLP, as well as their corresponding non-phosphorylated forms. The different B6 forms (called vitamers) are enzymatically interconverted in a ubiquitous salvage pathway. Recently, we have shown that balancing the ratio of the different B6 vitamers in particular PMP by the PMP/PNP oxidase PDX3 is essential for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Intriguingly, nitrate to ammonium conversion is impaired in pdx3 mutants, such that the mutants become ammonium-dependent, suggesting an interaction between vitamin B6 and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found a strong up-regulation of genes related to plant defense. Here, we further show that pdx3 mutants display a temperature-sensitive phenotype that is typical of autoimmune mutants and is possibly connected to the impaired nitrogen metabolism.

  5. Methadone pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 polymorphisms determine plasma concentrations, clearance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Regina, Karen J.; Blood, Jane; Friedel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, deficiently catalyzes methadone metabolism in vitro. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6*6, and other allelic variants encountered, on methadone concentrations, clearance, and metabolism. Methods Healthy volunteers in genotype cohorts CYP2B6*1/*1 (n=21), CYP2B6*1/*6 (n=20), and CYP2B6*6/*6 (n=17), and also CYP2B6*1/*4 (n=1), CYP2B6*4/*6 (n=3), CYP2B6*5/*5 (n=2) subjects received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Plasma and urine methadone and metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 and 45% lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1, and R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 and 30% lower. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 3- and 4-fold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 homozygotes, and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African-Americans due to the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism. Conclusions CYP2B6 polymorphisms influence methadone plasma concentrations, due to altered methadone metabolism and thus clearance. Genetic influence is greater for oral than intravenous, and S- than R-methadone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics explains, in part, interindividual variability in methadone elimination. CYP2B6 genetic effects on methadone metabolism and clearance may identify subjects at risk for methadone toxicity and drug interactions. PMID:26389554

  6. The transcription factor IDEF1 regulates the response to and tolerance of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms and is often the major limiting nutrient for normal growth. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified the rice transcription factor IDEF1, which specifically binds the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element IDE1. IDEF1 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the plant-specific transcription factor...

  7. Increased Sucrose Accumulation Regulates Iron-Deficiency Responses by Promoting Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Ye, Yi Quan; Fan, Shi Kai; Jin, Chong Wei; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have identified that auxins acts upstream of nitric oxide in regulating iron deficiency responses in roots, but the upstream signaling molecule of auxins remains unknown. In this study, we showed that Fe deficiency increased sucrose (Suc) level in roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Exogenous application of Suc further stimulated Fe deficiency-induced ferric-chelate-reductase (FCR) activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes FRO2, IRT1, and FIT in roots. The opposite patterns were observed in the dark treatment. In addition, FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes were higher in the Suc high-accumulating transgenic plant 35S::SUC2 but were lower in the Suc low-accumulating mutant suc2-5 compared with wild-type plants under Fe-deficient conditions. Consequently, Fe deficiency tolerance was enhanced in 35S::SUC2 but was compromised in suc2-5. Exogenous Suc also increased root β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in auxin-inducible reporter DR5-GUS transgenic plants under Fe deficiency. However, exogenous Suc failed to increase FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes in the auxin transport-impaired mutants aux1-7 and pin1-1 as well as in the wild-type plants treated with an auxin transport inhibitor under Fe deficiency. In summary, we found that increased Suc accumulation is required for regulating Fe deficiency responses in plants, with auxins acting downstream in transmitting the Fe deficiency signal. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Superhard and Superconducting B6C

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Kang; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Cong; Gao, Hao; Chen, Qun; He, Julong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Hui-Tian; Tian, Yongjun; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure searching and ab initio calculations have been used here to explore low-energy structures of boron carbides under high pressure. Under pressures of 85-110 GPa, a metastable B6C with R-3m symmetry is found to be energetically more stable than the mixture of previous B4C and elemental boron. This B6C is a rhombohedral structure and contains mooncake-like B24 clusters with stuffing of C2 pairs. The mechanical and dynamical stabilities of this structure at ambient pressure are c...

  9. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  10. The transcription factor IDEF1 regulates the response to and tolerance of iron deficiency in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2007-11-27

    Iron is essential for most living organisms and is often the major limiting nutrient for normal growth. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified the rice transcription factor IDEF1, which specifically binds the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element IDE1. IDEF1 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the plant-specific transcription factor family ABI3/VP1 and exhibits the sequence recognition property of efficiently binding to the CATGC sequence within IDE1. IDEF1 transcripts are constitutively present in rice roots and leaves. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing IDEF1 under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter transactivate IDE1-mediated expression only in iron-deficient roots. Transgenic rice plants expressing an introduced IDEF1 exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency in both hydroponic culture and calcareous soil. IDEF1 overexpression leads to the enhanced expression of the iron deficiency-induced transcription factor gene OsIRO2, suggesting the presence of a sequential gene regulatory network. These findings reveal cis element/trans factor interactions that are functionally linked to the iron deficiency response. Manipulation of IDEF1 also provides another approach for producing crops tolerant of iron deficiency to enhance food and biomass production in calcareous soils.

  11. Long-distance signaling of iron deficiency in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Yusuke; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2008-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Planta, we established two points regarding the long-distance signal of iron status in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). One is that the long-distance signal generated in iron deficient tissues is a major factor in positively regulating the expressions of iron uptake genes in tobacco. The expression of a ferric chelate reductase gene (NtFRO1) and an iron-regulated transporter gene (NtIRT1) in roots decreased by cutting off the leaves grown under the iron-deficient condi...

  12. Strictly NO3- Nutrition Alleviates Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Msilini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of NO3- nutrition on iron deficiency responses were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown with or without 5 µM Fe, and with NO3- alone or a mixture of NO3- and NH4+. The results indicated that, NO3- nutrition induced higher dry matter production, regardless the Fe concentration. Fe deficiency reduced growth activity, photosynthetic pigment concentration and Fe content of plants, whatever the N forms. This decrease was more pronounced in plants grown with mixed N source; those plants presented the highest EL and MDA and anthocyanin contents compared to plants grown under Fe sufficient conditions. In iron free-solutions, with NO3- as the sole nitrogen source, enhanced FC-R activity in the roots was observed. However, in the presence of NH4+, plants displayed some decrease in in FC-R and PEPC activities. The presence of NH4+ modified typical Fe stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  13. Effects of Fe deficiency on the riboflavin synthesis pathway in medicago truncatula plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboflavin was first described to be excreted from roots of Fe-deficient tobacco plants and since then excretion and accumulation of riboflavin, as well as other flavin compounds has been reported in a wide variety of plant species. In flavinogenic yeast strains and some bacteria, Fe has been shown ...

  14. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B

    1991-01-01

    The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.

  15. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva; Walcylene Lacerda Matos Pereira Scaramuzza; José Fernando Scaramuzza

    2011-01-01

    The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a green...

  16. Effect of dietary vitamin B6 contents on antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, T; Okada, M; Matsui, A; Hanba, J; Murata, E; Katunuma, N

    2000-01-01

    When mice were placed on diets extreme deficient in vitamin B6, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgE, IgG1, IgG2a) were significantly suppressed, and alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver was also significantly decreased. In the case of pyridoxine excess (6 mg% = about ten times standard amount) in a 70% casein diet, ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions were also considerably suppressed. These responses were weaker in a low casein (5%) or normal casein (20%) diet than in a 70% casein diet. The administration of high doses of pyridoxine (6 mg%) resulted in the suppression of hepatic cathepsin B activity. Therefore, we conclude that ovalbumin-dependent antibody productions (IgG1, IgE) were suppressed by pyridoxine excess diet (6 mg%), because hepatic cathepsin B activity was suppressed by the excess pyridoxine in diet.

  17. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  18. On the influence of ionizing irradiation on the vitamin B6 metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler-Klosa, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 50 female patients suffering from an endometrium carcinoma in stage I to IV, the vitamin B 6 level was determined by the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and its activation coefficients at different instants before and during radiation therapy were calculated. Simultaneously the haemoglobin content of the blood and the behaviour of the leukocytes and thrombocytes was investigated under the high voltage irradiation. To 49 patients 300 mg pyridoxin were administered perorally every day during the irradiation treatment which lasted several weeks. It resulted that in endometrium carcinomas the vitamin B 6 levels in the blood are decreased, and in proceeded stages more often vitamin B 6 deficits are observed. Even after daily administrations of vitamin B 6 the values of the activation coefficients of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase only slowly return to normal. Thus apparently relatively high pyridoxin doses seem to be necessary in order to remove the irradiation-induced vitamin B 6 disorder. After daily oral administration of 300 mg pyridoxin in no case a biochemical vitamin B 6 deficit under radiation therapy was observed. The leukocytes show under radiotherapy the expected decrease. Leukopenia requiring the discontinuation of interruption of the radiation treatment did not occur during vitamin B 6 administration. A careful control of the thrombocytes is also under vitamin B 6 administration necessary, but fatal thrombocytoponia could not be observed. With reference to the haemoglobin content in most cases a decrease was found, which apparently can not be prevented by the application of vitamin B 6 . An influence on the vitamin B 6 level by the patient's age could not be found. Finally it has to be indicated that by determining the activation coefficient of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, indirectly the vitamin B 6 deficiency can be detected without any serious disturbance for the patient. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Effects of Zn Deficiency and Bicarbonate on the Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Four Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kuan; Wu, Yanyou

    2017-01-01

    Calcareous soils are characterized by low nutrient contents, high bicarbonate (HCO3−) content, and high alkalinity. The effects of HCO3− addition under zinc-sufficient (+Zn) and zinc-deficient (−Zn) conditions on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of two Moraceae species (Broussonetia papyrifera and Morus alba) and two Brassicaceae species (Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) were investigated. These four species were hydroponically grown in nutrient solution with 0 mM Zn (−Zn) or 0.02 mM Zn (+Zn) and 0 mM or 10 mM HCO3−. The photosynthetic response to HCO3− treatment, Zn deficiency, or both varied according to plant species. Of the four species, Broussonetia papyrifera showed the best adaptability to Zn deficiency for both the 0 mM and 10 mM HCO3− treatments due to its strong growth and minimal inhibition of photosynthesis and photosystem II (PS II). Brassica napus was sensitive to Zn deficiency, HCO3− treatment, or both as evidenced by the considerable inhibition of photosynthesis and high PS II activity. The results indicated different responses of various plant species to Zn deficiency and excess HCO3−. Broussonetia papyrifera was shown to have potential as a pioneer species in karst regions. PMID:28076430

  20. Iron deficiency in barley plants: phytosiderophore release, iron translocation and DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBocchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms require iron (Fe to carry out many crucial metabolic pathways. Despite its high concentrations in the geosphere, Fe bio-availability to plant roots can be very scarce. To cope with Fe shortage, plants can activate different strategies. For these reasons, we investigated Fe deficient Hordeum vulgare L. plants by monitoring growth, phytosiderophores (PS release, iron content and translocation, and DNA methylation, with respect to Fe sufficient ones. Reductions of plant growth, roots to shoots Fe translocation, and increases in PS release were found. Experiments on DNA methylation highlighted significant differences between fully and hemy-methylated sequences in Fe deficient plants, with respect to Fe sufficient plants. Eleven DNA bands differently methylated were found in starved plants. Of these, five sequences showed significant alignment to barley genes encoding for a glucosyltransferase, a putative acyl carrier protein, a peroxidase, a β-glucosidase and a transcription factor containing a Homeodomin. A resupply experiment was carried out on starved barley re-fed at 13 days after sowing (DAS, and it showed that plants did not recover after Fe addition. In fact, Fe absorption and root to shoot translocation capacities were impaired. In addition, resupplied barley showed DNA methylation/demethylation patterns very similar to that of barley grown in Fe deprivation. This last finding is very encouraging because it indicates as these variations/modifications could be transmitted to progenies.

  1. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content varies in tubers of different genotypes. The results demonstrate that potato is an excellent resource for this vitamin and that strong natural variation in vitamin B6 content among the tested cultivars indicates high potential to fortify vitamin B6 nutrition in potato-based foods.

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  3. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  4. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Sutton; Chen, Liyuan; K?hn, Christina; Navarre, Roy; Knowles, N. Richard; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  5. Vitamin B6 status of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemane Berhane

    alterations, and superimposed fetal metabolism and its needs. Vitamin B6 has been recognized as an essential micronutrient involved in normal fetal development, and positive pregnancy outcomes. It is essential for homocysteine metabolism. Its deficiency may lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia (2), which is an established.

  6. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  8. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of pepper plants (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DONCHEVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zlaten Medal were grown on nutrient solution without nitrogen, and photosynthetic response of plants was examined by determination of leaf CO2 fixation and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The absence of nitrogen in the medium resulted in a decrease of the leaf area and of plant biomass accumulation, and in an increase of the root-shoot dry weight ratio. The photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly under nitrogen deprivation. Examination of nitrogen deficient leaves by transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in chloroplast ultrastructure. The proportion of starch granules and plastoglobules in the stroma matrix was increased and internal membrane system was greatly reduced. It seems that nitrogen plays an important role in the formation of chloroplast structure and hence to the photosynthetic intensity and productivity of pepper plants.

  9. Lignin deficiency in transgenic flax resulted in plants with improved mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Starzycki, Michał; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oszmiański, Jan; Szopa, Jan

    2007-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a very important source of natural fibres used by the textile industry. Flax fibres are called lignocellulosic, because they contain mainly cellulose (about 70%), with hemicellulose, pectin and lignin. Lignin is a three-dimensional polymer with a high molecular weight, and it gives rigidity and mechanical resistance to the fibre and plant. Its presence means the fibres have worse elastic properties than non-lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. cotton fibres, which contain no lignin. The main aim of this study was to produce low-lignin flax plants with fibres with modified elastic properties. An improvement in the mechanical properties was expected. The used strategy for CAD down-regulation was based on gene silencing RNAi technology. Manipulation of the CAD gene caused changes in enzyme activity, lignin content and in the composition of the cell wall in the transgenic plants. The detected reduction in the lignin level in the CAD-deficient plants resulted in improved mechanical properties. Young's modulus was up to 75% higher in the generated transgenic plants (CAD33) relative to the control plants. A significant increase in the lignin precursor contents and a reduction in the pectin and hemicellulose constituents was also detected. A decrease in pectin and hemicellulose, as well as a lower lignin content, might lead to improved extractability of the fibres. However, the resistance of the transgenic lines to Fusarium oxysporum was over two-fold lower than for the non-transformed plants. Since Fusarium species are used as retting organisms and had been isolated from retted flax, the increased sensitivity of the CAD-deficient plant to F. oxysporum infection might lead to improved flax retting.

  10. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory standards...

  11. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings. Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk. Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study ( n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status. Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with y of follow-up between sampling and diagnosis. Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  13. Development and recovery of iron deficiency by iron resupply to roots or leaves of strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Maribela; Correia, Pedro José; Saavedra, Teresa; Gama, Florinda; Abadía, Anunciación; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2012-04-01

    Bare-root transplants of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. 'Selva') were transferred to nutrient solutions with or without iron (Fe). After six weeks of growth, plants grown in solution lacking Fe were chlorotic and showed morphological changes in roots typical of Fe deficiency. Subsequently, four treatments were applied for nine days: plants grown in continued absence of Fe (Fe0); plants grown in continued presence of 10 μM Fe (Fe10); foliar application of ferrous sulphate every two days to chlorotic plants (Fe-leaves); and growth of chlorotic plants in solution with ferrous sulphate (Fe-solution). After six days, the chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves of Fe-solution plants was similar to that in Fe10 plants. Under the Fe-leaves treatment, a slight regreening of new leaves was observed only by the end of the experiment. After nine days, ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity was unchanged in Fe10 but increased in Fe0 plants. The FC-R activity of Fe-solution plants was similar to the initial value for chlorotic plants, whereas it was reduced drastically under the Fe-leaves treatment. The Fe concentration in leaves of Fe0 and Fe10 was similar, whereas the Fe-solution and Fe-leaves treatments enhanced leaf Fe concentration. In contrast to the Fe-solution treatment, foliar application of Fe did not increase the Fe concentration in roots. Under our experimental conditions, FC-R activity in strawberry appeared to be deactivated rapidly by pulses of Fe applied by foliar sprays. Deactivation was slower if Fe was applied directly to roots, which suggested that the plants had greater opportunity to take Fe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary protein as a factor affecting vitamin B6 requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M; Shibuya, M; Akazawa, T; Muya, H; Murakami, Y

    1998-02-01

    Rats were fed 20 or 70% casein diets with varying amounts of vitamin B6 (B6), and the B6 content and B6-dependent enzymatic activity in their tissues were examined to determine the minimum requirement of B6 for animals subjected to different levels of dietary protein (i.e., 20%: 0, 1.45, 2.90, 5.80 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet; 70%: 0, 2.90, 5.80, 8.70 mg PN/kg diet). B6 requirements for the rats were almost met in the 1.45 mg PN/kg 20% casein diet and the 2.90 mg PN/kg 70% casein diet when judged from the hepatic B6 content. However, almost twice the PN was required in both 20 and 70% casein diets when judged from PLP-enzymatic activity. The content of B6 vitamers in plasma appeared to be most sensitive to B6 status, though the satisfactory level is not known. It was confirmed that, in any case tested, a high-protein diet increased the requirement of B6.

  15. Plasmalemma Redox Activity and H+ Extrusion in Roots of Fe-Deficient Cucumber Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Esteban; de la Guardia, Manuel D.; Romera, Francisco J.

    1991-01-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) with incipient Fe deficiency showed increased root capacity to reduce chelated Fe3+ compared to Fe-sufficient plants. When Fe-ethylenediaminete-traacetate was added to the root medium of the Fe-deficient plants, the reductase activity was associated with acidification of the medium and an increase in the net apparent K+ efflux. In the presence of the H+-ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide the net apparent H+ efflux was completely suppressed, though some reductase activity was preserved, and the net apparent K+ efflux was significantly increased. The inhibition of the reductase activity by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was similar whether the pH of the medium was buffered or not. Anoxia and the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone also caused a similar inhibition of the reductase activity. It is proposed that this redox system transports electrons only and that its activity is inhibited by plasmamembrane depolarization and anoxia. The H+ and K+ efflux associated with the reductase activity may be a result of the plasmamembrane depolarization it causes. PMID:16668294

  16. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2’-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANPIERO eVIGANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analysed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s of cellular plant Fe status triggering the long-distance shoot-root signalling and leading to the root Fe-deficiency responses is (are still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (Hypoxia Inducible Factor- Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase, is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe-deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  17. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  18. Conserved histidine of metal transporter AtNRAMP1 is crucial for optimal plant growth under manganese deficiency at chilling temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihnatowicz, A.; Siwinska, J.; Meharg, A.A.; Carey, M.; Koornneef, M.; Reymond, M.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient required for plant growth, in particular in the process of photosynthesis. Plant performance is influenced by various environmental stresses including contrasting temperatures, light or nutrient deficiencies. The molecular responses of plants exposed to such

  19. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermond, P

    1982-01-01

    Studies carried out in different countries during the last 15 years have provided evidence that supplementation with (or excess of) estro-progestational hormones may be accompanied by an increased urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, as happens in pyridoxine deficiency. Further methods of assessment of vitamin B6 in humans have confirmed an impaired status in women using hormonal contraception. Disturbances in the metabolism of tryptophan have been shown to be responsible for such symptoms as depression, anxiety, decrease of libido and impairment of glucose tolerance occurring in some of the OCA users. Administration of 40 mg of vitamin B6 daily not only restores normal biochemical values but also relieves the clinical symptoms in those vitamin B6 deficient women taking OCA's. Further studies are justified to clarify whether vitamin B6 supplementation may contribute to improving depression also in other situations with hyperoestrogenism (pregnancy, puerperium, estro-progestational treatments, etc.), as well as correcting metabolic impairments, such as a minor alteration of glucose tolerance.

  20. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Shakirullah Shakir, Niaz Ali, Zia Udin, Haleema Nazish , Muhammad Nabi. Institute of Basic Medical Science, Khyber Medical University. Abstract. Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and ...

  1. Plant Ferritin—A Source of Iron to Prevent Its Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia affects a significant part of the human population. Due to the unique properties of plant ferritin, food enrichment with ferritin iron seems to be a promising strategy to prevent this malnutrition problem. This protein captures huge amounts of iron ions inside the apoferritin shell and isolates them from the environment. Thus, this iron form does not induce oxidative change in food and reduces the risk of gastric problems in consumers. Bioavailability of ferritin in human and animal studies is high and the mechanism of absorption via endocytosis has been confirmed in cultured cells. Legume seeds are a traditional source of plant ferritin. However, even if the percentage of ferritin iron in these seeds is high, its concentration is not sufficient for food fortification. Thus, edible plants have been biofortified in iron for many years. Plants overexpressing ferritin may find applications in the development of bioactive food. A crucial achievement would be to develop technologies warranting stability of ferritin in food and the digestive tract. PMID:25685985

  2. [Severe nutritional deficiencies in young infants with inappropriate plant milk consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louer, B; Lemale, J; Garcette, K; Orzechowski, C; Chalvon, A; Girardet, J-P; Tounian, P

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few years, we have observed increasing consumption of inappropriate plant milks as an alternative to infant milk formula. Some families believe that foods labeled as natural are the most healthy and an appropriate nutritional choice. However, their composition does not respect European recommendations. They are always hypocaloric and protein, vitamin, and mineral concentrations are inadequate. The aim of this study was to report severe nutritional complications after inappropriate plant milk consumption. Between 2008 and 2011, we studied severe nutritional deficiencies caused by consumption of plant milks bought in health food stores or online shops. Infants were identified in our centers and examined through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Nine cases of infants aged from 4 to 14 months were observed. In all cases, these milks were used as an alternative to milk formulas for supposed cow's milk allergy. At diagnosis, four patients were aged 6 months or less. They had received plant milk exclusively for 1-3 months. The beverages consumed were rice, soya, almond and sweet chestnut milks. In three cases, infants presented severe protein-calorie malnutrition with substantial hypoalbuminemia (slow down the progress of this social trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Nutrient Deficiencies in Corn Plants on the In Vivo and In Vitro Metabolism of [14C] Diazinon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstman, J.L.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: The effects of calcium, nitrogen, and magnesium deficiencies on the penetration, translocation, and the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of the insecticide [ 14 C] diazinon (diethyl-2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl) in corn plants were investigated. On a per gram fresh weight basis only roots from nitrogen-deficient solutions contained less C while tops from plants grown in calcium-deficient solutions contained nearly four times more radiocarbon than those from complete nutrient solutions. Due to calcium or nitrogen deficiencies a reduced degradation occurred in roots as indicated by the relatively higher recoveries of diazinon and the lower recoveries of an unidentified, more polar 14 C-ring compound. No differencies in [ 14 C] diazinon degradation due to nutrient deficiencies were noticeable with corn tops. The metabolic activity of corn roots was due to a soluble enzyme. In studies with subcellular components from roots, specific activities increased from the homogenate (4.09%/mg of protein) to the 105000 g supernatant (7.77%/mg of protein). Subcellular components from calcium-deficient roots produced significantly less water-soluble radiocarbon (sp act., 0.60) than did control roots (sp act., 1.60), results similar to those observed with in vivo experiments. However, the 10000 g supernatant from root material deficient in nitrogen produced significantly more water—soluble radiocarbon (sp act., 2.85) than subcellular fractions from control roots. (author)

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing......Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  5. Potential human factors deficiencies in the design of local control stations and operator interfaces in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, C.S.; Levy, I.S.; Fecht, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a project to identify human factors deficiencies in safety-significant control stations outside the control room of a nuclear power plant and to determine whether NUREG-0700, Guidelines for Control Room Design Reviews, would be sufficient for reviewing those local control stations (LCSs). The project accomplished this task by first, reviewing existing data pertaining to human factors deficiencies in LCSs involved in significant safety actions; second, surveying LCSs environments and design features at several operating nuclear power plants; and third, assessing the results of that survey relative to the contents of NUREG-0700

  6. Iron allocation in leaves of Fe-deficient cucumber plants fed with natural Fe complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Rizzardo, Cecilia; Gottardi, Stefano; Terzano, Roberto; Alfeld, Matthias; Janssens, Koen; De Nobili, Maria; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Iron (Fe) sources available for plants in the rhizospheric solution are mainly a mixture of complexes between Fe and organic ligands, including phytosiderophores (PS) and water-extractable humic substances (WEHS). In comparison with the other Fe sources, Fe-WEHS are more efficiently used by plants, and experimental evidences show that Fe translocation contributes to this better response. On the other hand, very little is known on the mechanisms involved in Fe allocation in leaves. In this work, physiological and molecular processes involved in Fe distribution in leaves of Fe-deficient Cucumis sativus supplied with Fe-PS or Fe-WEHS up to 5 days were studied combining different techniques, such as radiochemical experiments, synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. In Fe-WEHS-fed plants, Fe was rapidly (1 day) allocated into the leaf veins, and after 5 days, Fe was completely transferred into interveinal cells; moreover, the amount of accumulated Fe was much higher than with Fe-PS. This redistribution in Fe-WEHS plants was associated with an upregulation of genes encoding a ferric(III) -chelate reductase (FRO), a Fe(2+) transporter (IRT1) and a natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP). The localization of FRO and IRT1 transcripts next to the midveins, beside that of NRAMP in the interveinal area, may suggest a rapid and efficient response induced by the presence of Fe-WEHS in the extra-radical solution for the allocation in leaves of high amounts of Fe. In conclusion, Fe is more efficiently used when chelated to WEHS than PS and seems to involve Fe distribution and gene regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms operating in leaves. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of active human glucocerebrosidase in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Galpin, Jason D; Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don; Haselhorst, Thomas; von Itzstein, Mark; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H; Miao, Yansong; Jiang, Liwen; Grabowski, Gregory A; Clarke, Lorne A; Kermode, Allison R

    2012-04-01

    There is a clear need for efficient methods to produce protein therapeutics requiring mannose-termination for therapeutic efficacy. Here we report on a unique system for production of active human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45) using seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) mutant, which are deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC 2.4.1.101). Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease in which affected individuals inherit mutations in the gene (GBA1) encoding GCase. A gene cassette optimized for seed expression was used to generate the human enzyme in seeds of the cgl (C5) mutant, and the recombinant GCase was mainly accumulated in the apoplast. Importantly, the enzymatic properties including kinetic parameters, half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isofagomine and thermal stability of the cgl-derived GCase were comparable with those of imiglucerase, a commercially available recombinant human GCase used for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients. N-glycan structural analyses of recombinant cgl-GCase showed that the majority of the N-glycans (97%) were mannose terminated. Additional purification was required to remove ∼15% of the plant-derived recombinant GCase that possessed potentially immunogenic (xylose- and/or fucose-containing) N-glycans. Uptake of cgl-derived GCase by mouse macrophages was similar to that of imiglucerase. The cgl seed system requires no addition of foreign (non-native) amino acids to the mature recombinant GCase protein, and the dry transgenic seeds represent a stable repository of the therapeutic protein. Other strategies that may completely prevent plant-like complex N-glycans are discussed, including the use of a null cgl mutant.

