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Sample records for b6 deficient plants

  1. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rumeau Dominique; Szewczyk Agnieszka; Ksas Brigitte; Havaux Michel; Franck Fabrice; Caffarri Stefano; Triantaphylidès Christian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2). These results raise the important question as to whether...

  2. Tryptophan metabolism in vitamin B6-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, D A; Njagi, E. N.; Danielian, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin B6 deficiency was induced in mice by maintenance for 4 weeks on a vitamin B6-free diet. Tryptophan metabolism was assessed by determining the urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, the metabolism of [14C]tryptophan in vivo and the formation of tryptophan and niacin metabolites by isolated hepatocytes. The vitamin B6-deficient animals excreted more xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine, and less of the niacin metabolites N1-methyl nicotinamide and methyl-2-pyridone-4-carboxami...

  3. Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldby Ida K; Fosnes Gunvor S; Ligaarden Solveig C; Farup Per G

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6) and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders) in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® ), physical activity, activ...

  4. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyun-soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer’s dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4′-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication,...

  5. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer's dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4'-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  6. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.;

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes....

  7. Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeldby Ida K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6 and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® , physical activity, activity of daily living (Katz Index, dietary habits, use of drugs, and psychiatric and somatic diseases were recorded. A blood sample was collected for haematological and biochemical screening, including B6 (p-PLP; p-PLP values Results Sixty-one residents (men/women: 22/39 with an age of 85.3 (6.8 years and BMI 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2 were included. Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were present in 11.5% and 61% respectively. Dietary intake of B6 (mg/day in men and women were 1.60 (0.30 and 1.18 (0.31 (recommended 1.6 and 1.2 respectively, and 14 (23% used B6 supplements. Median p-PLP was 20.7 (range Conclusions Half of the residents had vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin supplement was effective prophylaxis for deficiency and should be recommended to all elderly people in nursing homes.

  8. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; Sola, R.; V. Lemmen; Castillo, M.J.; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  9. Metabolomic analysis reveals extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency in healthy human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse F Gregory

    Full Text Available Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23 were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001 and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001. Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001 and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05. Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05, but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.

  10. Sugar and chromosome stability: clastogenic effects of sugars in vitamin B6-deficient cells.

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    Antonio Marzio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, has been implicated in preventing human pathologies, such as diabetes and cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PLP are still unclear. Using Drosophila as a model system, we show that PLP deficiency, caused either by mutations in the pyridoxal kinase-coding gene (dPdxk or by vitamin B6 antagonists, results in chromosome aberrations (CABs. The CAB frequency in PLP-depleted cells was strongly enhanced by sucrose, glucose or fructose treatments, and dPdxk mutant cells consistently displayed higher glucose contents than their wild type counterparts, an effect that is at least in part a consequence of an acquired insulin resistance. Together, our results indicate that a high intracellular level of glucose has a dramatic clastogenic effect if combined with PLP deficiency. This is likely due to an elevated level of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE formation. Treatment of dPdxk mutant cells with α-lipoic acid (ALA lowered both AGE formation and CAB frequency, suggesting a possible AGE-CAB cause-effect relationship. The clastogenic effect of glucose in PLP-depleted cells is evolutionarily conserved. RNAi-mediated silencing of PDXK in human cells or treatments with PLP inhibitors resulted in chromosome breakage, which was potentiated by glucose and reduced by ALA. These results suggest that patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and vitamin B6 deficiency may suffer chromosome damage. This might impact cancer risk, as CABs are a well-known tumorigenic factor.

  11. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spinneker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present in some subjects, particularly in the elderly.Objective: This review gives a complete overview over the metabolism and interactions of vitamin B6. Further, we show which complications and deficiency symptoms can occur due to a lack of vitamin B6 and possibilities for public health and supplemental interventions. Methods: The database Medline (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov was searched for terms like "vitamin B6", "pyridoxal", "cancer", "homocysteine", etc. For a complete understanding, we included studies with early findings from the forties as well as recent results from 2006. These studies were summarised and compared in different chapters. Result and conclusion: In fact, it has been proposed that suboptimal vitamin B6 status is associated with certain diseases that particularly afflict the elderly population: impaired cognitive function, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Some of these problems may be related to the elevated homocysteine concentrations associated to vitamin B6 deficiency, but there is also evidence for other mechanisms independent of homocysteine by which a suboptimal vitamin B6 status could increase the risk for these chronic diseases.Antecedentes: se piensa que la vitamina B6 es la coenzima más versátil que participa en más de 100 reacciones bioquímicas. Está implicada en el metabolismo de los aminoácidos y de la homocisteína, el metabolismo de la glucosa y los lípidos, en la producción de

  12. Effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on antioxidative status in rats with exercise-induced oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Youn-OK

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vitamin B6 deficiency on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in rats with exercise-induced oxidative stress. Forty eight rats were fed either a vitamin B6 deficient diet (B6-) or a control diet (control) for 4 weeks and then subdivided into 3 groups: pre-exercise (PreE); post-exercise (PostE); recess after exercise (recessE). Compared to those of control group, plasma catalase and hepatic cytosol superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activit...

  13. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P biofilm formation. Consistently, PdxR-deficiency affected the growth of the deficient mutant when grown in defined medium with and without vitamin B6 . Further studies revealed that although S. mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

  14. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  15. Influence of vitamin B6-deficiency on the uracilnucleotid-metabolism in different organs of the rat and on the glycosylation of plasmamembrane-proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP), the physiologically active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor for enzymes in a variety of metabolic reactions, particulary the amino acid metabolism. In addition, a number of studies have demonstrated a new role of vitamin B6 as a modulator of gene expression. Vitamin B6-deficiency hereby resulted in an enhanced expression of a number of genes. Herein, the influence of vitamin B6-deficiency a) on the concentration of nucleotides and UDP-sugars in rat liv...

  16. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: a dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Boycheva, Svetlana; Li, Kuan-Te; Szydlowski, Nicolas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the a...

  17. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé eVanderschuren; Svetlana eBoycheva; Kuan-Te eLi; Nicolas eSzydlowski; Wilhelm eGruissem; Teresa Bridget Fitzpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the a...

  18. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  19. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  20. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have subnormal vitamin B6 status, both quantitatively and functionally. Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein an...

  1. Vitamin B6 Related Epilepsy during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Fai Kuo; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2007-01-01

    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled withoutan extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), theactive form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes.Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrationsin the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxinephosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder oc...

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris;

    Life style associated diseases such as type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease originate form an adaptive immune response, which can be down regulated by a regulatory immune response and are under heavy stimulation from early life gut microbiota (GM). Today......-Lepob/J leptin deficient mouse, a model of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, was correlated with development of glucose intolerance. GM composition was analyzed by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a culture independent approach, separating PCR-derived DNA amplicons of bacterial 16S r...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  3. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  4. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  5. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  6. Genes of the de novo and salvage biosynthesis pathways of vitamin B6 are regulated under oxidative stress in the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil eSamsatly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B6 is recognized as an important cofactor required for numerous metabolic enzymes, and has been shown to act as an antioxidant and play a role in stress responses. It can be synthesized through two different routes: salvage and de novo pathways. However, little is known about the possible function of the vitamin B6 pathways in the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Using genome walking, the de novo biosynthetic pathway genes; RsolPDX1 and RsolPDX2 and the salvage biosynthetic pathway gene, RsolPLR were sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three genes had high degree of similarity to other fungal PDX1, PDX2, and PLR proteins and are closely related to other R. solani anastomosis groups. We also examined their regulation when subjected to ROS stress inducers, the superoxide generator paraquat, or H2O2, and compared it to the well-known antioxidant genes, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The genes were differentially regulated with substantial transcript levels as high as 33 fold depending on the gene and type of stress reflecting that differences in the type of damage induced by ROS. Exogenous addition of the vitamers PN or PLP in culture medium significantly induced the transcription of the vitamin B6 de novo encoding genes as early as 0.5 hour post treatment (HPT. On the other hand, transcription of RsolPLR was vitamer-specific; a down regulation upon supplementation of PN and upregualtion with PLP. Our results suggest that accumulation of ROS in R. solani mycelia was linked to transcriptional regulation of the three genes and R. solani vitamin B6 biosynthesis machinery could be implicated similar to catalases and GST as an antioxidant stress protector against oxidative stress.

  7. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, M.; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, FC; van Hasselt, PM; De Sain-van Der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, NM

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6

  8. Boron in Plants: Deficiency and Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. Camacho-Crist6bal; Jesus Rexach; Agustin González-Fontess

    2008-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of higher plants, and B availability in soil and irrigation water is an important determinant of agricultural production. To date, a primordial function of B is undoubtedly its structural role in the cell wall; however, there is increasing evidence for a possible role of B in other processes such as the maintenance of plasma membrane function and several metabolic pathways. In recent years, the knowledge of the molecular basis of B deficiency and toxicity responses in plants has advanced greatly. The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent findings related to these topics, which can contribute to a better understanding of the role of B in plants.

  9. Magnesium deficiency in plants: An urgent problem

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    Wanli Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although magnesium (Mg is one of the most important nutrients, involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues, its importance as a macronutrient ion has been overlooked in recent decades by botanists and agriculturists, who did not regard Mg deficiency (MGD in plants as a severe health problem. However, recent studies have shown, surprisingly, that Mg contents in historical cereal seeds have markedly declined over time, and two thirds of people surveyed in developed countries received less than their minimum daily Mg requirement. Thus, the mechanisms of response to MGD and ways to increase Mg contents in plants are two urgent practical problems. In this review, we discuss several aspects of MGD in plants, including phenotypic and physiological changes, cell Mg2 + homeostasis control by Mg2 + transporters, MGD signaling, interactions between Mg2 + and other ions, and roles of Mg2 + in plant secondary metabolism. Our aim is to improve understanding of the influence of MGD on plant growth and development and to advance crop breeding for Mg enrichment.

  10. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  11. Phenelzine reduces plasma vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, D E; Yu, P H; Bowen, R.C.; O'Donovan, C.; Hawkes, J; Hussein, M

    1994-01-01

    Plasma levels of the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) in 19 patients taking phenelzine were found to be reduced on the average to approximately 54% of the value in a control group. There was no correlation of pyridoxal phosphate level with phenelzine daily dosage over the range of 30 mg to 90 mg. No symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency peripheral neuropathy were found.

  12. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Albersen; Marjolein Bosma; Jans, Judith J. M.; Hofstede, Floris C.; van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Gepke Visser; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem m...

  13. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, frequently, developmental delay. Disturbances of vitamin B6 metabolism may be missed by biochemical profiling of the secondary effects of functional vitamin B6 deficiency. Direct analysis of the dif...

  14. Deficiencies of readily plant available water in Gleyic Chernozems (Pachic)

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kozłowski; Jolanta Komisarek

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the results of research on the deficiencies of water content in the Gleyic Chernozems (Pachic) of the central part of Wielkopolska during 2009-2011. The objective was to determine the soil water deficiencies in relation to the lower limit of plant available water (LLPAW) calculated at matric potential of –31 kPa (LLPAW31), –49 kPa (LLPAW49), –59 kPa (LLPAW59) and –88 kPa (LLPAW88). The research results indicate that the crop water deficiency and the ...

  15. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assuncao, A.G.L.; Persson, D.P.; Husted, S.; Schjorring, J.K.; Alexander, R.D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order to d

  16. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order t...

  17. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Thomford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV and nevirapine (NVP are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL, followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL, Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL, and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL. Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17 effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the

  18. Transcriptional responses and regulations to deficient phosphorus in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinxiang BAO; Shuhua ZHANG; Wenjing LU; Chengjin GUO; Juntao GU; Kai XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past several years in the understanding of phosphorus (Pi)-starvation responses in plants and their regulation. The transcriptional changes that occur in response to Pi starvation are beginning to be revealed, although much is left to understand about their significance. In this paper, the recent progresses on the gene expression changes under deficient-Pi, cis-regulatory elements involved in response to deficient-Pi, the transcriptional control of Pi-starvation responses in eukaryotes, transcription factors involved in response to Pi-starvation, the role of MicroRNA on regulation of phosphate homeostasis, and phosphate sensing and signal transduction in plants have been summarized. The purpose of this review is to provide some basis for further elucidation of the transcriptional responses and regulations, and the networks of Pi sensing and signal transduction under deficient-Pi in plants in the future.

  19. New Ways to Determine Plant Nutrient Deficiences Using Fast Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Marie

    leaves. The method is specific for Cu, and the condition can be diagnosed so early that it is reversible. Paper III describes a method to diagnose P deficiency in barley plants and quantify P concentration in deficient plants. It was found that the I-step in the OJIP transient, which is the outcome......, S and Fe may have so far unknown, specific effects on the OJIP transient. A patent application has been filed on the method, enclosed as Paper IV. The obtained results can relatively simply be further developed into actual instruments, as both NIR and chlo ophyll a fluorescence are already widely...

  20. : Vitamine B6 et cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sujol, Guillaume; Docquier, Aurélie; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Castet-Nicolas, Audrey; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    International audience Vitamin B6 is well-known for its role as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and recently, several epidemiological studies have highlighted the importance of this vitamin as a protective agent against various cancers: elevated vitamin B6 plasma levels were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer development, for example. In vivo studies have shown that vitamin B6 decreased cell proliferation and enhanced the immune response. At the cellular level, antiox...

  1. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  2. Vitamin B6: a challenging link between nutrition and inflammation in cardiovasular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present review is to highlight the relationship between low vitamin B6 status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through its link with inflammation. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in clinical practice, increasing evidence suggests that mild vitamin B6 deficiency is ...

  3. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol), pyridoxal (an aldehyde), and pyridoxamine (a primary amine). Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other s...

  4. Analysis of vitamin B6 vitamers in tobacco plants by high performance liquid chromatography%采用高效液相色谱技术分析烟草体内的维生素B6化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾海彬; 张剑韵; 黄龙全

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B6(VB6)is the general term for a kind of chemical compounds . VB6 exists in several forms,and has been linked to stress responses in plants. Until now no reports about the distribution of B6 vitamers in tobacco plants have been observed. In our experiment,the determination of VB6 vitamers in tobacco plants was described by using HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results indicated that, the contents of VB6 in leaves, tender stem and roots were 2. 9,1. 7 and 3. 0 μg/g fresh weight,respectively. Leaves of tobacco plants grown on MS basal media exhibited a high content of 3. 9 μg/g fresh weight. The constituent ratio of B6 vitamers were as follows: pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate(PMP) 7% , pyridoxamine(PM) 14%, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate(PLP) 19%, pyridoxal(PL) 29% and pyridoxine(PN) 30%. During the determination period of three weeks,the contents of PLP and PL decreased,and that of PN increased. The amount of VB6 was relatively constant. Our results would be favorable for further study on the metabolic mechanism and special physiological mechanism in tobacco plants.%维生素B6 (VB6)是一类化合物的总称.近年来研究发现VB6在植物体内发挥抗逆作用.烟草作为模式植物其体内VB6的存在形态还未见报道.本研究采用高效液相色谱结合荧光检测技术对烟草体内VB6的存在形态进行了分析.结果表明:土壤栽培烟草叶、茎和根中VB6的含量依次为2.9、1.7、3.0 μg/g鲜重;组培烟草叶片的VB6含量为3.9 μg/g鲜重,构成比为磷酸吡哆胺(PMP)7%、吡哆胺(PM)14%、磷酸吡哆醛(PLP)19%、吡哆醛(PL)29%、吡哆醇(PN)30%;组培烟草在连续3周的检测过程中,PLP和PL含量下降、PN含量上升,VB6总量保持相对稳定.研究结果有助于以烟草为材料,进一步开展植物体内VB6代谢机制和特殊生理机制的研究.

  5. Boron deficiency in woody plants: various responses and tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Yang, Chengquan; Pan, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongzhong; Peng, Shu'ang

    2015-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for higher plants, and its deficiency is widespread around the world and constrains the productivity of both agriculture and forestry. In the last two decades, numerous studies on model or herbaceous plants have contributed greatly to our understanding of the complex network of B-deficiency responses and mechanisms for tolerance. In woody plants, however, fewer studies have been conducted and they have not well been recently synthesized or related to the findings on model species on B transporters. Trees have a larger body size, longer lifespan and more B reserves than do herbaceous plants, indicating that woody species might undergo long-term or mild B deficiency more commonly and that regulation of B reserves helps trees cope with B deficiency. In addition, the highly heterozygous genetic background of tree species suggests that they may have more complex mechanisms of response and tolerance to B deficiency than do model plants. Boron-deficient trees usually exhibit two key visible symptoms: depression of growing points (root tip, bud, flower, and young leaf) and deformity of organs (root, shoot, leaf, and fruit). These symptoms may be ascribed to B functioning in the cell wall and membrane, and particularly to damage to vascular tissues and the suppression of both B and water transport. Boron deficiency also affects metabolic processes such as decreased leaf photosynthesis, and increased lignin and phenol content in trees. These negative effects will influence the quality and quantity of wood, fruit and other agricultural products. Boron efficiency probably originates from a combined effect of three processes: B uptake, B translocation and retranslocation, and B utilization. Root morphology and mycorrhiza can affect the B uptake efficiency of trees. During B translocation from the root to shoot, differences in B concentration between root cell sap and xylem exudate, as well as water use efficiency, may play key roles in

  6. The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J.B.; van der Merwe, A.; Delport, R; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Riezler, R; Vermaak, W J

    1996-01-01

    Homocysteine, an atherogenic amino acid, is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine by the transsulfuration pathway. The biochemical conversion of homocysteine to cysteine is dependent upon two consecutive, vitamin B-6-dependent reactions. To study the effect of a selective vitamin B-6 deficiency on transsulfuration, we performed oral methionine load tests on 22 vitamin B-6-deficient asthma patients treated with theophylline (a vitamin B-6 antagonist) and 24 age- and sex-...

  7. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  8. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  9. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production. PMID:22090437

  10. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production.