  9. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nitric oxide signaling is involved in the response to iron deficiency in the woody plant Malus xiaojinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Longmei; Xiao, Dashuang; Sun, Chaohua; Wu, Ting; Han, Zhenhai; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Wang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    To cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, plants have evolved a wide range of adaptive responses from changes in morphology to altered physiological responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the Fe-deficiency response through hormonal signaling pathways. Here, we report that NO plays a significant role in Malus xiaojinensis, an Fe-efficient woody plant. Fe deficiency triggered significant accumulation of NO in the root system, predominantly in the outer cortical and epidermal cells of the elongation zone. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) completely arrested Fe deficiency-induced root hair formation, blocked the increase in root ferric-chelate reductase activity and in root H + excretion, further reduced the active iron content in young leaves and roots, and prevented the upregulation of the critical Fe-related genes, FIT, MxFRO2-like, and MxIRT1. These conditions were restored under Fe deficiency by treatment with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Additionally, chlorophyll content and relative expression levels of the genes chlorophyll a deoxygenase (MxCAO) and polyamine oxidase (MxPAO) were not changed significantly following Fe deficiency for 6 d; however, SNP treatment increased MxHEMA gene expression. Interestingly, the Fv/Fm ratio, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), decreased significantly following cPTIO treatment. We observed more severe chlorosis under Fe deficiency with cPTIO treatment for 9 d. These results strongly suggest that NO mediates a range of responses to Fe deficiency in M. xiaojinensis, from morphological changes to the regulation of physiological processes and gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin B6 prevents cognitive impairment in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Ceretta, Renan A; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferrari, Pâmela; Gubert, Carolina; Jornada, Luciano K; Budni, Josiane; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the relevant cause of bacterial meningitis, with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, preventing the accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of vitamin B6 on memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain of adult Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals received either 10 µL of artificial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. The animals were divided into four groups: control, control treated with vitamin B6, meningitis, and meningitis treated with vitamin B6. Ten days after induction, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests: open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the open-field task, there was a significant reduction in both crossing and rearing in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group compared with the training session, demonstrating habituation memory. However, the meningitis group showed no difference in motor and exploratory activity between training and test sessions, demonstrating memory impairment. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there was a difference between training and test sessions in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group, demonstrating aversive memory. In the meningitis group, there was no difference between training and test sessions, demonstrating impairment of aversive memory. In the hippocampus, BDNF expression decreased in the meningitis group when compared to the control group; however, adjuvant treatment with vitamin B6 increased BDNF

  12. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Carla S.; Roriz, Mariana; Pinto de Carvalho, S.M.P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew

  13. [Effects of water deficiency on mitochondrial functions and polymorphism of respiratory enzymes in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmankulova, Z F; Shuĭskaia, E V; Rogozhnikova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In plants, adaptive-compensatory responses to stress always entail additional energy expenditure. A suggestion was brought forward that in plants growing under conditions of water stress there is a relationship between genetic variability of respiratory enzymes and their functional significance. With Kochia prostrate (L.) Schrad. as a case study, intraspecies genetic polymorphism under the conditions of drought has been analyzed using typical protein markers which, considering their functional importance, can be viewed as respiratory enzymes. Out of eight protein markers examined, four enzymes were singled out for which dominating combination of genotypes Dia B (a), G6pd (a), Gdh (c), and Mdh A (a) was incidental. In all populations from arid and semiarid zone, these genotypes frequency of occurrence was in the range of 0.53-1.0, i.e., it comprised more than 50% of the whole variety of combinations. Thus, it seems plausible that this combination of genotypes can be an "adaptive collection" for K. prostrata populations growing in arid habitats. A characteristic feature of the picked out enzymes is their belonging to NAD(P)(+)-depending oxidoreductases that play a key role in functioning and redox-regulation of respiratory metabolism in course of adapting to water deficiency. It is suggested that the presence of such well-balanced co-adaptive genotype combinations, that provide enzymes important in terms of energetics, determine the formation of energetic and redox-balances during the process of adaptation to water stress.

  14. Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcriptional activator FIT is required for plant iron-deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivitz, Alicia; Grinvalds, Claudia; Barberon, Marie; Curie, Catherine; Vert, Grégory

    2011-06-01

    Plants display a number of responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. To maintain iron homeostasis, the expression of FRO2 and IRT1 is tightly controlled by iron deficiency at the transcriptional level. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT represents the most upstream actor known in the iron-deficiency signaling pathway, and directly regulates the expression of the root iron uptake machinery genes FRO2 and IRT1. However, how FIT is controlled by iron and acts to activate transcription of its targets remains obscure. Here we show that FIT mRNA and endogenous FIT protein accumulate in Arabidopsis roots upon iron deficiency. However, using plants constitutively expressing FIT, we observed that FIT protein accumulation is reduced in iron-limited conditions. This post-transcriptional regulation of FIT is perfectly synchronized with the accumulation of endogenous FIT and IRT1 proteins, and therefore is part of the early responses to low iron. We demonstrated that such regulation affects FIT protein stability under iron deficiency as a result of 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, we showed that FIT post-translational regulation by iron is required for FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. Taken together our results indicate that FIT transcriptional and post-translational regulations are integrated in plant roots to ensure that the positive regulator FIT accumulates as a short-lived protein following iron shortage, and to allow proper iron-deficiency responses. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Vitamin B6-type Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sabrina M.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-05-01

    Heating a dilute solution of NH3 and glycoaldehyde gives a large family of pyridines substituted with the same functional groups as occur in the forms of vitamin B6. Thus, vitamin B6-like molecules could have been present on the early Earth and could have been available for catalysis of primitive transamination reactions. Ethanolamine and N-methylethanolamine are also formed as major products. These are choline-like molecules, the latter of which is apparently formed by a prebiotic methylation process.

  16. Erythrocyte vitamin B, and B6 dependent enzymes in adult and newborn Thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Cepa Matos

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar o estado nutricional de cavalos Puro-Sangue Inglês (PSI em relação à riboflavina (vitamina B2 e à piridoxina (vitamina B6, 10 animais adultos e 30 recém-nascidos foram investigados. Foi observado um bom estado nutricional quanto à riboflavina, notando-se moderada deficiência de piridoxina nos animais adultos, mas não nos recém-nascidos. Estes fatos sugerem que os animais adultos devam receber suplementação com piridoxina.

  17. ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    The contents and the documentation of the ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries which were released in 1991 and updated in 1993, are summarized. Copies of the data libraries are available on magnetic tape of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree upon request. (author). 1 tab

  18. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities... transaction within the six months prior to the date the price is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative...

  19. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. ... Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. ... We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised ...

  20. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  1. Supplementation with vitamin B6 reduces side effects in Cambodian women using oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Var, Chivorn; Keller, Sheryl; Tung, Rathavy; Freeland, Dylan; Bazzano, Alessandra N

    2014-08-26

    Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo). The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434). Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  2. A PHD in histone language: on the role of histone methylation in plant responses to phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability.

  3. The role of plant food sources in controlling vitamin A deficiency in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of vitamin A deficiency has been high on the agenda of subsequently the Micronutrient Deficiency Meeting held in Montreal Canada 1991 and the International Conference on Nutrition in Rome Italy, 1992. During the last decade, the direction of research and approaches towards controlling

  4. Confirmation of mutations in PROSC as a novel cause of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara; Zweier, Markus; Begemann, Anaïs; Mathis, Deborah; Schmitt, Bernhard; Striano, Pasquale; Baethmann, Martina; Vari, Maria Stella; Beccaria, Francesca; Zara, Federico; Crowther, Lisa M; Joset, Pascal; Sticht, Heinrich; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Rauch, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes ( ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1 ). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B 6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B 6 profile under pyridoxine treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Direct and Functional Biomarkers of Vitamin B6 Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Midttun, Øivind; Gregory, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics.

  6. ENDF/B-6 Photon Atomic Interaction Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1990-09-01

    The ENDF/B-6 version of the Photo-Atomic Interaction Data Library of the Livermore Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL) contains pair and triplet cross-sections, photoelectric cross-sections, atom form factors, coherent scattering cross-sections and some other data for all the elements from Z=1 to 100. The data library is available on magnetic tape costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The library supersedes the earlier photo-atomic data library by the US Radiation Shielding Information Center RSIC that was included in the data libraries ENDF/B-5 and JEF-1. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Magnetoresistance and magnetization anomalies in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogach, A.V.; Glushkov, V.V.; Demishev, S.V.; Samarin, N.A.; Paderno, Yu.B.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Yu.; Sluchanko, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    High precision magnetoresistance (MR) Δρ/ρ(H,T) and magnetization M(H,T) measurements have been carried out for well known and typical strongly correlated electron system-cerium hexaboride. The detailed measurements have been fulfilled on single crystalline samples of CeB 6 over a wide temperature range T>=1.8K in magnetic fields up to 70kOe. It was shown that the MR anomalies in the magnetic heavy fermion compound under investigation can be consistently interpreted in the frameworks of a simple relation between resistivity and magnetization-Δρ/ρ∼M 2 obtained by Yosida [Phys. Rev. 107(1957)396]. A local magnetic susceptibility χ loc (T,H)=(1/H*(d(Δρ/ρ)/dH)) 1/2 was deduced directly from the MR Δρ(H,T) measurements and compared with the experimental data of magnetization M(H,T). The magnetic susceptibility dependences χ loc (T,H) and χ(T,H) obtained in this study for CeB 6 allow us to analyze the complicated H-T magnetic phase diagram of this so-called dense Kondo-system

  8. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  9. Organic acid anions: An effective defensive weapon for plants against aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Chang; Liao, Hong

    2016-11-20

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorous (P) deficiency are two major limiting factors for plant growth on acidic soils. Thus, the physiological mechanisms for Al tolerance and P acquisition have been intensively studied. A commonly observed trait is that plants have developed the ability to utilize organic acid anions (OAs; mainly malate, citrate and oxalate) to combat Al toxicity and P deficiency. OAs secreted by roots into the rhizosphere can externally chelate Al 3+ and mobilize phosphate (Pi), while OAs synthesized in the cell can internally sequester Al 3+ into the vacuole and release free Pi for metabolism. Molecular mechanisms involved in OA synthesis and transport have been described in detail. Ensuing genetic improvement for Al tolerance and P efficiency through increased OA exudation and/or synthesis in crops has been achieved by transgenic and marker-assisted breeding. This review mainly elucidates the crucial roles of OAs in plant Al tolerance and P efficiency through summarizing associated physiological mechanisms, molecular traits and genetic manipulation of crops. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insights into Resistance to Fe Deficiency Stress from a Comparative Study of In Vitro-Selected Novel Fe-Efficient and Fe-Inefficient Potato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina A. Boamponsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. ‘Iwa’ callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0–5 μM Fe. Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR, 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Stem height was found to be highly correlated with internodal distance, leaf and root lengths in the EF plant lines grown under Fe deficiency conditions. In addition, compared to the IFN plant lines and control parental biotype, the EF plants including the lines named A1, B2, and B9, exhibited enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs as well as increased expression of ferritin (fer3 in the leaf and iron-regulated transporter (irt1 in the root. These morphological adaptations and changes in expression the fer3 and irt1 genes of the selected EF potato lines suggest that they are associated with resistance to low Fe supply stress.

  11. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  12. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  13. Two-orbital model for CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    We describe a two-orbital tight-binding model with bases belonging to the Γ8 quartet. It captures several characteristics of the Fermiology unravelled by the recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopic (ARPES) measurements on cerium hexaboride CeB6 samples cleaved along different high-symmetry crystallographic directions, which includes the ellipsoid-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) with major axes directed along Γ-X. We calculate various multipolar susceptibilities within the model and identify the susceptibility that shows the strongest divergence in the presence of standard onsite Coulomb interactions and discuss its possible implication and relevance with regard to the signature of strong ferromagnetic correlations existent in various phases as shown by the recent experiments.

  14. Comparison of the protective effectiveness of NPQ in Arabidopsis plants deficient in PsbS protein and zeaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Maxwell A; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    The efficiency of protective energy dissipation by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in photosystem II (PSII) has been recently quantified by a new non-invasive photochemical quenching parameter, qPd. PSII yield (ФPSII) was expressed in terms of NPQ, and the extent of damage to the reaction centres (RCIIs) was calculated via qPd as: ФPSII=qPd×(F v/F m)/{1+[1-(F v/F m)]×NPQ}. Here this approach was used to determine the amount of NPQ required to protect all PSII reaction centres (pNPQ) under a gradually increasing light intensity, in the zeaxanthin-deficient (npq1) Arabidopsis mutant, compared with PsbS protein-deficient (npq4) and wild-type plants. The relationship between maximum pNPQ and tolerated light intensity for all plant genotypes followed similar trends. These results suggest that under a gradually increasing light intensity, where pNPQ is allowed to develop, it is only the amplitude of pNPQ which is the determining factor for protection. However, the use of a sudden constant high light exposure routine revealed that the presence of PsbS, not zeaxanthin, offered better protection for PSII. This was attributed to a slower development of pNPQ in plants lacking PsbS in comparison with plants that lacked zeaxanthin. This research adds further support to the value of pNPQ and qPd as effective parameters for assessing NPQ effectiveness in different types of plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Plant nutrient deficiencies and related tissue composition of the sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, J.A.; Ahmad, N.

    The visual symptoms which appear in sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, under conditions of deficiency of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium and iron are described. These symptoms were produced by growth of two node cuttings in sand culture. Results of tissue analysis for three harvests during the growth period are also presented. 7 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Diagnostics of nitrogen deficiency in mini-cucumber plant by near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Shi Ji-yong1, Zou Xiao-bo1*, Zhao Jie-wen1, Mao Han-ping2, Wang Kai-liang1,. Chen Zheng-wei1 and Huang Xiao-wei1 ... nutrition status by analysing the colour of leaf images captured with a conventional digital camera ... deficiencies by digital color image technology. Mistele et al. (2008) found spectral ...

  17. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sublibraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 and 1999 updates includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for H-1,H-2,He-3,C-12,N-14,O-16,Al-27,P-31,Ca40,Nb-93 and Isotopes of Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, W, Pb, needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 40.0 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  18. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  19. DEFICIENCY OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN YOUNG PLANTS OF SANGRA D ÁGUA (Croton urucurana, Baill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Mendes Sorreano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study had the following objectives: to induce and describe symptoms of deficiency of boron (B, copper (Cu, iron(Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn, determining the effect on the mineral composition of leaves. The experimentwas developed in a green house and used diagnosis technique by subtraction. The experimental design usedn was a randomizedblocks, with seven treatments and three replicates. It was verified that micronutrient omission led to morphological alterations which,in turn, caused visual symptoms. The symptoms caused by the omission of Cu, Mn and Zn were the first to appear, and were followedby those of B, Fe and Mo. The omission of B, Mn and Zn was responsible for the more pronounced reduction in height and stemdiameter.

  20. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests a similar phenomenon exist in the humans.

  1. Regioselective Synthesis of Procyanidin B6, A 4-6-Condensed (+-Catechin Dimer, by Intramolecular Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Higashino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+-catechin-(4-6-(+-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The 5-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS group of 5,7,3′4′-tetra-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin was regioselectively removed using trifluoroacetic acid, leading to the “regio-controlled” synthesis of procyanidin B6. The 5-hydroxyl group of the 7,3′,4′-tri-O-TBDMS-(+-catechin nucleophile and the 3-hydroxyl group of 5,7,3′,4′-tetra-O-benzylated-(+-catechin electrophile were connected with an azelaic acid. The subsequent SnCl4-catalyzed intramolecular condensation proceeded smoothly to give the 4-6-condensed catechin dimer. This is the first report on the complete regioselective synthesis of a 4-6-connected oligomer without modifying the 8-position.

  2. Characterization of visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiencys of “salada” group tomato plants Caracterização de sintomas visuais de deficiência de micronutrientes em tomateiro do grupo salada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Azevedo Nolasco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies of tomato plants. A greenhouse experiment with nutrient solutions was used with “Salada” group tomato hybrid plants. Treatments were as follows: complete, minus B, minus Zn, minus Mn, minus Mo, minus Fe, and minus Cu. Except the omission of Cu, the other omissions resulted in morphological alteration with peculiar symptoms.  The symptoms firstly and had when either Fe or Zn was deficient. Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo and B. The Zn deficiency caused fruit cracking and the B omition caused blossom-end rotEste experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia – Vitória da Conquista com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiência de micronutrientes em um híbrido de tomateiro do grupo salada, cultivado em solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram: completo, omissão de B, omissão de Zn, omissão de Mn, omissão de Mo, omissão de Fe e omissão de Cu. Com exceção da omissão de Cu, as demais omissões resultaram em alterações morfológicas com sintomas característicos. Os sintomas ocorreram primeiramente, e com maior intensidade nas deficiências de Fe e Zn. A seqüência de surgimento de sintomas foi a seguinte: Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, B. A deficiência de Zn promoveu a rachadura no fruto e de B promoveu a podridão apical do fruto de tomate.

  3. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, J.S.; Farag, M.A.; Paré, P.W.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative effect on herbivores and others that act indirectly by attracting natural enemies of herbivores. In this study we asked if a common jasmonate-signalling pathway links the regulation of direct and indirect

  4. Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.D.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB 6 powder is discussed. The method is especially suitable for preparing single-crystal LaB 6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). 1 figure, 1 table

  5. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338879250; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310926556; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for

  6. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and A. radiobacter K84 to Tomato Root Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Penalver, R.; Serra, M. T.; Duran-Vila, N.; Lopez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens B6 and the avirulent Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 attached to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips, but the binding of strain B6 to root tips was greater than the binding of strain K84. Strain K84 was not able to block the attachment of A. tumefaciens B6 to in vitro-cultured tomato root tips.

  7. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio study of the doubly antiaromatic B(6) (2-) dianion in the LiB(6) (-) cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2005-02-01

    A metal-boron mixed cluster LiB(6) (-) was produced and characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. A number of electronic transitions were observed and used to compare with theoretical calculations. An extensive search for the global minimum of LiB(6) (-) was carried out via an ab initio genetic algorithm technique. The pyramidal C(2v) ((1)A(1)) molecule was found to be the most stable at all levels of theory. The nearest low-lying isomer was found to be a triplet C(2) ((3)B) structure, 9.2 kcal/mol higher in energy. Comparison of calculated detachment transitions from LiB(6) (-) and the experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the C(2v) pyramidal global minimum structure. Natural population calculation revealed that LiB(6) (-) is a charge-transfer complex, Li(+)B(6) (2-), in which Li(+) and B(6) (2-) interact in a primarily ionic manner. Analyses of the molecular orbitals and chemical bonding of B(6) (2-) showed that the planar cluster is twofold (pi- and sigma-) antiaromatic, which can be viewed as the fusion of two aromatic B(3) (-) units.

  9. Role of polymorphic human CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-J; Yasar, U; Lundgren, S; Griskevicius, L; Terelius, Y; Hassan, M; Rane, A

    2003-01-01

    The role of polymorphic CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide (CPA) bioactivation was investigated in human liver microsomes. A total of 67 human liver specimens were first genotyped with respect to the CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 variant alleles. CYP2B6 apoprotein levels in 55 liver microsomal preparations were assessed by immunoblotting. 4-Hydroxy-CPA and hydroxy-bupropion were quantified by using HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. 7-Ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin O-deethylase activity was measured fluorometrically. The frequencies of CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 mutant alleles were 9.0 and 16.4%, respectively. CYP2B6 protein expression was detected in 80% of the samples, with a large variation (0.003-2.234, arbitrary units). There was a high correlation between CYP2B6 apoprotein content and CPA 4-hydroxylation (n=55, r=0.81, P<0.0001). When based on the CYP2B6 apoprotein levels, the *6 carriers had significantly higher CPA 4-hydroxylation (P<0.05). CPA 4-hydroxylation also correlated significantly with other CYP2B6-specific reactions (n=20, P<0.0001). V(max) and K(m) for CPA 4-hydroxylation in recombinant CYP2B6 enzyme were 338 nmol/min/nmol enzyme and 1.4 mM, respectively. CYP2B6 showed much higher in vitro intrinsic clearance than previously observed in recombinant CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 variants in yeast expression system. Our results demonstrate that the polymorphic CYP2B6 is a major enzyme in the bioactivation of CPA. Moreover, we identified a strong impact of CYP2B6*6 on CPA 4-hydroxylation.

  10. Partial kinetoplast-mitochondrial gene organization and expression in the respiratory deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, D A; Nawathean, P; Scheel, J

    1999-04-30

    In plant-dwelling trypanosomatids from the genus Phytomonas, mitochondrial functions, such as cytochrome mediated respiration, ATP production and Krebs cycle, are missing, and cell energetics is based on the glycolysis. Using Blue Native/Tricine-SDS two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis, we observed that mitochondrial respiratory Complexes III (cytochrome bc1) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) were absent in Phytomonas serpens; however, Complex V (ATPase) was present. A deletion of the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COIII) and apocytochrome b (Cyb) was identified within the 6234 bp sequenced region of the 31 kb maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Genes, found in this region, include 12S and 9S ribosomal RNAs, subunits 7, 8 and 9 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND7, ND8 and ND9) and subunit 6 of ATPase (A6 or MURF4), as well as the genes (MURF1, MURF5 and G3) with unknown function. Most genes are actively transcribed and some mRNAs are edited. Fully edited mRNAs for A6 and G3 were abundant, while edited ND7 transcripts were rare, and only partially edited and pre-edited transcripts for ND8 were detected. The data show that the mitochondrial genome of P. serpens is functional, although its functions may be limited to expressing the ATPase and, possibly, NADH dehydrogenase complexes.

  11. Dietary intake of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 and the vitamin B-6 nutritional status of unsupplemented lactating women and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D; Moser-Veillon, P B; Howard, M P

    1989-11-01

    The mean dietary intakes of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6, determined from analysis of 3-d diet composites collected from 30 lactating women, were 8.63 +/- 4.04 and 1.33 +/- 0.85 mumol/d (mean +/- SD), respectively. A comparison of linear regression models that either included or excluded dietary glycosylated vitamin B-6 content indicates that the intake of glycosylated vitamin B-6 had little, if any, effect upon maternal plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration and maternal urinary excretion of total vitamin B-6 and 4-pyridoxic acid. On the basis of guidelines from the literature for evaluating biochemical indices of vitamin B-6 nutriture, the women appeared to be consuming adequate amounts of the vitamin. The mean breast-milk concentrations of total and glycosylated vitamin B-6 were 733 and 18 nmol/L, respectively. Infant plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration was 54 +/- 44 nmol/L (mean +/- SD) and all infants had lengths and weights appropriate for age.

  12. Electronic, thermodynamics and mechanical properties of LaB6 from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Medukh, N. R.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid

    2018-02-01

    Up to date, the electronic structure properties of amorphous lanthanum hexaboride, a-LaB6, were not yet investigated, and the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (c-LaB6) were studied incompletely. The goal of this work was to fill these gaps in the study of lanthanum hexaborides. The electronic and phonon structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of both crystalline and amorphous lanthanum hexaborides (c-LaB6, a-LaB6, respectively) were investigated within the density functional theory. An amorphyzation of c-LaB6 gives rise to the metal - semiconductor transition. The thermal conductivity decreases on going from c-LaB6 to a-LaB6. The elastic moduli, hardness, ideal tensile and shear strengths of a-LaB6 are significantly lower compared to those of the crystalline counterpart, despite the formation of the icosahedron-like boron network in the amorphous phase. For c-LaB6, the stable boron octahedrons are preserved after the failure under tensile and shear strains. The peculiarity in the temperature dependence of heat capacity, Cp(T), at 50 K is explained by the availability of a sharp peak at 100 cm-1 in the phonon density of states of c-LaB6. An analysis of the Fermi surface indicates that this peak is not related to the shape of the Fermi surface, and is caused by the vibration of lanthanum atoms. In the phonon spectrum of a-LaB6, the peak at 100 cm-1 is significantly broader than in the spectrum of c-LaB6, for which reason the anomaly in the Cp(T) dependence of a-LaB6 does not appear. The calculated characteristics are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer confers fermentative metabolism in the respiratory-deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienne, Susan; Pappas, Georgios; Benabdellah, Karim; González, Antonio; Zingales, Bianca

    2012-04-01

    Among trypanosomatids, the genus Phytomonas is the only one specifically adapted to infect plants. These hosts provide a particular habitat with a plentiful supply of carbohydrates. Phytomonas sp. lacks a cytochrome-mediated respiratory chain and Krebs cycle, and ATP production relies predominantly on glycolysis. We have characterised the complete gene encoding a putative pyruvate/indolepyruvate decarboxylase (PDC/IPDC) (548 amino acids) of P. serpens, that displays high amino acid sequence similarity with phytobacteria and Leishmania enzymes. No orthologous PDC/IPDC genes were found in Trypanosoma cruzi or T. brucei. Conservation of the PDC/IPDC gene sequence was verified in 14 Phytomonas isolates. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Phytomonas protein is robustly monophyletic with Leishmania spp. and C. fasciculata enzymes. In the trees this clade appears as a sister group of indolepyruvate decarboxylases of γ-proteobacteria. This supports the proposition that a horizontal gene transfer event from a donor phytobacteria to a recipient ancestral trypanosome has occurred prior to the separation between Phytomonas, Leishmania and Crithidia. We have measured the PDC activity in P. serpens cell extracts. The enzyme has a Km value for pyruvate of 1.4mM. The acquisition of a PDC, a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation, explains earlier observations that ethanol is one of the major end-products of glucose catabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This represents an alternative and necessary route to reoxidise part of the NADH produced in the highly demanding glycolytic pathway and highlights the importance of this type of event in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for nitrogen fixation and its application to improve plant growth under nitrogen-deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops.

  15. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for nitrogen fixation and its application to improve plant growth under nitrogen-deficient conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Setten

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops.

  16. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for Nitrogen Fixation and its Application to Improve Plant Growth under Nitrogen-Deficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops. PMID:23675499

  17. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  18. Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesel, Andreas J.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B 6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B 6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H 2 O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2 ' C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2 ' C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV

  19. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  20. Changes in iron and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris plants in response to iron resupply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Ajmi; Morales, Fermín; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of Fe resupply on the composition of the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of Fe-deficient sugar beet plants were investigated. Experiments were carried out in growth chambers with plants grown in hydroponics, and Fe resupply to Fe-deficient plants was carried out by adding 45muM Fe(III)-EDTA to the nutrient solution. In the short term (within 24h), Fe resupply caused marked changes in the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid composition and in leaf physiological parameters when de novo chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis was still beginning. Major changes included: (i) 10- and 5-fold increases in Fe concentrations in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap, respectively; (ii) marked decreases in the concentrations of organic acids in apoplastic fluid, but not in xylem sap and (iii) large decreases in the citrate/Fe ratios, both in apoplastic fluid and in xylem sap. Two to four days after Fe resupply, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid Fe and organic acid concentrations and pH reached values similar to those obtained in Fe-sufficient leaves. Leaf mesophyll ferric chelate-reductase (FC-R) activities and photosynthetic rates increased gradually during recovery from Fe deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin B6 nutriture of children with acute celiac disease, celiac disease in remission, and of children with normal duodenal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinken, L; Zieglauer, H; Berger, H

    1976-07-01

    Patients with adult celiac disease excrete abnormal amounts of tryptophan metabolites after loading with this amino acid, suggesting vitamin B6 deficienty in these patients, In fact, the excretion of tryptophan metabolites returns to normal after administration of vitamin B6. The vitamin B6 nutriture was measured by means of determination of pyridoxal phosphate and activity of pyridoxalkinase in serum and in duodenal mucosa of 14 children with acute celiac disease and of six children with celiac disease in clinical and biochemical remission. Ten children with normal duodenal mucosa were studied as controls. Children with celiac disease had significantly decreased pyridoxal phosphate in serum and in duodenal mucosa when compared both with children in remission and controls. Activity of pyridoxalkinase, however, was significantly increased in serum and in duodenal mucosa when compared with controls but not when compared with children in remission. These children had the same increase in pyridoxalkinase activity as children with acute celiac disease. These data provide a strong evidence for the occurrence of vitamin B6 deficienty in children with acute celiac disease. The children with celiac disease in remission still had an increased activity of pyridoxalkinase which seems to be a compensating mechanism in consequence of vitamin B6 deficiency prior to the gluten-free diet.

  2. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  4. Nutritionally relevant supplementation of vitamin B6 in lactating women: effect on plasma prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Howard, M P; Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D

    1985-11-01

    Pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 administered to lactating women have been reported to suppress plasma prolactin. As a result, some physicians have recommended restriction of vitamin B6 intake for lactating women. In the present investigation, 20 lactating women were given supplemental doses of vitamin B6, 0.5 to 4.0 mg/d, beginning 24 hours after delivery. Plasma prolactin, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations were determined during the first 9 months postpartum. Women receiving the supplement of 4.0 mg compared with 0.5 mg of vitamin B6 per day had significantly higher plasma pyridoxal phosphate (P less than .01) and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations (P less than .05) beginning at 1 month postpartum and continuing through the duration of the study. Plasma prolactin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. The percentage of all women, regardless of treatment, in whom lactation persisted at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months were 100%, 100%, 100%, 90%, 80%, and 65%, respectively. All women who ceased to lactate during the study reported doing so by choice. Nutritionally relevant doses of vitamin B6 elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate and breast milk total vitamin B6 concentrations of lactating women without reducing plasma prolactin concentration or halting lactation.

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  6. Ordering and Fluctuation of Quantum Multipoles in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of multipolar fluctuations on the quadrupolar phase transition in CeB 6 is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the fluctuations become strong and field-dependent, reflecting the competition of coupled multipolar interactions. Some unusual phenomena around the transition in CeB 6 are shown to be reasonably explained within the RKKY model. (author)

  7. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  8. Effects of maternal dietary restriction in vitamin B-6 on neocortex development in rats: B-6 vitamer concentrations, volume and cell estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, S M; Kirksey, A

    1987-06-01

    Influence of the time of maternal restriction in dietary vitamin B-6 on vitamer concentrations and morphological development of neocortex was examined. Rats were fed ad libitum a vitamin B-6-free diet supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine X hydrochloride (PN X HCl)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control diet (7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg) during lactation or were supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. During postweaning offspring received the maternal diets fed during lactation. Neocortices of offspring were examined at 30 d of age by liquid chromatography and light microscopy. Vitamin restriction during gestation and 30 d postnatal was the only vitamin B-6-restricted treatment of the three administered that altered B-6 vitamer levels in neocortex; all vitamers were depressed equally. Brain weight and volume of neocortex were not changed significantly by the maternal restrictions imposed. However, each restriction adversely affected neurogenesis and neuron longevity of the neocortex and when expressed as percent reduction from control, neuron longevity was affected more severely than neurogenesis.

  9. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  10. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  11. Reaction of LaB6 with MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordan'yan, S.S.; Gardagina, E.N.; Barabanova, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation results of interaction in LaB 6 -MoSi 2 system within wide concentration and temperature ranges are presented. LaB 6 and MoSi 2 powders were preliminary squeezed out in vacuum at 1470 K. Presence of LaB 6 and MoSi 2 initial phases only is determined using X-ray pahse analysis of sintered and melted specimens of all compositions. Traces of MoB (probably, due to quick crystallization after melting and partial evaporation of silicon from the melt) are detected in some alloys exposed to melting

  12. Local symmetry breaking in Eu1-xLaxB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, In-Sang; Seo, C.W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, J.Y.; Cho, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    We report inelastic light (Raman) scattering study of Eu 1-x La x B 6 (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3). As La is doped, the T 2g mode becomes broad and asymmetric, the E g mode splits into doublet, and the A 1g mode shifts to higher frequencies, while the undoped EuB 6 show sharp three phonon peaks, T 2g , E g , and A 1g modes. There are around six possible phonon peaks in the Raman spectra of La-doped EuB 6 . These additional peaks are explained by symmetry lowering of boron octahedra due to tilting/rotating

  13. [Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málaga, Germán; Gayoso, Oscar; Lazo, María de Los Angeles; Torres, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  14. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    Life style associated diseases such as type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease originate form an adaptive immune response, which can be down regulated by a regulatory immune response and are under heavy stimulation from early life gut microbiota (GM). Today...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  16. Vitamin B-6 deficiency is common and associated with poor long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minovic, Isidor; Riphagen, Ineke J.; van den Berg, Else; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; van Faassen, Martijn; Neto, Antonio W. Gomes; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Navis, Gerjan J.; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported low circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5-phospate (PLP) in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). It is unknown whether this is because of low intake or altered handling, and it is also unknown whether variation in circulating concentrations of PLP

  17. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  18. Doping-induced redistribution of magnetic spectral weight in the substituted hexaborides Ce1 -xLaxB6 and Ce1 -xNdxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. E.; Portnichenko, P. Y.; Dukhnenko, A. Â. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Qiu, Y.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Ollivier, J.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the doping-induced changes in the electronic structure of CeB6 on a series of substituted Ce1 -xRxB6 samples (R =La , Nd) using diffuse neutron scattering. We observe a redistribution of magnetic spectral weight across the Brillouin zone, which we associate with the changes in the Fermi-surface nesting properties related to the modified charge carrier concentration. In particular, a strong diffuse peak at the corner of the Brillouin zone (R point), which coincides with the propagation vector of the elusive antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) order in CeB6, is rapidly suppressed by both La and Nd doping, like the AFQ order itself. The corresponding spectral weight is transferred to the X (00 1/2 ) point, ultimately stabilizing a long-range AFM order at this wave vector at the Nd-rich side of the phase diagram. At an intermediate Nd concentration, a broad diffuse peak with multiple local maxima of intensity is observed around the X point, evidencing itinerant frustration that gives rise to multiple ordered phases for which Ce1 -xNdxB6 is known. On the La-rich side of the phase diagram, however, dilution of the magnetic moments prevents the formation of a similar (00 1/2 ) -type order despite the presence of nesting. Our results demonstrate how diffuse neutron scattering can be used to probe the nesting vectors in complex f -electron systems directly, without reference to the single-particle band structure, and emphasize the role of Fermi surface geometry in stabilizing magnetic order in rare-earth hexaborides.

  19. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in methadone metabolism and clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Stubbert, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Methadone N-demethylation in vitro is catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, but clinical disposition is often attributed to CYP3A4. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP2B6 is a prominent CYP isoform responsible for clinical methadone N-demethylation and clearance, using the in vivo mechanism-based CYP2B6 inhibitor ticlopidine, given orally for 4 days. A preliminary clinical investigation with the CYP3A4/5 substrate probe alfentanil established that ticlopidine did not inhibit intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4/5. Subjects received intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) racemic methadone before and after ticlopidine. Ticlopidine significantly and stereoselectively (S>R) inhibited methadone N-demethylation, decreasing plasma metabolite/methadone area under the curve ratios and metabolite formation clearances. Ticlopidine also significantly increased the dose-adjusted plasma area under the curve for R- and S-methadone by 20% and 60%, respectively, after both intravenous and oral dosing. CYP2B6 inhibition reduces methadone N-demethylation and clearance, and alters methadone concentrations, demonstrating a predominant role for CYP2B6 in clinical methadone disposition. PMID:23361846

  20. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  1. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  2. Effect of short-term salt stress on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes activity in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, N M; Vasylyk, Y V; Lushchak, O V; Lushchak, V I

    2012-01-01

    Changes of carotenoids and anthocyanins content, lipid peroxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were studied in wild type and tocopherol-deficient lines vte1 and vte4 of Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to 200 mM NaCI during 24 h. The salt stress enhanced the intensity of lipid peroxidation to different extent in all three plant lines. Salt stress resulted in an increase of carotenoid content and activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione reductase in wild type and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant. However, the increase in anthocyanins concentration was observed in vte1 mutants only. In vte4 mutant, which contain gamma-tocopherol instead of alpha-tocopherol, the response to salt stress occurred via coordinative action of superoxide dismutase and enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in particular, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. It can be concluded, that salt stress was accompanied by oxidative stress in three studied lines, however different mechanisms involved in adaptation of wild type and tocopherol-deficient lines to salt stress.

  3. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis analysis of vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiao; Yang, Zhixian; Wu, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yuehua; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis in a cohort of children with vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms. Ten patients were diagnosed as vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms in Peking University First Hospital between January 2012 and May 2015.The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment process, video-electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), epilepsy related genes and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 10 patients, 5 were male, and 5 were female. Eight of them were normal at birth, and the other 2 patients had intracranial hemorrhage or anoxia.The age of epilepsy onset was from 3.5 to 8.0 months.All patients presented spasms primarily.Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) showed hypsarrhythmia at seizures onset. MRI showed normal in 8 patients, and subarachnoid hemorrhage or multiple encephalomalacia foci after hemorrhage respectively in the other 2 patients. The results of blood biochemical, cerebrospinal fluid examination and urinary metabolic screening were negative. Epilepsy related genes including ALDH7A1 gene analysis showed wild type in all patients. Two patients were classified as symptomatic and eight might be idiopathic or cryptogenic. The initial dose of vitamin B6 was 10.0 mg/(kg·d). The interval between seizures onset and taking vitamin B6 was 0 to 4.0 months. Seizures disappeared completely within a week after administration of vitamin B6 in 9 patients and in 1.5 months in one patient.Of the 8 patients whose seizures were controlled completely during the follow-up period, 7 patients' EEG recovered within 1.5 to 4.0 months and then continued to be normal. The EEG of the rest of a patient returned to normal, but showed abnormal discharges after stopping taking vitamin B6. Two patients' EEG continued abnormal and seizures recurred due to vitamin B6 withdrawal. At the last follow-up, seizures were controlled in all patients. Drug treatment in one case had stopped. Vitamin B6 was used in 9

  4. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  5. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  6. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  7. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  8. A Complex Interplay of Vitamin B1 and B6 Metabolism with Cognition, Brain Structure, and Functional Connectivity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jannusch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks. We thus assessed the relation between blood levels of vitamins B1 and B6 and cognitive performance, cortical folding, and functional resting-state connectivity in a large sample of older adults (N > 600; age: 55–85 years, drawn from the population-based 1000BRAINS study. In addition to blood sampling, subjects underwent structural and functional resting-state neuroimaging as well as extensive neuropsychological testing in the domains of executive functions, (working memory, attention, and language. Brain regions showing changes in the local gyrification index as calculated using FreeSurfer in relation to vitamin levels were used for subsequent seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis. For B6, a positive correlation with local cortical folding was found throughout the brain, while only slight changes in functional connectivity were observed. Contrarily, for B1, a negative correlation with cortical folding as well as problem solving and visuo-spatial working memory performance was found, which was accompanied by pronounced increases of interhemispheric and decreases of intrahemispheric functional connectivity. While the effects for B6 expand previous knowledge on beneficial effects of B6 supplementation on brain structure, they also showed that additional effects on cognition might not be recognizable in

  9. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  10. Homocysteine, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 blood levels in relation to cognitive performance: the Maine-Syracuse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A; Budge, Marc M; Elias, Penelope K; Brennan, Suzanne L; Johnston, Carole; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Bates, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to examine associations among plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), the tHcy-cofactors (folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and multiple domains of cognitive performance, with statistical adjustment for possible confounds, including cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Subjects were 812 participants (58% women) of the Maine-Syracuse study who were free of dementia and stroke. Employing a cross-sectional design and multiple regression analyses, fasting concentrations of tHcy and its vitamin cofactors (folate, B6, and B12) were related to multiple domains of cognitive performance. With adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, and the vitamins, tHcy was inversely associated with visual-spatial organization, working memory, scanning-tracking, and abstract reasoning. The same results were found with adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, CVD-RF, and CVD. Vitamin cofactors were positively related to cognitive performance, but with adjustment for CVD-RF and CVD, only vitamin B6 was related to multiple cognitive domains. The inverse association of tHcy with multiple domains of cognitive functioning is not necessarily dependent on vitamin levels, vitamin deficiency, prevalent CVD risk factors, and manifest CVD. Serum folate, serum B12, and plasma B6 vitamin concentrations are positively associated with cognitive performance. Investigation of other possible mechanisms (e.g., tHcy neurotoxicity) mediating tHcy associations with cognitive performance is important, as are clinical trials examining the efficacy of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 for maintenance of cognitive functioning.

  11. Radiative decay of 4d94f/sup n+1/ excited states in LaB6 and CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, K.; Nisawa, A.; Tsutsumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    The N/sub 4,5/ emission spectra of LaB 6 and CeB 6 were measured to investigate the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states, where n is the number of 4f electrons in the ground state. These spectra show an intense and broad emission peak above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold in addition to sharp peaks below the threshold. The energy positions of these emission peaks are compared with those of the peaks in the absorption spectra and the existing results of resonant photoemission. The comparison shows that the fine structure below the threshold coincides in energy with the multiplet structures in the absorption spectrum, and that the intense emission peak is located in the energy region where the electron-emission peak due to the direct recombination of the 4f electron with the 4d hole has been observed in resonant photoemission. The peaks observed in the energy region below and above the N/sub 4,5/ threshold are attributed to the radiative decay of the 4d 9 4f/sup n+1/ excited states

  12. Supplementing vitamin B6 to a low vitamin B6 diet exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in DMBA-treated hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Xu, Yonghui; Monttinen, Elise Saiz; Kato, Norihisa

    2008-06-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated hairless mice exposed to UVB radiation were used to examine the effect of graded levels of vitamin B(6) [1, 7 or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg] on skin tumorigenesis for 18 wk. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 35 mg PN HCl/kg diet significantly elevated the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors, while there was no difference in skin tumorigenesis between the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets. Skin levels of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls) were unaffected by dietary treatment. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets significantly elevated serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) without affecting the skin level of PLP. The results suggest that dietary supplemental vitamin B(6) exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in hairless mice without affecting oxidative stress in the skin.

  13. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-10-01

    The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20-30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0-4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4-8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8-12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12-16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals.

  14. Prospective cohort studies of vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer incidence: modification by time?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Lee, Jung Eun; Ma, Jing; Je, Youjin; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relation between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer risk remains uncertain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether a higher vitamin B-6 intake in the remote past is more strongly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer than is an intake in the recent past in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We assessed vitamin B-6 intake every 4 y by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and followed 86,440 women and 44,410 men for ≤28 y. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable RRs and 95% CIs. Results: The total vitamin B-6 intake was significantly associated with an ∼20–30% lower risk of colorectal cancer in age-adjusted results, but this association became attenuated and nonsignificant after additional adjustment for nondietary and dietary factors. When the highest to lowest quintiles of cumulative total vitamin B-6 intake were compared, RRs (95% CIs) for colorectal cancer were 0.99 (0.80, 1.24; P-trend = 0.55) for women and 0.95 (0.73, 1.23; P-trend = 0.75) for men. For the same comparison, RRs were 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) for total vitamin B-6 intake 0–4 y before diagnosis, 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) for intake 4–8 y before diagnosis, 0.92 (0.71, 1.21) for intake 8–12 y before diagnosis, and 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) for intake 12–16 y before diagnosis in women. Corresponding RRs for men were 0.86 (0.63, 1.17), 0.96 (0.70, 1.32), 0.90 (0.63, 1.29), and 1.16 (0.75, 1.79). Results did not differ by cancer subsite, source of vitamin B-6 (food or supplement), alcohol consumption, or folate intake. Conclusion: Our data do not support a strong role of adulthood vitamin B-6 intake in colorectal carcinogenesis in these US health professionals. PMID:22875713

  15. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  16. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Trevor H; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F; Clausen, Mads H; Stark, Ruth E; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-03-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids; however, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL superfamily. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Matte, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and...

  18. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  19. Magnetic field dependence of the correlation gap in SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J. C.; Aronson, M. C.; Lacerda, A.; Canfield, P. C.; Fisk, Z.

    1994-06-01

    We have used magnetoresistance measurements to probe the effect of large magnetic fields on the stability of the electronic gap Delta in SmB6. Although the Zeeman splitting in a 18 Telsa field is comparable to the ambient pressure Delta, and even exceeds Delta at 56 kbar, Delta is in both cases almost completely unaffected by the magnetic field.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and use of monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceps-Madore, D; Cidlowski, J A; Kittler, J M; Thanassi, J W

    1983-02-25

    Monoclonal antibodies exhibiting various specificities for B6 vitamer forms have been prepared. The antigen preparation employed was a partially purified mixture of human placental proteins that had been derivatized by reaction with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and sodium borohydride. Spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with the phosphopyridoxyl protein preparation were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line designated X63-Ag8.653. The resulting hybridomas were screened for production of antibodies to the haptenic phosphopyridoxyl group using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clones producing such antibodies were isolated by limiting dilution methods. The monoclonal antibodies obtained in this fashion have been characterized with respect to their ability to interact with various forms of vitamin B6. In addition, these antibodies have been shown to be useful in the detection of cellular pyridoxal phosphate binding components using immunoblot techniques. Monoclonal antibodies to vitamin B6 derivatives are potentially powerful tools in the assessment of vitamin B6 nutritional status and in the study of the roles of pyridoxal phosphate binding components in relation to growth, differentiation, carcinogenesis, and steroid hormone action.

  1. Pierce-type electron gun with a large concave LaB6 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tumoru; Ohba, Kunio; Matoba, Masaru; Katase, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A Pierce-type electron gun with a concave cathode of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) 30 mm in diameter is described. At an accelerating voltage of 3 kV and a cathode temperature of 1340 0 C, a focussed electron beam of DC 300 mA was obtained. (author)

  2. 42 CFR 52b.6 - What is the rate of federal financial participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the rate of federal financial participation... GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.6 What is the rate of federal financial participation? (a) Unless otherwise specified by statute, the rate of federal financial participation in a...

  3. Loss of the EPH receptor B6 contributes to colorectal cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bazzocco, Sarah; Rodrigues, Paulo; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Fernández, Yolanda; del Llano, Edgar; Bilic, Josipa; Suárez-López, Lucía; Macaya, Irati; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Jimenez-Flores, Lizbeth M.; de Marcondes, Priscila Guimarães; Nuñez, Yaiza; Afonso, Elsa; Cacci, Karina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Landolfi, Stefania; Abasolo, Ibane; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Arango, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Although deregulation of EPHB signaling has been shown to be an important step in colorectal tumorigenesis, the role of EPHB6 in this process has not been investigated. We found here that manipulation of EPHB6 levels in colon cancer cell lines has no effect on their motility and growth on a solid substrate, soft agar or in a xenograft mouse model. We then used an EphB6 knockout mouse model to show that EphB6 inactivation does not efficiently initiate tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract. In addition, when intestinal tumors are initiated genetically or pharmacologically in EphB6+/+ and EphB6−/− mice, no differences were observed in animal survival, tumor multiplicity, size or histology, and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells or tumor cells. However, reintroduction of EPHB6 into colon cancer cells significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis after tail-vein injection in immunodeficient mice, while EPHB6 knockdown in EPHB6-expressing cells increased their metastatic spread. Consistently, although EPHB6 protein expression in a series of 130 primary colorectal tumors was not associated with patient survival, EPHB6 expression was significantly lower in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors. Our results indicate that the loss of EPHB6 contributes to the metastatic process of colorectal cancer. PMID:28262839

  4. Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2018-03-01

    It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.

  5. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-11-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  6. 32 CFR 806b.6 - Systems of records operated by a contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems of records operated by a contractor... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.6 Systems of records operated by a contractor. Contractors who are required to operate or maintain a Privacy Act system of records by contract...

  7. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng

    1995-01-01

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of K eff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testings of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (4 tabs., 2 figs.)

  8. Prognostic Value of a CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazhary, Nevin M; Shafik, Roxan E; Shafik, Hanan E; Kamel, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study aimed to detect a CYP2B6 polymorphism in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia patients and identify any role in disease progression and outcome. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 82 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia cases and the CYP2B6 G15631T gene polymorphism was assayed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The frequency of the GG genotype (wild type) was 48 (58.5%) and that of the mutant type T allele was 34 (41.9%). GT genotype heterozygous variants were found in 28 (34%), and TT genotype homozygous variants in 6 (7.3%) cases. We found no significant association between the CYP2B6 G15631T polymorphism and complete response (CR) (p-value=0.768), FAB classification (p-value=0.51), cytogenetic analysis (p-value=0.673), and overall survival (p-value=0.325). Also, there were no significant links with early toxic death (p-value=0.92) or progression- free survival (PFS) (p-value=0.245). Our results suggest that the CYP2B6 polymorphism has no role in disease progression, therapeutic outcome, patient free survival, early toxic death and overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

  9. Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek

    Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.