  11. [The vitamin B6 allowance of hypertension patients and the effect of dietotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleeva, V L; Piatnitskaia, I N; Bogdanov, N G

    1990-01-01

    A total of 111 patients with essential hypertension (the II stage) and obesity (the II degree) were investigated for providing with vitamin B6. The functional methods used for the vitamin assay (ACT activity of red blood cells and pyrodoxale-5-phosphate effect) have revealed significant vitamin B6 deficiency in 81.1% of the patients. Vitamin B6 deficiency was intensified in the course of the dietotherapy. Correction of vitamin B6 deficiency with a therapeutic dose of pyridoxine (20 mg/day) during 20-22 days, in the presence of the diet, has promoted optimization of providing with vitamin B6: normalization of pyrodoxale-5-phosphate effect. The hypotensive effect and decrease of excessive body mass in patients who received dietotherapy and pyridoxine (20 mg/day) were more pronounced than in those who received the same diet and the multivitamin "Undevitum". PMID:2399675

  12. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  13. Review: mechanisms for boron deficiency-mediated changes in plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Monika A; Eichert, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for plants and is constantly needed throughout the plant life due to its function as a structural element of the plant cell wall. B deficiency is a wide-spread problem in agricultural areas world-wide, and management of B nutrition is challenged by sudden occurrences of B deficiency or inconsistent effects of foliar B application. The effects of insufficient B supply on different structures relevant for the plant water status have been heavily researched, but the resulting conclusions are contradictory and no clear picture has so far emerged that fully explains the inconsistencies. B deficiency can affect water uptake by inhibition of root and shoot growth and by upregulation of water channels. Structural damage to xylem vessels can limit water transport to arial plant parts, while water loss can be altered by impaired barrier functions of leaf surfaces and reduced photosynthesis. In consequence of all these effects, transpiration is reduced in B-deficient plants under well-watered conditions. Under drought conditions, the responsiveness of stomata is impaired. Possible consequences of damaged vasculature for plant B nutrition include the reduced effectiveness of foliar B fertilization, especially in species with high B phloem mobility. Changes in leaf surface properties can further reduce B uptake after foliar application. In species with low B phloem mobility, weakened xylem vessels may not be able to supply sufficient B to arial parts under conditions of increased B demand, such as during bud development of trees. Since structural damage to vessels is hardly reversible, these effects could be permanent, even if B deficiency was only transient. Another consequence of reduced water status is the higher susceptibility of B-deficient plants to other abiotic stresses, which also impair water relations, especially drought. Since damage to vasculature can occur before visible symptoms of B deficiency appear in shoots, the

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Ling; Quay, Teo A W; Devlin, Angela M; Lamers, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6) status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19-35 years; n = 202). Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Mean (95% confidence interval) plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3) nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L) was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20-30 nmol/L) was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population. PMID:27598193

  16. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  17. Iron deficiency in plants: An insight from proteomic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis is a major nutritional disorder for crops growing in calcareous soils, and causes decreases in vegetative growth as well as marked yield and quality losses. With the advances in mass spectrometry techniques, a substantial body of knowledge has arisen on the changes in ...

  18. Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, Maite; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-01-01

    The essential micronutrient vitamin B6 is best known in its enzymatic cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, vitamin B6 comprises the amine pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and the alcohol pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in addition to PLP, as well as their corresponding non-phosphorylated forms. The different B6 forms (called vitamers) are enzymatically interconverted in a ubiquitous salvage pathway. Recently, we have shown that balancing the ratio of the different B6 vitamers in particular PMP by the PMP/PNP oxidase PDX3 is essential for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Intriguingly, nitrate to ammonium conversion is impaired in pdx3 mutants, such that the mutants become ammonium-dependent, suggesting an interaction between vitamin B6 and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found a strong up-regulation of genes related to plant defense. Here, we further show that pdx3 mutants display a temperature-sensitive phenotype that is typical of autoimmune mutants and is possibly connected to the impaired nitrogen metabolism. PMID:27018849

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome and vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION A 42-year-old woman with carpal tunnel syndrome tells you she has started taking a vitamin B6 supplement to relieve her symptoms. Her work in an automotive parts department involves both lifting moderately heavy packages and typing at a computer terminal. What does the research indicate about vitamin B6 as a treatment option, and what health issues should you discuss with this patient?

  20. Strictly NO3- Nutrition Alleviates Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Msilini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of NO3- nutrition on iron deficiency responses were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown with or without 5 µM Fe, and with NO3- alone or a mixture of NO3- and NH4+. The results indicated that, NO3- nutrition induced higher dry matter production, regardless the Fe concentration. Fe deficiency reduced growth activity, photosynthetic pigment concentration and Fe content of plants, whatever the N forms. This decrease was more pronounced in plants grown with mixed N source; those plants presented the highest EL and MDA and anthocyanin contents compared to plants grown under Fe sufficient conditions. In iron free-solutions, with NO3- as the sole nitrogen source, enhanced FC-R activity in the roots was observed. However, in the presence of NH4+, plants displayed some decrease in in FC-R and PEPC activities. The presence of NH4+ modified typical Fe stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  1. Effects of Fe deficiency on the riboflavin synthesis pathway in medicago truncatula plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboflavin was first described to be excreted from roots of Fe-deficient tobacco plants and since then excretion and accumulation of riboflavin, as well as other flavin compounds has been reported in a wide variety of plant species. In flavinogenic yeast strains and some bacteria, Fe has been shown ...

  2. Ethylene participates in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses in Strategy I plants and in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eLucena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is very abundant in most soils but its availability for plants is low, especially in calcareous soils. Plants have been divided into Strategy I and Strategy II species to acquire Fe from soils. Strategy I species apply a reduction-based uptake system which includes all higher plants except the Poaceae. Strategy II species apply a chelation-based uptake system which includes the Poaceae. To cope with Fe deficiency both type of species activate several Fe deficiency responses, mainly in their roots. These responses need to be tightly regulated to avoid Fe toxicity and to conserve energy. Their regulation is not totally understood but some hormones and signaling substances have been implicated. Several years ago it was suggested that ethylene could participate in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses in Strategy I species. In Strategy II species, the role of hormones and signaling substances has been less studied. However, in rice, traditionally considered a Strategy II species but that possesses some characteristics of Strategy I species, it has been recently shown that ethylene can also play a role in the regulation of some of its Fe deficiency responses. Here, we will review and discuss the data supporting a role for ethylene in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses in both Strategy I species and rice. In addition, we will review the data about ethylene and Fe responses related to Strategy II species. We will also discuss the results supporting the action of ethylene through different transduction pathways and its interaction with other signals, such as certain Fe-related repressive signals occurring in the phloem sap. Finally, the possible implication of ethylene in the interactions among Fe deficiency responses and the responses to other nutrient deficiencies in the plant will be addressed.

  3. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA-Deficient Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling.

  4. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  5. Differences between LaB6 and CeB6 by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, P.A.M. van der; Cate, H.W. ten; Dam, L.M. ten; Groot, R.A. de; Vroomen, A.R. de

    1986-01-01

    The optical properties of LaB6 and CeB6 have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results were compared with band-structure calculations. The main features of the spectra of both materials originate from optical transitions starting at boron-derived levels of similar character. A

  6. Dietary Intake of Vitamin B6 and Risk of Breast Cancer in Taiwanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yang, Tsan; Chou, Wan-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Ping; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Sun, Chien-An

    2011-01-01

    Background B vitamins, including vitamin B6, are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiencies in B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Methods We examined the association of dietary vitamin B6 intake with overall breast cancer risk and breast cancers stratified by hormone receptor status. This case-control study included 391 breast cancer cases and 782 control subjects enrolled at the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Energy-adjusted intake o...

  7. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  8. Single crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of LaB6 were prepared by float zone refining of hot pressed blocks of LaB6. The orientations studied were (001), (110), and a high index plane. The resulting crystals and the as-received material were chemically analyzed by vacuum fusion, combustion analysis, self-arc mass spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis. The first two provided accurate analysis for O, N, H, and C. The remaining elements except for La and B were determined by mass spectroscopy. The wet chemical analyses determined the B/La ratio. Two batches of as-received material had B/La ratios of 6.0 and 5.8, respectively. Slightly lower B/La ratios were obtained in the single crystals grown by the float zone technique from these materials. The single crystals were further characterized by measurements of lattice parameter and density. Work function values were determined by the FERP method and the thermionic method. Work function measurements in conjunction with Auger analysis of the crystals provided insight into the electron emission character of LaB6. Results indicate that for maximum emission from a crystal plane a proper heat treatment is necessary. Brightness of the crystals was measured in a Cambridge S-4 scanning electron microscope using a Broers type gun. Results show that a brightness of 106 amp/cm2 steradian (20kV) may be achieved with a single crystal LaB6 cathode operating at a temperature of 19000K which corresponds to a lifetime greater than 500 hrs for 1 mm cathodes

  9. ENDF/B-6 Standards Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENDF/B-6 Standards Library includes evaluated data for seven neutron reactions that are internationally recommended as reference standards for nuclear measurements. The reactions are H-1,(n,n), He-3(n,p), Li-6(n,t), B-10(n,α), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), U-235(n,f). The data are available on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge. (author)

  10. Genotype-Specific Changes in Vitamin B 6 Content and the PDX Family in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Liyuan Chen; Christina Kühn; Roy Navarre; N. Richard Knowles; Hanjo Hellmann

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with very little work done on major crop plants. Here we provide the first report on interactions and expression profiles of PDX genes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis in potato and how vitamin B6 content v...

  11. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  12. Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, N. L.; Roberts, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

  13. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A.; Da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S. Jill; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, ad...

  14. Role of silicon in alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity in hydroponically-grown rice (Oryza sativa L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdol Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si nutrition may alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metal deficiency and toxicity in plants. Iron deficiency and toxicity are important limiting factors in growth of rice. In the present study, role of Si nutrition on alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity was investigated in rice plants. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse in hydroponics, using Yoshida solution, under different iron treatments (0, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mg/L as Fe- EDTA and Si nutrition (0 and 1.5 mM as sodium silicate. Results revealed that both iron deficiency and toxicity imposed significant reduction in fresh and dry weight and length of plants. The activity of catalase was decreased in shoots due to iron deficiency. Activity of catalase in roots and cell wall peroxidase in shoots increased under iron toxicity compared with control plants. Si nutrition increased Si content in plants and improved plant growth in both iron deficiency (not in the absence of iron and toxicity. Application of Si increased the activity of catalase in shoots and polyphenol oxidase in both roots and shoots under iron deficiency. Also, the activity of catalase in roots and polyphenol oxidase in shoots raised following iron toxicity. This in turn may reduce the oxidative stress in plants. In addition, increase of lignin in extreme iron toxicity due to Si nutrition may enhance sites of iron absorption in plant cell walls and decrease iron toxicity. The results indicated that Si nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency and toxicity in rice plants possibly through improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity and reduction of oxidative stress.

  15. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chin Hsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group, a vitamin B6-deficient diet (as a B6-deficient group, or a B6-supplemented diet (a pyridoxine-HCl-free diet supplemented with 14 mg/kg of pyridoxine-HCl, as a B6 supplement group for 28 days. Homocysteine thiolactone was then added to drinking water in three groups for 21 days to induce oxidative stress. At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and blood and liver samples were obtained. Results: Mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest homocysteine concentration in plasma and liver among groups. Significantly increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels were observed in the vitamin B6-deficient group. Among homocysteine-treated groups, mice with vitamin B6-deficient diet had the highest plasma glutathione concentration and relatively lower hepatic glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activities remained relatively stable in plasma and liver whether vitamin B6 was adequate, deficient, or supplemented. Conclusions: Mice with deficient vitamin B6 intakes had an aggravate effect under homocysteine-induced oxidative stress. The vitamin B6-deficient status seems to mediate the oxidative stress in connection with the redistribution of glutathione from liver to plasma, but not further affect glutathione-related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Stability of pyridoxal-5-phosphate semicarbazone: applications in plasma vitamin B6 analysis and population surveys of vitamin B6 nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink, J B; Serfontein, W J; de Villiers, L S

    1985-08-01

    The determination of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL) in plasma requires the availability of dark room facilities, due to the photosensitivity of these vitamin B6 vitamers. The fact that the semicarbazone forms of PL and PLP are more strongly fluorescent than the underivatized B6 vitamers has been exploited in plasma analyses, but it was not previously realised that these semicarbazone forms are also very stable even under conditions that lead to rapid decomposition of free PL and PLP. The stabilisation of PLP and PL obtained in this manner is sufficient and fully adequate to meet the practical requirements of clinical field studies. We report a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for plasma PLP and PL determinations based on precolumn semicarbazone formation and fluorescence detection. The method is sensitive enough for quantitative plasma PLP determinations even in B6-deficient patients. PMID:4055950

  17. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of CaB6 and EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivities of stoichiometric CaB6, vacancy-doped Ca1-δB6, and EuB6 have been measured between 6 and 300 K. All our data may be rather well described across the entire temperature regime covered on the basis of a Debye-type relaxation-time approximation and by assuming the concurring influence of various scattering channels on the mean free path of the phonons. An unusual and strong resonance in the scattering rate of the phonons of all investigated materials is attributed to a strong interaction between acoustic itinerant and localized modes, the latter arising from oscillations of the metal cations around their equilibrium position

  18. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen,Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nltrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth,accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deftciency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples,namely ascorblc acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants.Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathlone sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.

  19. [Severe nutritional deficiencies in young infants with inappropriate plant milk consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louer, B; Lemale, J; Garcette, K; Orzechowski, C; Chalvon, A; Girardet, J-P; Tounian, P

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few years, we have observed increasing consumption of inappropriate plant milks as an alternative to infant milk formula. Some families believe that foods labeled as natural are the most healthy and an appropriate nutritional choice. However, their composition does not respect European recommendations. They are always hypocaloric and protein, vitamin, and mineral concentrations are inadequate. The aim of this study was to report severe nutritional complications after inappropriate plant milk consumption. Between 2008 and 2011, we studied severe nutritional deficiencies caused by consumption of plant milks bought in health food stores or online shops. Infants were identified in our centers and examined through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Nine cases of infants aged from 4 to 14 months were observed. In all cases, these milks were used as an alternative to milk formulas for supposed cow's milk allergy. At diagnosis, four patients were aged 6 months or less. They had received plant milk exclusively for 1-3 months. The beverages consumed were rice, soya, almond and sweet chestnut milks. In three cases, infants presented severe protein-calorie malnutrition with substantial hypoalbuminemia (nutritional disorders were revealed by a refractory status epilepticus related to severe hypocalcemia (one case), growth arrest of both height and weight secondary to insufficient caloric intake (five cases), and severe cutaneous involvement (one case). Five children had severe iron deficiency anemia (nutritional rickets), and two had severe hyponatremia (nutritional deficiencies. Serious complications can occur. Early, exclusive, and extended use is riskier. These diseases are preventable, and parental education should be provided. Statutory measures forbidding their use in young infants should be organized to slow down the progress of this social trend. PMID:24726668

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  1. Development and recovery of iron deficiency by iron resupply to roots or leaves of strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Maribela; Correia, Pedro José; Saavedra, Teresa; Gama, Florinda; Abadía, Anunciación; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2012-04-01

    Bare-root transplants of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. 'Selva') were transferred to nutrient solutions with or without iron (Fe). After six weeks of growth, plants grown in solution lacking Fe were chlorotic and showed morphological changes in roots typical of Fe deficiency. Subsequently, four treatments were applied for nine days: plants grown in continued absence of Fe (Fe0); plants grown in continued presence of 10 μM Fe (Fe10); foliar application of ferrous sulphate every two days to chlorotic plants (Fe-leaves); and growth of chlorotic plants in solution with ferrous sulphate (Fe-solution). After six days, the chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves of Fe-solution plants was similar to that in Fe10 plants. Under the Fe-leaves treatment, a slight regreening of new leaves was observed only by the end of the experiment. After nine days, ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity was unchanged in Fe10 but increased in Fe0 plants. The FC-R activity of Fe-solution plants was similar to the initial value for chlorotic plants, whereas it was reduced drastically under the Fe-leaves treatment. The Fe concentration in leaves of Fe0 and Fe10 was similar, whereas the Fe-solution and Fe-leaves treatments enhanced leaf Fe concentration. In contrast to the Fe-solution treatment, foliar application of Fe did not increase the Fe concentration in roots. Under our experimental conditions, FC-R activity in strawberry appeared to be deactivated rapidly by pulses of Fe applied by foliar sprays. Deactivation was slower if Fe was applied directly to roots, which suggested that the plants had greater opportunity to take Fe. PMID:22285409

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  3. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  4. Iron deficiency chlorosis in plants as related to Fe sources in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I.; Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; del Campillo, M. C.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a relevant agricultural problem in many areas of the World where calcareous soils are dominant. Although this problem has been traditionally ascribed to the pH-buffering effect of soil carbonates, the content and type of Fe oxides in soil contribute to explain Fe uptake by plants and the incidence of this problem. During the last two decades, it has been demonstrated Fe extraction with oxalate, related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides, was well-correlated with the chlorophyll content of plants and thus with the incidence of IDC. This reveals the contribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil to Fe availability to plants in calcareous soils, previously shown in microcosm experiments using ferrihydrite as Fe source in the growing media. In order to supply additional information about the contribution of Fe sources in soil to explain the incidence of IDC and to perform accurate methods to predict it, a set of experiments involving different methods to extract soil Fe and plant cultivation in pots to correlate amounts of extracted Fe with the chlorophyll content of plants (measured using the SPAD chlorophyll meter) were performed. The first experiment involved 21 soils and white lupin cultivation, sequential Fe extraction in soil to study Fe forms, and single extractions (DTPA, rapid oxalate and non-buffered hydroxylamine). After that, a set of experiments in pot involving growing of grapevine rootstocks, chickpea, and sunflower were performed, although in this case only single extractions in soil were done. The Fe fraction more closely related to chlorophyll content in plants (r = 0.5, p citrate + ascorbate (CA) extraction, which was the fraction that releases most of the Fe related to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, thus revealing the key role of these compounds in Fe supply to plants. Fe extracted with CA was more correlated with chlorophyll content in plants that oxalate extractable Fe, probably due to a more

  5. Vitamin B6 in clinical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A L

    1990-01-01

    Many conditions in clinical neurology may be responsive to pyridoxine as a therapeutic agent. The current difficulty is in trying to isolate the conditions that are most likely to respond. Treating seizures is a major part of a neurologic practice. Our current therapeutic agents are only partially successful and limited by multiple side effects. One problem is that patients often have to take these agents for an entire lifetime, further raising the risk of toxicity. If pyridoxine supplementation can improve the efficacy of currently used medications, it will be gladly accepted into our therapeutic arsenal. Headache, chronic pain, and depression all appear to run together in many of our patients. The observations that serotonin deficiency is a common thread between them and that pyridoxine can raise serotonin levels open a wide range of therapeutic options. Small studies have been carried out with mixed success. Comparison with amitriptyline in the treatment of headache appears to show about equal efficacy, although side effects would be expected to be more of a problem with the amitriptyline. Behavioral disorders are relatively common and continue to be a major problem, disrupting the lives of the patients and their families. Current treatments are not acceptable to most people because of the risk of side effects with long-term usage. If, as Dr. Feingold suggests, many of these problems are caused by "toxic" exposures to chemicals that are pyridoxine antagonists, supplementation at early ages may reduce the incidence of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. This raises the question of safety. Is pyridoxine safe for long-term use in large segments of the population, including children? The studies on children with Down's syndrome and autism, utilizing much higher doses than are used for other therapeutic purposes, seem to indicate relative safety if carefully monitored. Studies involving large population groups with carpal tunnel syndrome, all adults, using 100

  6. Crystallography, semiconductivity, thermoelectricity, and other properties of boron and its compounds, especially B6O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, G. A.; Morgan, K. E.