  10. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Krinke, G

    1985-09-01

    In anesthetized dogs with chronically implanted cortical electrodes somatic sensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) were produced by electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation of the tibial nerve at the calcaneus or of the short flexor muscles of the hind paw caused SEPs having characteristics following activation of rapidly conducting afferents from muscle spindles. Stimulation of the glabrous skin of the central pad resulted in SEPs arriving after a more protracted latency evidently related to activation of afferents from Merkel cells, Krause and Pacinian corpuscles known to be located at these sites. Stimulation of the hairy skin from the dorsal surface of the hindpaw produced a further type of SEP presumably resulting from activation of afferents from receptors of tylotrich hair follicles. Vitamin B6-induced neuropathy involves the selective degeneration of the largest neurons in the spinal ganglia and of associated long peripheral and central neurites performing rapid impulse transmission. In the course of vitamin B6 neuropathy the relatively slow impulse transmission following stimulation of the central pad was more severely impaired than the faster one after activation of afferents from muscle spindles or receptors from hair follicles. This allows us to conclude that in the dog afferents from the glabrous skin of the central pad conduct centrally via the dorsal columns, susceptible to vitamin B6 intoxication, while muscle and hair receptor afferents ascend in the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinocervical tract, respectively, which are vitamin B6 resistant.

  11. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody B6.2 in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.F.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Kaplan, W.; Noska, M.; Thor, A.; Colcher, D.; Kufe, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients with metastatic breast carcinoma were given injections of 50-1593 micrograms of 131 I-monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.2 immunoglobulin G and F(ab')2 for pharmacokinetic evaluation and radioimmunoimaging. Blood clearance of the 131 I-MAb-B6.2 was biphasic. The mean half-times (t 1/2 alpha, t 1/2 beta) for the immunoglobulin G were 3.5 +/- 1.7 and 20.9 +/- 11.0 h, respectively. The t 1/2 alpha for the F(ab')2 was 1.7 +/- 1.3 h, and the t 1/2 beta was 31.0 +/- 5.7 h. The percentage of protein bound 131 I for the immunoglobulin G and for the F(ab')2 at 72 h was 73.7 +/- 11.4% and 58.2 +/- 14.5%, respectively. In vitro reactivity of MAb B6.2 with granulocytes isolated from normal subjects and patients was demonstrated by cytofluorometric and radioimmunoassays. MAb B6.2 was shown to bind with normal cross-reacting antigen, a cell surface antigen known to be expressed on normal human granulocytes. Reactivity with normal cross-reacting antigen on granulocytes is consistent with the skeletal images obtained during immunoscintigraphy of all 13 patients. A specific tumor image was observed in one patient. No toxicity was encountered. In spite of extensive preclinical data suggesting that 131 I-MAb B6.2 would be a useful agent for radioimmunoimaging, the clinical utility of this reagent is probably limited because of the reactivity with granulocytes

  13. Production of adipic acid by the native-occurring pathway in Thermobifida fusca B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y; Mao, Y

    2015-10-01

    To identify the native-occurring adipate pathway in a previously engineered Thermobifida fusca B6 strain and optimize the adipic acid production of this strain on glucose and corncob. The native-occurring adipate pathway in T. fusca B6 was identified to be the reverse adipate degradation pathway, including five steps: β-ketothiolase (Tfu_0875), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_2399), 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Tfu_0067), 5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA reductase (Tfu_1647) and succinyl-CoA synthetase (Tfu_2576, Tfu_2577). The cell lysates of T. fusca wild-type strain with the addition of the Tfu_1647 protein produced trace adipic acid, while no adipic acid was produced in the absence of this protein. The above results prove that the low expression of Tfu_1647 in the wild-type strain was the reason why it did not produce any adipic acid. We then demonstrated that in T. fusca B6, the maximal titre of adipic acid on 50 g l(-1) glucose was 2·23 g l(-1) with 0·045 g g(-1) -glucose yield and 0·22 g l(-1) adipic acid was produced from 19·38 g l(-1) milled corncob. The reverse adipate degradation pathway was found to be responsible for the adipate synthesis in T. fusca B6 and Tfu_1647 was the regulatory node on this pathway. Thermobifida fusca B6 was the first reported micro-organism using its native-occurring pathway to accumulate adipic acid. It had the highest reported yield and titre of adipic acid so far. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  15. Prolactin rescues and primes autoreactive B cells directly and indirectly through dendritic cells in B6.Sle3 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Saha, S; Peeva, E

    2013-01-01

    The lupus susceptibility interval Sle3/5 confers responsiveness to prolactin in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and hyperprolactinaemia induces a lupus-like phenotype in B6.Sel3/5 mice. In this study, the immunostimulatory effects of prolactin in B6 mice containing the Sle3 portion of the Sel3/5 interval (B6.Sle3 mice) were dissected. Because of the Sle3 interval's involvement in activation of myeloid cells, the effect of dendritic cells (DCs) from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice on the phenotype of B6 mice was also evaluated. B cells from prolactin-treated B6 and B6.Sle3 mice and from B6 recipients of prolactin-modulated DCs from B6.Sle3 mice were tested for DNA-reactivity and resistance to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules on lymphocytes and myeloid cells was also evaluated. In prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice, transitional type 2 B cells increased while type 1 B cells decreased as a consequence of prolactin-induced resistance to BCR-mediated apoptosis leading to the survival of DNA-reactive B cells. Follicular B cells from prolactin-treated mice expressed increased levels of CD40, B7·2 and IAb, and DCs and monocytes had higher levels of CD44 and B7·2 than placebo-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of DCs from prolactin-treated B6.Sle3 mice to B6 recipients demonstrated the intrinsic ability of prolactin-modulated DCs to induce a development of lupus-like characteristics in B6 mice. Based on these results, prolactin accelerates the breakdown of immune tolerance in B6.Sle3 mice by promoting the survival, maturation and activation of autoreactive B cells, DCs and macrophages. PMID:23574327

  16. Vitamin B6 contributes to disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Jin, Xiaoyi; Ouyang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Bo; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming; Li, Dayong

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B6 (VB6) is an important cofactor for numerous enzymatic reactions and plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance. However, direct molecular evidence supporting a role for VB6 in plant disease resistance remains lacking. In this study, we explored the possible function of VB6 in disease resistance by analyzing disease phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in de novo biosynthetic pathway and salvage pathway of VB6 biosynthesis against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea. Mutations in AtPDX1.2 and AtPDX1.3 genes involved in the de novo pathway, and in AtSOS4 gene involved in the salvage pathway led to increased levels of diseases caused by Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. The pdx1.2 and pdx1.3 plants had reduced VB6 contents and showed a further reduction in VB6 contents after infection by Pst DC3000 or B. cinerea. Our preliminary results suggest an important role for VB6 in plant disease resistance against different types of pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Shumakova, A A; Shipelin, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Khotimchenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received through­out the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were deter­mined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 par­tial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any param­eters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However

  18. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  19. Latest findings about the interplay of auxin, ethylene and nitric oxide in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses by Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, Francisco J; García, María J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Under Fe deficiency, Strategy I (non-graminaceous) plants up-regulate the expression of many Fe acquisition genes and develop morphological changes in their roots. The regulation of these responses is not completely known, but since the 1980's different results suggest a role for auxin, ethylene and, more recently, nitric oxide. The up-regulation of the Fe acquisition genes does not depend solely on these hormones, that would act as activators, but also on some other signals, probably phloem Fe, that would act as an inhibitor. It is not known which of the hormones considered is the last activator of the Fe acquisition genes, but some results suggest that auxin acts upstream of ethylene and NO and that, perhaps, ethylene is the last activator.

  20. Light stress effect and by nitrogen deficiency in plants of Petiveria alliacea measured with two-chlorophyll-fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, H.; Oviedo, A.; Solarte, Efrain; Pena, E. J.

    2004-10-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence was studied in Petiveria alliacea plants exposed to different nitrogen concentrations and light radiation, the response was measured by two different forms; (1) measuring the photosynthetic efficiency with a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometro (PAM) emitted by a 650 nm diode and (2) measuring the fluorescence spectra caused by high power 452 nm diode with a SD2000 spectrometer. It was found out that the photosynthetic efficiency decreased in the plants exposed to high radiance and low nitrogen. Two chlorophyll fluorescence peaks were observed on 684 nm and 739 nm, the intensities in this wavelengths are inversely related with the light radiance. The correlation between the FIR and photosynthetic efficiency was very strong (r2 = -0.809, p Alliacea plants.

  1. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.

    2016-10-01

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  2. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  3. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  4. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  5. Vitamin B6 Is Required for Full Motility and Virulence in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubman, Alexandra; Phillips, Alexandra; Thibonnier, Marie; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Johnson, Chad; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Radcliff, Fiona J.; Ecobichon, Chantal; Labigne, Agnès; de Reuse, Hilde; Mendz, George L.; Ferrero, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of how Helicobacter pylori causes disease, the factors that allow this pathogen to persist in the stomach have not yet been fully characterized. To identify new virulence factors in H. pylori, we generated low-infectivity variants of a mouse-colonizing H. pylori strain using the classical technique of in vitro attenuation. The resulting variants and their highly infectious progenitor bacteria were then analyzed by global gene expression profiling. The gene expression levels of five open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly reduced in low-infectivity variants, with the most significant changes observed for ORFs HP1583 and HP1582. These ORFs were annotated as encoding homologs of the Escherichia coli vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes PdxA and PdxJ. Functional complementation studies with E. coli confirmed H. pylori PdxA and PdxJ to be bona fide homologs of vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes. Importantly, H. pylori PdxA was required for optimal growth in vitro and was shown to be essential for chronic colonization in mice. In addition to having a well-known metabolic role, vitamin B6 is necessary for the synthesis of glycosylated flagella and for flagellum-based motility in H. pylori. Thus, for the first time, we identify vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes as novel virulence factors in bacteria. Interestingly, pdxA and pdxJ orthologs are present in a number of human pathogens, but not in mammalian cells. We therefore propose that PdxA/J enzymes may represent ideal candidates for therapeutic targets against bacterial pathogens. PMID:21151756

  6. Differential amplification of satellite PaB6 in chromosomally hypervariable Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emadzade, K.; Jang, T.S.; Macas, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš; Novák, Petr; Parker, J.; Weiß-Schneeweiss, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 8 (2014), s. 1597-1608 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Hyacinthaceae * PaB6 * pericentric satellite DNA * next-generation sequencing * Prospero autumnale Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BFU-R) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  7. Effect of water deficiency on the cellular status and antioxidant defences in anthyllis sericea. A saharian plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triki, T.; Selmi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is known as an important restricting factor of plant productivity in arid and semi arid areas of the world. The intended increase of temperature in many areas will intensify this problem. In this study the effect of drought stress was studied in a Saharan plant, Anthyllissericea, by Poly-ethylene glycol (PEG-6000) in three different treatments (-0.2 MPa (control), -1.2 MPa (moderate stress) and -2.1 MPa (severe stress)) after 14 days. Nitric oxide (NO) content, Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), RWC, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant levels from the leaves were analyzed. Initially, plant growth, RWC and the water potentiel (/psi/ w) were decreased with increase of osmotic stress. Drought induces the increase of NO and hydrogen peroxide levels reaching maximum in severe stress period. MDA, proline content and soluble sugars were found to be higher under moderate and severe stress conditions. Plant employs enzymatic antioxidant system to avoid the subproduction of (ROS) resulting by drought. The analysis of CAT, APX and POD activities showed a significant increase during drought stress. Under moderate and severe stress treatments, the higher activities of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, NO, CAT and POD showed a stronger system of antioxidant defences in the metabolic regulation during the applied stress. These results propose that A. sericea has the capacity to activate important adaptative mechanisms under dry conditions involving activation of enzymatic antioxidative defense system and higher osmoprotectants accumulation. (author)

  8. Multiple RNA processing defects and impaired chloroplast function in plants deficient in the organellar protein-only RNase P enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhou

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA precursors undergo endoribonucleolytic processing of their 5' and 3' ends. 5' cleavage of the precursor transcript is performed by ribonuclease P (RNase P. While in most organisms RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein that harbors a catalytically active RNA component, human mitochondria and the chloroplasts (plastids and mitochondria of seed plants possess protein-only RNase P enzymes (PRORPs. The plant organellar PRORP (PRORP1 has been characterized to some extent in vitro and by transient gene silencing, but the molecular, phenotypic and physiological consequences of its down-regulation in stable transgenic plants have not been assessed. Here we have addressed the function of the dually targeted organellar PRORP enzyme in vivo by generating stably transformed Arabidopsis plants in which expression of the PRORP1 gene was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi. PRORP1 knock-down lines show defects in photosynthesis, while mitochondrial respiration is not appreciably affected. In both plastids and mitochondria, the effects of PRORP1 knock-down on the processing of individual tRNA species are highly variable. The drastic reduction in the levels of mature plastid tRNA-Phe(GAA and tRNA-Arg(ACG suggests that these two tRNA species limit plastid gene expression in the PRORP1 mutants and, hence, are causally responsible for the mutant phenotype.

  9. Inverse and normal magnetocaloric effects in LaFe12B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect were studied for LaFe 12 B 6 itinerant-electron system, which presents an antiferromagnetic ground state below 36 K. For certain magnetic fields values, LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits a sequence of two successive magnetic transitions: an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition at low temperature followed by a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, leading to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects, respectively. At finite temperatures, both antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic states can be transformed into a ferromagnetic (FM) state via a field-induced metamagnetic transition accompanied with a huge magnetic hysteresis. Moreover, we reveal that, at low temperatures, the magnetization displays abrupt jumps across the first-order AFM-FM transition, giving rise to an unusual and unique staircase-like behavior. LaFe 12 B 6 exhibits both normal magnetocaloric effect around the Curie temperature and large inverse magnetocaloric effect around the AFM-FM transition temperature; for μ 0 ΔH = 7 T, ΔS M is found to be −6.8 and 19 J kg −1  K −1 around 38 and 8 K, respectively.

  10. Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulating SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    There has been renewed interest in Samarium Hexaboride, which is a strongly correlated heavy Fermion material. Hybridization between itinerant electrons and localized orbitals lead to an opening of charge gap at low temperature. However, the resistivity of SmB6 does not diverge at low temperature. Former studies suggested that this residual conductance is contributed by various origins. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the particular symmetry of energy bands of SmB6 may host a topologically non-trivial surface state, i.e., a topological Kondo insulator. To probe the Fermiology of the possible metallic surface state, we use sensitive torque magnetometry to detect the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect due to Landau level quantization on flux-grown crystals, down to He-3 temperature and up to 45 Tesla. Our angular and temperature dependent data suggest two-dimensional Fermi Surfaces lie in both crystalline (001) and (101) surface planes of SmB6.

  11. The triple synergy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, magnesium, and vitamin B6: Molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the triple effect of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS, organic magnesium salt (magnesium lactate, and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine.Material and methods. A systematic analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the triple synergic action of EMHPS, magnesium, and vitamin B6 was carried out. For chemoinformational analysis, the investigators developed a new mathematical method based on the combinatorial theory of solvability, which allows one to obtain quantitative estimates of the affinity constants of proteome proteins.Results. The pharmacological effects of the EMHPS molecule characterized by nootropic and antioxidant properties are shown to work in synergy with magnesium and vitamin B6. A systematic analysis of synergy interactions indicated 46 biological roles, in which the synergy of EMHPS, magnesium, and pyridoxine could be manifested. The main goals of this synergy are to protect neurons from damage, by combating excitotoxicity in the cells and to neutralize excess homocysteine (to reduce the risk of ischemic and thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary heart disease; to improve cognitive functions and neuromuscular transmission, to reduce anxiety, by activating acetylcholine, GABA, and dopamine receptors; to normalize lipid and glucose metabolism, by lowering hyperglycemia and improving the processing of fats.

  12. Tell-Tale SNPs: The Role of CYP2B6 in Methadone Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Taha; Sabet, Samie; Primerano, Donald A; Richards-Waugh, Lauren L; Rankin, Gary O

    2017-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 2B6 plays a significant role in the stereo-selective metabolism of (S)-methadone to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, an inactive methadone metabolite. Elevated (S)-methadone can cause cardiotoxicity by prolonging the QT interval of the heart's electrical cycle. Large inter-individual variability of methadone pharmacokinetics causes discordance in the relationship between dose, plasma concentrations and side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the CYP2B6 gene contributes to a poor metabolizer phenotype for methadone in these fatal cases. The genetic analysis was conducted on 125 Caucasian methadone-only fatalities obtained from the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. The frequency of eight exonic and intronic SNPs (rs2279344, rs3211371, rs3745274, rs4803419, rs8192709, rs8192719, rs12721655 and rs35979566) was determined. The frequencies of SNPs rs3745274 (*9, c516G > T, Q172H), and rs8192719 (21563 C > T) were enhanced in the methadone-only group. Higher blood methadone concentrations were observed in individuals who were genotyped homozygous for SNP rs3211371 (*5, c1459C > T, R487C). These results indicate that these three CYP2B6 SNPs are associated with methadone fatalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. High Pressure Study of Electrical Resistivity of CeB6 to 136 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzani, Neda; Lim, Jinhyuk; Schilling, James; Fabbris, Gilberto; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1960's the dense Kondo compound cerium hexaboride (CeB6) has attracted a great deal of interest. To investigate whether this material might evolve into a topological insulator under sufficient pressure, we have carried out four-point electrical resistivity measurements on CeB6 over the temperature range 1.3 K to 295 K in a diamond anvil cell to 136 GPa. Although a transition into an insulating phase is not observed, the evolution of the initial dense Kondo state under such extreme pressures is of considerable interest. As reported in earlier studies to 13 GPa, the temperature of the resistivity maximum near 3 K initially increases with pressure. We observe that between 33 and 53 GPa the resistivity maximum disappears and by 83 GPa CeB6 appears to have settled into a Fermi liquid state. The marked changes observed under pressure suggest that a change in valence and/or a structural transition may have occurred. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements are being carried out to investigate possible changes in crystal structure under extreme pressures. Work at Washington Univ. supported by NSF DMR-1104742 and Carnegie/DOE/NNSA DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  14. DNA ligase 1 deficient plants display severe growth defects and delayed repair of both DNA single and double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Clifford M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligase enzymes catalyse the joining of adjacent polynucleotides and as such play important roles in DNA replication and repair pathways. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligases with distinct roles in DNA metabolism, with clear differences in the functions of DNA ligase orthologues between animals, yeast and plants. DNA ligase 1, present in all eukaryotes, plays critical roles in both DNA repair and replication and is indispensable for cell viability. Results Knockout mutants of atlig1 are lethal. Therefore, RNAi lines with reduced levels of AtLIG1 were generated to allow the roles and importance of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in DNA metabolism to be elucidated. Viable plants were fertile but displayed a severely stunted and stressed growth phenotype. Cell size was reduced in the silenced lines, whilst flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of cells in S-phase in atlig1-RNAi lines relative to wild type plants. Comet assay analysis of isolated nuclei showed atlig1-RNAi lines displayed slower repair of single strand breaks (SSBs and also double strand breaks (DSBs, implicating AtLIG1 in repair of both these lesions. Conclusion Reduced levels of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in the silenced lines are sufficient to support plant development but result in retarded growth and reduced cell size, which may reflect roles for AtLIG1 in both replication and repair. The finding that DNA ligase 1 plays an important role in DSB repair in addition to its known function in SSB repair, demonstrates the existence of a previously uncharacterised novel pathway, independent of the conserved NHEJ. These results indicate that DNA ligase 1 functions in both DNA replication and in repair of both ss and dsDNA strand breaks in higher plants.

  15. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  16. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance—A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Andresen, Elisa [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Branišovská 31/1160, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Mattusch, Jürgen [UFZ − Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hubáček, Tomáš [Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Hydrochemistry and Ecosystem Modelling, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); SoWa National Research Infrastructure, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmentally relevant toxicity and limitation of Cu were investigated. • Copper > 50nM replaces Mg in the LHCII‐trimers. • Deficiency causes decreased electron flow through PSII via lack of plastocyanin. • Of all metabolic pathways, photosynthesis was most affected by Cu toxicity. • Detection of Cu in the Chl peaks of LHCII suggests the generation of [Cu]‐Chl. - Abstract: Essential trace elements (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non‐summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5–35 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 7.5 nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50 nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production.

  17. Thermal properties of some cerium compounds, particularly CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Using measurements of specific heat between 0.3 to 250K in the absence of a magnetic field, and from 2 to 250K for magnetic fields between 0 and 8T, it is shown that the γ 8 quadruplet is the fundamental level of the Ce 3+ ion, the γ 8-7 separation energy being of the order of 500K. Detailed analysis suggests a lifting of degeneracy of the multiplet γ 8 in the paramagnetic phase, according to usual processes. Specific heat results obtained at very low temperatures reveal the importance of a significant gap in the spin wave energy spectra. Measurements under a strong magnetic field, around the two magnetic phase transitions of CeB6 show a spectacular reinforcement of the specific heat anomaly at a temperature of the order of T Q . Thermal conductivity of CEB6 is also studied in relation to the possible existence of a Jahn-Teller effect, likely to affect heat transfer by phonons. The problem of the different components of thermal transport prompts the analysis of the Weidemann-Franz law in the Kondo net, and also the study of the thermal conductivity of the compounds CeCu6, CeA12, the alloys Ce 0 . 7 5La 0 . 25 B 6 , Ce x La 1-x Cu 6 , and the fluctuating valence system SmB 6 . In all these bodies, an important contribution of phonons to electron transfer is shown. In the dense incoherent Kondo phase, it is not possible to envisage differences from the Weidemann-Franz law greater than those observed for highly diluted Kondo alloys [fr

  18. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  19. Ferromagnetism and superstructure in Ca1-xLaxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin; Gor'kov

    2000-03-06

    We critically investigate the model of a doped excitonic insulator, which has recently been invoked to explain some experimental properties of the ferromagnetic state in Ca1-xLaxB6. We demonstrate that the ground state of this model is intrinsically unstable towards the appearance of a superstructure. In addition, the model would lead to a phase separation of doped carriers into electron-enriched and neutral domains, which may be prevented by Coulomb forces only. Recent experiments indicate that a superstructure may indeed show up in this material.

  20. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  1. High homocysteine, low vitamin B-6, and increased oxidative stress are independently associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Yang, Wen-Ching; Hsiao, Yu-Hua; Huang, Shih-Chien; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2016-02-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, increased oxidative stress, and decreased antioxidant defense function have been found to be associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Deficiencies of folate and vitamin B-6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP) may cause hyperhomocysteinemia and increased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among homocysteine, folate, PLP, oxidative stress indicator, and antioxidant capacities in patients with stage 2 to 3 CKD, and to further analyze these relationships with respect to risk for CKD. Ninety-seven patients with CKD and 135 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients with CKD had significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacities, but had significantly lower antioxidant enzyme activities compared with healthy subjects. Serum folate but not plasma PLP was significantly negatively associated with plasma homocysteine. There were no significant associations of homocysteine, PLP, and folate with oxidative stress indicator and antioxidant capacities. High homocysteine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.22) and malondialdehyde (OR = 34.24; 95% CI, 4.44-264.40) level increased the risk of CKD, whereas high plasma PLP (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99) and superoxide dismutase activity (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) decreased the risk of CKD after adjusting all potential confounders. High homocysteine, low PLP, increased oxidative stress, and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase activity) were independent contributing factors in the development of early stage CKD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The chaperone role of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and its implications for rare diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Barbara; Montioli, Riccardo; Oppici, Elisa; Astegno, Alessandra; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2014-02-01

    The biologically active form of the B6 vitamers is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which plays a coenzymatic role in several distinct enzymatic activities ranging from the synthesis, interconversion and degradation of amino acids to the replenishment of one-carbon units, synthesis and degradation of biogenic amines, synthesis of tetrapyrrolic compounds and metabolism of amino-sugars. In the catalytic process of PLP-dependent enzymes, the substrate amino acid forms a Schiff base with PLP and the electrophilicity of the PLP pyridine ring plays important roles in the subsequent catalytic steps. While the essential role of PLP in the acquisition of biological activity of many proteins is long recognized, the finding that some PLP-enzymes require the coenzyme for refolding in vitro points to an additional role of PLP as a chaperone in the folding process. Mutations in the genes encoding PLP-enzymes are causative of several rare inherited diseases. Patients affected by some of these diseases (AADC deficiency, cystathionuria, homocystinuria, gyrate atrophy, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, xanthurenic aciduria, X-linked sideroblastic anaemia) can benefit, although at different degrees, from the administration of pyridoxine, a PLP precursor. The effect of the coenzyme is not limited to mutations that affect the enzyme-coenzyme interaction, but also to those that cause folding defects, reinforcing the idea that PLP could play a chaperone role and improve the folding efficiency of misfolded variants. In this review, recent biochemical and cell biology studies highlighting the chaperoning activity of the coenzyme on folding-defective variants of PLP-enzymes associated with rare diseases are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  4. Pyridoxal phosphate concentrations determined postmortem as an indication of antemortem vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D

    1987-03-01

    In anticipation of studies relating vitamin B-6 status determined at autopsy to known pathologic causes of death, the postmortem stability of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the plasma, skeletal muscle, and liver of pigs was assessed. Concentrations of plasma K, Mg, Na, and Ca also were examined for postmortem stability using the pig as an experimental model. At 1 hr after death, the mean plasma PLP concentration was essentially unchanged from that observed prior to death. Thereafter, plasma PLP concentration increased with increasing postmortem time interval and was 2.3 times greater than initial by 6 hr postmortem and 7.6 times greater than initial by 12 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Skeletal muscle and liver PLP content were 35% lower than initial by 6 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma K and Mg were significantly higher by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01) while plasma Na concentration was significantly lower by 1 hr postmortem (P less than 0.01). Plasma Ca concentration was not significantly different at any measured time point. Knowledge of the postmortem time interval appears to be required in order to evaluate the antemortem vitamin B-6 status using pyridoxal phosphate values derived from autopsy samples.