    2015-09-01

    Electron deficient and non-deficient boron compounds are discussed as potential thermoelectric generator materials. Particular attention is paid to carbon-doped beta-boron, high-carbon boron carbide, and the alpha-boron derivative compound boron suboxide. Stoichiometric B6O shows some promise, and may have a higher ZT than the other two compounds. Carbon saturated beta-boron appears to have a higher ZT than undoped samples. Carbon saturated boron carbide at B12C3 does exist. Its thermoelectric behavior is unknown.

  7. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  8. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carla eSantos; Mariana eRoriz; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew EF and IN soybean plants under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions and evaluated if gene expression and the ability to partition Fe could be related to IDC efficiency. At an early growth stage, F...

  9. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eSantos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency chlorosis (IDC leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew EF and IN soybean plants under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions and evaluated if gene expression and the ability to partition Fe could be related to IDC efficiency. At an early growth stage, Fe-efficiency was associated with higher chlorophyll content, but Fe reductase activity was low under Fe-deficiency for EF and IN plants. The removal of the unifoliate leaves alleviated IDC symptoms, increased shoot:root ratio and trifoliate leaf area. EF plants were able to translocate Fe to the aboveground plant organs, whereas the IN plants accumulated more Fe in the roots. FRO2-like gene expression was low in the roots; IRT1-like expression was higher in the shoots; and ferritin was highly expressed in the roots of the IN plants. The efficiency trait is linked to Fe partitioning and the up-regulation of Fe-storage related genes could interfere with this key process. This work provides new insights into the importance of mineral partitioning among different plant organs at an early growth stage.

  10. The content determination of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 gels%维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪万里; 要辉; 沈定文

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定方法。方法:采用卡波姆940为基质,以维生素 B6为主药,制备成维生素 B6凝胶剂,采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6的含量。结果:卡波姆为基质制备的凝胶剂质地均匀细腻、质量稳定;采用紫外分光光度法,以291nm 作为维生素 B6检测波长,含量测定方法可行,维生素 B6在5~25μg/ml 浓度范围内,线性关系良好,平均回收率为98.79%,RSD 为0.46%。结论:采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6含量方法简单可行,结果准确。%Objective To establish the method for the content determination of vitamin B6 gels.Method Using the matrix of Car-bopol 940 and vitamin B6 -based medicine to prepare vitamin B6 gels,and using the UV to evaluate content determination of vitamin B6 .Results Using carbopol gels as matrix to prepare the gels which is uniform,exquisite and stable quality.Using the UV spectro-photometry to 291nm as wavelength to detect the content determination of vitamin B6 ,which is feasible and the calibration curve are linear within a well range of vitamin B6 in 5 -25μg/ml,the average recovery is 98.79%,RSD is 0.46%.Conclusion Using the UV spectrophotometry to detect the ointmen of vitamin B6 ,which is simple,feasible and accurate.

  11. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  12. Application status of Vitamin B6%维生素B6的临床应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status of the relevant domestic Vitamin B6. Methods Reviewing the domestic literature, summarizing and analyzing related data. Results The clinical Vitamin B6 had many new uses where we could draw lessons from. Conclusion Vitamin B6 has very good sight of clinical application and research.%目的:了解国内有关维生素B6的临床应用现状。方法复习国内文献,总结和分析相关资料。结果维生素B6有不少临新用途,可以借鉴。结论维生素B6有很好的临床应用和研究前景。

  13. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Carla S.; Roriz, Mariana; Pinto de Carvalho, S.M.P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew E

  14. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  15. Genotype-specific changes in vitamin B6 content and the PDX family in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B6 is one of the most versatile cofactors in plants and an essential phytonutrient in the human diet that benefits a variety of human health aspects. Although biosynthesis of the vitamin has been well resolved in recent years, the main research is currently based on Arabidopsis thaliana with...

  16. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or

  17. Vitamin B6 Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction, Insulin Resistance, and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Apoe −/− Mice Fed with High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Liu; Peng Li; Zhi-Hong Zhao; Yu Zhang; Zhi-Min Ma; Shuang-Xi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. VitB6 deficiency has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. However, the effects of VitB6 in metabolic syndrome are poorly understood. Methods. VitB6 (50 mg/kg/day) was given to Apoe −/− mice with hkdigh-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid contents were determined. Results. VitB6 administration remarkably increased acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreased random blood glucose leve...

  18. Fine Root Patterning and Balanced Inorganic Phosphorus Distribution in the Soil Indicate Distinctive Adaptation of Maize Plants to Phosphorus Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; YU Peng; PENG Yun-Feng; LI Xue-Xian; CHEN Fan-Jun; LI Chun-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Plants have diverse strategies to cope with phosphorus (P) deficiency.To better understand how maize responds to P deficiency,a field experiment with two P levels,0 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 (P0 and P100,respectively),was carried out as a part of a long-term Pfertilizer field trial.Plant and soil analyses showed that P-deficient maize reduced its growth rate,increased P use efficiency,and formed more thin roots with the diameter less than 0.6 mm at jointing and silking stages,compared to the plants treated with P100.Further,there were no differences in major inorganic P fractions (Ca2-P,Ca8-P,A1-P,Fe-P,occluded P and Ca10-P) between the rhizospheric and bulk soils at each harvest,even when soil Olsen-P was only 1.38 mg kg-1.These results suggested that maize responded to P deficiency by reducing the internal P demand for growth and increasing P acquisition ability by favorable root morphological alteration at low carbon cost.

  19. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, En-Pei; Smith, Donald E.; Selhub, Jacob; Dallal, Gerard; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-01-01

    Previously we observed strong and consistent associations between vitamin B6 status and several indicators of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical indicators, including the disability score, the length of morning stiffness, and the degree of pain, and biochemical markers, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, were found to be inversely correlated with circulating vitamin B6 levels. Such strong associations imply that impaired vitam...

  20. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1990-06-01

    The renal toxicity of gentamicin is altered by dietary protein modifications, bicarbonate and acetazolamide administration, magnesium supplementation, polyaspartic acid, piperacillin, hypercalcemia and calcium channel blockers. Renal tissue gentamicin levels have an undetermined role. Reduction of renal pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP- by gentamicin has been shown, as has protection from nephrotoxicity by administration of vitamin B6. To explore an interaction between gentamicin and vitamin B6, gentamicin (5 mg/kg) was given to rabbits by ip injection, with either pyridoxine (10 mg) or isovolemic saline for 3 weeks. There was not a difference between gentamicin levels for animals given gentamicin and pyridoxine versus those given gentamicin and saline. Gentamicin administration led to a 47% fall (p = .0001) in plasma PLP levels. Three days after the last gentamicin administration, the animals maintained a 32% decrease from the pre-gentamicin baseline values (p = 0.02). When pyridoxine was administered concurrently with gentamicin, the PLP rise of 49% was significant (p = 0.001). The mean level after the study (6%) was not significantly lower than baseline (p = .6). We believe that gentamicin interfers with vitamin B6 metabolism, but that vitamin B6 status does not affect levels of gentamicin. A number of drugs affect B6 levels, creating the potential for hypovitaminosis B6 to be an important mechanism of drug-drug interaction in seriously ill patients, particularly in sick newborns or the elderly with lower average PLP levels.

  1. VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TOXICOSIS IN FALCONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Perlman, Janine; Kinne, Jörg; Baskar, Vijay; Wernery, Ulrich; Dorrestein, Gerry

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections. Three individuals vomited frothy, partially digested blood and had clonic spasms and convulsions. Postmortem and histopathology revealed multifocal severe hepatic necrosis, splenic lymphoid tissue depletion and hemorrhages with arterial necrosis, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Following administration of a different, oral, mineral-vitamin supplement, a total of 21 peregrine falcons in two separate European facilities died suddenly. Histology of the liver showed diffuse congestion and multifocal coagulative necrosis with mild infiltration of heterophils. The particular nutritional supplement, used by both breeders, was analyzed and found to contain 5-9.7% Vit B6. Other randomly selected lots of the product contained 0.007-0.27% Vit B6. According to the product label, Vit B6 should have been present at 0.004%. To confirm the hypothesis that Vit B6 was responsible for the deaths of the falcons in Abu Dhabi, Vit B6 (British Pharmacopoeia [BP] grade) in powder form was diluted in water for injection and administered IM to four groups of falcons. Groups of four gyrfalcon × peregrine hybrid falcons or gyrfalcons (or both) were given a single IM dose of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Vit B6 or received an oral dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg of Vit B6. Only birds in the lowest

  2. Co-expression analysis reveals a group of genes potentially involved in regulation of plant response to iron-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Lei; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and development. Iron deficiency results in abnormal metabolisms from respiration to photosynthesis. Exploration of Fe-deficient responsive genes and their networks is critically important to understand molecular mechanisms leading to the plant adaptation to soil Fe-limitation. Co-expression genes are a cluster of genes that have a similar expression pattern to execute relatively biological functions at a stage of development or under a certain environmental condition. They may share a common regulatory mechanism. In this study, we investigated Fe-starved-related co-expression genes from Arabidopsis. From the biological process GO annotation of TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource), 180 iron-deficient responsive genes were detected. Using ATTED-II database, we generated six gene co-expression networks. Among these, two modules of PYE and IRT1 were successfully constructed. There are 30 co-expression genes that are incorporated in the two modules (12 in PYE-module and 18 in IRT1-module). Sixteen of the co-expression genes were well characterized. The remaining genes (14) are poorly or not functionally identified with iron stress. Validation of the 14 genes using real-time PCR showed differential expression under iron-deficiency. Most of the co-expression genes (23/30) could be validated in pye and fit mutant plants with iron-deficiency. We further identified iron-responsive cis-elements upstream of the co-expression genes and found that 22 out of 30 genes contain the iron-responsive motif IDE1. Furthermore, some auxin and ethylene-responsive elements were detected in the promoters of the co-expression genes. These results suggest that some of the genes can be also involved in iron stress response through the phytohormone-responsive pathways.

  3. Ligand stimulation induces clathrin- and Rab5-dependent downregulation of the kinase-dead EphB6 receptor preceded by the disruption of EphB6-Hsp90 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allonby, Odette; El Zawily, Amr M; Freywald, Tanya; Mousseau, Darrell D; Chlan, Jennifer; Anderson, Deborah; Benmerah, Alexandre; Sidhu, Vishaldeep; Babu, Mohan; DeCoteau, John; Freywald, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Ligand-induced internalisation and subsequent downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) serve to determine biological outputs of their signalling. Intrinsically kinase-deficient RTKs control a variety of biological responses, however, the mechanism of their downregulation is not well understood and its analysis is focused exclusively on the ErbB3 receptor. The Eph group of RTKs is represented by the EphA and EphB subclasses. Each bears one kinase-inactive member, EphA10 and EphB6, respectively, suggesting an important role for these molecules in the Eph signalling network. While EphB6 effects on cell behaviour have been assessed, the mechanism of its downregulation remains elusive. Our work reveals that EphB6 and its kinase-active relative, and signalling partner, EphB4, are downregulated in a similar manner in response to their common ligand, ephrin-B2. Following stimulation, both receptors are internalised through clathrin-coated pits and are degraded in lysosomes. Their targeting for lysosomal degradation relies on the activity of an early endosome regulator, the Rab5 GTPase, as this process is inhibited in the presence of a Rab5 dominant-negative mutant. EphB6 also interacts with the Hsp90 chaperone and EphB6 downregulation is preceded by their rapid dissociation. Moreover, the inhibition of Hsp90 results in EphB6 degradation, mimicking its ligand-induced downregulation. These processes appear to rely on overlapping mechanisms, since Hsp90 inhibition does not significantly enhance ligand-induced EphB6 elimination. Taken together, our observations define a novel mechanism for intrinsically kinase-deficient RTK downregulation and support an intriguing model, where Hsp90 dissociation acts as a trigger for ligand-induced receptor removal. PMID:25152371

  4. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  5. HPLC法测定林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Lincomycin Hydrochloride and Vitamin B6 Cream by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志华; 黄奇建; 康丽红

    2014-01-01

    目的 用高效液相色谱法测定林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱以十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以0.04%戊烷磺酸钠溶液(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(85:15)为流动相;检测波长为291 nm;进样量:20 μL.结果 维生素B6在2.51 ~25.10 μg/mL的浓度范围内线性关系良好,r=0.999 8;平均回收率为99.7%,RSD为0.9%(n=9).结论 本法操作简便,灵敏,准确,专属性强,可用于林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量测定.

  6. HPLC法测定维生素B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 Cream by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定维生素B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量.方法 采用Purospher STAR RP-18e色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm);流动相为0.04%戊烷磺酸钠溶液(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(85:15);柱温为30℃;流速为1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长为291 nm.结果 维生素B6在0.021 6~0.216 mg·mL-1(r=0.999 8)的浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系;维生素B6的平均加样回收率为98.57% (RSD =0.72%).结论 该方法简便、准确,结果稳定,可为维生素B6乳膏的质量评价提供依据.

  7. 氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6含量测定方法改进%Improvement of Assay Method of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 and Fluocinonide Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敦明; 王全华; 吴小华; 左杰

    2007-01-01

    目的 改进氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量测定方法.方法 流动相由甲醇-水(25:75)改为甲醇-用冰乙酸调节pH=3.0的0.04%庚烷磺酸钠溶液(25:75).检测波长由320 nm改为291 nm.结果 维生素B6质量浓度在3.4~17.0 μg/mL范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为97.1%,RSD为1.2%(n=6).结论 改进后的方法准确、重现性好、精密度高,可用于测定氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6含量.

  8. Vitamin B6: A Molecule for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is an intriguing molecule that is involved in a wide range of metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Based on its water solubility and high reactivity when phosphorylated, it is a suitable co-factor for many biochemical processes. Furthermore the vitamin is a potent antioxidant, rivaling carotenoids or tocopherols in its ability to quench reactive oxygen species. It is therefore not surprising that the vitamin is essential and unquestionably important for the cellular metabolism and well-being of all living organisms. The review briefly summarizes the biosynthetic pathways of vitamin B6 in pro- and eukaryotes and its diverse roles in enzymatic reactions. Finally, because in recent years the vitamin has often been considered beneficial for human health, the review will also sum up and critically reflect on current knowledge how human health can profit from vitamin B6.

  9. Prebiotic Synthesis of Vitamin B6-type Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sabrina M.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-05-01

    Heating a dilute solution of NH3 and glycoaldehyde gives a large family of pyridines substituted with the same functional groups as occur in the forms of vitamin B6. Thus, vitamin B6-like molecules could have been present on the early Earth and could have been available for catalysis of primitive transamination reactions. Ethanolamine and N-methylethanolamine are also formed as major products. These are choline-like molecules, the latter of which is apparently formed by a prebiotic methylation process.

  10. Vitamin B6: A Long Known Compound of Surprising Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Jan-Erik Leuendorf; Christopher Hendrickson; Hanjo Hellmann

    2009-01-01

    In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound’s critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back a...

  11. Effects of Zinc Deficiency and Drought on Plant Growth and Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; JIN Ji-yun

    2007-01-01

    The combinative effects of applied zinc (Zn) and soil moisture on the plant growth, Zn uptake, and the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in maize (Zea mays L.) plants were examined through two pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Maize variety Zhongdan 9409 was used. In experiment 1, maize plants were grown in cumulic cinnamon soil with five Zn treatments (0, 3.0, 9.0, 27.0, and 81.0 mg Zn kg-1 soil). Three treatments of soil moisture including serious drought, mild drought, and adequate water supply were set at 30-35 %, 40-45 %, and 70-75 % (w/w) of soil saturated water content, respectively. Soil saturated water content was 36% (w/w). The dry matter weights of shoots were enhanced by Zn application and adequate water supply. There was no apparent difference in plant growth among Zn application rates from 3.0 to 81.0 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The increases of plant growth and Zn uptake due to Zn application were found more significant under well-watered condition than under drying condition. In experiment 2, two levels of Zn (0 and 5.0 mg Zn kg-1 soil) and soil moisture regimen (40-45 % and 70-75 % of soil saturated water content, respectively) were set. Zn deficiency or water stress resulted in higher concentrations of O2-· and malondiadehyde in the first fully expanded leaves.Zn deficiency lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in leaves. Drought stress increased SOD activity in leaves regardless of Zn supply. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC1.11.1.11) was found to be enhanced by Zn supply only in well-watered leaves. Zinc deficiency or water stress had little effect on the activity of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6). The higher ROS level in early maize leaves due to water stress seemed not to be alleviated or lowered partially by Zn application. However, Zn fertilizer was recommended to apply to maize plants irrigated or supplied with adequate water, otherwise Zn deficiency would reduce the water use for plant biomass

  12. Literatuuroverzicht analysemethoden voor vitamine B-6 in voedingsmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.

    1983-01-01

    In dit literatuuronderzoek wordt een overzicht gegeven van recente ontwikkelingen (vanaf ca. 1970) in de analytiek van vitamine B-6. Een aantal alternatieven voor de tot op heden meest gebruikte microbiologische methoden is beschreven in de literatuur. Selektieve methoden op basis van vloeistofchrom

  13. Lipid asymmetry in plant plasma membranes: phosphate deficiency-induced phospholipid replacement is restricted to the cytosolic leaflet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjällström, H; Hellgren, Lars; Wieslander, Å;

    2010-01-01

    barrier) and rafts both contain only trace amounts of DGDG, we conclude that this lipid class is not compatible with membrane functions requiring a high degree of lipid order. By not replacing phospholipids site specifically with DGDG, negative functional effects of this lipid in the plasma membrane...... are avoided.-Tjellström, H., Hellgren, L. I., Wieslander, A., Sandelius, A. S. Lipid asymmetry in plant plasma membranes: phosphate deficiency-induced phospholipid replacement is restricted to the cytosolic leaflet.......As in other eukaryotes, plant plasma membranes contain sphingolipids, phospholipids, and free sterols. In addition, plant plasma membranes also contain sterol derivatives and usually 5 mol% DGDG was included. As both the apoplastic plasma membrane leaflet (probably the major water permeability...