  5. Electron dynamics in CaB6 induced by one- and two-color femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.L.; Wang, F.; Hong, X.H.; Su, W.Y.; Chen, Q.H.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    We simulate nonlinear electron dynamics in CaB 6 crystal within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) under one-color femtosecond laser fields (400 nm, 800 nm) and two-color cases (400 nm+800 nm) with different relative phases of ϕ=0, ϕ=π/4, ϕ=π/2. The time-dependent Kohn–Sham equation (TDKS) is solved in real-time and real-space evolution scheme. We investigate the energy absorption and the electron excitation of CaB 6 crystal in detail. Besides, the electron density distributions and occupations are shown after each external field ends. Computational results indicate that for one-color case, the excitation behaviors are distinct due to the different frequencies; for two-color laser, we adjust the phase and obtain the asymmetric field, which causes the change of the dynamics response comparing with the symmetric field. At the end of laser, the electron occupation is broadly distributed in the energy range of 2.4–42.4 eV, which means a high excitation rate in the narrow-gap semiconductor under intense laser field. The occurrence of the breakdown is also checked for each case in the Letter.

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of B6 vitamers and riboflavin in milk and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection at different programmed wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of B 6 vitamers (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine) and Vitamin B 2 in commercial vitaminized milk and in woman milk. The chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed phase octyl column by using a mobile phase consisting of sodium pentanesulfonate in 1% acetic acid-methanol-tetrahydrofuran under gradient elution conditions. The fluorescence intensity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was enhanced by post-column photochemical conversion, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra by a on-line photoreactor switched OFF and ON under irradiation at 254 nm. In addition, a simple and rapid method in isocratic conditions without the need of photochemical conversion was proposed for the analysis of Vitamin B 6 and Vitamin B 2 in pharmaceuticals. Linearity, precision, recovery, selectivity and sensitivity were found satisfactory for each analysed compound. Quantitation limits ranged from 26 to 240 fmol

  7. Unconventional Fermi surface associated with novel quasiparticles in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid has endured for decades. We present evidence for the realisation of such a state in the Kondo Insulator SmB6, which is an extreme example of Fermi liquid breakdown. Experimental results are presented from complementary techniques including quantum oscillations, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and oscillatory entropy down to low temperatures. An experimental comparison is made with alternative theoretical models that associate novel quasiparticles with the unconventional Fermi surface we uncover in SmB6. A new paradigm for the realisation of a Fermi surface in the absence of conventional quasiparticles is proposed in the vicinity of a Kondo insulator transition. This work was performed in collaboration with M. Hartstein, W. H. Toews, Y.-T. Hsu, B. Zeng, X. Chen, M. Ciomaga Hatnean, Q. R. Zhang, S. Nakamura, A. S. Padgett, G. Rodway-Gant, J. Berk, M. K. Kingston, G. H. Zhang, M. K. Chan, S. Yamashita, T. Sakakibara, Y. Takano, J. -H. Park, L. Balicas, N. Harrison, N. Shitsevalova, G. Balakrishnan, G. G. Lonzarich, R. W. Hill, and M. Sutherland.

  8. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-22

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  9. RKKY interaction between Ce ions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ce ions in (Ce x La 1-x )B 6 have a Γ 8 ground multiplet, which is fourfold degenerate and has orbital and spin content. The interaction between Ce ions is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type, which competes with the Kondo screening. The conduction states of the compound are described by three approximately ellipsoidal pockets centered at the X points of the cubic lattice. The RKKY interaction is calculated considering the interference of the three pockets. The interaction strength strongly depends on the relative position of the ions, as well as on the relative orientation of the line joining two ions to the cubic crystalline field axis. The sixteen states of a pair of Ce ions are split by the RKKY interaction into a singlet, a triplet, and a twelvefold degenerate level. The ground state is always either a singlet or a triplet, depending on the sign of the interaction. Using the exact Bethe ansatz solution of a model for a pair of interacting impurities with Γ 8 ground multiplet, we calculate the occupation of the levels, the magnetic-field susceptibility, the specific-heat γ coefficient, and the Wilson ratio for the ground state as a function of the ratio of the RKKY coupling strength to the Kondo temperature along the main crystallographic directions. As a consequence of the RKKY splitting a pair of impurities always has a quadrupolar moment. The implication of the interactions on the quadrupolar order of CeB 6 is also discussed

  10. Lattice strain accompanying the colossal magnetoresistance effect in EuB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Das, Pintu; de Souza, Mariano; Schnelle, Frank; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-08-08

    The coupling of magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice in the ferromagnetic semimetal EuB(6), which exhibits a complex ferromagnetic order and a colossal magnetoresistance effect, is studied by high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments. EuB(6) may be viewed as a model system, where pure magnetism-tuned transport and the response of the crystal lattice can be studied in a comparatively simple environment, i.e., not influenced by strong crystal-electric field effects and Jahn-Teller distortions. We find a very large lattice response, quantified by (i) the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, (ii) the spontaneous strain when entering the ferromagnetic region, and (iii) the magnetostriction in the paramagnetic temperature regime. Our analysis reveals that a significant part of the lattice effects originates in the magnetically driven delocalization of charge carriers, consistent with the scenario of percolating magnetic polarons. A strong effect of the formation and dynamics of local magnetic clusters on the lattice parameters is suggested to be a general feature of colossal magnetoresistance materials.

  11. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Ying; Guo, Li-Ping; Lee, Shui-Shan; Dong, Qing-Ming; Tan, Yi; Yao, Hong; Li, Li-Hua; Lin, Che-Kit; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations. METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups, the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Han majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity. Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme. PMID:17465455

  12. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-01-01

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB 6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB 6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T MI and T C . Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  13. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  14. Kondo hybridisation and the origin of metallic states at the (001) surface of SmB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Huang, Y.K.; Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, F.X.; Bao, L.H.; Tegus, O.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; Golden, M.

    2013-01-01

    SmB6, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB6 would be placed at the

  15. Valence, magnetism and conduction in the intermediate valence compounds: the case SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.

    2006-09-01

    In some rare earth based compounds, the 4f level is situated so close to the Fermi level that the valence of the compound can become intermediate between two integer values. The so called 'intermediate valence' compound of Samarium hexaboride (SmB 6 ) is one typical example of the exciting physics which can result from this quantum equilibrium between two valence configurations. The first configuration (Sm 2+ ) corresponds to an insulating and non magnetic state whereas the second one (Sm 3+ ) would theoretically give a magnetic and metallic ground state. This dissertation deals with the influence of pressure on this equilibrium. Specific heat measurements under pressure evidenced a new long range magnetic ordering for pressures higher than p c ∼ 10 GPa. On another hand, transport measurements measured for the first time in good conditions of hydrostatics found a reliable and reproducible critical pressure for the insulator to metal transition equal to p c . The phase diagram of SmB 6 is now well known and the observation for the first time of a magnetic anomaly in the high pressure resistivity curves certifies that the onset of the magnetic phase really coincide with the closure of the gap. This change at the critical pressure p c is discussed in a general frame taking into account the Kondo lattice temperature as a key parameter for the renormalization of the wavefunction from one integer configuration to the other whereas the valence itself is still intermediate. This general idea seems to be valid also for other systems studied in this dissertation like SmS or TmSe and could even be valid for more general cases (Ytterbium, Cerium). In the same time, resistivity measurements under uniaxial stress were undertaken. The result is a strong anisotropy effect observed on the pressure dependence of the residual resistivity in the compound SmB 6 . The comparison with the transport under hydrostatic conditions enables us to consider a new idea for the nature of the gap

  16. Overexpression of a non-native deoxyxylulose-dependent vitamin B6 pathway in Bacillus subtilis for the production of pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commichau, Fabian M; Alzinger, Ariane; Sande, Rafael; Bretzel, Werner; Meyer, Frederik M; Chevreux, Bastien; Wyss, Markus; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Prágai, Zoltán

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin B6 is a designation for the vitamers pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and their respective 5'-phosphates. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically most-important vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many enzymes, mainly active in amino acid metabolism. While microorganisms and plants are capable of synthesizing vitamin B6, other organisms have to ingest it. The vitamer pyridoxine, which is used as a dietary supplement for animals and humans is commercially produced by chemical processes. The development of potentially more cost-effective and more sustainable fermentation processes for pyridoxine production is of interest for the biotech industry. We describe the generation and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis pyridoxine production strain overexpressing five genes of a non-native deoxyxylulose 5'-phosphate-dependent vitamin B6 pathway. The genes, derived from Escherichia coli and Sinorhizobium meliloti, were assembled to two expression cassettes and introduced into the B. subtilis chromosome. in vivo complementation assays revealed that the enzymes of this pathway were functionally expressed and active. The resulting strain produced 14mg/l pyridoxine in a small-scale production assay. By optimizing the growth conditions and co-feeding of 4-hydroxy-threonine and deoxyxylulose the productivity was increased to 54mg/l. Although relative protein quantification revealed bottlenecks in the heterologous pathway that remain to be eliminated, the final strain provides a promising basis to further enhance the production of pyridoxine using B. subtilis. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. © Society for Mathematical Biology 2011

  18. ENDF/B-6 charged-particle sub-libraries. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; McLaughlin, P.K.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the ENDF/B-6 sublibraries for nuclear reaction data of protons, deuterons and tritons. Presently included are complete (double differential) evaluations for the interaction of protons with H-1 and He-3, and evaluated cross-sections for five fusion reactions between d, t, and He-3 particles. The 1998 update includes complete presentation of the nuclear data for C-12 and O-16 needed for transport, damage, heating, radioactivity and shielding applications over the incident proton energy range from 1 to 150 MeV. The data library, which has a size of 1.60 Megabytes, is available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, on floppy diskette, or CD-ROM. The library is available online within NDIS, the Nuclear Data Information System and also from the WWW pages of the Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  19. Pumping experiment of water on B and LaB6 films with electron beam evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takahiro; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Akaishi, Kenya; Kubota, Yusuke; Motojima, Osamu; Mushiaki, Motoi; Funato, Yasuyuki.

    1992-10-01

    Pumping characteristics of water vapor on boron and lanthanum hexaboride films formed with an electron beam evaporator have been investigated in high vacuum of a pressure region between 10 -4 and 10 -3 Pa. Measured initial maximum pumping speeds of water for fresh B and LaB 6 films on substrates with a deposition amount from 2.3 x 10 21 to 6.7 x 10 21 molecules·m -2 are 3.2 ∼ 4.9 m 3 ·s -1 ·m -2 , and maximum saturation amounts of adsorbed water on these films are 2.9 x 10 20 ∼ 1.3 x 10 21 H 2 O molecules·m -2 . (author)

  20. Luminosity effects in the ultraviolet spectrum of B5-B6 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.; Silversmith, E.

    1976-01-01

    Copernicus U2 spectral tracings of the ultraviolet spectra of eta CMa (B5 Ia) and zeta Dra (B6 III) have been compared, and four regions: 1330 to 1340 A, 1340 to 1350 A, 1390 to 1396 A, and 1398 to 1405 A: are found to contain differences due to luminosity effects. The observed profiles are interpreted using synthetic spectra predicted with LTE theory. These effects are found: (1) the C ii 1335 blend is shortward-displaced in eta CMa, (2) the P iii and Si iv resonance lines strengthen significantly in the supergiant, and (3) lines of multiplet UV7 of Si ii are strengthened by non-LTE effects in the supergiant

  1. Fibonacci Sequences Quasiperiodic A5B6C7 Ferroelectric Based Photonic Crystal: FDTD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simsek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs based on some A5B6C7 ferroelectrics (SbSBr and BiTeCl. Here, we use one dimensional SbSBr and BiTeCl based layers in air background. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SbSBr and BiTeCl based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers. In our simulation, we employed the finite-difference time domain  technique and the plane wave expansion method, which implies the solution of Maxwell equations with centered finite-difference expressions for the space and time derivatives.

  2. Genome-wide analyses of the transcriptomes of salicylic acid-deficient versus wild-type plants uncover Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) as a regulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Silvia; Mir, Ricardo; Martínez, Cristina; León, José

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been characterized as an activator of pathogen-triggered resistance of plants. SA also regulates developmental processes such as thermogenesis in floral organs and stress-induced flowering. To deepen our knowledge of the mechanism underlying SA regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis, we compared the transcriptomes of SA-deficient late flowering genotypes with wild-type plants. Down- or up-regulated genes in SA-deficient plants were screened for responsiveness to ultraviolet (UV)-C light, which accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis. Among them, only Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) was up-regulated by UV-C light through a SA-dependent process. Moreover, UV-C light-activated expression of PCC1 was also dependent on the flowering activator CONSTANS (CO). PCC1 gene has a circadian-regulated developmental pattern of expression with low transcript levels after germination that increased abruptly by day 10. RNAi plants with very low expression of PCC1 gene were late flowering, defective in UV-C light acceleration of flowering and contained FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript levels below 5% of that detected in wild-type plants. Although PCC1 seems to function between CO and FT in the photoperiod-dependent flowering pathway, transgenic plants overexpressing a Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR)-fused version of CO strongly activated FT but not PCC1 after dexamethasone treatment.

  3. A Program for Iron Economy during Deficiency Targets Specific Fe Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantzis, Laura J; Kroh, Gretchen E; Jahn, Courtney E; Cantrell, Michael; Peers, Graham; Pilon, Marinus; Ravet, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants, utilized in nearly every cellular process. Because the adjustment of uptake under Fe limitation cannot satisfy all demands, plants need to acclimate their physiology and biochemistry, especially in their chloroplasts, which have a high demand for Fe. To investigate if a program exists for the utilization of Fe under deficiency, we analyzed how hydroponically grown Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) adjusts its physiology and Fe protein composition in vegetative photosynthetic tissue during Fe deficiency. Fe deficiency first affected photosynthetic electron transport with concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and biomass production when effects on respiration were not yet significant. Photosynthetic electron transport function and protein levels of Fe-dependent enzymes were fully recovered upon Fe resupply, indicating that the Fe depletion stress did not cause irreversible secondary damage. At the protein level, ferredoxin, the cytochrome- b 6 f complex, and Fe-containing enzymes of the plastid sulfur assimilation pathway were major targets of Fe deficiency, whereas other Fe-dependent functions were relatively less affected. In coordination, SufA and SufB, two proteins of the plastid Fe-sulfur cofactor assembly pathway, were also diminished early by Fe depletion. Iron depletion reduced mRNA levels for the majority of the affected proteins, indicating that loss of enzyme was not just due to lack of Fe cofactors. SufB and ferredoxin were early targets of transcript down-regulation. The data reveal a hierarchy for Fe utilization in photosynthetic tissue and indicate that a program is in place to acclimate to impending Fe deficiency. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Vitamin B1 and B6 method harmonization: comparison of performance between laboratories enrolled in the RCPA Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Kirsten E; Johnson, Lambro A; Woollard, Gerald A; Walmsley, Trevor A; Briscoe, Scott; Jolly, Lisa M; Gill, Janice P; Greaves, Ronda F

    2013-06-01

    The RCPA Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) offers monthly proficiency testing for vitamins A, B1, B6, β-carotene, C and E to laboratories worldwide. A review of the results submitted for the whole blood vitamin B1/B6 sub-program revealed a wide dispersion. Here we describe the results of a methodology survey for vitamins B1 and B6. A questionnaire was sent to thirteen laboratories. Eleven laboratories were returning QAP results for vitamin B1 (thiamine diphosphate) and five were returning results for vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). All nine respondents provided a clinical service for vitamins B1 and B6. HPLC with fluorescence detection was the most common method principle. For vitamin B1, six respondents used a commercial assay whilst three used in-house methods; whole blood was the matrix for all. For vitamin B6, five respondents used commercial assays and four used in-house assays. The choice of matrix for vitamin B6 varied with three respondents using whole blood and five using plasma for analysis. Sample preparation incorporated protein precipitation and derivatization steps. An internal standard was employed in sample preparation by only one survey respondent. The immediate result of this survey was the incorporation of plasma vitamin B6 into the RCPA QAP vitamin program. The absence of an internal standard in current vitamin B1 and B6 assays is a likely contributor to the wide dispersion of results seen in this program. We recommend kit manufacturers and laboratories investigate the inclusion of internal standards to correct the variability that may occur during processing. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal lipid architecture of the hetero-oligomeric cytochrome b6f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S Saif; Cramer, William A

    2014-07-08

    The role of lipids in the assembly, structure, and function of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes is poorly understood. The dimeric photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex, a 16-mer of eight distinct subunits and 26 transmembrane helices, catalyzes transmembrane proton-coupled electron transfer for energy storage. Using a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the dimeric complex, we identified 23 distinct lipid-binding sites per monomer. Annular lipids are proposed to provide a connection for super-complex formation with the photosystem-I reaction center and the LHCII kinase enzyme for transmembrane signaling. Internal lipids mediate crosslinking to stabilize the domain-swapped iron-sulfur protein subunit, dielectric heterogeneity within intermonomer and intramonomer electron transfer pathways, and dimer stabilization through lipid-mediated intermonomer interactions. This study provides a complete structure analysis of lipid-mediated functions in a multi-subunit membrane protein complex and reveals lipid sites at positions essential for assembly and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 by Methadone through Destruction of Prosthetic Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunugama, Hemali T.; Zhang, Haoming

    2012-01-01

    Methadone is a μ-opioid receptor agonist widely used in the treatment of narcotic addiction and chronic pain conditions. Methadone is metabolized predominantly in the liver by cytochromes P450 to its pharmacologically inactive primary metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine. Initial in vitro data suggested that CYP3A4 is the major isoform responsible for the in vivo clearance of methadone in humans. However, recent clinical data have indicated that CYP2B6 is actually the major isoform responsible for methadone metabolism and clearance in vivo. In this study, methadone was shown to act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2B6. Methadone inactivates CYP2B6 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner with a KI = 10.0 μM and kinact = 0.027 min−1. The loss of CYP2B6 activity in the presence of methadone and NADPH occurred with concomitant loss of the reduced CO spectrum of the P450. Moreover, there was good correlation between the loss of CYP2B6 activity and the loss of the CO-binding spectrum. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the native heme of the inactivated CYP2B6 demonstrated that approximately 75% loss of heme was accompanied by comparable inactivation of CYP2B6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis did not reveal the formation of a protein adduct during the inactivation. The evidence strongly suggests that destruction of prosthetic heme is the underlying mechanism leading to the inactivation of CYP2B6 by methadone. PMID:22685215

  7. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyel Bueno Dalto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 (B6 has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions.

  8. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  9. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4 o C) or frozen (-20 o C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooling procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4 o C or -20 o C. Irradiation at 4 o C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20 o C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction. (author)

  10. Effects of γ-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-B.; Liew, M.-S.

    1993-07-01

    The effects of irradiation doses, irradiation temperature and a combined treatment of irradiation and cooking on the vitamin B 6 and B 12 contents of grass prawns have been studied. Grass prawns were irradiated at refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (-20°C) temperatures with different doses. A domestic cooking procedure was followed after irradiation. The changes in vitamins B 6 and B 12 of both raw and cooked grass prawns were evaluated. Results showed no significant changes of vitamin B 6 and B 12 in grass prawns with a radiation dose up to 7 kGy at either 4°C or -20°C. Irradiation at 4°C caused more destruction of vitamin B 12 but not vitamin B 6 than did irradiation at -20°C in grass prawns. There was significant destruction of both vitamins B 6 and B 12 in unirradiated samples during cooking. The introduction of the irradiation process before cooking had no effect on either vitamin. These results indicate that the loss of vitamins B 6 and B 12 in the combined treatments was caused mainly by thermal destruction.

  11. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood sa...

  12. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2009-01-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  14. The de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhigang; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B6 (VB6), an essential cofactor for numerous metabolic enzymes, has recently been shown to act as a potent antioxidant and play important roles in developmental processes and stress responses. However, little is known about the possible function of VB6 in plant disease resistance response against pathogen infection. In the present study, we explored the possible involvement of VB6 in defense response against Botrytis cinerea through functional analysis of tomato VB6 biosynthetic genes. Three de novo VB6 biosynthetic genes (SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlPDX2) and one salvage pathway gene (SlSOS4) were identified and the SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlPDX2 genes were shown to encode functional enzymes involved in de novo biosynthesis of VB6, as revealed by complementation of the VB6 prototrophy in yeast snz1 and sno1 mutants. Expression of SlPDX1.2, SlPDX1.3, and SlSOS4 genes was induced by infection with B. cinerea. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated knockdown of SlPDX1.2 or SlPDX1.3 but not SlPDX2 and SlSOS4 led to increased severity of disease caused by B. cinerea, indicating that the VB6 de novo biosynthetic pathway but not the salvage pathway is involved in tomato defense response against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the SlPDX1.2- and SlPDX1.3-silenced tomato plants exhibited reduced levels of VB6 contents and reactive oxygen species scavenging capability, increased levels of superoxide anion and H2O2 generation, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase after infection by B. cinerea. Our results suggest that VB6 and its de novo biosynthetic pathway play important roles in regulation of defense response against B. cinerea through modulating cellular antioxidant capacity.

  15. Deficiencies of the nuclear power plant Grohnde. Actual need of action for the regulatory authority; Die Schwachstellen des AKW Grohnde. Aktueller Handlungsbedarf fuer die Aufsichtsbehoerde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Oda

    2013-01-14

    The study on deficiencies of the NPP Grohnde is based on the back fitting list of the BMU, the results of the RSK security check and the results of the EU stress test. The deficiencies of the NPP Grohnde include shortcomings in the seismic protection and the flood protection, the missing consideration of extreme weather conditions, the risk of an annular space flooding, and problems with emergency measures.

  16. Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone JPM; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB; Skeie, Guri; Muñoz, Xavier; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and CRC are scarce or inconclusive. Methods Nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1365 incident CRC cases and 2319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks (RRs) for CRC were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, BMI, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber, red- and processed meat. Results RRs comparing highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56–0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53–0.87, vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80–1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥ 30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk. Impact This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with CRC, and is in agreement to previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with CRC. PMID:20813848

  17. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  19. Human cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variability in Botswana: a case of haplotype diversity and convergent phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Tawe, Leabaneng

    2018-03-14

    Identification of inter-individual variability for drug metabolism through cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses to malaria and HIV. This study evaluates the distribution of CYP2B6 alleles, haplotypes and inferred metabolic phenotypes among subjects with different ethnicity in Botswana. A total of 570 subjects were analyzed for CYP2B6 polymorphisms at position 516 G > T (rs3745274), 785 A > G (rs2279343) and 983 T > C (rs28399499). Samples were collected in three districts of Botswana where the population belongs to Bantu (Serowe/Palapye and Chobe) and San-related (Ghanzi) ethnicity. The three districts showed different haplotype composition according to the ethnic background but similar metabolic inferred phenotypes, with 59.12%, 34.56%, 2.10% and 4.21% of the subjects having, respectively, an extensive, intermediate, slow and rapid metabolic profile. The results hint at the possibility of a convergent adaptation of detoxifying metabolic phenotypes despite a different haplotype structure due to the different genetic background. The main implication is that, while there is substantial homogeneity of metabolic inferred phenotypes among the country, the response to drugs metabolized via CYP2B6 could be individually associated to an increased risk of treatment failure and toxicity. These are important facts since Botswana is facing malaria elimination and a very high HIV prevalence.

  20. Pervasive and stochastic changes in the TCR repertoire of regulatory T-cell-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingjie; Sharma, Rahul; Kung, John T; Deshmukh, Umesh S; Jarjour, Wael N; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesize that regulatory T-cell (Treg)-deficient strains have an altered TCR repertoire in part due to the expansion of autoimmune repertoire by self-antigen. We compared the Vbeta family expression profile between B6 and Treg-lacking B6.Cg-Foxp3(sf)(/Y) (B6.sf) mice using fluorescent anti-Vbeta mAbs and observed no changes. However, while the spectratypes of 20 Vbeta families among B6 mice were highly similar, the Vbeta family spectratypes of B6.sf mice were remarkably different from B6 mice and from each other. Significant spectratype changes in many Vbeta families were also observed in Treg-deficient IL-2 knockout (KO) and IL-2Ralpha KO mice. Such changes were not observed with anti-CD3 mAb-treated B6 mice or B6 CD4+CD25- T cells. TCR transgenic (OT-II.sf) mice displayed dramatic reduction of clonotypic TCR with concomitant increase in T cells bearing non-transgenic Vbeta and Valpha families, including T cells with dual receptors expressing reduced levels of transgenic Valpha and endogenous Valpha. Collectively, the data demonstrate that Treg deficiency allows polyclonal expansion of T cells in a stochastic manner, resulting in widespread changes in the TCR repertoire.