  14. Systematic studies of ferromagnetic ordering in EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ferromagnetic semimetal EuB6 recently has attracted renewed interest due to its rich transport and magnetic properties. In transport and thermodynamic measurements, two consecutive phase transitions at ∝ 12.6 K and 15.3 K are observed, where upon lowering the temperature a charge-localization transition via the overlap of magnetic polarons precede the ferromagnetic ordering. This behavior is discussed in terms of electronic phase separation and a percolative phase transition. In this work, we performed fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy measurements of high-quality single crystals of EuB6 in order to investigate the dynamics of the charge carriers close to the above-mentioned transitions. In addition, higher-harmonics transport measurements reveal clear signatures of non-linear effects going along with the lower ferromagnetic transition. Furthermore, ultra high-resolution thermal expansion measurements reveal that lattice degrees of freedom are strongly coupled to both low-temperature transitions.

  15. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B6DA-1QLRC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B6DA-1QLRC 1B6D 1QLR A C DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCQASQDI-SSYLNWYQQ...KPGKAPKLLIHAASSLETGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFSFTISSLQPEDLATYYCQQYDSLPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKV...QSVSSNYLAWYQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPEDFAVYYCQQYGSSPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL...4> 1QLR C 1QL

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B6DB-1QLRA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B6DB-1QLRA 1B6D 1QLR B A DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCQASQDI-SSYLNWYQQ...KPGKAPKLLIHAASSLETGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFSFTISSLQPEDLATYYCQQYDSLPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKV...QSVSSNYLAWYQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPEDFAVYYCQQYGSSPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL...> 1QLR A 1QL

  18. Progress in the effect of vitamin B6 on human genome health%维生素B6与人类基因组健康研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴暇玉; 汪旭

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for the serine hydroxymethyltransferase ( SHMT ), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and betaine hydroxymethyltransferase (BHMT) in folate metabolism. SHMT catalyzes the reversible interconversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate ( THF ) to glycine and 5,10- methylene THF. The metabolism of homocysteine to methionine and cysteine is initiated by the enzymes CBS and BHMT. So the evidence indicates that vitamin B6 plays an important role in the maintenance of genome,epigenetics stability and homocysteine metabolism, suggesting vitamin B6' s critical role in the prevention of tumour, cancer and cardiovascular disease. This article will review and discuss the metabolic functions of vitamin B6, some associated diseases due to vitamin B6 deficiency, and new insights from recently published studies regarding prevention and treatment potentials.%维生素B6作为叶酸代谢途径中丝氨酸羟甲基转移酶(serine hydroxymethyltransferase,SHMT)、胱硫醚β-合成酶(cystathionineβ-synthase,CBS)、甜菜碱羟甲基转移酶(betaine hydroxymethyltransferase,BHMT)等酶的辅酶,一方面涉及丝氨酸、四氢叶酸到甘氨酸、5,10-甲基四氢叶酸的可逆转化,另一方面协助完成同型半胱氨酸到甲硫氨酸和胱硫醚的代谢.因此维生素B6对于维持基因组、表基因组稳定性以及促进同型半胱氨酸代谢可能具有一定作用,从而在肿瘤、癌症、心脑血管疾病的防范上可能起到积极作用.本文综述了维生素B6代谢功能研究进展、维生素B6缺乏临床表征及引发的并发症和营养缺陷症,为人类基因组健康、公共卫生健康和饮食供给提供参考.

  19. The molecular components of phospho- and glycolipid metabolism in plant cell membranes under the phosphorus deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of molecular regulation of phosphorus metabolism in plants, the lipid components of membrane structures, has been reviewed. The refocusing of phosphoand glycolipid metabolism is an indicator of phosphorus accessibility in plants. The compensatory mechanisms of substitution of phospholipids with non-phosphorus containing glycolipids in membranes, allow plants to adapt to the phosphate (Pi starvation. Phospholipids are the reserve pool of cellular phosphorus at reutilization of ions in the donor-acceptor system of plants. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids under Pi deficit have been analyzed.

  20. Carnosine Content in Skeletal Muscle Is Dependent on Vitamin B6 Status in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidasari, Sofya; Stautemas, Jan; Uragami, Shinji; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Derave, Wim; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a cofactor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70 and +61%, respectively) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43%) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group (P carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32 to +226%) than in the 1 mg PN HCl/kg group (P carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests that a similar phenomenon exists in the humans. PMID:26835452

  1. The Parkinson's disease death rate: carbidopa and vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz,1 Alvin Stein,2 Ted Cole31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3Cole Center for Healing, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: The only indication for carbidopa and benserazide is the management of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa-induced nausea. Both drugs irreversibly bind to and permanently deactivate pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, and PLP-dependent enzymes. PLP is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and proteins. Virtually every major system in the body is impacted directly or indirectly by PLP. The administration of carbidopa and benserazide potentially induces a nutritional catastrophe. During the first 15 years of prescribing L-dopa, a decreasing Parkinson's disease death rate was observed. Then, in 1976, 1 year after US Food and Drug Administration approved the original L-dopa/carbidopa combination drug, the Parkinson's disease death rate started increasing. This trend has continued to the present, for 38 years and counting. The previous literature documents this increasing death rate, but no hypothesis has been offered concerning this trend. Carbidopa is postulated to contribute to the increasing Parkinson's disease death rate and to the classification of Parkinson's as a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It may contribute to L-dopa tachyphylaxis.Keywords: L-dopa, levodopa, vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

  2. Legal considerations involving chemical control of iron and other deficiencies in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A; Samman, Y. S.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of lawsuits involving use of chelating agents in plant nutrition are discussed. Three of them involved use of iron. One concerned addition of FeDTPA to nursery trees in containers. One case involved foliar application of FeHEDTA to potatoes in July by airplane. Another case not involving iron chelate was with ZnEDTA and MnEDTA with Fe as FeSO/sub 4/ later as a foliar spray. The Zn and MnEDTA were applied as a band 8 inches (20 cm) on both sides of nursery tree rows just as the buds that had been placed in the fall began growing in the spring. In the fourth case, many tomato transplants died when the transplanting was done with about 120 ml per plant of transplant solution containing besides N, P and K, about 19 mg Zn as ZnEDTA, 14 mg Mn as MnEDTA and 7 mg Fe as FeHEDTA. Cases such as these will probably discourage use of chelating agents in plant nutrition even if the chelating agents were not the damaging agent. Not enough developmental work was done on the potential toxicities from metal chelates. This trend to lawsuits makes it even more important to solve iron chlorosis problems via plant breeding.

  3. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4(+) accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4(+) when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4(+). Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4(+) when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity.

  4. Improper Use of a Plant-Based Vitamin C-Deficient Beverage Causes Scurvy in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; López, Berta; Gómez, Jacinto; Torres, Carolina; Guasp, María; Calvo, Inmaculada; Dalmau, Jaime

    2016-02-01

    Scurvy is a rare disease in developed countries. Risk groups include children with restricted diets, mainly patients who are autistic or have cerebral palsy. Furthermore, consumption of plant-based beverages has increased in recent years, especially in developed countries. When plant-based beverages are the exclusive diet in the first year of life and not consumed as a supplement to formula or breastfeeding, it can result in severe nutritional problems. We report a case of scurvy after exclusive intake of almond beverages and almond flour from 2.5 to 11.0 months of life. The patient was referred for pathologic fractures of the femur, irritability, and failure to thrive. He had typical radiologic signs of scurvy, such as osteopenia, cortical thinning, Wimberger ring, Frankel line, fracture, and periosteal reaction. Moreover, his plasmatic vitamin C level was very low. The child was diagnosed with scurvy and was started on vitamin C replacement therapy at a dose of 300 mg per day. Over the following 3 months, his general condition, the pain in the legs, and the radiologic features improved; the plasmatic vitamin C level was normalized; and the child started walking. In summary, this case demonstrates that scurvy is a new and severe complication of improper use of almond drinks in the first year of life. Manufacturers should indicate that these beverages are inappropriate for infants who consume a vitamin C-deficient diet. PMID:26783325

  5. Thermal expansion investigation on EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EuB6 is a semimetallic correlated electron system, which exhibits a complex sequence of electronic and magnetic phase transitions at ∝15.5 K (T1) and 12.5 K (T2). The material also shows a colossal magnetoresistance effect which is largest at T1. The paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in this system is suggested to take place via the formation of magnetic polarons. In this work, we investigate by means of thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements to which extent lattice degrees of freedom are involved in these phase transitions. We find two corresponding anomalies in the thermal expansion, the one occurring at T2 being much larger than that at T1. The anomalies are very sensitive to magnetic fields. By applying a small magnetic field of less than 50 mT the anomaly at T1 is fully suppressed, while the lower-temperature anomaly at T2 shifts to higher temperature as the field is increased and finally fades out at a field B>5 T. These measurements are complemented by measurements of the magnetostriction at various temperatures from below T2 to above T1 which highlight the extraordinarily large magnetoelastic effects in this material.

  6. New targets in plant boron deficiency response: Nglycosylation and regulation of root developement

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Sánchez, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología   Since Warington described in 1923 for first time boron (B) essentiality in plants, many authors have tried to understand what the micronutrient is doing, how the micronutrient is acquired, and what happens when the micronutrient is absent. First studies on B nutrition focused on physiological processes and biochemical pathways which appeared altered as a consequence of B d...

  7. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    or in men. We conclude that adequate dietary vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining carnosine in skeletal muscles of rats. Significantly lower soleus carnosine content among women close to PLP deficiency suggests a similar phenomenon exist in the humans.

  8. BIDSF Project B6.4.Decommissioning database of V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, the preparation of V1 NPP practical decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, have been carrying out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (June 2008 until July 2010). The main purpose of the B6.4 project is to develop a comprehensive physical and radiological inventory database to support RAW management development of the decommissioning studies and decommissioning project of Bohunice V1 NPP. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia was responsible mainly for DDB design, planning documents and physical and radiological characterization including sampling and analyses of the plant controlled area. After finalization of all activities DDB includes over 75.000 records related to individual equipment and civil structures described by almost 3.000.000 parameters. On the basis of successful completion of the original contract the amendment was signed between JAVYS and Consultant's Consortium related to experimental characterization of NPP activated components. The works within this amendment have been still running. (authors)

  9. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for furthe

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of Expression of the Maize Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 7 Gene (ZmALDH7B6) in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ri-liang

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a large protein family, which includes several members that catalyze the oxidation of an aldehyde to its corresponding carboxylic acid in plants. Genes encoding members of theALDH7 subfamily have been suggested to play important roles in various stress adaptations in plants. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that a maizeALDH7 subfamily member (ZmALDH7B6) was constitutively expressed in various organs, including roots, leaves, immature ears, tassels, and developing seeds. The abundance ofZmALDH7B6 mRNA transcripts in maize roots was increased by ammonium, NaCl, and mannitol treatments. To further analyze tissue-speciifc and stress-induced expression patterns, the 1.5-kb 5´-lfankingZmALDH7B6 promoter region was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and introduced into maize plants. In roots of independent transgenic lines, there was signiifcant induction of GUS activity in response to ammonium supply, conifrming ammonium-dependent expression ofZmALDH7B6 at the transcript level. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity driven by theZmALDH7B6 promoter was mainly localized in the vascular tissues of maize roots. These results suggested thatZmALDH7B6 is induced by multiple environmental stresses in maize roots, and may play a role in detoxifying aldehydes, particularly in vascular tissue.

  11. Macro and micronutrients deficiency symptoms of hybrid corn plants BRS 1010 = Sintomas de deficiência de macro e micronutrientes de plantas de milho híbrido BRS 1010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna Maria Macedo Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional deficiencies on corn culture contribute significantly to the fall in productivity and, consequently, of the farmer gain. It is important to identify the nutritional deficiencies at the beginning of the plant cycle so that providences can be taken in at time to save the harvest. Thus, this objective of this study was to identify the deficiency symptoms of the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, and copper in hybrid corn BRS 1010. The experimental design was entirely randomized with thirteen treatments and three repetitions, consisting of a total of thirty nine experimental parcels. Each parcel was represented by a Leonard vase contained two plants. The ‘complete’ treatment was represented by plants that received, through of nutrition solution, everybody the essential nutrients to growth and development. The other treatments were formed by subtraction of every one of the essential nutrients, with the others supplied normally. The deficiency symptoms of each macro and micronutrients were recorded during all periods of the experiment. The diagnosis method by subtraction showed to be very efficient to visually evaluate the symptoms of nutritional deficiency in corn. = As deficiências nutricionais na cultura do milho contribuem significativamente para a queda da produtividade e, consequentemente, do lucro do produtor. Dessa forma, é importante que pesquisas sejam conduzidas no sentido de identificá-las no início do ciclo da planta para que as devidas providências sejam tomadas a tempo de de não prejudicar a colheita. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com esse trabalho identificar a sintomatologia de deficiência dos nutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, boro, manganês, zinco, molibdênio e cobre no milho híbrido BRS 1010. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação pertencente ao Departamento de Solos e

  12. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for Nitrogen Fixation and its Application to Improve Plant Growth under Nitrogen-Deficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops. PMID:23675499

  13. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6 is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, and methionine synthase (MS, in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV. To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state. SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer.

  14. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  15. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  16. Impairment of respiratory chain under nutrient deficiencies in plants: does it play a role in the regulation of iron and sulfur responsive genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANPIERO eVIGANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant production and plant product quality strongly depends on the availability of mineral nutrients. Among them, sulfur (S and iron (Fe play a central role, as they are needed for many proteins of the respiratory chain. Plant mitochondria play essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic functions as well as they have an important role in signalling processes into the cell. Here, by comparing several transcriptomic data sets from plants impaired in their respiratory function with the genes regulated under Fe or S deficiencies obtained from other data sets, nutrient-responsive genes potentially regulated by hypothetical mitochondrial retrograde signalling pathway are evidenced. It leads us to hypothesize that plant mitochondria could be therefore required for regulating the expression of key genes involved both in Fe and S metabolisms.

  17. 维生素B_6的合成研究进展%Process in Synthesis of Vitamin B_6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇智; 范卫东; 党登峰; 张晓增

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of important water-soluble vitamin,vitamin B6 was necessary for human and animals,and was widely used for pharmaceutical,food,feed additive and other fields.The progress in synthesis of vitamin B6 in recent decades was reviewed.Chemical and biological methods for synthesis of vitamin B6 were introduced,and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed.Finally,the further prospects in synthesis of vitamin B6 were stated.%维生素B6是一种重要的水溶性维生素,为人体和动物生长所必需,因此被广泛用于医药、食品及饲料添加剂等领域。本文综述了近年来维生素B6的合成研究进展,分别介绍了化学合成方法及微生物法在维生素B6合成中的应用,比较了各法的优缺点,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  18. 维生素B6对1~21日龄北京鸭生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 唐静; 闻治国; 黄苇; 侯水生

    2014-01-01

    An completely randomized one-factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin B6 on growth performance of White Pekin ducks from 1 to 21 d of age and to estimate vitamin B6 requirement of these birds during this period.Seven supplemental vitamin B6 levels(0,0.66,1.32,1.98,2.64,3.30,3.96 mg/kg)were used and pyridox-ine hydrochloride was used as vitamin B6 source. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided into 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen.These birds were raised from 1 to 21 d of age.In this study,vitamin B6 deficiency could reduce duck growth markedly and the daily weight gain in-creased significantly with the increase of supplemental vitamin B6 level (P 0.05).According to broken-line regression,the supplemental vitamin B6 requirement of Pekin ducks from 1 to 21 days of age was 1.24 mg/kg for optimum weight gain.Considering the vitamin in basal diets,total vita-min B6 requirement for the birds during this period was 3.17 mg/kg.%本试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计研究维生素B6对1~21日龄雄性北京鸭生产性能的影响,进而探讨1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6需要量。试验设7个维生素B6添加水平(0、0.66、1.32、1.98、2.64、3.30、3.96 mg/kg),维生素B6添加形式为盐酸吡哆醇。336只1日龄雄性北京鸭随机分为7组,每组8个重复,每重复6只,饲养至21日龄。试验结果表明,维生素B6缺乏会显著抑制肉鸭生长,随维生素B6添加水平升高,北京鸭日增重显著增加(P<0.05),而采食量和料重比未发生显著变化(P>0.05)。以日增重为评价指标,依据折线模型,1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6适宜添加量为1.24 mg/kg。当考虑到基础日粮中维生素B6含量时,1~21日龄北京鸭维生素B6总需要量为3.17 mg/kg。

  19. Vitamin B6 nutritional status and cellular availability of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate govern the function of the transsulfuration pathway's canonical reactions and hydrogen sulfide production via side reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jesse F; DeRatt, Barbara N; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Ralat, Maria; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    The transsulfuration pathway (TS) acts in sulfur amino acid metabolism by contributing to the regulation of cellular homocysteine, cysteine production, and the generation of H2S for signaling functions. Regulation of TS pathway kinetics involves stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and oxidants such as H2O2, and by Michaelis-Menten principles whereby substrate concentrations affect reaction rates. Although pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) serves as coenzyme for both CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), CSE exhibits much greater loss of activity than CBS during PLP insufficiency. Thus, cellular and plasma cystathionine concentrations increase in vitamin B6 deficiency mainly due to the bottleneck caused by reduced CSE activity. Because of the increase in cystathionine, the canonical production of cysteine (homocysteine → cystathionine → cysteine) is largely maintained even during vitamin B6 deficiency. Typical whole body transsulfuration flux in humans is 3-7 μmol/h per kg body weight. The in vivo kinetics of H2S production via side reactions of CBS and CSE in humans are unknown but they have been reported for cultured HepG2 cells. In these studies, cells exhibit a pronounced reduction in H2S production capacity and rates of lanthionine and homolanthionine synthesis in deficiency. In humans, plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine exhibit little or no mean change due to 4-wk vitamin B6 restriction, nor do they respond to pyridoxine supplementation of subjects in chronically low-vitamin B6 status. Wide individual variation in responses of the H2S biomarkers to such perturbations of human vitamin B6 status suggests that the resulting modulation of H2S production may have physiological consequences in a subset of people. Supported by NIH grant DK072398. This paper refers to data from studies registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01128244 and NCT00877812. PMID:26765812

  20. Changes in iron and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris plants in response to iron resupply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Ajmi; Morales, Fermín; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of Fe resupply on the composition of the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of Fe-deficient sugar beet plants were investigated. Experiments were carried out in growth chambers with plants grown in hydroponics, and Fe resupply to Fe-deficient plants was carried out by adding 45muM Fe(III)-EDTA to the nutrient solution. In the short term (within 24h), Fe resupply caused marked changes in the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid composition and in leaf physiological parameters when de novo chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis was still beginning. Major changes included: (i) 10- and 5-fold increases in Fe concentrations in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap, respectively; (ii) marked decreases in the concentrations of organic acids in apoplastic fluid, but not in xylem sap and (iii) large decreases in the citrate/Fe ratios, both in apoplastic fluid and in xylem sap. Two to four days after Fe resupply, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid Fe and organic acid concentrations and pH reached values similar to those obtained in Fe-sufficient leaves. Leaf mesophyll ferric chelate-reductase (FC-R) activities and photosynthetic rates increased gradually during recovery from Fe deficiency. PMID:19854536

  1. All-enzymatic HPLC method for determination of individual and total contents of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Viet Do

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is a need for a reliable and accurate method for quantification of each of the seven individual vitamin B6 compounds including pyridoxine-β-glucoside in foods. Objective : To determine pyridoxal (PL, pyridoxamine (PM, pyridoxine (PN, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP, pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP, and pyridoxine-β-glucoside (PNG in foods. Design : By specific enzymatic treatment, each of the seven vitamin B6 compounds was all converted into 4-pyridoxolactone, which is a highly fluorescent compound. In total, seven separate, enzymatic steps were performed for each sample. Separation and quantification were performed with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. For each sample type the result was corrected for the recovery based on spiked samples. The method was applied for analyses of chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrots, and garlic. Results : The recovery varied from 14 to 114% in chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrot, and garlic. Each food showed a characteristic distribution of the seven vitamin B6 compounds. The PNG was only found in low amounts; that is, 17–29 nmol vitamin B6/g in the plant-derived foods, carrot and garlic. Only egg white showed a lower content, 3 nmol/g. Overall the content in chicken liver, chicken white meat, and egg yolk had a total content of vitamin B6 between 42 and 51 nmol/g. Both PM and PMP were high in the chicken liver. In contrast, PL and PLP were high in the chicken white meat. The main vitamin B6 in the egg yolk was PLP. The dried anchovy contained high amounts of PLP and PMP and a total content of 144 nmol/g. Conclusions : The enzymatic-based HPLC method was applied for the determination of seven vitamin B6 compounds in foods. Their distribution in the foods varied significantly.

  2. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Taş; Emre Sarandöl; Melahat Dirican

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6) on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6), diabetes (D), and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6). Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight) was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0...

  3. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  4. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  5. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Puts, Johan; de Groot, Monique; Haex, Martin; Jakobs, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate) and B6 (pyridoxal-5’phosphate) are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid...

  7. Face-capping μ3-BO in B6(BO)7-: boron oxide analogue of B6H7- with rhombic 4c-2e bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Lu, Hai-Gang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2013-11-14

    Using the first-principle approaches, we predict a B6(BO)7(-) cluster with a face-capping μ(3)-BO, which is the boron oxide analogue of closo-B6H7(-) with a face-capping μ(3)-H. Detailed topological analysis of electron density clearly reveals the existence of three rhombic 4c-2e bonds around the B/H apex in both C3v B6(BO)7(-) and C3v B6H7(-), which possesses similar electron densities at their bond and ring critical points. The adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP) analysis provides a direct and visual picture of the B-B-B-B/H 4c-2e bonds for the first time. Adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies of the concerned monoanions are calculated to facilitate their future photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and characterizations. The presence of the B6(BO)7(-) and B6H7(-) clusters extends the BO/H isolobal analogy to the whole μ(n)-BO/H series (n = 1, 2, and 3) and enriches the chemistry of boronyl. PMID:24147988

  8. Evaluation of Curvularia lunata Strain B6 as a Potential Mycoherbicide to Control Barnydrgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WEI Tao; SUN Ai-rui; NI Han-wen

    2013-01-01

    The virulent strain B6 of Curvularia lunata was screened out from 65 fungus strains isolated from the diseased leaves of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the strain being exploited as a mycoherbicide for barnyardgrass control in paddy fields. The results of pathogenicity experiments showed that this strain was highly pathogenic to barnyardgrass at the 1-to 2.5-leaf stages. The fresh weight reduction increased with the increase of inoculated conidial concentrations and the prolongation of dew duration. Strain B6 provided excellent barnyardgrass control when it was applied at the concentration of 1×104-1×106 conidia mL-1 in paddy fields with water layer. This strain was very safe to rice and the most plant species except wheat, barley and corn. Findings of this study indicated that this strain could be a potential mycoherbicide for barnyardgrass control in paddy fields in the future.

  9. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  10. Gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia: different types of responsiveness to vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, S.; Saito, T.; Nakajima, H.; Takaku, Y; Shiono, T; Mizuno, K; Ohmura, K.; Tada, K

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of Japanese patients with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia were studied clinically and biochemically. The types of disease differed in responsiveness to vitamin B6. In-vivo responsiveness to vitamin B6 was correlated with in-vitro data. It is suggested that the in-vitro examination of the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on ornithine ketoacid transaminase activity in cultured fibroblasts may be useful in ascertaining the efficacy of vitamin B6 treat...

  11. Evaluation of vitamin B6 intake and status of 20- to 64-year-old Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-OK

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent research regarding vitamin B6 status including biochemical index is limited. Thus, this study estimated intakes and major food sources of vitamin B6; determined plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); and assessed vitamin B6 status of Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h diet recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (n = 254) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, cities of Kwangju and Gumi, Korea. Vit...

  12. Tobacco NUP1 transports both tobacco alkaloids and vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keita; Shitan, Nobukazu; Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The purine permeases (PUPs) constitute a large plasma membrane-localized transporter family in plants that mediates the proton-coupled uptake of nucleotide bases and their derivatives, such as adenine, cytokinins, and caffeine. A Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) PUP-family transporter, nicotine uptake permease 1 (NtNUP1), was previously shown to transport tobacco alkaloids and to affect both nicotine biosynthesis and root growth in tobacco plants. Since Arabidopsis PUP1, which belongs to the same subclade as NtNUP1, was recently reported to transport pyridoxine and its derivatives (vitamin B6), it was of interest to examine whether NtNUP1 could also transport these substrates. Direct uptake measurements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NtNUP1 efficiently promoted the uptake of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, anatabine, and nicotine. The naturally occurring (S)-isomer of nicotine was preferentially transported over the (R)-isomer. Transport studies using tobacco BY-2 cell lines overexpressing NtNUP1 or PUP1 showed that NtNUP1, similar to PUP1, transported various compounds containing a pyridine ring, but that the two transporters had distinct substrate preferences. Therefore, the previously reported effects of NtNUP1 on tobacco physiology might involve bioactive metabolites other than tobacco alkaloids. PMID:24947336

  13. Effect of electrolytes on cataphoretically deposited LaB6 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Joag, D. S.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Nigavekar, A. S.; Kanitkar, P. L.

    1984-09-01

    Various electrolytes were used to deposit LaB6 on carburized tantalum by the cataphoretic method. The effect of four electrolytes viz., HCl, NH4NO3, La(NO3)3, and HNO3 on LaB6 coatings has been investigated. It is observed that use of HCl as an electrolyte provides LaB6 coatings with small grain size, low porosity, good adhesion, and ability to withstand a large number of thermal shocks. These properties make HCl the most suitable electrolyte for cataphoretic deposition of LaB6 for thermionic emission.

  14. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  15. FeB6 Monolayers: The Graphene-like Material with Hypercoordinate Transition Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Yafei; Hou, Jianhua; Tu, Kaixiong; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-05-01

    By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations and global minimum search using particle-swarm optimization (PSO) method, we predicted three FeB6 monolayers, namely α-FeB6, β-FeB6 and γ-FeB6, which consist of the Fe©Bx (x = 6, 8) wheels with planar hypercoordinate Fe atoms locating at the center of six- or eight-membered boron rings. In particular, the α-FeB6 sheet constructed by Fe©B8 motifs is the global minimum due to completely shared and well delocalized electrons. The two-dimensional (2D) boron networks are dramatically stabilized by the electron transfer from Fe atoms, and the FeB6 monolayers have pronounced stabilities. The α-FeB6 monolayer is metallic, while the β-FeB6 and γ-FeB6 sheets are semiconductors with indirect band gaps and significant visible-light absorptions. Besides the novel chemical bonding, the high feasibility for experimental realization, and unique electronic and optical properties, render them very welcome new members to the graphene-like materials family. PMID:27035286

  16. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  17. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  18. 逆境条件下烟草维生素B6存在形态的变化%Changes of the Existing Forms of Vitamin B6 in Tobacco in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵红; 黄龙全; 张剑韵

    2013-01-01

    维生素B6(VB6)是一类吡啶化合物的总称.以组培烟草为材料,采用高效液相色谱结合荧光检测技术,分析紫外线、低温、盐和弱光胁迫对烟草体内VB6各存在形态含量的影响.结果表明:逆境条件下,VB6各存在形态含量发生变化,其中以磷酸吡哆醛和吡哆醇含量升高最明显.%Vitamin B6(VB6)is the general term for a kind of pyridine compounds.The paper aims to study the changes of the existing forms of vitamin B6 in response to abiotic stress.In this experiment,the influence of UV-B,chilling,salt and weak light stress on the content of the existing forms of VB6 in tobacco plants was determined using HPLC with fluorescence detector.The results showed that in response to abiotic stress,the content of the existing forms of VB6 changed with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxine increased most obviously.

  19. Determination of Vitamin B6 by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method%流动注射化学发光测定维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小利; 马红燕; 吕俊芳; 张琰图

    2003-01-01

    基于维生素B6在碱性条件下对Luminol和KIO4的化学发光反应有很强的增敏作用,结合反向流动注射技术,建立了流动注射化学发光测定维生素B6的新方法.在优化条件下,维生素B6浓度在5.0×10-8~1.0×10-5 g/mL范围内,与化学发光强度呈良好的线性关系,方法的检出限为1.3×10-8 g/mL,对5.0×10-6 g/mL维生素B6进行11次平行测定,方法的相对标准偏差为1.5%.该方法成功用于药剂中维生素B6含量的测定.

  20. 维生素B6注射液细菌内毒素的检测%Bacterial Endotoxin Test for Vitamin B6 Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦燊

    2005-01-01

    目的建立凝胶法进行维生素B6注射液中细菌内毒素检查的方法.方法用不同厂家的鲎试剂对不同批号的维生素B6注射液分别进行干扰试验,考察确立维生素B6注射液中细菌内毒素检测法.结果维生素B6注射液样品浓度在0.25mg·mL-1以下时可消除干扰,其细菌内毒素限值可定为1EU·mL-1.结论可以用细菌内毒素检查法(凝胶法)对维生素B6注射液进行检查.

  1. Mild Fe-deficiency improves biomass production and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Liu, Yue; Mao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Qian; Du, Shao-Ting

    2013-06-15

    It is of great practical importance to improve yield and quality of vegetables in soilless cultures. This study investigated the effects of iron-nutrition management on yield and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results showed that mild Fe-deficient treatment (1 μM FeEDTA) yielded a greater biomass of edible parts than Fe-omitted treatment (0 μM FeEDTA) or Fe-sufficient treatments (10 and 50 μM FeEDTA). Conversely, mild Fe-deficient treatment had the lowest nitrate concentration in the edible parts out of all the Fe treatments. Interestingly, all the concentrations of soluble sugar, soluble protein and ascorbate in mild Fe-deficient treatments were higher than Fe-sufficient treatments. In addition, both phenolic concentration and DPPH scavenging activity in mild Fe-deficient treatments were comparable with those in Fe-sufficient treatments, but were higher than those in Fe-omitted treatments. Therefore, we concluded that using a mild Fe-deficient nutrition solution to cultivate spinach not only would increase yield, but also would improve quality.

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  3. Mechanical properties of SiB6 addition of carbon sintered body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Samon; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Jun-ichi; Akatsu, T.; Niihara, K.; Yasuda, E.

    2001-04-01

    Boride material is said as the useful material, which has high melting point and high strength. B4C in carbide is very hard at the next of the diamond and cubic-BN in the Mohs hardness and B4C has excellent chemical stability and high strength. B4C is being used as the polishing material from the hardness. However, it is difficult to make sintered body from high melting point (2623 K). Several silicon boride phases such as SiB4, SiB6, SiB6-x, SiB6+x, and Si11B31, were previously reported. Silicon hexaboride (SiB6) has proved to be a potentially useful material because of its high degree of hardness, moderate melting point (2123 K), and low specific gravity. We studied the preparation of SiB6-B4C-SiC sintered body in this report. We knew experientially that SiB6 reacts with carbon at the high temperature, and forms B4C or SiC. Carbon addition SiB6 sintered body produced by hot pressing and reaction sintering that sintering condition was 1973 K for 3.6 ks in vacuum under a pressure of 25 MPa. The relative density of sintered bodies (SiB6-0,5,10,15 wt%C) was approximately 100%. Characterization of mechanical properties was used indentation, Vickers hardness and thermal

  4. Prediction of a new ground state of superhard compound B6O at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huafeng; Oganov, Artem R.; Wang, Qinggao; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Zhenhai; Zhang, Jin; Esfahani, M. Mahdi Davari; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Wu, Fugen; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Boron suboxide B6O, the hardest known oxide, has an Rm crystal structure (α-B6O) that can be described as an oxygen-stuffed structure of α-boron, or, equivalently, as a cubic close packing of B12 icosahedra with two oxygen atoms occupying all octahedral voids in it. Here we show a new ground state of this compound at ambient conditions, Cmcm-B6O (β-B6O), which in all quantum-mechanical treatments that we tested comes out to be slightly but consistently more stable. Increasing pressure and temperature further stabilizes it with respect to the known α-B6O structure. β-B6O also has a slightly higher hardness and may be synthesized using different experimental protocols. We suggest that β-B6O is present in mixture with α-B6O, and its presence accounts for previously unexplained bands in the experimental Raman spectrum.

  5. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  6. 12 CFR 264b.6 - Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. 264b.6 Section 264b.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... gifts of more than minimal value. (a) Tangible gifts. Board employees must deposit tangible gifts...

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BEDA-2B6MA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BEDA-2B6MA 1BED 2B6M A A AQFKEGEHYQVLKTPASSSPVVSEFFSFYCPHCNTF---...HHHHHHHHHH EEEE EEEEE HHHHHHHHHHHHHH - 0 1BED... A 1BEDA HCNTF---E...e> ALA CA 306 SER CA 272 1BED... A 1BEDA HTLRKPPKDEQ

  8. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  9. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  10. Electrooptic Effect in Non-Centrosymmetric CsLiB6O10 Borate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mys, O; Martunyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R

    2004-01-01

    Electrooptic coefficient of CsLiB6O10 crystals has been experimentally determined as r63=3.3*10-12m/V. The half-wave voltage for CsLiB6O10 (Ul/2=26 kV) is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the known KDP crystals.

  11. 分光光度法测定维生素B6软膏的含量%Study on Quality Control of Vitamin B6 Ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银梅; 乌日汗

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立维生素B6软膏的含量测定方法.方法:采用紫外分光光度法对维生素B6的含量进行检测,检测波长291 nm.结果:维生素B6在5~ 25 μg/ml浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系.回归方程为:A=-0.0127+ 0.0419C (r=0.9995).结论:该方法操作简便、快捷、结果准确可靠,为该药质量控制提供参考依据.

  12. The B6 database: a tool for the description and classification of vitamin B6-dependent enzymatic activities and of the corresponding protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peracchi Alessio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Enzymes that depend on vitamin B6 (and in particular on its metabolically active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP are of great relevance to biology and medicine, as they catalyze a wide variety of biochemical reactions mainly involving amino acid substrates. Although PLP-dependent enzymes belong to a small number of independent evolutionary lineages, they encompass more than 160 distinct catalytic functions, thus representing a striking example of divergent evolution. The importance and remarkable versatility of these enzymes, as well as the difficulties in their functional classification, create a need for an integrated source of information about them. Description - The B6 database http://bioinformatics.unipr.it/B6db contains documented B6-dependent activities and the relevant protein families, defined as monophyletic groups of sequences possessing the same enzymatic function. One or more families were associated to each of 121 PLP-dependent activities with known sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMMs were built from family alignments and incorporated in the database. These HMMs can be used for the functional classification of PLP-dependent enzymes in genomic sets of predicted protein sequences. An example of such analyses (a census of human genes coding for PLP-dependent enzymes is provided here, whereas many more are accessible through the database itself. Conclusion - The B6 database is a curated repository of biochemical and molecular information about an important group of enzymes. This information is logically organized and available for computational analyses, providing a key resource for the identification, classification and comparative analysis of B6-dependent enzymes.

  13. Determination of Vitamin B6 by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method%流动注射化学发光法测定维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛元英; 揭永文; 陈平清

    2009-01-01

    基于维生素B6对鲁米诺-过氧化氢化学发光反应的增敏作用,结合流动注射技术,建立了流动注射化学发光反应测定维生素B6的新方法.该方法的线性范围为5.0×10-2.0×10-6 g/mL,检出限为2.3×10-8g/mL.对5.0×10-6g/mL的维生素B6进行11次平行测定,相对标准偏差为2.8%.实验表明该方法简单、快速、灵敏.%A new flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of Vitamin B6 was developed.It is based on the catalysis of Vitamin B6 to chemilumincecrce reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide.The linear range extends from 5.0×10-8 to 2.0×10-6 g/mL and the detection limit is 1.3×10-8 g/mL.The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 2.4% for 5.0× 10-6 g/mL Vitamin B6 solution in eleven repeated measurements.The method has the advantages of simplicity,rapidity and sensitrvity.