  1. Lack of Association between Serum Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin D Levels with Different Types of Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although vitamins play a major role in health, and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of optic-nerve dysfunction, the association between serum vitamin levels and glaucoma in humans remains controversial. In this study, articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched up to 25March 2017. Nine studies on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, four studies on normal tension glaucoma (NTG, and six studies on exfoliative glaucoma (EXG were retrieved. The combined results showed no differences in the levels of serum vitamin B6 between POAG (p = 0.406 and EXG (p = 0.139 patients and controls. The weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 2.792 ng/mL (−3.793 to 9.377 and 1.342 ng/mL (−3.120 to 0.436, respectively. There was no difference between POAG (p = 0.952, NTG (p = 0.757, or EXG (p = 0.064 patients and controls in terms of serum vitamin B12. The WMDs with 95% CIs were 0.933 pg/mL (−31.116 to 29.249, 6.652 pg/mL (−35.473 to 48.777, and 49.946 pg/mL (−102.892 to 3.001, respectively. The serum vitamin D levels exhibited no differences (p = 0.064 between POAG patients and controls; the WMD with 95% CI was 2.488 ng/mL (−5.120 to 0.145. In conclusion, there was no association found between serum vitamin B6, vitamin B12, or vitamin D levels and the different types of glaucoma.

  2. A simple and efficient method to prepare pure dimers and monomers of the cytochrome b6f complex from spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, María A; Lorente, Patricia; Zazubovich, Valter; Picorel, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Using a single size-exclusion chromatography we were able to isolate highly pure dimers and monomers of the Cyt b 6 f complex from spinach from a bulk preparation of that protein complex obtained with a standard procedure. At higher protein/detergent ratio during the chromatography most of the Cyt b 6 f complex remained as dimers. In contrast, at lower protein/detergent ratio (around 15 times lower), most dimers became monomerized. As a bonus, this chromatography also allowed the elimination of potential Chl a contaminant to the Cyt b 6 f preparations. SDS-PAGE protein analysis with 18% (w/v) acrylamide revealed the loss of the ISP subunit in our monomeric preparation. However, it fully retained the content of Chl a, a prerequisite to perform any spectroscopic study involving this unique pigment.

  3. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  4. Dosimetry of 99mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab' for use in staging ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.; Smith, S.V.; Schmidt, P.F.; Di Bartolo, N.M.; Prabakaran, K.; Femandes, V.; Donaghy, T.; Clingan, P.; Bundesen, P.; Hillyard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic utility of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' for staging ovarian cancer in a phase 11 trial is under way. The dose due to 99 mTc- DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was used to estimate the dose for the analogous 188 Re compound for therapy of ovarian cancer. The new agent, 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' (600 mBq) was found to clear rapidly from the blood via the renal system. A ''kidney'' phantom was used to calibrate renal activity. The dose to selected organs was estimated using the MlRDose 2 adult female model. In most cases the kidney uptake accounted for 30% of activity administered. Urine activity was measured directly and the dose calculated assuming a mean volume of 300 mL. All remaining activity was assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the body. Results show the dose to kidneys, bladder wall and whole body were 4.5-9.1; 1.2-6.3; 0.2-0.3 cGy, respectively. The biological distribution of the 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' was assumed to be similar to that of 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab''. The activity/time data was adjusted for the relative t 1/2 of 99 mTc and 188 Re. The calculated kidney dose due to 188 Re was approx. 800 cGy. As kidney damage from acute radiation nephritis is thought to occur at doses >1000 cGy, this study indicates that provided uptake at tumor site is adequate 188 Re-DD-3B6/22 Fab'' may have a role in therapy of ovarian cancer

  5. Clinical Significance of EphB4 and EphB6 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Poulaki, Elpida; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Troungos, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-04-01

    Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions. EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 127 patients with benign (n = 71) and malignant (n = 56) thyroid lesions. Enhanced EphB4 and EphB6 expression was more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0508 and p = 0.0006, respectively). EphB4 and EphB6 expression also provided a distinct discrimination between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0302 and p = 0.0013, respectively). In malignant thyroid lesions, enhanced EphB4 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366). Enhanced EphB6 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366), the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0023), the presence of capsular (p = 0.0038), lymphatic (p = 0.0053) and vascular invasion (p = 0.0018) and increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.0038). The present study supported evidence that EphB4 and mainly EphB6 may participate in the malignant thyroid transformation, reinforcing their utility as useful biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in this type of neoplasia.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  7. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  8. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  9. Characterization of visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiencys of “salada” group tomato plants
    Caracterização de sintomas visuais de deficiência de micronutrientes em tomateiro do grupo salada

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Azevedo Nolasco; Bruno Vinícius Castro Guimarães; Otoniel Magalhães Morais; Tiyoko Nair Hojo Rebouças; Hercílio de Assis Pereira-Júnior; Myrne Jamilly Souza Lima; Rosa Honorato de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Este experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia – Vitória da Conquista com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiência de micronutrientes em um híbrido de tomateiro do grupo salada, cultivado em solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram: completo, omissão de B, omissão de Zn, omissão de Mn, omissão de Mo, omissão de Fe e omissão de Cu. Com exceção da omissão de Cu, as demais omissões resultaram em alterações morfológicas com si...

  10. Protein and vitamin B6 intake are associated with liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography, especially in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Provenzano, Francesco; Colica, Carmela; Torti, Carlo; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-09-01

    Although the detrimental effects of several dietary components on the promotion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well known, no studies have assessed the role of dietary vitamin B6. Moreover, studies on the associations between dietary components or body composition indices and liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography are rare. Our aim was to identify the nutritional factors and anthropometric parameters associated with liver steatosis. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals (35% obese) who underwent a liver steatosis assessment by Controlled Attenuation Parameter measurement and nutritional assessment. Tertiles of vitamin B6 intake were positively associated with hepatic steatosis (B=1.89, P =0.026, confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.80) as well as with triglycerides, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body mass index . In obese individuals, after multivariable analysis, the Controlled Attenuation Parameter score was still associated with triglycerides, ALT, and total protein intake (B=0.56, P =0.01, CI 0.10-1.02). Participants in tertile I (low intake) had a lower Controlled Attenuation Parameter than those in tertile III ( P =0.01). We found a positive association between hepatic steatosis or Controlled Attenuation Parameter score and vitamin B6/total protein intake, probably related to the high intake of meat. Vitamin B6 might have a pathogenic role related to the increase of hepatic steatosis.

  11. Efficiency of PBN to Trap 3-CAR in B6C3F1 Mouse Liver Slices: An EPR Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steel-Goodwin, Linda

    1995-01-01

    ...) in the soil and ground water. TCE causes liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice. As part of the process to develop an environmental health effects criteria for base clean up a study of the effects of TCE induced free radicals in liver slices had been performed...

  12. Adsorption and possible dissociation of glucose by the [BN fullerene-B6]- magnetic nanocomposite. In silico studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, E. Chigo; Villanueva, M. Salazar; Shakerzadeh, E.; Castro, M.

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption, activation and possible dissociation of the glucose molecule on the magnetic [BN fullerene-B6]- system is performed by means of density functional theory calculations. Three models of magnetic nanocomposites were inspected: i) pristine BN fullerene, BN fullerene functionalized with a magnetic B6 cluster which generates two structures: ii) pyramidal (P) and iii) triangular (T). Chemical interactions of glucose appear for all these cases; however, for the BNF:B6(T)—glucose system, the interaction generates an effect of dissociation on glucose, due to the magnetic effects, since it has high spin multiplicity. The latter nanocomposite shows electronic behavior like-conductor and like-semi-conductor for the P and T geometries, respectively. Intrinsic magnetism associated to values of 1.0 magneton bohr (µB) for the pyramidal and 5.0 µB for the triangular structure, high polarity, and low-chemical reactivity are found for these systems. These interesting properties make these functionalized fullerenes a good option for being used as nano-vehicles for drug delivery. These quantum descriptors remain invariant when the [BN]-fullerene and [BNF:B6 (P) or (T)]- nanocomposites are interacting with the glucose molecule. According to the determined adsorption energy, chemisorption regimes occur in both the phases: gas and aqueous medium.

  13. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum amount with a linear increase in B1 (thiamine HCl), B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (nicotinamide) contents was noticed up to 9 days old ex vitro grown seedlings. However, B5 (pantothenic acid) and B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions ...

  14. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  16. 26 CFR 1.7872-16 - Loans to an exchange facilitator under § 1.468B-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-16 Loans to....468B-6(b). (b) Treatment as demand loans. For purposes of section 7872, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an exchange facilitator loan is a demand loan. (c) Treatment as compensation...

  17. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienczak, A.; Cook, A.; Wiesner, L.; Mulenga, V.; Kityo, C.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Walker, A.S.; Owen, A.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Denti, P.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children

  18. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or...

  19. In situ synthesis and strengthening of powder metallurgy high speed steel in addition of LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijun; Yu, Linping; Li, Zhi; He, Yuehui; Zhang, Qiankun; Zhang, Huibin; Jiang, Yao; Lin, Nan

    2017-11-01

    A novel technology which was characterized by the vacuum solid state sintering was developed for powder metallurgy high speed steels production. During sintering, both the WC and Mo2C reacted with Fe and transformed to W and Mo rich M6C carbides which were the common hard phases in high speed steels. Also, a high number of W, Mo and Fe were dissolved in VC, forming the MC carbides. The densification of the material mainly relied on the solubility effect during the M6C and MC carbides formation. By alloying with a 0.1 wt% of LaB6 to the steel, the bending strength and the fracture toughness were improved from 3290 MPa and 25.6 MPam1/2 to 4018 MPa and 29.4 MPam1/2, respectively. The TEM analysis demonstrated three types of reaction products by the LaB6 addition: the amorphous phase, the core-shell structure and the La2O3 phase. The impurity elements such as the Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and O were absorbed following the LaB6 addition. Moreover, the deoxidization effect caused by the LaB6 addition promoted the sintering at a high-temperature period which contributed to the bending strength and fracture toughness improvement.

  20. Investigation of suppression of lactation with vit B6 after induced abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lin; Zhu Chuanrong; Fu Wen; Xue Gaiqing; Xin Yu; Zhang Weijie; Sun Lijing; Chen Aiqun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the action of suppressing lactation with Vit B 6 after induced abortion in second trimester of pregnancy and its clinical application. Methods: 60 Subjects in the second trimester of pregnancy were induced abortion with intra-amniotic injection of 100 mg rivanol. 30 subjects were not given any drug after the procedure (serving as controls) and the another 30 subjects started Vit B 6 2h after operation. With a dose of 60 mg tid x 5 days P.o. Serum levels of PRL, E 2 , P Were determines with RIA before and on the 4 th day post-abortion. Presence or absence of lactation after abortion was observed by squeezing the breast in all subjects. Results: In both groups the post-operative serum levels of the three tested hormones were significantly lower than those before operation. The decrease of PRL was especially marked in the Vit B 6 group (P 6 group (6.66%, 2/30); while it was present in 9 controls (30%, 9/30). Conclusion: Starting Vit B 6 treatment with in 2h after terminal of pregnancy would very effectively suppress milk secretion (93.3%) and could satisfactorily replace the conventional stilbestrol treatment. Marked decrease in serum PRL level (42.85%) reflected a solid laboratory evidence

  1. Root responses of Medicago truncatula plants grown in two different iron deficiency conditions: changes in root protein profile and riboflavin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron deficiency is a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in one-third of the world's agricultural areas, especially those with high soil CaCO3. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomic approach was combined with a study on the riboflavin synthesis pathway, ...

  2. Different levels of testicular organization during gonadal differentiation in B6.Y(Tir) mice manifesting sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, Nivia Rocio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2012-09-01

    B6.Y(Tir) (mice with Y chromosome from a strain in Tirano, Italy, and autosomes and X-chromosomes from the B6 strain) mice provide an excellent model for analysing sex development that occurs during gonadal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sex reversal are unclear. Our aim has been to establish which molecular events participate in this sex reversal. The pattern of gene expression related to testicular [Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome), Sox9 (Sry-related high-mobility group box gene 9) and Mis (Müllerian-inhibiting substance)] and ovarian [Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV (murine-mammary-tumour virus) integration site family, member 4), Rspo1 (cysteine-rich secretory protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat) and Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8)] differentiation was analysed by applying immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), focusing on XY gonads from the B6.Y(Tir) mouse, but also analysing the normal strains CD-1 and C57BL/6J (B6). The expression of genes related to the process of sexual differentiation was altered in the case of the B6.Y(Tir) strain, both at the transcript and protein level, inducing differentiation of ovaries and ovotestes, but not the formation of the testes, which were normal. Our results indicate that the expression of testicular genes is inhibited at various levels, permitting the expression of ovarian genes such as Wnt4, Stra8 and Rspo1. However, their activity was not clear when the data were averaged. Correlation analysis indicated that an ovary differentiation pathway is activated when the testicular differentiation pathway is inhibited. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Pearson, Kerry E

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. South Africa. Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ~6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P 93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16.7 % pre v. 19.4 % post; P = 0.728). Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, M. van der; Albersen, M.; Koning, T.J. de; Visser, G.; Middendorp, A.; Bosma, M.; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a sensitive UPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. ► Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. ► We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. ► With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. ► Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L −1 trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D 3 for PL and PM, PN- 13 C 4 for PN, PA-D 2 for PA and PLP-D 3 for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 → 150.1 (PL), 169.1 → 134.1 (PM), 170.1 → 134.1 (PN), 184.1 → 148.1 (PA), 248.1 → 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 → 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 → 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF. Recoveries of the internal standards were between 93% and 96%. Intra- and inter-assay variations were below 20%. Accuracy tests showed deviations from 3% (PN) to 39% (PMP). Limits of quantification were

  7. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  8. Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, M.; Toews, W. H.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Chen, X.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhang, Q. R.; Nakamura, S.; Padgett, A. S.; Rodway-Gant, G.; Berk, J.; Kingston, M. K.; Zhang, G. H.; Chan, M. K.; Yamashita, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Takano, Y.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Harrison, N.; Shitsevalova, N.; Balakrishnan, G.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Hill, R. W.; Sutherland, M.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-02-01

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a conventional Fermi liquid has thus far yielded very few potential candidates. Among promising materials are spin-frustrated Mott insulators near the insulator-metal transition, where theory predicts a Fermi surface associated with neutral low-energy excitations. Here we reveal another route to experimentally realize a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid by the experimental study of a Kondo insulator SmB6 positioned close to the insulator-metal transition. We present experimental signatures down to low temperatures (thermal conductivity well below the charge gap energy scale. Thus, the weight of evidence indicates that despite an extreme instance of Fermi liquid breakdown in Kondo insulating SmB6, a Fermi surface arises from novel itinerant low-energy excitations that couple to magnetic fields, but not weak DC electric fields.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  10. Radiation damage in SmS, SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.; Bordier, G.; de Novion, C.H.; Senateur, J.P.; Jun, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large conductivity increases under 21 K electron or neutron irradiations are observed in SmS and SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x). It is shown that they are related to Sm defects. A possible mechanism is 4f electron delocalization around radiation defects. In SmB 6 , the low temperature resistivity increase desappears under 21 K irradiation. The thermal stability of the defects is also investigated up to room temperature

  11. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Chun; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Li, Xin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Yu; Li, Xian-Feng; Liu, Ying-Ming; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Tian-Chang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations were performed. The feasibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and safety of cTTE and TEE for PFO recognition were compared. Evidence of PFO was found in 49 (39.20%) patients with cTTE, more than were detected with TEE (39, 31.20%) (χ 2 =5.0625, P=0.0244). cTTE had a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 84.88% for diagnosing PFO, showing high concordance with TEE for PFO recognition (κ=0.72). Further, results of a semi-quantitative evaluation of PFO-RLS by cTTE were better than those with TEE (Z=-2.011, P=0.044). No significant adverse reaction was discovered during cTTE examination. cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents has relatively good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RLS caused by PFO when compared with those for TEE. Using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents to perform cTTE is recommended for detecting and diagnosing the PFO due to its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost, and high feasibility.

  12. Kondo Hybridization and the Origin of Metallic States at the (001 Surface of SmB_{6}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frantzeskakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SmB_{6}, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB_{6} would be placed at the head of a new material class: topological Kondo insulators. Here, for the first time, we show that the k-space characteristics of the Kondo-hybridization process is the key to unraveling the origin of the two types of metallic states experimentally observed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES in the electronic band structure of SmB_{6}(001. One group of these states is essentially of bulk origin and cuts the Fermi level due to the position of the chemical potential 20 meV above the lowest-lying 5d-4f hybridization zone. The other metallic state is more enigmatic, being weak in intensity, but represents a good candidate for a topological surface state. However, before this claim can be substantiated by an unequivocal measurement of its massless dispersion relation, our data raise the bar in terms of the ARPES resolution required, as we show there to be a strong renormalization of the hybridization gaps by a factor 2–3 compared to theory, following from the knowledge of the true position of the chemical potential and a careful comparison with the predictions from recent local-density-approximation (LDA+Gutzwiller calculations. All in all, these key pieces of evidence act as triangulation markers, providing a detailed description of the electronic landscape in SmB_{6} and pointing the way for future, ultrahigh-resolution ARPES experiments to achieve a direct measurement of the Dirac cones in the first topological Kondo insulator.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack ... vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia called pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia risk factors include: Smoking. Smoking ...

  17. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  18. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  19. [Efficacy and safety of heptral, vitamin B6 and folic acid during toxic hepatitis induced by CCL4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelava, N A; Gogoluari, M I; Gogoluari, L I; Pirtskhalaĭshvili, N N; Okudzhava, M V

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate of efficacy and safety of complex Heptral, Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid in experimental hepatitis therapy compared with monotherapy. Experiments were carried out on pubertal rats. Eperimental hepatitis models were induced by Tetrachlormethane. The tetrachlormethane intoxication was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of CCL(4) 1ml/kg dissolved in 1ml of olive oil. Cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, reduced glutation,activity of glutationetranspherase and content of ATP in hepatocytes were measured by the spectrophotometric techniques,but content of homocysteine by chromophtography techniques. Under CCL(4) intoxication disturbance of liver detoxication function, energy deficit and surplus of homocysteine were observed. Treatment of the toxic hepatitis with heptral increased the level of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, glutation activity of glutationetranspherase glutathione and reduced content of homocysteine. Complex therapy with Heptral and B6 and folic acid reveal more expressive hepatoprotective effect and safety than monotherapy with Heptral. Complex therapy improves not only the parameters of biotransformation (metabolic and conjugation phase), but also normalizes the level of ATP and homocystein. Vitamins B6 and folic acid increases the efficacy and safety of Heptral. This complex was recomended for treatment of hepatitis.

  20. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  1. and Epigenetic Dysregulation in Diabetes-prone Bicongenic B6.NODC11bxC1tb Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Garrigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Type 1 diabetic (T1D human monocytes, STAT5 aberrantly binds to epigenetic regulatory sites of two proinflammatory genes, CSF2 (encoding granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and PTGS2 (encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2. Bicongenic B6.NOD C11bxC1tb mice re-create this phenotype of T1D monocytes with only two nonobese diabetic (NOD Idd subloci (130.8 Mb–149.7 Mb, of Idd5 on Chr 1 and 32.08–53.85 Mb of Idd4.3 on Chr11 on C57BL/6 genetic background. These two Idd loci interact through STAT5 binding at upstream regulatory regions affecting Csf2 ( Chr 11 and Ptgs2 ( Chr 1 expression. B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice exhibited hyperglycemia and immune destruction of pancreatic islets between 8 and 30 weeks of age, with 12%–22% penetrance. Thus, B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice embody NOD epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in myeloid cells, and this defect appears to be sufficient to impart genetic susceptibility to diabetes in an otherwise genetically nonautoimmune mouse.

  2. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish

    2014-01-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin...

  3. Diagnóstico precoce da carência de boro em castanheiro: Selecção de tecido indicador Early diagnosis of boron deficiency in chestnut: sellection of plant tissue indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Portela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo deste estudo foi identificar um tecido indicador na detecção precoce da carência de B no castanheiro, que permita a correcção atempada da carência de B. Num souto com deficiência de B instalou-se um ensaio em que se utilizaram dois níveis de B: B0, e B1 onde se aplicou 100 g de Granubor (14,6% por árvore. Colheu-se no início de Julho, quando as flores femininas estavam em plena floração, os seguintes tecidos: folhas completamente expandidas, amentilhos androgínicos e flores femininas. No período normal de colheita (Setembro, voltou-se a amostrar as folhas. Determinaram-se as concentrações de macro e micronutrientes nos diversos tecidos. As concentrações de B nos tecidos amostrados em Julho revelaram-se correlacionadas com as de B na folha colhida em Setembro. Enquanto as concentrações de B na folha, em Setembro e em Julho, estavam correlacionadas com a produção de castanha, os outros tecidos não mostraram correlação significativa. Assim, estes resultados sugerem que a folha, colhida em Julho, foi o órgão que se mostrou mais eficiente no diagnóstico precoce da carência de B.This study aims to identify a plant tissue indicator to be used in the early diagnosis of B deficiency in chestnut, which provides a tool to decide the correction measures to be applied in time to improve yield. An orchard with apparent B deficiency was selected, and two levels of B fertilization, B0 and B1- 100 g/tree of Granubor (14.6% of B, were applied. In July, when female flowers were in bloom, the following tissues were sampled: expanded leaves, androgynous catkins and female flowers. Leaves were collected again in the normal period (September and the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in plant tissues were determined. B content in the tissues collected in July was positively correlated with B contents in leaves sampled in September. Boron concentrations in leaves, irrespective of the sampling period, were correlated

  4. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and Putative Orthologs Comprise an Ancient Family of Cutin Synthase-like (CUS) Proteins that are Conserved among Land Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F.; Clausen, Mads H.; Stark, Ruth E.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids. However, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported ...

  5. Acceleration of leaf senescence is slowed down in transgenic barley plants deficient in the DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharewicz, Weronika; Distelfeld, Assaf; Bilger, Wolfgang; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Hensel, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract WHIRLY1 in barley was isolated as a potential regulator of the senescence-associated gene HvS40. In order to investigate whether the plastid–nucleus-located DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1 plays a role in regulation of leaf senescence, primary foliage leaves from transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the WHIRLY1 gene were characterized by typical senescence parameters, namely pigment contents, function and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as expression of selected genes known to be either down- or up-regulated during leaf senescence. When the plants were grown at low light intensity, senescence progression was similar between wild-type and RNAi-W1 plants. Likewise, dark-induced senescence of detached leaves was not affected by reduction of WHIRLY1. When plants were grown at high light intensity, however, senescence was induced prematurely in wild-type plants but was delayed in RNAi-W1 plants. This result suggests that WHIRLY1 plays a role in light sensing and/or stress communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus. PMID:28338757

  6. Acceleration of leaf senescence is slowed down in transgenic barley plants deficient in the DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharewicz, Weronika; Distelfeld, Assaf; Bilger, Wolfgang; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Hensel, Götz; Krupinska, Karin

    2017-02-01

    WHIRLY1 in barley was isolated as a potential regulator of the senescence-associated gene HvS40. In order to investigate whether the plastid-nucleus-located DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1 plays a role in regulation of leaf senescence, primary foliage leaves from transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the WHIRLY1 gene were characterized by typical senescence parameters, namely pigment contents, function and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as expression of selected genes known to be either down- or up-regulated during leaf senescence. When the plants were grown at low light intensity, senescence progression was similar between wild-type and RNAi-W1 plants. Likewise, dark-induced senescence of detached leaves was not affected by reduction of WHIRLY1. When plants were grown at high light intensity, however, senescence was induced prematurely in wild-type plants but was delayed in RNAi-W1 plants. This result suggests that WHIRLY1 plays a role in light sensing and/or stress communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer. Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. MexiB 6 AS A RESULT OF FORTIFICATION OF ETHYLMETHYLHYDROXYPYRIDINE SUCCINATE WITH MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE: PROTEOME EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS  depends on the concentration and activity of proteomic proteins. To provide the body with magnesium and pyridoxine is an important condition for the efficacy of EMHPS because these micronutrients are essential for maintaining neuronal function.Objective: to analyze the biological effects of pyridoxineand magnesium-dependent proteins providing the molecular mechanisms of multi-targeted action of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium.Material and methods. Proteins that interact with both pyridoxine and magnesium were found in the genomic and proteomic databases. A list of 78 vitamin B6-dependent proteins, which is based on the available human genome records in NCBIPROTEIN, EMBL,  UNIPROT,  and HumanProteomeMap databases, was analyzed using a functional binding assay. The same assay was also applied to analyze a list 720 magnesium-dependent proteins.Results. The analysis has shown that 78 pyridoxine-dependent proteomic proteins are necessary for: 1 the synthesis and processing of amino acids; 2 cell energy metabolism (ATP synthesis, and 3 the synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuronal membranes. MexiB 6 has numerous synergistic interactions between the molecules of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium. The combination of the components of EMHPS,  pyridoxine and magnesium in MexiB 6 (triple synergism allows prediction that the drug has more pronounced clinical effects than the molecules of EMHPS,  which emerges in its antihypoxic and antioxidant activities, the improvement of synaptic transmission of a signal, the neutralization of homocysteine, and the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (restoration of cell sensitivity to insulin and carbohydrates in patients with atherosclerosis and in those at risk for diabetes mellitus or obesity. Pyridoxineand magnesium-induced potentiation of the effects of EMHPS may enhance its activity.