  14. Grain refining potency of LaB6 on aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengting; TIAN Wenjie; WANG Dong; LIU Xiangfa

    2012-01-01

    Al-LaB6 alloy was successfully prepared by aluminum melt reaction method.Microstructure analysis of this alloy was carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).It was found that cubic LaB6 particles were highly dispersed in aluminum matrix with a uniform edge length of about 4.5 μm.Grain refining potency of LaB6 on commercial pure aluminum was also investigated.It was shown that LaB6 could act as an effective and stable nucleation substrate for α-Al during solidification process,due to their crystallographic similarity.The coarse grains of commercial pure aluminum were obviously refined to small equiaxed ones by addition of 0.5% Al-5LaB6 alloy at 720 ℃.

  15. Pressure induced variation of second harmonic efficiency of K3B6O10Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Lv, Zhenlong; Li, Tongwei; Ju, Wei Wei; You, Jinghan; Bai, Ying

    2013-09-01

    K3B6O10Cl is a perovskite-like nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, which exhibits large second harmonic generation (SHG) response. Based on density-functional theory, we investigate the influence of pressure on SHG tensor of K3B6O10Cl. At zero pressure, the non-centrosymmetric distortion of K3B6O10Cl from BO4 tetrahedron results in the similar SHG tensor to β-BaB2O4 (BBO). At 50 GPa, the ClK6 octahedron distortion of K3B6O10Cl becomes the main source of SHG and give similar SHG tensor to LiNbO3. Therefore, pressure induces K3B6O10Cl from a BBO-like NLO material to a LiNbO3-like NLO material.

  16. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  17. Auxin: a major player in the shoot-to-root regulation of root Fe-stress physiological responses to Fe deficiency in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Mora, Verónica; Zamarreño, Angel María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; García-Mina, José María

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IAA and ABA in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of the main Fe-stress physiological root responses in cucumber plants subjected to shoot Fe functional deficiency. Changes in the expression of the genes CsFRO1, CsIRT1, CsHA1 and CsHA2 (coding for Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FCR), the Fe(II) transporter and H+-ATPase, respectively) and in the enzyme activity of FCR and the acidification capacity were measured. We studied first the ability of exogenous applications of IAA and ABA to induce these Fe-stress root responses in plants grown in Fe-sufficient conditions. The results showed that IAA was able to activate these responses at the transcriptional and functional levels, whereas the results with ABA were less conclusive. Thereafter, we explored the role of IAA in plants with or without shoot Fe functional deficiency in the presence of two types of IAA inhibitors, affecting either IAA polar transport (TIBA) or IAA functionality (PCIB). The results showed that IAA is involved in the regulation at the transcriptional and functional levels of both Fe root acquisition (FCR, Fe(II) transport) and rhizosphere acidification (H+-ATPase), although through different, and probably complementary, mechanisms. These results suggest that IAA is involved in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of Fe-stress physiological root responses. PMID:21411331

  18. Effects of induced optical tunable and ferromagnetic behaviors of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lihong; Qi, Xiaoping; Tana; Chao, Lumen; Tegus, O

    2016-07-28

    Multiple nanocrystalline rare-earth hexaborides La1-xBaxB6 have been synthesized via a single step solid-state reaction. The Ba doping effects on crystal structure, grain morphology, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. The results show that all the Ba-doped hexaborides crystallize in the CsCl-type single phase, indicating the Ba atoms occupied the lattice sites of LaB6. The optical absorption results indicate that the absorption valleys of LaB6 are red-shifted from 622 nm to 780 nm when the Ba doping content increases to x = 0.8. The first-principle calculation results reveal that Ba doping reduces the total kinetic energy of the electrons of LaB6, which lead to the absorption valleys moving toward a higher wavelength. Meanwhile, the band gap of BaB6 obtained from optical absorption is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results. The magnetic measurements results showed that Ba doping lead to room-temperature ferromagnetism of LaB6 due to the different ionic radii of La(3+) and Ba(2+) causing intrinsic crystal defects, which is directly observed experimentally by HRTEM. This is the first time that we have found the tunable optical and ferromagnetic behavior of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6. Thus, nanocrystalline La1-xBaxB6, as multi-functional materials, should open up a new route to extend the optical and magnetic applications of LaB6 nanopowder. PMID:27362626

  19. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  20. Inclusion compound of vitamin B6 in {beta}-CD. Physico-chemical and structural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe; Kacso, Irina; Farcas, Sorin I; Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.bratu@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Structural and physico-chemical characterization of supramolecular assembly of vitamin B6 with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) prepared by different methods (kneading, co-precipitation and freeze-drying) has been performed by using several spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction and DSC in order to evidence the inclusion compound formation. An analysis of the chemical shifts observed in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectra and of the vibrational frequency shifts led to the tentative conclusion that the vitamin B6 probably enters the cyclodextrin torus when forming the {beta}-CD-vitamin B6 inclusion complex.

  1. Inclusion compound of vitamin B6 in β-CD. Physico-chemical and structural investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodi, Gheorghe; Kacso, Irina; Farcaş, Sorin I.; Bratu, Ioan

    2009-08-01

    Structural and physico-chemical characterization of supramolecular assembly of vitamin B6 with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) prepared by different methods (kneading, co-precipitation and freeze-drying) has been performed by using several spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction and DSC in order to evidence the inclusion compound formation. An analysis of the chemical shifts observed in the 1H-NMR spectra and of the vibrational frequency shifts led to the tentative conclusion that the vitamin B6 probably enters the cyclodextrin torus when forming the β-CD-vitamin B6 inclusion complex.

  2. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    OpenAIRE

    Wanying Li; Shengke Li; Wyman, Ian W.; Macartney, Donal H.; Qingwen Zhang; Ying Zheng; Ruibing Wang

    2015-01-01

    A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot) and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 ...

  3. Yeast one-hybrid screening the potential regulator of CYP6B6 overexpression of Helicoverpa armigera under 2-tridecanone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Liu, X N; Li, F; Zhuang, S Z; Huang, L N; Ma, J; Gao, X W

    2016-04-01

    In insect, the cytochrome P450 plays a pivotal role in detoxification to toxic allelochemicals. Helicoverpa armigera can tolerate and survive in 2-tridecanone treatment owing to the CYP6B6 responsive expression, which is controlled by some regulatory DNA sequences and transcription regulators. Therefore, the 2-tridecanone responsive region and transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 are responsible for detoxification of cotton bollworm. In this study, we used yeast one-hybrid to screen two potential transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 from H. armigera that respond to the plant secondary toxicant 2-tridecanone, which were named Prey1 and Prey2, respectively. According to the NCBI database blast, Prey1 is the homology with FK506 binding protein (FKBP) of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori that belongs to the FKBP-C superfamily, while Prey2 may be a homology of an unknown protein of Papilio or the fcaL24 protein homology of B. mori. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the FKBP of prokaryotic expression could specifically bind to the active region of the CYP6B6 promoter. After the 6th instar larvae of H. armigera reared on 2-tridecanone artificial diet, we found there were similar patterns of CYP6B6 and FKBP expression of the cotton bollworm treated with 10 mg g-1 2-tridecanone for 48 h, which correlation coefficient was the highest (0.923). Thus, the FKBP is identified as a strong candidate for regulation of the CYP6B6 expression, when the cotton bollworm is treated with 2-tridecanone. This may lead us to a better understanding of transcriptional mechanism of CYP6B6 and provide very useful information for the pest control. PMID:26696496

  4. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  5. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  6. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  7. Study on Band Structure of YbB6 and Analysis of Its Optical Conductivity Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure of YbB6 crystal was studied by means of density functional (GGA+U) method.The calculations were performed by FLAPW method.The high accurate band structure was achieved.The correlation between the feature of the band structure and the Yb-B6 bonding in YbB6 was analyzed.On this basis, some optical constants of YbB6 such as reflectivity, dielectric function, optical conductivity, and energy-loss function were calculated.The results are in good agreement with the experiments.The real part of the optical conductivity spectrum and the energy-loss function spectrum were analyzed in detail.The assignments of the spectra were carried out to correlate the spectral peaks with the interband electronic transitions, which justify the reasonable part of previous empirical assignments and renew the missed or incorrect ones.

  8. Determination of vitamin B6 Tablets by HPLC%HPLC测定维生素B6片含量测定方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽平

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立一种用HPLC测定维生素B6片含量的方法。方法采用HPLC法,选用色谱Aglient C18;流动相为0.04%庚烷磺酸钠溶液-甲醇(85∶25)(用冰醋酸调pH值至3.5);检测波长:291nm;流速1mL· min -1。结果维生素B6片在(2.613~60.23μg· mL -1浓度范围内)线性关系良好(r=0.9997)。精确度为0.16%。平均回收率为99.3%。结论此方法可以避免药物中杂质的干扰,分离效果好,准确率高,专属性强,适合维生素B6片的含量测定。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC determination for vitamin B6 tablets.METHODS Using HPLC method, choose chromatographic Aglient C18;Mobile phase was 0.04% heptane sodium sulfonate solution-methanol (85∶25) ( pH 3.5 adjusted by glacial acetic acid);detection wavelength:291nm;flow rate:1mL· min-1.RESULTS Vitamin B6 tablets had a good linear relationship in concentration (2.613 to 60.23μg· mL-1)(r=0.9997 ).Accuracy was 0.16%.The average recovery was 99.3%.CONCLUSION This method can avoid the in-terference of impurities in drugs,separation effect is good,high accuracy,strong specificity,is suitable for the content determination of vitamin B6 tablets.

  9. Highly effective expression of glutamine synthetase genes GS1 and GS2 in transgenic rice plants increases nitrogen-deficiency tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Huang, Qi-Man; Su, Jin

    2005-10-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC6.3.1.2) is a key enzyme in ammonia assimilation both in plants and in Gram-negative microorganisms. It plays an important role in efficient use of nitrogen sources and nitrogen metabolism in organisms. Two groups of GS isoenzymes, plastidic (GS2) and cytosolic (GS1), have been identified in higher plants. A plant constitutive expression vector p2GS harboring GS1 and GS2 under the control of rice actin 1 (Act1) and maize ubiquitin (Ubi) promoters was constructed for the first time in a single plasmid, and 3 rounds of ligation and transformation were performed. There has been no report about studies on rice transformation with the two GS enzymes (GS1 and GS2). The p2GS thus constructed was introduced into rice var. Zhonghua 10 by Agrobacterium-mediated transfer method, and transgenic plants with resistance to hygromycin (Hyg) were obtained. Results of PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that the foreign genes have been integrated into the rice genome. The transcription of GS1-GS2 genes in the transformants was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The transgenic rice plants thus obtained can grow well in an MS medium in which the nitrogen source was replaced by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) 0.7 mmol/L, and fresh weight of the transformants was significantly higher than the control rice plants. The result suggests that expression of p2GS makes the transgenic rice plants tolerant to nitrogen-deficiency. PMID:16222091

  10. Lattice strain accompanying the colossal magnetoresistance effect in EuB$_6$

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Das, Pintu; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael; Jens MÜLLER; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice in the ferromagnetic semimetal EuB$_6$, which exhibits a complex ferromagnetic order and a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect, %, very likely involving magnetic polarons, is studied by high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments. EuB$_6$ may be viewed as a model system, where pure magnetism-tuned transport and the response of the crystal lattice can be studied in a comparatively simpl...

  11. Determination and Correlation for the Solubility of Vitamin B6 and Water Non-Soluble Vitamin B6%维生素B6和维生素B6酮的溶解度测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔学军; 夏清; 马沛生; 刘一峰; 赵柄超

    2000-01-01

    在室温接近50℃的范围内,测定了维生素B6和维生素B6酮在水、乙醇、乙醇和水混合溶剂中的溶解度,实验数据用λh方程关联,绝对平均相对误差为0.95%, 结果令人满意.

  12. Vitamin B6-Dependent Enzymes in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: A Druggable Target?

    OpenAIRE

    Thales Kronenberger; Jasmin Lindner; Meissner, Kamila A.; Zimbres, Flávia M.; Coronado, Monika A.; Sauer, Frank M.; Isolmar Schettert; Carsten Wrenger

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a deadly infectious disease which affects millions of people each year in tropical regions. There is no effective vaccine available and the treatment is based on drugs which are currently facing an emergence of drug resistance and in this sense the search for new drug targets is indispensable. It is well established that vitamin biosynthetic pathways, such as the vitamin B6 de novo synthesis present in Plasmodium, are excellent drug targets. The active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal...

  13. Involvement of CYP2B6 in the biotransformation of propofol by human liver microsomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bing; WANG Jun-ke; FENG Wan-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes. Methods The change of propofol concentration in an incubation mixture with human liver microsomes was monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in order to calculate the rate constants of metabolism of propofol. The correlation between the rate constants and the rate of metabolism of CYP2B6 selective substrate bupropion, and the effect of two different CYP2B6 specific inhibitors on the propofol metabolism were examined. Results The mean rate constant of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes obtained from twelve individuals was 3.9 (95 % confidence intervals 3.3, 4.5) nmol·min-1·mg-1 protein. The rate constants of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes were significantly correlated with bupropion hydroxylation (r=0.888, P<0.001). Both selective chemical inhibitors of CYP2B6, orphenadrine and N, N′, N″-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA), reduced the rate constants of propofol metabolism by 37.596 (P<0.001) and 42.796 (P<0.001)in liver microsomes, respectively. Conclusions CYP2B6 is predominantly involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes.

  14. Vitamin B6 Modifies the Immune Cross-Talk between Mononuclear and Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, H; Djaldetti, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin B6 as a key component in a number of biological events has been well established. Based on the relationship between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis on the one hand, and the interaction between immune and cancer cells expressed by modulated cytokine production on the other hand, the aim of the present work was to examine the possibility that vitamin B6 affects cancer development by an interference in the cross-talk between human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and those from two colon carcinoma cell lines. Both non-stimulated PBMC and mononuclear cells induced for cytokine production by HT-29 and RKO cells from human colon carcinoma lines were incubated without and with 4, 20 and 100 μg/ml of pyridoxal hydrochloride (vitamin B6) and secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-1ra was examined. Vit B6 caused a dose-dependent decrease in production of all cytokines examined, except for that of IL-1ra. The results indicate that vitamin B6 exerts an immunomodulatory effect on human PBMC. The finding that production of inflammatory cytokines is more pronounced when PBMC are in contact with malignant cells and markedly inhibited by the vitamin suggests an additional way by which vitamin B6 may exert its carcinopreventive effect. PMID:27085010

  15. Effects of Dietary Vitamin B6 Supplemental Level on Growth Performance and Vitamin B6 Metabolism of Growing Rex Rabbits%饲粮维生素 B6 添加水平对生长獭兔生长性能及维生素 B6 代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘公言; 赵楠; 朱岩丽; 刘磊; 梁才芝; 李福昌

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level on growth performance, fur quality, muscle quality and vitamin B6 metabolism of growing Rex rabbits. Two hun-dred 3-month-old healthy Rex rabbits with similar body weight were randomly divided into 5 groups with 40 replicates in each group and each replicate contained 1 rabbit. Rabbits in 5 groups were fed experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg vitamin B6, respectively. The trial lasted for 7 days for ad-aptation, and 53 days for test. The results showed that dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level had significant in-fluence on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P=0.017 8 and P=0.000 4, respectively) , and the highest values of ADG and ADFI were found when vitamin B6 supplemental level was 20 mg/kg. With the vitamin B6 supplemental level increasing, the feed/gain ( F/G) was firstly decreased and then increased, and it had the lowest value when vitamin B6 supplemental level was 20 mg/kg. Dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level had significant influences on fur weight and fur area ( P=0.040 0 and P=0.001 6, re-spectively) , but had no significant influences on fur thickness and wool length ( P=0.478 0 and P=0.756 2, respectively) . The fur weight and fur area in 20 mg/kg group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level had significant influences on pH (P=0.039 4) , red value ( a?) ( P=0.013 1) , yellow value ( b?) ( P=0.023 9) and light value ( L?) of muscle ( P=0.002 5) . The muscle b? and L? were significantly lower than those in control group ( P<0. 05 or P<0.01) , while the muscle a?was significantly higher than that in control group ( P<0.05) . Dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level had no significant influences on muscle water loss rate and shear force ( P=0.216 1 and P=0.825 9, respectively) . Dietary vitamin B6 supplemental level had no

  16. Content Determination of Vitamin B6 Ointment by HPLC%HPLC法测定维生素B6软膏的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旻; 李晨辉; 刘佳

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定维生素B6软膏含量的方法.方法:用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,以0.04%戊烷磺酸钠溶液(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(85:15)为流动相,流速为0.8ml/min,检测波长为291nm.结果:维生素B6的线性范围为0.1011μg~5.0548μg.相关系数,r=1,平均回收率99.2%(RSD=1.4%,n=9).结论:本方法简便、快速、准确,可作为维生素B6软膏的含量测定方法.

  17. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  18. Subchronic toxicity of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D L; Morrissey, R L; Blakemore, W; Crowell, J; Siitonen, P; Felton, P; Allen, R; Cronin, G

    1996-02-01

    Triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (trien-2HCl; CAS No. 38260-01-04), a chelating agent used to treat Wilson's disease patients who are intolerant of the drug of choice, was tested for subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Mice and rats received trien-2HCl in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 120, 600, or 3000 ppm for up to 92 days. Twenty mice and 18 rats of each sex were assigned to each dose group fed either a cereal-based (NIH-31) or a purified (AIN-76A) diet, both containing nutritionally adequate levels of copper. An additional control group of rats and mice received a Cu-deficient AIN-76A diet. This low copper diet resulted in Cu-deficiency symptoms, such as anemia, liver periportal cytomegaly, pancreatic atrophy and multifocal necrosis, spleen hematopoietic cell proliferation, and increased heart weight, together with undetectable levels of plasma copper in rats but not in mice. Trien-2HCl lowered plasma copper levels some-what (at 600 and 3000 ppm) in rats fed the AIN-76A diet, but did not induce the usual signs of copper deficiency. Trien-2HCl caused an increased frequency of uterine dilatation at 3000 ppm in rats fed AIN-76A diet that was not noted in females fed the Cu-deficient diet. Trien-2HCl toxicity occurred only in mice in the highest dose group fed an AIN-76A diet. Increased frequencies of inflammation of the lung interstitium and liver periportal fatty infiltration were seen in both sexes, and hematopoietic cell proliferation was seen in the spleen of males. Kidney and body weights were reduced in males as was the incidence of renal cytoplasmic vacuolization. There were no signs of copper deficiency in mice exposed to trien-2HCl. The only effect of trien-2HCl in animals fed the NIH-31 diet was a reduced liver copper level in both rat sexes, noted at 3000 ppm.

  19. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  20. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  1. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [14C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  2. Efficacy of Vitamin B6 in the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maaroofi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many etiological factors have been proposed for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PDD and different drugs and techniques have been suggested for its treatment. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of PDD. Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study, 121 Women, aged 20-45 years, who according to DSM-4 criteria, had PDD were randomly divided into two groups to receive orally either vitamin B6 (group A 40 mg twice daily during luteal phase of their menstrual cycle or starch as placebo. Vitamin B6 and starch both were prepared in gelatin capsules with the same shape and color. Emotional and somatic scores for the severity of PDD symptoms were determined and compared between the two groups. Results: Emotional score decreased significantly in group A compared to group B and basal value. No changes in somatic scores were observed. Conclusion: It seems that vitamin B6 is an effective drug for relief of emotional symptoms in PDD. Keywords: Premenstrual Dysphric Disorder, Vitamin B6, Premenstrual Tension.

  3. Two Chlamydomonas OPR proteins stabilize chloroplast mRNAs encoding small subunits of photosystem II and cytochrome b6 f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Johnson, Xenie; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Nickelsen, Joerg; Vallon, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In plants and algae, chloroplast gene expression is controlled by nucleus-encoded proteins that bind to mRNAs in a specific manner, stabilizing mRNAs or promoting their splicing, editing, or translation. Here, we present the characterization of two mRNA stabilization factors of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which both belong to the OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) family. MCG1 is necessary to stabilize the petG mRNA, encoding a small subunit of the cytochrome b6 f complex, while MBI1 stabilizes the psbI mRNA, coding for a small subunit of photosystem II. In the mcg1 mutant, the small RNA footprint corresponding to the 5'-end of the petG transcript is reduced in abundance. In both cases, the absence of the small subunit perturbs assembly of the cognate complex. Whereas PetG is essential for formation of a functional cytochrome b6 f dimer, PsbI appears partly dispensable as a low level of PSII activity can still be measured in its absence. Thus, nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression is not only exerted on the major core subunits of the complexes, but also on small subunits with a single transmembrane helix. While OPR proteins have thus far been involved in translation or trans-splicing of plastid mRNAs, our results expand the potential roles of this repeat family to their stabilization. PMID:25898982

  4. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  5. Modulation Schemes for Single-Phase B6 Converters With Two Asymmetrical Terminal Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    for single-phase power decoupling and single-phase ac-dc-ac conversion, where comparably lesser switches are needed. Although the basic modulation principle is still reliant on three modulating references for the three phase-legs, requirements imposed on the modulating references are different and usually...... asymmetrical. How these asymmetrical references should be formulated to meet various performance specifications of a single-phase B6 converter is the theme of this paper. Simulation and experimental results have been obtained for verifying the modulation schemes proposed.......B6 converter uses six switches divided equally among three phase-legs. It has commonly been used as a three-phase rectifier or inverter, mostly under balanced conditions. Three-phase conversion is however not the only area, where B6 converter has been used. The same topology has been tried...

  6. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  7. Thermoelectric signals of state transition in polycrystalline SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z. J.; Chen, Q. J.; Wang, X. L.

    2016-09-01

    Topological Kondo insulator SmB6 has attracted quite a lot of attention from the condensed matter physics community. A number of unique electronic properties, including low-temperature resistivity anomaly, 1D electronic transport and 2D Fermi surfaces have been observed in SmB6. Here, we report on thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline SmB6 over a broad temperature from 300 to 2 K. An anomalous transition in the temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient S from S(T) \\propto T -1 to S(T) \\propto T was observed around 12 K. Such a transition demonstrates a transition of conductivity from 3D metallic bulk states to 2D metallic surface states with insulating bulk states. Our results suggest that the thermotransport measurements could be used for the characterization of state transition in topological insulators.

  8. Solid-state reaction synthesis and characterization of PrB6 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lihong, Bao; Yingjie, Li; Luomeng, Chao; Tegus, O.

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline PrB6 nanoparticles with the sizes ranging from 100~300 nm were synthesized by a solid-state reaction of Pr6O11/PrCl3 and NaBH4 in the temperature range of 1100~1200 °C. The crystal structure, component and morphology of the PrB6 nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the particles crystallize in the CsCl structure type. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns reveal the particles have single-crystalline nature. XANES study shows that the Pr atoms in the PrB6 particles are in trivalent state even if the Pr atoms possess the mixed valence state in the raw material Pr6O11.

  9. Room temperature nanoindentation creep of hot-pressed B6O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoindentation has become a widely used and versatile means of characterising the near-surface nanomechanical properties of a wide variety of materials. Yet, the nanomechanical properties of the polycrystalline boron suboxide (B6O) material prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing are sparsely known. We recently reported on the nanoindentation profiles, nanoindentation hardness, and elastic modulus determined by using the Oliver–Pharr method. To complement our earlier reports on the analysis of the load–displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B6O and for the first time, we present and discuss results giving an insight into the temporal evolution of the nanoindentation creep behaviour in B6O ceramics

  10. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  11. Field emission from single-crystalline CeB_6 nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦明; 欧阳柳生; 邹春云; 许军旗; 董有忠; 范庆华

    2010-01-01

    We presented a field electron emission measurement of single crystalline CeB6 nanowires.The nanowires exhibited a low turn-on electric field(7.6 V/μm at 10 μA/cm2),and the deviation of Fowler-Nordheim(F-N) plots from straight line was observed in field electron emission measurements.The field enhancement factors were obtained by separate straight line fitting.The nonlinearity in the F-N plots may be attributed to the non-uniform field electron emission of CeB6 nanowires.The field emission properties of the ...

  12. Magnetotransport in the low carrier density ferromagnet EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a magnetotransport study of the low-carrier density ferromagnet EuB6. This semimetallic compound, which undergoes two ferromagnetic transitions at Tl=15.3 K and Tc=12.5 K, exhibits close to Tl a colossal magnetoresistivity (CMR). We quantitatively compare our data to recent theoretical work, which, however, fails to explain our observations. We attribute this disagreement with theory to the unique type of magnetic polaron formation in EuB6. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Dietary supplemental vitamin B6 increases carnosine and anserine concentrations in the heart of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suidasari, Sofya; HASEGAWA, Tomoko; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary level of vitamin B6 on the concentrations of carnosine and anserine, antioxidants, in the heart of rats. Analysis using UPLC–MS/MS showed that the concentrations of these dipeptides in the 7 and 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg groups were significantly higher than those in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, implying the novel role of dietary vitamin B6 as a determinant of the dipeptides favorable for heart.

  14. Refined crystal structure of cubic skeletov zinc borate Zn4O[B6O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic crystals of the Zn4O[B6O12] composition obtained from the ZnO-B2O3-Li2O(Na2O,K2O)-H2O system with the NnO addition are studied in the temperature range of 250-450 deg C and at the pressure of 1000 atm. It is established that stable crystallization zones are characteristic for the above compound. The crystals are colourless and possess luminescent properties. Interplane distances, cubic lattice parameters and interatomic distances in the Zn4O[B6O12] structure are determined

  15. Pulsed magnetic field study of the spin gap in intermediate valence compound SmB 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, K.; Bartkowiak, M.; Demishev, S.; Gabani, S.; Glushkov, V.; Herrmannsdorfer, T.; Moshchalkov, V.; Shitsevalova, N.; Sluchanko, N.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, we report the behavior of electrical resistivity of SmB 6 at temperatures between 2.2 and 70 K in pulsed magnetic fields up to 54 T. A strong negative magnetoresistance was detected with increasing magnetic field, when lowering the temperature in the range T30 K is discussed within the framework of exciton-polaron model of local charge fluctuations in SmB 6 proposed by Kikoin and Mishchenko. It seems that these exciton-polaron in-gap states are influenced both by temperature and magnetic field.

  16. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB6-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Min, Guanghui; Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured LaB6 films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB6 film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  17. Antiepileptic drugs and vitamin B6 plasma levels in adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Linnebank, M.; Moskau, S; Semmler, A; Widman, G; Weller, M.; Kallweit, U; Elger, C E

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with several antiepileptic drugs (AED) is associated with lower serum concentrations of folate or vitamin B12. This prospective monocenter study analyzed vitamin B6 blood levels in 400 serial patients with epilepsy, AED-treated (n=385), untreated (n=15) and healthy controls (n=233). The mean plasma vitamin B6 levels of the AED-treated (12.1±10.1; p=0.093) and the untreated patients (15.6±12.4; p=0.664) were not significantly different from the controls (13.9±15.2). These observation...

  18. Folate, vitamin B6, multivitamin supplements, and colorectal cancer risk in women

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shumin M.; Moore, Steven C.; Lin, Jennifer; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated associations between intakes of folate and vitamin B6 and colorectal cancer risk in women enrolled in a randomized trial of aspirin and vitamin E. During an average of 10.1 years of follow-up, 220 colorectal adenocarcinoma cases were documented among 37,916 women, aged 45 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease, who provided dietary information at baseline. Intakes of total folate and vitamin B6 were not significantly associated with the risk of colorec...

  19. Multiple RNA processing defects and impaired chloroplast function in plants deficient in the organellar protein-only RNase P enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhou

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA precursors undergo endoribonucleolytic processing of their 5' and 3' ends. 5' cleavage of the precursor transcript is performed by ribonuclease P (RNase P. While in most organisms RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein that harbors a catalytically active RNA component, human mitochondria and the chloroplasts (plastids and mitochondria of seed plants possess protein-only RNase P enzymes (PRORPs. The plant organellar PRORP (PRORP1 has been characterized to some extent in vitro and by transient gene silencing, but the molecular, phenotypic and physiological consequences of its down-regulation in stable transgenic plants have not been assessed. Here we have addressed the function of the dually targeted organellar PRORP enzyme in vivo by generating stably transformed Arabidopsis plants in which expression of the PRORP1 gene was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi. PRORP1 knock-down lines show defects in photosynthesis, while mitochondrial respiration is not appreciably affected. In both plastids and mitochondria, the effects of PRORP1 knock-down on the processing of individual tRNA species are highly variable. The drastic reduction in the levels of mature plastid tRNA-Phe(GAA and tRNA-Arg(ACG suggests that these two tRNA species limit plastid gene expression in the PRORP1 mutants and, hence, are causally responsible for the mutant phenotype.

  20. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  1. CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*18 Predict Long-Term Efavirenz Exposure Measured in Hair Samples in HIV-Positive South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, Carola R; Drögemöller, Britt I; Ikediobi, Ogechi; van der Merwe, Lize; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Wright, Galen E B; McGregor, Nathaniel; Warnich, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Long-term exposure to efavirenz (EFV) measured in hair samples may predict response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to alter EFV levels. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CYP2B6 genotype, EFV levels measured in hair, and virological outcomes on ART in a real-world setting. We measured EFV levels in hair from HIV-positive South African females who had been receiving EFV-based treatment for at least 3 months from the South African Black (SAB) (n = 81) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 53) populations. Common genetic variation in CYP2B6 was determined in 15 individuals from each population using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Prioritized variants (n = 16) were subsequently genotyped in the entire patient cohort (n = 134). The predictive value of EFV levels in hair and selected variants in CYP2B6 on virological treatment outcomes was assessed. Previously described alleles (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*17, and CYP2B6*18), as well as two novel alleles (CYP2B6*31 and CYP2B6*32), were detected in this study. Compared to noncarriers, individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 had ∼109% increased EFV levels in hair (p = .016) and CYP2B6*18 heterozygotes demonstrated 82% higher EFV hair levels (p = .0006). This study confirmed that alleles affecting CYP2B6 metabolism and subsequent EFV exposure are present at significant frequencies in both the SAB and CMA populations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the use of hair samples for testing EFV concentrations may be a useful tool in determining long-term drug exposure in resource-limited countries.

  2. MAGNETIC VISCOSITY AND DEMAGNETIZATION BEHAVIOUR IN ISOTROPIC NANOCRYSTALLINE Pr12Fe82B6 RIBBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HONG-WEI; ZHANG SHAO-YING; SHEN BAO-GEN; D. GOLL; H. KRONM(U)LLER

    2001-01-01

    We present the experimental results of the magnetic viscosity, demagnetization curve and recoil loop for isotropic nanocrystalline Pr12Fes2B6 ribbons prepared by melt-spinning. The thermal fluctuation field, activation volume and irreversible demagnetization are discussed. The coercivity mechanism is mainly determined by the inhomogeneous nucleation rather than a simple nucleation of reverse domain.

  3. Ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and bonding characteristics of LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Riley, Daniel P.; Murch, Graeme E.

    2005-12-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride ( LaB6 , NIST SRM-660a) is widely used as a standard reference material for calibrating the line position and line shape parameters of powder diffraction instruments. The accuracy of this calibration technique is highly dependent on how completely the reference material is characterized. Critical to x-ray diffraction, this understanding must include the valence of the La atomic position, which in turn will influence the x-ray form factor (f) and hence the diffracted intensities. The electronic structure and bonding properties of LaB6 have been investigated using ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential total energy calculations. The electronic properties and atomic bonding characteristics were analyzed by estimating the energy band structure and the density of states around the Fermi energy level. The calculated energy band structure is consistent with previously reported experimental findings; de Haas-van Alphen and two-dimensional angular correlation of electron-positron annihilation radiation. In addition, the bond strengths and types of atomic bonds in the LaB6 compound were estimated by analyzing the Mulliken charge density population. The calculated result revealed the coexistence of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding in the LaB6 system and partially explains its high efficiency as a thermionic emitter.

  4. Measurements of the Urbach tail for A2B6 mixed crystals by the photothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, J; Strzalkowski, K; Firszt, F; Legowski, S; Meczynska, H [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, ul. Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Malinski, M, E-mail: jzakrzew@fizyka.umk.p [Department of Electronics and Computer Science Technical University of Koszalin, 2 Sniadeckich St, 75-453, Koszalin (Poland)

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the influence of the composition of several mixed A2B6 crystals on the broadening of the optical absorption coefficient spectra. This broadening is observed as the change of the piezoelectric spectra associated with the change of the Urbach tail. This effect is interpreted as a result of the increase of the compositional disorder of the crystal lattice.

  5. Ontwikkeling methode voor het bepalen van vitamine B6 in levensmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnendijk, R.; Hollman, P.

    1985-01-01

    Twee reversed phase HPLC-systemen voor de scheiding van pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxamine (PM) en pyridoxal (PL) werden onderzocht lolaarbij de invloed van een aantal variabelen in kaart gebracht werd. De voor de analyse van vitamine B6 wenselijk geachte hydrolyse van de fosfaatesters werd onderzocht me

  6. Vitamin B6 is Associated with Depressive Symptomatology in Massachusetts Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the cross-sectional relationship between dietary vitamin B6 and plasma pyridoxyl-5’-phosphate concentrations (PLP) with depressive symptomatology among a representative sample of 618 elderly Caribbean Hispanics and a neighborhood based comparison group of 251 non-Hispanic white (NHW) old...

  7. 离子对HPLC测定特种维生素B6注射液中维生素B6含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Special Type Vitamin B6 Injection by Ion-pair HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 王弛; 闵庆旺; 张捷; 姜韧; 谭生建

    2003-01-01

    目的建立离子对高效液相色谱法测定特种维生素B6注射液中维生素B6含量的方法.方法采用高效液相色谱法.Intersil C18分析色谱柱(4.6mm ID×250mm,粒径5μm),流动相为80%乙腈-水(14∶86),含0.005mol*L-1庚烷磺酸钠,0.4%三乙胺,磷酸调pH3),流速1ml/min,检测波长290nm.结果线性回归方程Y=0.675 0+0.000 001 642X,r=0.999 9,线性范围28.24~141.2μg*ml-1.平均回收率101.0%,RSD为1.5%,加样平均回收率为99.3.0%,RSD为1.7%.结论用离子对高效液相色谱法测定特种维生素B6注射液中维生素B6含量,操作简便,结果准确.

  8. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  9. Lipids in the Structure of Photosystem I, Photosystem II and the Cytochrome b6f Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Jan; Zouni, Athina; Guskov, Albert; Krauss, Norbert; Wada, Hajime; Murata, Norio

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes the data accumulated in the last decade regarding the specific function of lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis, based on crystal structures of at least 3.0 Å resolution of the main photosynthetic membrane protein—pigment complexes, photosystem I, photosystem II and cytochrome b6

  10. Measurements of the Urbach tail for A2B6 mixed crystals by the photothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Malinski, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the influence of the composition of several mixed A2B6 crystals on the broadening of the optical absorption coefficient spectra. This broadening is observed as the change of the piezoelectric spectra associated with the change oft he Urbach tail. This effect is interpreted as a result of the increase of the compositional disorder of the crystal lattice.

  11. Effect of commercial amino acids on iron nutrition of tomato plants grown under lime-induced iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdán, Mar; Sanchez Sanchez, Antonio; Jordá Guijarro, Juana Dolores; Juárez Sanz, Margarita; Sánchez Andreu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of root and foliar application of two commercial products containing amino acids from plant and animal origin on iron (Fe) nutrition of tomato seedlings cultivated in two nutrient media: lime and normal nutrient solutions. In the foliar-application experiment, each product was sprayed with 0.5 and 0.7 mL L–1 2, 7, 12, and 17 d after transplanting. In the root application experiment, 0.1 and 0.2 mL L–1 of amino acids products were added to the...

  12. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  13. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  14. Complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a chlorophyll-deficient tea plant cultivar reveal multiple metabolic pathway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Hongli; Chen, Changsong; Yue, Chuan; Hao, Xinyuan; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2016-01-01

    To uncover the mechanisms that underlie the chlorina phenotype of the tea plant, this study employs morphological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses to compare the green tea cultivar LJ43 and the yellow-leaf tea cultivar ZH1. ZH1 exhibited the chlorina phenotype, with significantly decreased chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast development compared with LJ43. ZH1 also displayed higher theanine and free amino acid content and lower carotenoid and catechin content. Microarray and iTRAQ analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes and proteins could be mapped to the following pathways: 'phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,' 'glutathione metabolism,' 'phenylalanine metabolism,' 'photosynthesis,' and 'flavonoid biosynthesis.' Altered gene and protein levels in these pathways may account for the increased amino acid content and reduced chlorophyll and flavonoid content of ZH1. Altogether, this study combines transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the chlorina phenotype.