  9. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  10. Internal friction of metallic glass Ni74P16B6Al4 near T/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; He Yizhen

    1986-01-01

    The internal friction of metallic glass Ni 74 P 16 B 6 Al 4 near the crystallization temperature T/sub x/ is investigated using a conventional torsion pendulum. Two internal friction peaks, P 1 and P 2 , are observed and the dependence of the peak positions on heating rate is described by the Kissinger equation. Pre-crystallization reduces the height of the peaks (P 1 and P 2 ) and shifts the positions of these peaks but in opposite directions. A formula showing the dependence of apparent internal friction on volume fraction transformed is derived. The variation of internal friction with annealing corresponds to the variation of the fraction transformed. (author)

  11. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Presoto,Ana Elisa F; Rios,Magda D. G; Almeida-Muradian,Ligia B. de

    2004-01-01

    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  12. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2010-01-01

    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...... of FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  13. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  14. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boosting the immune system, eye infections, bladder infections, tooth decay, and preventing polyps, cancer, and kidney stones. Vitamin ... birth. However, it may reduce the risk of tooth decay. Seizures caused by a high fever. Early research ...

  15. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency.

  16. Composição mineral e sintomas visuais de deficiências de nutrientes em plantas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Mineral composition and visual symptoms of nutrients deficiencies in long pepper plants (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Veígas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é uma das principais fontes alternativas para a produção de safrol empregado como matéria prima na fabricação de inseticidas naturais e aromatizantes. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da omissão dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes, sobre a composição mineral de plantas de pimenta-longa, e caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências decorrentes dessa limitação, utilizando-se da técnica do elemento faltante. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com quatro repetições e doze tratamentos, completo e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os valores dos teores foliares nos tratamentos com omissão dos nutrientes foram inferiores àqueles obtidos no tratamento completo. As omissões individuais dos nutrientes promoveram alterações na composição mineral de macro e micronutrientes. Os teores de macronutrientes (g kg-1 e micronutrientes (mg kg-1 obtidos nas folhas sem (completo e com sintomas de deficiências (omissões foram, respectivamente: N = 18,32; P = 7,02; K = 22,17; Ca = 15,75; Mg = 8,25; S = 5,12; B = 42,25; Fe = 325,00; Mn = 100; Zn = 61,50, com deficiência: N = 8,98; P = 2,52; K = 8,57; Ca = 10,20; Mg = 1,85; S = 0,90; B = 15,50; Fe = 234,00; Mn = 55; Zn = 53.The long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is one of the main alternative sources for the production of safrol used as raw material in the manufacture of insecticides and natural flavoring. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of omission macronutrients and micronutrients, on the mineral composition of long pepper plants, and featuring the symptoms of deficiencies resulting from this limitation, using the missing element technique. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with four replicates and twelve treatments, complete and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in a completely

  17. WHIRLY1 Functions in the Control of Responses to Nitrogen Deficiency But Not Aphid Infestation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Kaprinska, Barbara; García, Belén Márquez; Morris, Jennifer; Verrall, Susan R; Bayer, Micha; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-07-01

    WHIRLY1 is largely targeted to plastids, where it is a major constituent of the nucleoids. To explore WHIRLY1 functions in barley (Hordeum vulgare), RNA interference-knockdown lines (W1-1, W1-7, and W1-9) that have very low levels of HvWHIRLY1 transcripts were characterized in plants grown under optimal and stress conditions. The WHIRLY1-1 (W1-1), W1-7, and W1-9 plants were phenotypically similar to the wild type but produced fewer tillers and seeds. Photosynthesis rates were similar in all lines, but W1-1, W1-7, and W1-9 leaves had significantly more chlorophyll and less sucrose than the wild type. Transcripts encoding specific subsets of chloroplast-localized proteins, such as ribosomal proteins, subunits of the RNA polymerase, and thylakoid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) and cytochrome b6/f complexes, were much more abundant in the W1-7 leaves than the wild type. Although susceptibility of aphid (Myzus persicae) infestation was similar in all lines, the WHIRLY1-deficient plants showed altered responses to nitrogen deficiency, maintaining higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates than the wild type under limiting nitrogen. Although all lines showed globally similar low nitrogen-dependent changes in transcripts and metabolites, the increased abundance of FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1-like transcripts in nitrogen-deficient W1-7 leaves infers that WHIRLY1 has a role in communication between plastid and nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins during abiotic stress. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  19. EFFET DES VITAMINES B12, B9 ET B6 ET LEURS INTERACTIONS SUR LA FRAGILITE OSMOTIQUE DES ERYTHROCYTES HUMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B HOUCHER

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  20. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  1. Determination of Cinchona alkaloids and Vitamin B6 by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.; Cavrini, V.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major Cinchona alkaloids and their dihydroderivatives and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 6 ) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (λ em =420 nm with λ ex =330 nm). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Prodigy ODS column (5 μm, 250 mmx3.2 mm i.d.), recommended for basic compounds, under isocratic reversed-phase conditions. The method allowed a good peak shape and an effective resolution of the tested compounds. The extraction of alkaloids from the Cinchona succirubra bark was carried out in mild and fast conditions (ambient temperature, 20 min) by ultrasonication. The procedure showed to be advantageous respect to a reference method, which involved Soxhlet extraction. The results were compared statistically by means of the Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test; no significant difference was found. The method was reproducible (relative standard deviations in the range of 1.0-5.0% for the different alkaloids) and gave quantitative recovery of alkaloids added to bark samples (97.8-105%). For additional informations a photoreactor was arranged between the analytical column and the detector and the online post-column photochemical conversion (irradiation=254 nm) was investigated. Vitamin B 6 was shown to be highly photosensitive, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra with and without UV irradiation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quality control of Cinchona bark, liquid extract and cosmetics

  2. Placing of monobore wells in the B6 LL 370 oil deposit, Tía Juana Lago field, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso G. Castro-Cerrada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The angular discordance of the Eocene that puts B sands of the Misoa Formation in contact with the La Rosa Formation affects, structure up, the thickness of the B6 member truncating it until eroding it in a northwesterly direction, with the presence of facies changes and local faults. With the objective of contributing to the recovery of gas reserves, a geological review was initiated to locate drainage points; the present investigation had the purpose of identifying the favorable stratigraphic and structural framework to locate in the upper part of the structure, monobore wells to drain the remaining reserves of gas from reservoir B6 LL 370, from the Tia Juana Lago field. It was established that plot A-226 is the most prospective for the establishment of drainage points for the drilling of monobore wells due to the best geological and reservoir conditions. Two locations are proposed (LL-Z-AB-AC-306-A4 and LL-AC-6-C5A1 to complete monobore with 5-1/2” pipe for a production potential of 2,8 MMPCND.

  3. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, A.C.; Hoyo, C.; Grant, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004-2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32-5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR=6.7 ; 95% CI=1.6-27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0 . 9 ; 95 % CI=0.24-3.92) (p-interaction=0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  4. Cytokinin-Deficient Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Show Multiple Developmental Alterations Indicating Opposite Functions of Cytokinins in the Regulation of Shoot and Root Meristem Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Werner, T.; Motyka, Václav; Laucou, V.; Smets, R.; Onckelen, H. V.; Schmülling, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 11 (2003), s. 2532-2550 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants * Cytokinins * Root Meristem Activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.679, year: 2003

  5. Oral and fecal Campylobacter concisus strains perturb barrier function by apoptosis induction in HT-29/B6 intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Linde Nielsen

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C. concisus strains on human HT-29/B6 colon cells. Six oral and eight fecal strains of C. concisus were isolated. Mucus-producing HT-29/B6 epithelial monolayers were infected with the C. concisus strains. Transepithelial electrical resistance (R(t and tracer fluxes of different molecule size were measured in Ussing chambers. Tight junction (TJ protein expression was determined by Western blotting, and subcellular TJ distribution was analyzed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Apoptosis induction was examined by TUNEL-staining and Western blot of caspase-3 activation. All strains invaded confluent HT-29/B6 cells and impaired epithelial barrier function, characterized by a time- and dose-dependent decrease in R(t either after infection from the apical side but even more from the basolateral compartment. TJ protein expression changes were sparse, only in apoptotic areas of infected monolayers TJ proteins were redistributed. Solely the barrier-forming TJ protein claudin-5 showed a reduced expression level to 66±8% (P<0.05, by expression regulation from the gene. Concomitantly, Lactate dehydrogenase release was elevated to 3.1±0.3% versus 0.7±0.1% in control (P<0.001, suggesting cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral and fecal C. concisus strains elevated apoptotic events to 5-fold. C. concisus-infected monolayers revealed an increased permeability for 332 Da fluorescein (1.74±0.13 vs. 0.56±0.17 10(-6 cm/s in control, P<0.05 but showed no difference in permeability for 4 kDa FITC-dextran (FD-4. The same was true in camptothecin-exposed monolayers, where camptothecin was used for apoptosis induction.In conclusion, epithelial barrier dysfunction by oral and

  6. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tai L.; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  7. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  8. Circadian Stress Regimes Affect the Circadian Clock and Cause Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Cell Death in Cytokinin-Deficient Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Silvia; Cortleven, Anne; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Havaux, Michel; Riefler, Michael; Schmülling, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The circadian clock helps plants measure daylength and adapt to changes in the day-night rhythm. We found that changes in the light-dark regime triggered stress responses, eventually leading to cell death, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced cytokinin levels or defective cytokinin signaling. Prolonged light treatment followed by a dark period induced stress and cell death marker genes while reducing photosynthetic efficiency. This response, called circadian stress, is also characterized by altered expression of clock and clock output genes. In particular, this treatment strongly reduced the expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Intriguingly, similar changes in gene expression and cell death were observed in clock mutants lacking proper CCA1 and LHY function. Circadian stress caused strong changes in reactive oxygen species- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression. The activation of the JA pathway, involving the accumulation of JA metabolites, was crucial for the induction of cell death, since the cell death phenotype was strongly reduced in the jasmonate resistant1 mutant background. We propose that adaptation to circadian stress regimes requires a normal cytokinin status which, acting primarily through the AHK3 receptor, supports circadian clock function to guard against the detrimental effects of circadian stress. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-operative bariatric surgery complications: Deficiency of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.

  10. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  11. Is SmB6 a failed superconductor? \\x9DPart I: long-wave length action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Onur; Chang, Po-Yao; Coleman, Piers; Tsvelik, Alexei

    The theory of superfluids and superconductors is founded on London's idea of ``wavefunction rigidity'', in which gradients of the condensate phase carry a persistent superflow. However, the theory of neutral superfluids reveals that a stable superflow also requires the topological quantization of circulation: when this is absent, as in the case of 3He-A, the superflow is unstable. Motivated with the controversial experimental results on SmB6, we generalize this idea to charged superfluids, in which a higher dimensional order parameter manifold topologically destabilizes vortices, causing the rapid decay of supercurrents into a novel diamagnetic insulator. I will present a Ginzburg-Landau type long wavelength action of a `failed' superconductor and discuss how supercurrents decay through formation of space-time skyrmions. This work is done in collaboration with Po-Yao Chang, Piers Coleman and Alexei M. Tsvelik. This work is supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02- 99ER45790.

  12. Comparative studies on detergent-assisted apocytochrome b6 reconstitution into liposomal bilayers monitored by Zetasizer instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A Surma

    Full Text Available The present paper is a systematic, comparative study on the reconstitution of an apocytochrome b6 purified from a heterologous system using a detergent-free method and reconstitution into liposomes performed using three different detergents: SDS, Triton X-100 and DM, and two methods of detergent removal by dialysis and using Bio-Beads. The product size, its distribution and zeta potential, and other parameters were monitored throughout the process. We found that zeta potential of proteoliposomes is correlated with reconstitution efficiency and, as such, can serve as a quick and convenient quality control for reconstitution experiments. We also advocate using detergent-free protein purification methods as they allow for an unfettered choice of detergent for reconstitution, which is the most crucial factor influencing the final product parameters.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of fission neutron or 60Co γ exposure in the B6CF1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G; Carnes, Bruce A

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the B6CF 1 mice from the JANUS program at the Argonne National Laboratory were analyzed for increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality from 60 Co γ ray or fission neutron exposures administered in either a single dose or protracted weekly doses. The data used for this study represent the last studies conducted at Argonne and have been archived for at least 15 years. CVD mortality increased in a dose-dependent manner from γ rays as well as from neutron exposures. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for neutrons is about 4 or 5. CVD mortality appeared to be enhanced when the dose was protracted, with a DDREF (dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) in the range of 0.4-0.45 for neutron and gamma ray exposure, respectively.

  14. Bulk growth and magneto-optical property of K3B6O10Br polar crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingjun; Li, Changsheng; Li, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    A series of K3B6O10Br (KBB) polar crystals have been grown along , and seed directions by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. By optimizing the growth condition, transparent KBB crystal with the sizes of 52×29×25 mm3 was successfully grown by using seed -orientation from KF-PbO flux. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and optical homogeneity were measured as 0.0038° and 3.3×10-5 from the rocking curve and optical interferometry measurements, respectively, indicating high optical quality of the as-grown crystals. The Verdet coefficient of KBB crystal was obtained as 5.3 rad T-1 m-1 at 635 nm by comparative method.

  15. Kinetic Study of Crystallization Process in Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6 Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lad, Kirit; Pratap, Arun; Rao, T. L. Shanker

    2010-01-01

    Kinetics of crystallization process in a Fe-based metallic glass 2826A (Fe 32 Ni 36 Cr 14 P 12 B 6 ) has been studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It is found that the 2826A metallic glass exhibits two overlapping crystallization peaks. The activation energy for crystallization (E) and the Avrami exponent (n) for the two crystallization peaks have been obtained using the Kolmogorov-Jhonson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation. The so-obtained values of E and n have been utilized to derive normalized heat flow curves. It has been observed that the theoretical heat flow curves obtained using KJMA equation show large deviations from the experimental curves for the first peak whereas the curves are in very close agreement for the second peak. This suggests that kinetics of crystallization process during the first peak cannot be described correctly in KJMA formalism.

  16. Kinetic Study of Crystallization Process in Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6 Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kirit; Rao, T. L. Shanker; Pratap, Arun

    2010-06-01

    Kinetics of crystallization process in a Fe-based metallic glass 2826A (Fe32Ni36Cr14P12B6) has been studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It is found that the 2826A metallic glass exhibits two overlapping crystallization peaks. The activation energy for crystallization (E) and the Avrami exponent (n) for the two crystallization peaks have been obtained using the Kolmogorov-Jhonson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation. The so-obtained values of E and n have been utilized to derive normalized heat flow curves. It has been observed that the theoretical heat flow curves obtained using KJMA equation show large deviations from the experimental curves for the first peak whereas the curves are in very close agreement for the second peak. This suggests that kinetics of crystallization process during the first peak cannot be described correctly in KJMA formalism.

  17. Study of corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel in calcium - hypochlorite solution. Part 1. Steels uranus b6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of Cr - Ni (special steels specimen is tested by electrochemical methods, numerical method of linear polarization and polarization resistance method in calcium-hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 solutions. With increasing of Ca(OCl2 concentration, pH value of the solution increases, as well as active chlorine concentration and corrosion activity of the medium. According to the quantitative method of the corrosion resistance determination it can be concluded that the steels tested in 1 wt % Ca(OCl2 solution are resistant, in 10 wt % solution constant, and in 50 wt % suspension less resistant. URANUS B6 showed the best corrosion resistance of all tested chromium - nickel steels in all tested corrosion mediums.

  18. Exchange and crystal field effects in the ESR spectra of Eu2+ in LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J. G. S.; Urbano, R. R.; Venegas, P. A.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rettori, C.; Fisk, Z.; Oseroff, S. B.

    2007-09-01

    Electron spin resonance of Eu2+ ( 4f7 , S=7/2 ) in a La hexaboride (LaB6) single crystal shows a single anisotropic Dysonian resonance. From the observed negative g shift of the resonance, it is inferred that the Eu2+ ions are covalent exchange coupled to the B2p -like host conduction electrons. From the anisotropy of the spectra (linewidth and field for resonance), we found that the S ground state of Eu2+ ions experience a cubic crystal field of a negative fourth order crystal field parameter (CFP), b4=-11.5(2.0)Oe , in agreement with the negative fourth order CFP, A4 , found for the non- S ground state R hexaborides. These results support covalency as the dominant contribution to the fourth order CFP for the whole R hexaboride family.

  19. Folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in adolescence: serum concentrations, prevalence of inadequate intakes and sources in food

    OpenAIRE

    Steluti, Josiane; Martini, Lígia A.; Peters, Barbara S. E.; Marchioni, Dirce M. L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão dietética de folato e das vitaminas B6 e B12, identificando os alimentos contribuintes para a ingestão desses nutrientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de 16 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, conduzido em Indaiatuba (SP). Coletou-se o registro alimentar de 3 dias não consecutivos. A dieta habitual foi estimada pela remoção da variabilidade intrapessoal, e a prevalência de inadequação da...

  20. Hematopoiesis and aging. V. A decline in hematocrit occurs in all aging female B6D2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, D.R.; Patrene, K.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of hematocrits were done in aging B6D2F1 female mice at 54, 64, 91, 105 and 115 weeks of age. A modest decline in hematocrit was observed in 41/42 mice; we have previously shown that the decreased hematocrit of aged as compared to young mice is due to an expansion of plasma volume. Mice which died spontaneously after 91 weeks had lower hematocrits at 91 weeks and 105 weeks than did those which survived to 115 weeks. At each time interval, a sub-group of mice was killed and uptake of 59 Fe into blood, foreleg, spleen and liver was studied and total nucleated cells per humerus was determined. The results were generally compatible with the thesis that aging mice maintain normal rates of erythropoiesis under basal conditions. Thus, it would appear that a decrease in hematocrit can be considered an expected part of the aging process in this mouse

  1. Understanding Free Radicals: Isolating Active Thylakoid Membranes and Purifying the Cytochrome b6f Complex for Superoxide Generation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Stofleth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All life persists in an environment that is rich in molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen free radicals, or superoxide, is a necessary consequence of the biogenesis of energy in cells. Both mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains have been found to produce superoxide associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death, thereby contributing to the effects of aging. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria consumes oxygen, whereas photosynthesis in chloroplasts or cyanobacteria produces oxygen. The increased concentration of molecular oxygen may serve to allow greater availability for the production of superoxide by cytochrome bc complexes in photosynthetic membranes compared to those of mitochondrial membranes. The isolation of well-coupled chloroplasts, containing the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a vital initial step in the process of comparing the rate of production of superoxide to those of the homologous cytochrome bc1 complex of aerobic respiration. It is necessary to determine if the isolated chloroplasts have retained their oxygengenerating capability after isolation by an oxygen evolution assay with a Clark-type electrode. A necessary second step, which is the isolation of cytochrome b6f from spinach, has yet to be successfully performed. Oxygen measurements taken from chloroplasts in the presence of the uncoupler, NH4Cl, exhibited a rate of oxygen evolution over three times greater at 344 +/- 18 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr than the rate of oxygen evolution without uncoupler at 109 +/- 29 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr. These data demonstrate that the technique used to isolate spinach chloroplasts preserves their light-driven electron-transport activity, making them reliable for future superoxide assays.

  2. Effects of isolated vitamin B6 supplementation on oxidative stress and heart function parameters in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hack Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolated vitamin B6 (VB6 supplementation on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhe induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to their treatment. Animals received water and food ad libitum and an intragastric probe was used to administer water for 60 days (groups: CB6, HcyT, and HB6. On the 30th day of treatment, two groups were supplemented with VB6 in the drinking water (groups: CB6 and HB6. After 60 days of treatment, homocysteine (Hcy, cysteine, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST immunocontent, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and GST activities were measured. Results: The HcyT group showed an increase in Hcy concentration (62% in relation to the CB6 group. Additionally, GST immunocontent was enhanced (51% in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. Also, SOD activity was lower (17% in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group, and CAT activity was higher in the HcyT group (53% compared to the CB6 group. Ejection fraction (EF was improved in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. E/A ratio was enhanced in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group. Correlations were found between CAT activity with myocardial performance index (MPI (r = 0.71; P = 0.06 and E/A ratio (r = 0.6; P = 0.01, and between EF and GST activity (r = 0.62; P = 0.02. Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated VB6 supplementation may lead to the reduction of Hcy concentration and promotes additional benefits to oxidative stress and heart function parameters.   Keywords: Homocysteine; oxidative stress; vitamin B6.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... deficiency anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  6. Folate-deficiency anemia

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  7. Circadian Stress Regimes Affect the Circadian Clock and Cause Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Cell Death in Cytokinin-Deficient Arabidopsis Plants[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Silvia; Cortleven, Anne; Iven, Tim; Havaux, Michel; Schmülling, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock helps plants measure daylength and adapt to changes in the day-night rhythm. We found that changes in the light-dark regime triggered stress responses, eventually leading to cell death, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced cytokinin levels or defective cytokinin signaling. Prolonged light treatment followed by a dark period induced stress and cell death marker genes while reducing photosynthetic efficiency. This response, called circadian stress, is also characterized by altered expression of clock and clock output genes. In particular, this treatment strongly reduced the expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Intriguingly, similar changes in gene expression and cell death were observed in clock mutants lacking proper CCA1 and LHY function. Circadian stress caused strong changes in reactive oxygen species- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression. The activation of the JA pathway, involving the accumulation of JA metabolites, was crucial for the induction of cell death, since the cell death phenotype was strongly reduced in the jasmonate resistant1 mutant background. We propose that adaptation to circadian stress regimes requires a normal cytokinin status which, acting primarily through the AHK3 receptor, supports circadian clock function to guard against the detrimental effects of circadian stress. PMID:27354555

  8. LaB6 nanoparticles with carbon-doped silica coating for fluorescence imaging and near-IR photothermal therapy of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, B-H; Chen, D-H

    2013-07-01

    In this study, LaB6 nanoparticles are used as a novel nanomaterial for near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy because they are cheaper than nanostructured gold, are easy to prepare and have an excellent NIR photothermal conversion property. Furthermore, the surface of LaB6 nanoparticles is coated with a carbon-doped silica (C-SiO2) shell to introduce a fluorescent property and improve stability and biocompatibility. The resulting LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles retain the excellent NIR photothermal conversion property and exhibit a bright blue emission under UV irradiation or a green emission under visible irradiation. Using a HeLa cancer cell line, it is demonstrated that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles have no significant cytotoxicity, but their presence leads to remarkable cell death after NIR irradiation. In addition, from the observation of cellular uptake, the fluorescence labeling function of LaB6@SiO2 (LaB6 core/SiO2 shell) nanoparticles is also confirmed. These results suggest that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles may potentially serve as an efficient multifunctional nano-platform for simultaneous fluorescent imaging and NIR-triggered photothermal therapy of cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  14. The absence of genes for cytochrome c oxidase and reductase subunits in maxicircle kinetoplast DNA of the respiration-deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawathean, P; Maslov, D A

    2000-08-01

    By completing the sequencing of the maxicircle conserved region in the kinetoplast DNA of Phytomonas serpens, we showed that the genes for subunits I and II (COI and COII) of cytochrome c oxidase in this organism were missing. We had previously shown that the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III and apocytochrome b were also missing. These deletions did not affect the structure or expression of the remaining genes. Partial editing of the mRNA for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 8, previously found in strain IG from insects, was complete in two other strains isolated from plants. The appearance of a novel maxicircle gene for MURF2 block I gRNA, which substitutes for the gene missing due to the COII gene deletion, may illustrate a general mechanism for the origin of gRNAs.

  15. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  19. Effect of Age on Skeletal Muscle Proteolysis in Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles of B6C3F1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas H.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Larkin, Lisa M.; Reid, Pamela; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Supiano, Mark A.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if age-related muscle atrophy is associated with an increased rate of protein degradation in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from young (YG; 2–4 months), middle-aged (MA; 12–17 months), and aged (AG; 22–24 months) B6C3F1 mice. EDL muscles from AG mice weighed less than EDL muscles from MA mice (p = .01). EDL muscles from MA mice weighed more than EDL muscles from YG mice (p = .02). The rate of protein degradation, as assessed by tyrosine release during in vitro incubations, was higher in EDL muscles from AG mice than it was in those from MA mice (p = .03). The rate of protein degradation was higher in EDL muscles from YG mice than it was in those from MA mice (p = .04). An inverse relationship existed between muscle mass and protein degradation (r = −.67; p = .0001). We conclude that skeletal muscle protein degradation rates decrease with maturation and increase with advancing age. PMID:11983717

  20. Electronic configurations of Sm2+ in SmS and SmB6, and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1977-01-01

    In Dirac's theory the 4f shell is divided into two subshells: 4f/sub 5/2/ with six quantum states and 4f/sub 7/2/ with eight quantum states. Assuming that these two subshells can be filled up successively, we had successfully obtained the saturation magnetic moment of the garnets Ln 3 Fe 5 O 12 . This study is devoted to establish the role of the subshells in the case of SmS phase transformation under pressure P. Particularly for Sm 2+ the low spin configuration 4f/sub 5/2/ 6 4f/sub 7/2/ 0 which with six 4f electrons has a filled subshell 4f/sub 5/2/ leading to a zero magnetic moment. But as the insulator in equilibrium metal I in equilibrium M transition exhibited with this phase transition, is explained through a valence change, we first consider the localized electron model proposed in the case of Fe 3 O 4 to show that large variations of electrical resistivity of SmS and SmB 6 also can be understood through this model. A result which allows us to consider the ion Sm 2+ in both phases of SmS. 1 figure

  1. Radiation effects in amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P14B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, W.T.; Steck, G.; Kramer, J.J.; Murray, R.B.; Onn, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the Curie temperature and magnetic saturation of the amorphous ferromagnetic series Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P 14 B 6 for 20 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 34 induced by proton bombardment have been studied, and correlated with small angle x-ray scattering measurements performed for x = 20 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the Curie temperature and the low temperature saturation magnetization increase with proton fluence up to 10 16 cm -2 but are constant for higher fluences. Protons of energy 2.25 MeV (range much greater than the sample thickness) are more effective at producing changes than protons of energy 0.25 MeV (range much less than sample thickness). Thus, hydrogen implantation is eliminated as the principal source of the observed changes. In addition, careful attention to sample temperature during irradiation excludes thermal annealing as the origin of the effect. Proton bombardment at the same fluences produces scattering centers that are observed by small angle x-ray scattering. The concentration of scattering centers increases with proton fluence up to 10 16 cm -2 , but remains constant thereafter. The size of the centers remains constant at about 16 to 30 A. Possible structural changes to account for these observations are incipient recrystallization, void formation, and phosphorous segregation

  2. Identification of new metabolic pathways in the enantioselective fungicide tebuconazole biodegradation by Bacillus sp. 3B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, Mohamed; Sancelme, Martine; Combourieu, Bruno; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale

    2018-02-24

    The use of triazole fungicides in various fields ranging from agriculture to therapy, can cause long-term undesirable effects on different organisms from various environmental compartments and lead to resistance phenomena (even in humans) due to their extensive use and persistence. Their occurrence in various water bodies has increased and tebuconazole, in particular, is often detected, sometimes in high concentration. Only a few bacterial and fungal strains have been isolated and found to biotransform this fungicide, described as not easily biodegradable. Nevertheless, the knowledge of efficient degrading-strains and metabolites potentially formed could improve bioremediation process and global overview of risk assessment. Therefore, a broad screening of microorganisms, isolated from various environmental compartments or from commercially-available strain collections, allowed us to find six bacterial strains able to biotransform tebuconazole. The most efficient one was studied further: this environmental strain Bacillus sp. 3B6 biotransforms the fungicide enantioselectively (ee = 18%) into two hydroxylated metabolites, one of them being transformed in its turn to alkene by a biotic dehydration reaction. This original enantioselective pathway shows that racemic pesticides should be treated by the environmental risk assessment authorities as a mixture of two compounds because persistence, biodegradation, bioaccumulation and toxicity often show chiral dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolism and disposition of phenolphthalein in male and female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R J; Godfrey, V B; Burka, L T

    1998-04-01

    A recent 2-year carcinogenicity/toxicology study determined that phenolphthalein (PHTH) is a multisite carcinogen in both mice and rats at all doses evaluated. In response to this finding the metabolism and disposition of PHTH has been evaluated in both F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at a single oral dose of 800 mg/kg. This dose fell within the range previously found to be carcinogenic in rats and mice. Studies were also performed using 1 and 50 mg/kg doses. At 800 mg/kg recovery of [14C]PHTH after 72 h was near 100% in females but closer to 75% in males. Radioactivity was primarily recovered in the feces in rats (> 90%), while mice excreted 30-40% of administered activity in the urine. There was no significant retention of radioactivity in tissues by 72 h and no significant accumulation of radioactivity in any tissue at any time point. Covalent binding to protein in target tissues, bone marrow and ovary, was at or less than the pmol/mg protein range. The major metabolite was PHTH glucuronide. Three minor metabolites were detected. A sulfate conjugate and and a hydroxylated metabolite were identified by comparison of retention times and 1H NMR and/or mass spectra with synthetic standards. A diglucuronide conjugate was tentatively identified. Biliary elimination was extensive in rats (35% of dose within 6 h); the only product detected in bile was phenolphthalein glucuronide.

  4. Temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra of amorphous and nanocrystallized Fe86Zr7Cu1B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orue, I.; Gorria, P.; Plazaola, F.; Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements have been performed on amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy ribbons of nominal composition Fe 86 Zr 7 Cu 1 B 6 . The nanocrystalline samples were obtained by annealing the as-quenched alloy at different temperatures in the range between 650 and 870 K. Moessbauer spectra of the as-quenched amorphous sample have been recorded at 77 K, room temperature and above the Curie temperature (∼ 330 K) at 360 K. We have also performed Moessbauer measurements at room temperature in the nanocrystalline alloys to characterize the phases that appear after the annealing and their relative concentration. The as-quenched sample spectra reveal the existence of two inequivalent sites for Fe. Such a feature is also observed in the remaining amorphous phase of the annealed samples. In the first steps of crystallization, α-Fe precipitates and its concentration increases with the annealing temperature. The experimental results suggest that the composition of the whole amorphous phase does not suffer large changes during crystallization. (orig.)

  5. Investigation of pentacene growth on SiO2 gate insulator after photolithography for nitrogen-doped LaB6 bottom-contact electrode formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasutaka; Hiroki, Mizuha; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) LaB6 is a candidate material for the bottom-contact electrode of n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, the formation of a N-doped LaB6 electrode affects the surface morphology of a pentacene film. In this study, the effects of surface treatments and a N-doped LaB6 interfacial layer (IL) were investigated to improve the pentacene film quality after N-doped LaB6 electrode patterning with diluted HNO3, followed by resist stripping with acetone and methanol. It was found that the sputtering damage during N-doped LaB6 deposition on a SiO2 gate insulator degraded the crystallinity of pentacene. The H2SO4 and H2O2 (SPM) and diluted HF treatments removed the damaged layer on the SiO2 gate insulator surface. Furthermore, the N-doped LaB6 IL improved the crystallinity of pentacene and realized dendritic grain growth. Owing to these surface treatments, the hole mobility improved from 2.8 × 10‑3 to 0.11 cm2/(V·s), and a steep subthreshold swing of 78 mV/dec for the OFET with top-contact configuration was realized in air even after bottom-contact electrode patterning.

  6. Mycobacterial WhiB6 Differentially Regulates ESX-1 and the Dos Regulon to Modulate Granuloma Formation and Virulence in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkang Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is exposed to diverse redox stresses that trigger metabolic and physiological changes. How these stressors are sensed and relayed to the Mtb transcriptional apparatus remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that WhiB6 differentially regulates the ESX-1 and DosR regulons through its Fe-S cluster. When challenged with NO, WhiB6 continually activates expression of the DosR regulons but regulates ESX-1 expression through initial activation followed by gradual inhibition. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the holo- and reduced apo-WhiB6 complemented strains confirms these results and also reveals that WhiB6 controls aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, cell division, and virulence. Using the Mycobacterium marinum zebrafish infection model, we find that holo- and apo-WhiB6 modulate levels of mycobacterial infection, granuloma formation, and dissemination. These findings provide fresh insight into the role of WhiB6 in mycobacterial infection, dissemination, and disease development.

  7. Respostas de plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. amazonicum] e Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] à deficiência hídrica Responses of Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. Amazonicum] and Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] plants to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Reis de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas jovens de S. amazonicum (paricá e S. parahyba (guapuruvu foram submetidas a dois ciclos de deficiência hídrica em casa de vegetação. O déficit hídrico induziu o aumento dos teores de aminoácidos solúveis totais, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e K+ nos tecidos foliares, ocasionando o abaixamento do potencial osmótico em ambas as espécies. Porém, a análise dos resultados das curvas pressão-volume indica que as espécies respondem, de maneira diferente, ao estresse hídrico e o S. amazonicum apresenta maior capacidade de adaptação osmótica do que o S. parahyba.Juvenile plants of S. amazonicum (paricá and S. parahyba (guapuruvu were subjected to two cycles of water stress in greenhouse conditions. The water deficit induced the increase in total soluble amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and K+ contents in the leaf tissues, lowering osmotic potential values in both species. However, the analysis of the pressure-volume curve results suggests that the species respond differently to water stress, and that S. amazonicum presents greater capacity of osmotic adaptation than S. parahyba.

  8. Toward Eradication of B-Vitamin Deficiencies: Considerations for Crop Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Strobbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hidden hunger’ involves insufficient intake of micronutrients and is estimated to affect over two billion people on a global scale. Malnutrition of vitamins and minerals is known to cause an alarming number of casualties, even in the developed world. Many staple crops, although serving as the main dietary component for large population groups, deliver inadequate amounts of micronutrients. Biofortification, the augmentation of natural micronutrient levels in crop products through breeding or genetic engineering, is a pivotal tool in the fight against micronutrient malnutrition (MNM. Although these approaches have shown to be successful in several species, a more extensive knowledge of plant metabolism and function of these micronutrients is required to refine and improve biofortification strategies. This review focuses on the relevant B-vitamins (B1, B6, and B9. First, the role of these vitamins in plant physiology is elaborated, as well their biosynthesis. Second, the rationale behind vitamin biofortification is illustrated in view of pathophysiology and epidemiology of the deficiency. Furthermore, advances in biofortification, via metabolic engineering or breeding, are presented. Finally, considerations on B-vitamin multi-biofortified crops are raised, comprising the possible interplay of these vitamins in planta.

  9. Comparison of tumorigenesis between accelerated heavy ion and X-ray in B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Masaoka, Yoshiyuki; Korosumi, Masako; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Oguri, Tetsuya; Shoji, Shuneki; Katoh, Osamu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi

    1998-06-01

    The effects of heavy ion and X-ray irradiation on tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 mice were compared. Six-week-old animals were divided into 6 groups and exposed to 0.426 Gy heavy ion irradiation of 290 MeV/u carbon-ion beam (LET 60-210 KeV/{mu}m) at the dose rate of 0.4{+-}0.2 Gy/min; 0.5 Gy of X-ray irradiation at 0.1 Gy/min or 5 Gy of X-ray irradiation at 1 Gy/min. The mice were killed and an autopsy performed 13.5 months after the whole body irradiation. Body weights were heaviest for both sexes in the 0.5 Gy group and lightest in the 5 Gy one. Total tumor incidences in the males were 30, 56 and 13% respectively in the heavy ion, 5 Gy and 0.5 Gy X-irradiated groups, stomach tumors, lymphomas and adrenal tumors being the most common outcome of the high dose X-rays. Liver tumor induction did not differ significantly among the groups. In the females tumorigenicity was significantly lower for heavy ion than for 0.5 Gy and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation (p<0.05), the respective incidences, mainly ovary one, being 73%, 17% and 41%. Non-cancerous lesions, such as graying of the hair, glomerular sclerosis and amyloidosis appeared in the 5 Gy group. These findings indicate that 0.426 Gy of heavy ion irradiation induced lower carcinogenicity than 5 Gy of X-irradiation and higher carcinogenicity than that of 0.5 Gy X-irradiation in male mice. (author)

  10. Tracing hepatitis B virus (HBV genotype B5 (formerly B6 evolutionary history in the circumpolar Arctic through phylogeographic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Bouckaert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indigenous populations of the circumpolar Arctic are considered to be endemically infected (>2% prevalence with hepatitis B virus (HBV, with subgenotype B5 (formerly B6 unique to these populations. The distinctive properties of HBV/B5, including high nucleotide diversity yet no significant liver disease, suggest virus adaptation through long-term host-pathogen association. Methods To investigate the origin and evolutionary spread of HBV/B5 into the circumpolar Arctic, fifty-seven partial and full genome sequences from Alaska, Canada and Greenland, having known location and sampling dates spanning 40 years, were phylogeographically investigated by Bayesian analysis (BEAST 2 using a reversible-jump-based substitution model and a clock rate estimated at 4.1 × 10−5 substitutions/site/year. Results Following an initial divergence from an Asian viral ancestor approximately 1954 years before present (YBP; 95% highest probability density interval [1188, 2901], HBV/B5 coalescence occurred almost 1000 years later. Surprisingly, the HBV/B5 ancestor appears to locate first to Greenland in a rapid coastal route progression based on the landscape aware geographic model, with subsequent B5 evolution and spread westward. Bayesian skyline plot analysis demonstrated an HBV/B5 population expansion occurring approximately 400 YBP, coinciding with the disruption of the Neo-Eskimo Thule culture into more heterogeneous and regionally distinct Inuit populations throughout the North American Arctic. Discussion HBV/B5 origin and spread appears to occur coincident with the movement of Neo-Eskimo (Inuit populations within the past 1000 years, further supporting the hypothesis of HBV/host co-expansion, and illustrating the concept of host-pathogen adaptation and balance.

  11. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  12. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jiahong; Tong, Jian; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s) for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  13. Colour vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  14. [Meta-analysis of clinical trials of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Bin; Qi, Juanfei; Shen, Bo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The databases, including Embase, Pubmed, Ovid, Biosis, China National Knowledge Infra-structure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CMB), were searched to identify random control trials between February 1994 to February 2014 on the effect of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers independently. The software Review Manager 5.2 was used. Funnel plots and Egger's regression test were applied to evaluate the publication bias. Data from 12 studies including 34 481 patients were analyzed using a fixed-effects model. Funnel plot and Egger's test (P > 0.10) confirmed the absence of publication bias. No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected on testing after excluding the sources of heterogeneity (chi-square test, I folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) groups (all P > 0.05). Mean homocysteine levels were significantly lower with folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) therapy compared with placebo during follow-up (all P folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation compared with placebo were 0.98 (0.93-1.03) for cardiovascular event, 0.97 (0.87-1.07) for coronary artery disease, 1.00 (0.92-1.08) for myocardial infarction and 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for cardiovascular death. Folic aicd combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) treatment significantly reduced plasma homocysteine level, but did not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, folic acid combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) should not be recommended as secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Zinc deficiency alters soybean susceptibility to pathogens and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate plant nutrition and biotic stress are key threats to current and future crop yields. Zinc deficiency and toxicity in major crop plants have been documented, but there is limited information on how pathogen and pest damage may be affected by differing plant zinc levels. In our study, we us...

  16. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Shcherbak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the lactase deficiency in children. The most frequent clinical manifestations — diarrhea and flatulence —are not specific to this pathology. Symptoms, typical for the majority of the diseases nosologies of the digestive system, lack of timely laboratory diagnosis, and, often, lack of pediatricians awareness about the specifics of this disease are the cause of lactase deficiency under-diagnostics. The article describes in detail the physiopathological mechanisms, clinical picture, diagnosis and dietary correction of lactase deficiency, the data concerning the prevalence of this disease are cited.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, children, health food.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  18. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... are also at high risk of deficiency in populations where dietary intake of B12-containing animal-derived foods is restricted. Deficiency is caused by either inadequate intake, inadequate bioavailability or malabsorption. Disruption of B12 transport in the blood, or impaired cellular uptake or metabolism...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  1. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Al Muhasinah P.O. Box 19099 United Arab Emirates. 2Plant Tissue ... of ex vitro and in vitro germinated seedlings showed significant differences in vitamin contents. Maximum ... is known by various names as gram, Bengal gram, chana, chole ...

  2. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  3. Carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, N B; Chou, B J; Renne, R A; Dill, J A; Miller, R A; Roycroft, J H; Hailey, J R; Haseman, J K; Bucher, J R

    2003-08-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a slightly soluble compound found in airborne particle emissions from metallurgical works and oil and coal burning. Because the carcinogenic potential of V2O5 was not known, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (N=50/sex/species) were exposed to V2O5 at concentrations of 0, 0.5 (rats only), 1, 2, or 4 (mice only) mg/m3, by whole-body inhalation for 2 years. The survival and body weights of rats were minimally affected by exposure to V2O5. The survival and body weights of male mice exposed to 4 mg/m3 and body weights of all exposed groups of female mice were lower than the controls. Alveolar/bronchiolar (A/B) neoplasms occurred in male rats exposed to 0.5 and 2 mg/m3 at incidences exceeding the National Toxicology Program (NTP) historical control ranges. A marginal increase in A/B neoplasms was also observed in female rats exposed to 0.5 mg/m3. Increases in chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar and bronchiolar hyperplasia/metaplasia and squamous metaplasia were observed in exposed male and female rats. A/B neoplasms were significantly increased in all groups of exposed mice. As with rats, increases in chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia were observed in mice exposed to V2O5. Thus, V2O5 exposure was a pulmonary carcinogen in male rats and male and female mice. The marginal tumor response in the lungs of female rats could not be attributed conclusively to exposure to V2O5. These responses were noted at and slightly above the OSHA permissible occupational exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 (dust) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 328).

  4. Local structure evolution of FexNi77-xCu(1-)Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Wei, S; Bian, Q; Li, Z

    2001-03-01

    Mechanically alloyed Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials have been prepared with different atomic compositions. The alloy structures are investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results show that mechanical alloying (MA) can drive the Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 powder mixture to produce amorphous alloy while the atomic concentration of Fe element is about and over 40%. On the contrary, the MA Fe(x)Ni77 xCu1Nb2P14B6 is a solid solution with a fcc-like structure in the region of lower Fe atomic concentration (<22%), preserving a medium-range order around Ni and Fe atoms. Moreover, we have found that the local structure geometry of Fe atom is similar to that of Ni atom for all the MA Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1NbP14B6 samples. It indicates that the local structures of Fe and Ni atoms in a Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 sample only depend on the x value of element Ni after ball milling.

  5. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  8. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  9. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  10. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  13. G6PD Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that is most common in males. About 1 in 10 African American males in the United States has it. G6PD deficiency mainly affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  17. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  5. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  7. CYP2B6 genotype-based efavirenz dose recommendations during rifampicin-based antituberculosis cotreatment for a sub-Saharan Africa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonzo, Jackson K; Bisaso, Ronald K; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Gustafsson, Lars L; Owen, Joel S; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    To assess genotype effect on efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics, treatment outcomes and provide genotype-based EFV doses recommendations during for tuberculosis (TB)-HIV-1 cotreatment. EFV concentrations from 158 HIV-TB co-infected patients treated with EFV/lamivudine/zidovidine and rifampicin were analyzed. Genotype and CD4 and viral load data were analyzed using a population PK model. Simulated AUCs for 600 mg EFV dose were 1.2- and 2.4-times greater than the product label for Ugandans in general and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes respectively. EFV daily doses of 450 and 250 mg for Ugandans and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, yielded simulated exposures comparable to the product label. Around 450 and 250 mg daily doses might meet EFV dosing needs of HIV-TB infected Ugandans in general and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively.

  8. Fabrication of an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Powder Core with Outstanding Soft Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the melt spinning method was used to develop Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous ribbons in the first step. Then, the Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline core with a compact microstructure was obtained by multiple processes. The main properties of the magnetic powder core, such as micromorphology, thermal behavior, permeability, power loss and quality factor, have been analyzed. The obtained results show that an Fe80.5Si7.5B6Nb5Cu amorphous-nanocrystalline duplex core has high permeability (54.8-57), is relatively stable at different frequencies and magnetic fields, and the maximum power loss is only 313 W/kg; furthermore, it has a good quality factor.

  9. Solid-liquid stable phase equilibria of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10+ H2O AND MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzong Meng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solubilities and the relevant physicochemical properties of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10 + H2O and MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there is one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions of the systems. The systems belong to a simple co-saturated type, and neither double salts nor solid solutions were found. Based on the extended HW model and its temperature-dependent equations, the single-salt Pitzer parameters β(0, β(1, β(2 and CØ for MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(B6O7(OH6, the mixed ion-interaction parameters θCl,B6O10, θSO4,B6O10, ΨMg,Cl,B6O10, ΨMg,SO4,B6O10 of the systems at 308.15 K were fitted, In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 308.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. Then the solubilities of the ternary systems are calculated. The calculated solubilities agree well with the experimental values.

  10. BROMOETHANE, CHLOROETHANE AND ETHYLENE OXIDE INDUCED UTERINE NEOPLASMS IN B6C3F1 MICE FROM 2-YEAR NTP INHALATION BIOASSAYS: PATHOLOGY AND INCIDENCE DATA REVISITED

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUMMARY: Chloroethane, bromoethane and etjulene oxide represent a unique set of three chemicals that induce endometrial neoplasms in the uterus of B6C3F1 mice following an inhalation route of exposure. The results of the NTP's chronic bioassays with these three compounds resu...

  11. 26 CFR 1.468B-6 - Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-6 Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds... provides rules under section 468B(g) relating to the current taxation of escrow accounts, trusts, and other...

  12. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers...

  14. Insights from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the metallic states of YbB6(001): E(k) dispersion, temporal changes, and spatial variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zhang, J.X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Liang, C.L.; Wang, Y.; Varykhalov, A.; Huang, Y.K.; Golden, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    We report high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) results on the (001) cleavage surface of YbB6, a rare-earth compound that has been recently predicted to host surface electronic states with topological character. We observe two types of well-resolved metallic states, whose

  15. The Effect of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 Alleles on Methadone Binding: A Molecular Docking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nur Syazana Bt Nik Mohamed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is yet to ensure 100% successful treatment as the optimum dosage has yet to be determined. Overdose leads to death while lower dose causes the opioid withdrawal effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in cytochrome P450s (CYPs, the methadone metabolizers, have been showen to be the main factor for the interindividual variability of methadone clinical effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNPs in three major methadone metabolizers (CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 on methadone binding affinity. Results showed that CYP2B6*11, CYP2B6*12, CYP2B6*18, and CYP3A4*12 have significantly higher binding affinity to R-methadone compared to wild type. S-methadone has higher binding affinity in CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*11, and CYP3A4*12 compared to wild type. R-methadone was shown to be the active form of methadone; thus individuals with CYP alleles that binds better to R-methadone will have higher methadone metabolism rate. Therefore, a higher dosage of methadone is necessary to obtain the opiate effect compared to a normal individual and vice versa. These results provide an initial prediction on methadone metabolism rate for individuals with mutant type CYP which enables prescription of optimum methadone dosage for individuals with CYP alleles.

  16. Enhancement of porosity and aerenchyma formation in nitrogen-deficient rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tomomi; Obara, Mitsuhiro

    2014-02-01

    Root aerenchyma provides oxygen from plant shoots to roots. In upland crops, aerenchyma formation is induced mainly by oxygen or nutrient deficiency. Unlike upland crops, rice forms root aerenchyma constitutively and also inductively in response to oxygen deficiency. However, the effects of nitrogen deficiency on aerenchyma formation in rice remain unknown although nitrogen deficiency is common in most of the world's soils. We aimed to clarify the spatiotemporal patterns of aerenchyma formation induced in rice roots by nitrogen deficiency upon establishment of reliable growth conditions. Rice was grown hydroponically to evaluate porosity and aerenchyma formation induced by nitrogen and oxygen deficiency. Reliable growth conditions for nitrogen and oxygen deficiency were successfully established, because seedling root elongation was significantly promoted by nitrogen deficiency and inhibited by oxygen deficiency. Porosity was higher in whole roots grown under nitrogen and oxygen deficiency than in the controls. Root aerenchyma production was induced extensively by nitrogen deficiency but partially by oxygen deficiency. Thus the physiological roles of aerenchyma induced by nitrogen deficiency likely differ from those under oxygen deficiency. It indicates a possibility that inducible aerenchyma formation in nitrogen deficiency might promote adaptation to this deficiency by reducing respiration and remobilizing nitrogen, or both. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  18. How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes and non-legumes. To investigate this possibility in detail, the effects of N and P deficiencies on SL exudation were examined in Fabaceae (alfalfa and Chinese milk vetch), Asteraceae (marigold and lettuce), Solanaceae (tomato), and Poaceae (wheat) plants. In alfalfa as expected, and unexpectedly in tomato, only P deficiency promoted SL exudation. In contrast, in Chinese milk vetch, a leguminous plant, and in the other non-leguminous plants examined, N deficiency as well as P deficiency enhanced SL exudation. Distinct reductions in shoot P levels were observed in plants grown under N deficiency, except for tomato, in which shoot P level was increased by N starvation, suggesting that the P status of the shoot regulates SL exudation. There seems to be a correlation between shoot P levels and SL exudation across the species/families investigated.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

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  14. Vitamin D Deficiency

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