  15. Floral biology of Commiphora wightii – a data deficient medicinal plant distributed in the arid zones of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Harshadbhai Kawane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Commiphora wightii commonly known as Guggul is an important medicinal plant that contains oleo gum resin which is used as antiarthritic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic agents. It is an apomictic species native to India (Gujarat, Rajasthan and Pakistan. Due to over exploitation, it is enlisted under the ‘data deficient’ category in the IUCN Red Data Book. However, very little information is available about its reproductive biology. Knowledge of reproductive biology of any plant species is crucial for its genetic improvement and planning for effective conservation and management of genetic resources. The present paper reports our findings on the flower opening pattern, pollen grain viability, stigma receptivity, flowering behaviour and fruit set in C. wightii. The study showed that flowers do not open in the night hours and maximum flower opening occurs in the morning hours up to 8.00 am. Maximum stigma receptivity was observed on the first day of flower opening. Polymorphism in pollen grain size was observed and a significant difference in pollen grain size was observed between hermaphrodite and male accessions. Maximum number of pollen grains is produced by hermaphrodite accessions. Pollen viability ranged from 35.07 to 60.85 % among the accessions. Flowering studied in 37 accessions showed wide variability among the accessions. Peak flowering was observed from November to April. Based on data on peak flowering time, the accessions were grouped into profusely, medium and shy flowering types. The fruit set percentage was very low among the accessions; it remained between zero and 5%.

  16. Magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of ferromagnetic EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic measurements on Al-flux grown EuB6 crystals show that this material orders ferromagnetically with a transition temperature T/sub c/=13.7 K. The effective moment derived from paramagnetic susceptibility measurements gives μ/sub eff/=7.76 μ/sub B/, and the saturation magnetization extrapolated to 0 K is within 10% of the theoretical value of 7 μ/sub B/ expected for Eu+2. The magnetic order, however, cannot be that of a simple colinear ferromagnet because the magnetic specific heat in zero applied magnetic field shows a broad maximum centered about 9 K rather than the expected lambda-like anomaly at 13.7 K. Finally, transport measurements suggest that EuB6 is an intrinsic semimental

  17. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  18. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  19. HPLC法测定复方维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6与醋酸氟轻松的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 and Fluocinonide in Compound Vitamin B6 Gel by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪万里; 要辉; 沈定文

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立复方维生素B6凝胶剂中维生素B6与醋酸氟轻松的含量测定方法。方法:采用HPLC法,色谱柱:Lichro-spher CN C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(称取6.8 g磷酸二氢钾和1.0 g庚烷磺酸钠,加水溶解并稀释至1000 ml)-甲醇-三乙胺(35∶65∶0.2),用磷酸调pH至3.2;检测波长:238 nm;柱温:25℃;进样量:20μl。结果:维生素B6在15.0~300.0μg· ml-1浓度范围内线性关系良好(r=1.0000),平均回收率为99.65%,RSD为0.3%(n=9);醋酸氟轻松在0.4~8.0μg· ml-1浓度范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9990),平均回收率为99.35%,RSD为0.85%(n=9)。结论:该方法简便,重复性好,测定的结果准确,可用于复方维生素B6凝胶剂的含量测定。%Objective:To establish a method to determine vitamin B 6 and fluocinonide in compound vitamin B 6 gel.Methods:The contents of vitamin B6 and fluocinonide in the gel were determined by HPLC with a Lichrospher CN C 18column (250 mm ×4.6 mm, 5μm).The mobile phase was heptane sulfonate solution (adding 6.8 g potassium phosphate monobasic and 1.0 g heptane sulfonate into 1000 ml water) -methanol –triethylamine (35:65:0.2,adjusting pH to 3.2 with phosphoric acid).The detection wavelength was 238 nm and the column temperature was 25℃.The injection volume was 20 μl.Results: Vitamin B6 had a good linear relationship within the range of 15.0-300.0 μg· ml-1(r=1.000 0), and the average recovery was 99.65% (RSD=0.3, n=9).Fluocinonide had a good linear relationship within the range of 0.4-8.0 μg· ml-1 (r=0.9990), and the average recovery was 99.35% (RSD=0.85, n=9).Conclusion:The method is simple and reproducible, and the result is accurate.The method can be used for the deter-mination of the gel.

  20. Electronic structure and optical properties of boron suboxide B6O system: First-principles investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjin; Wang, Zhanyu; Jing, Yueyue; Wang, Songyou; Chou, Che-Fu; Hu, Han; Chiou, Shan-Haw; Tsoo, Chia-Chin; Su, Wan-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    The structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of B6O were explored by means of first-principles calculations. Such a system is mechanically stable and also a relatively hard material which are derived from obtained elastic constants and bulk moduli. Bulk B6O is a direct-gap semiconductor with a bandgap of about 2.93 eV within G0W0 approximation. Furthermore, the optical properties, such as real and imaginary parts of dielectric functions, refractive index and extinction coefficient, and the comparison of optical properties between the density-functional theory (DFT) and G0W0 Bethe-Salpeter equation (G0W0-BSE) results, were computed and discussed. The results obtained from our calculations open a possibility for expanding its use in device applications.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Nd8Fe83Co3B6 Nanocomposite Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of quenching technology, annealing temperature and time on the structures and magnetic properties of Nd8Fe83Co3B6 nanocomposite magnets was investigated. The results show that the α-Fe/Nd2Fe14B nanocomposite magnet containing a small amount of B is difficult to form amorphous state. The magnetic properties of 26 m/s quenched Nd8Fe83Co3B6 powders annealed at 640℃×480 s reach iHc=513 kA/m, Br=1.05 T and (BH)max=92.0 kJ/m3. The grain size is Dα-Fe=21.5 nm and DNd2Fe14B=30.2 nm.

  2. Effect of Exercise Capacity on Vitamin B6 and Its Complement%维生素 B6对运动能力的影响及其补充

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊正英; 张倩; 任伟东; 朱佳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of vitamin B6 on exercise capacity and its supplementary methods,so players have a basic understanding of vitamin B6. Understand the need quantity of vitamin B6,in order to facilitate a timely supplement. Methods:by using the method of literature review,the vitamin B6 promote the generation and motion of hemoglobin when gluconeogenesis were systemati-cally discussed. Results:the effect of vitamin B6 on the exercise capacity,adequate vitamin B6 helps hardening and the prevention and treatment of anemia arterial congee happened. Conclusion:according to the effect of vitamin B6 on the exercise capacity,supplement methods should be combined with taking vitamin B6 supplementation,suitable for adult 2mg,can increase the amount of exercise inten-sity increases when the added amount.%通过分析维生素 B6对运动能力的影响及其补充方法,使运动员对维生素 B6有一个最基本的认识,了解维生素 B6的需要量,以便及时补充。采用文献综述研究方法,对维生素 B6促进血红蛋白的生成和运动时糖异生作用进行了系统论述。明确了维生素 B6对运动能力的影响,适量补充维生素 B6有助于防治动脉粥硬化和贫血的发生。根据维生素 B6对运动能力的影响,补充时应采用配伍服用的方法,成人维生素 B6适宜的补充剂量为2mg/d,运动强度增加时可适量增加补充量。

  3. Carnosine Content in Skeletal Muscle Is Dependent on Vitamin B6 Status in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suidasari, Sofya; Stautemas, Jan; Uragami, Shinji; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Derave, Wim; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a cofactor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP dependent. Thus, we examined the ...

  4. Nesting-driven multipolar order in CeB6 from photoemission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Koitzsch, A,; Heming, N.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Portnichenko, P. Y.; Dukhnenko, A. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Y.; Filipov, V. B.; Lev, L. L.; Strocov, V. N.; Ollivier, J.; Inosov, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Some heavy fermion materials show so-called hidden-order phases which are invisible to many characterization techniques and whose microscopic origin remained controversial for decades. Among such hidden-order compounds, CeB6 is of model character due to its simple electronic configuration and crystal structure. Apart from more conventional antiferromagnetism, it shows an elusive phase at low temperatures, which is commonly associated with multipolar order. Here we show that this phase roots i...

  5. Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus Strain B-6 Xylanolytic-Cellulolytic Enzyme System That Degrades Insoluble Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Pason, Patthra; Kyu, Khin Lay; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2006-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic bacterium, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6, isolated from an anaerobic digester produces an extracellular xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system containing xylanase, β-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, acetyl esterase, mannanase, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, amylase, and chitinase when grown on xylan under aerobic conditions. During growth on xylan, the bacterial cells were found to adhere to xylan from the early exp...

  6. Preventive Effect of Vitamin B6 on Developmental Toxicity of Carbamazepine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afshar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCarbamazepine (CBZ is an antiepileptic drug that is used widely for the treatment of epileptic seizures. Neural tube defects (NTDs, growth retardation, and nail hypoplasia are the most common features of teratogenic effects of this drug. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin B6 on the developmental toxicity of CBZ on mice.Materials and MethodsSixty BALB/c pregnant mice were divided into four experimental and two control groups. Two experimental groups received daily intraperitoneal injection (IP of 30 mg/kg (I or 60 mg/kg (II of CBZ on gestational days (GD 6 to 15. Two other experimental groups received daily IP injection of 30 mg/kg (III or 60 mg/kg (IV of CBZ with 10 mg/kg/day vitamin B6 by gavage 10 days prior to gestation and on GD 6 to 15. Two control groups received normal saline or Tween 20. Dams underwent Cesarean section on GD 18 and embryos were harvested. External/macroscopic observation of fetuses was done by stereomicroscope and external examination for malformations was recorded. Data analyzed by ANOVA and X2 test using SPSS software.ResultsThe mean weight and crown-rump of the fetuses in both CBZ-treated experimental groups were significantly reduced compared with those of the control groups. Various malformations were detected such as brachygnathia, eye malformations, NTDs, vertebral deformity, brachydactyly and growth retardation. Vitamin B6 treatment significantly reduced various CBZ-induced malformations.ConclusionThis study showed that vitamin B6 has a preventive effect on the developmental toxicity of CBZ in mice that can be pursued further for clinical research.

  7. ENDF/B-6 Standards Library 1987. Summary of contents and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENDF/B6 Standards Library includes evaluated data for seven neutron reactions that are internationally recommended as reference standards for nuclear measurements. The reactions are H-1(n,n), He-3(n,p), Li-6(n,t), B-10(n,α), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), U-235(n,f). The data are available on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge. (author)

  8. 高效液相色谱法测定复方维生素B6乳膏中维生素B6和醋酸泼尼松的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 and Prednisone Acetate in Compound Vitamin B6 Cream by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少芳; 陈渝军; 林晶; 刘燕

    2005-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定复方维生素B6软膏中维生素B6和醋酸泼尼松含量的反相高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Hypersil C18柱(250 mm×4.0 mm,5μm),流动相为磷酸二氢钾,庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取磷酸二氢钾6.8 g,庚烷磺酸钠1.0 g,加水溶解并稀释至1 000 ml)-甲醇-三乙胺(35:65:0.3),用磷酸调pH值为3.2,检测波长242 nm.结果:维生素B6在22.12~176.8μg·ml-1范围内,醋酸泼尼松在6.92~55.4μg·ml-1范围内呈线性关系,维生素B6的平均回收率为99.6%,RSD=1.09%(n=5),醋酸泼尼松的平均回收率为99.6%,RSD=1.89%(n=5).结论:本方法简便,结果准确,可用于本制剂的含量测定和质量控制.

  9. Vitamin B6 and colorectal cancer: Current evidence and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xue-Hong; Ma, Jing; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Lee, Jung Eun; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cancer in both women and men worldwide. Identifying modifiable dietary factors is crucial in developing primary prevention strategies. Vitamin B6 is involved in more than 100 coenzyme reactions, and may influence colorectal cancer risk in multiple ways including through its role in one-carbon metabolism related DNA synthesis and methylation and by reducing inflammation, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress. Observational studies of dietary o...

  10. Influence of Surface Preparation for Different Groups of A2B6 Mixed Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy has been used for measurements of the optical and thermal parameters of semiconductors. The investigated crystals were grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method under argon overpressure. The obtained photoacoustic (PA) spectra show the complexity of the effects observed for the different groups of selected A2B6 crystals. These effects comprise ideal samples and samples with damaged surfaces. The spectra show the influence of the surface treatment on the PA amplitude and phase spectra.

  11. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  12. Characterization of the estrogen receptor transfected MCF10A breast cell line 139B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, M J; Christman, J K; Brooks, S C

    1996-01-01

    There has been increasing evidence which suggests that abnormal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein in nonmalignant breast tissue may be important in the carcinogenic process. To examine the effects of ER expression in immortalized nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells, an expression vector containing human ER cDNA was transfected into the ER negative human breast cells, MCF10A. Characterization of a clone stably expressing ER, 139B6, provided evidence for the regulated synthesis of a functional ER capable of binding estradiol-17 beta (E2) and undergoing processing. Expression of the ER gene did not enable E2 to stimulate endogenous genes [progesterone receptor (PgR), pS2, cathepsin D and TGF alpha] which normally respond to estrogens in breast cancer cells. The ER in 139B6 cells was, however, capable of inducing expression of an ERE-regulated reporter gene, indicating its ability to interact with transcriptional machinery. Furthermore, cultures in log growth displayed a slight increase in doubling time in the presence of E2. These results indicate that ER expression alone is not sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype. Thus, the 139B6 cell line should provide a new model for determining what additional changes lead to increased growth potential in response to E2 and for exploring how E2 itself may help bring about changes leading to progression of preneoplastic breast epithelial cells.

  13. The energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, T.; El-Gomati, M.

    2014-06-01

    The LaB6 cathode has been the brightest thermionic source used in microprobe applications requiring longer lifetime [1-2]. It is x100 lower in brightness than thermal field emitters (TFE) ca Zr/W (100) [3]. There are attractive similarities between these cathodes in terms of work function and operating temperature that are worth considering. Major differences include their respective source sizes (>10μm vs 30nm) and energy spread of 1-2 eV vs 0.6-0.7eV for the LaB6 and TFE, respectively [4,3]. We report here on the experimental measurement of the energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode. The cathode used has an end-form measuring 15μm. Total energy spread values obtained using a dedicated electron energy analyser shows values of 0.4eV-0.7eV, significantly lower than typical values in the thermionic mode of 1-2eV.

  14. PLP and PMP radicals: a new paradigm in coenzyme B6 chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, G; Liu, H W

    2001-08-01

    Enzymes frequently rely on a broad repertoire of cofactors to perform chemically challenging transformations. The B6 coenzymes, composed of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), are used by many transaminases, racemases, decarboxylases, and enzymes catalyzing alpha,beta and beta,gamma-eliminations. Despite the variety of reactions catalyzed by B6-dependent enzymes, the mechanism of almost all such enzymes is based on their ability to stabilize high-energy anionic intermediates in their reaction pathways by the pyridinium moiety of PLP/PMP. However, there are two notable exceptions to this model, which are discussed in this article. The first enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine to L-beta-lysine using a one-electron-based mechanism utilizing a [4Fe-4S] cluster and S-adenosylmethionine. The second enzyme, CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase, is a PMP-dependent enzyme involved in the formation of 3,6-dideoxysugars in bacteria. This enzyme also contains an iron-sulfur cluster and uses a one-electron based mechanism to catalyze removal of a C-3 hydroxy group from a 4-hexulose. In both cases, the participation of free radicals in the reaction pathway has been established, placing these two B6-dependent enzymes in an exclusive class by themselves.

  15. Dependence of characteristics of LaB6 films on DC magnetron sputtering power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; MIN Guang-hui; HU Li-jie; ZHAO Xiao-hua; YU Hua-shun

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride(LaB6) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by DC magnetron sputtering technology, and the AFM, XRD and scratch tests were used to characterize the deposited films. Influences of sputtering power on the microstructure and the bonding strength between the film and substrate were investigated. AFM observation proves that the dense films are obtained, and the surface roughness is below 4.3 nm. The LaB6 film shows the crystalline structure with the grain less than 100 nm. The XRD pattern identifies that the crystal structure of the films is in accordance with that of bulk LaB6, and the (100) crystal face is dominated. The average grain size decreases firstly and then increases with increasing power, and reaches the minimum of 40 nm when the sputtering power is 44 W. Moreover, the intensity of peaks in XRD pattern increases firstly and decreases afterward with increasing power. When the sputtering power is 50 W, the peak intensity reaches the maximum, showing an intense relationship between the power and crystal structures. The scratch test shows that interface bonding strength of the film/substrate is higher at the power of 44 W than the others, due to the formation of the nanosized crystals and their improved surface energy.

  16. Effects of Magnesium and Vitamin B6 on the Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ebrahimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of resolving the problem of premenstrual syndrome for patients has been emphasized due to its direct and indirect economical effects on the society. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of magnesium and vitamin B6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome in patients referring to health centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2009-10. Methods: This two-stage double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 126 women who were randomly allocated into 3 groups to receive magnesium, vitamin B6, or placebo. The study was performed in 10 selected health centers in Isfahan and lasted for 4 months. To confirm premenstrual syndrome, the participants were asked to complete a menstrual diary for 2 months at home. Drug interventions were continued for two cycles and the results of before and after the intervention were compared. Results: The findings of this study showed that the mean scores of premenstrual syndrome significantly decreased after the intervention in all groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: According to our findings, vitamin B6 and placebo had the most and least efficiency in improving the mean premenstrual syndrome score.

  17. VITAMIN B6 & TREATMENT OF INFANTILE SPASMS: A COMPARISON WITH STANDARD STEROID THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JAVADZADEH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Considering the inadequacies of current therapeutic regimens forinfantile spasms (IS, and the frequent and serious side effects ofSome regimens, the ongoing search for more enhanced protocols isunderstandable.Materials and Methods:We have compared the therapeutic and adverse effects of vitaminB6 given in high doses with those of prednisolone in a randomizedcontrolled clinical trial. Vitamin B6 (40mg/kg/24hr and prednisolone(1.5mg/kg/day were given to in 22 and 15 patients respectively, andthe patients were followed for at least 6 months.Results:Response to treatment was slightly better in the prednisolone groupbut the difference was not significant (p=0.4. On the other handadverse effects were also seen more frequently with prednisolone.Conclusion:We conclude that high dose vitamin B6 should be considered as analternative method of treatment; it seems that it can be safely usedwhere there is contraindication to use other antiepileptic drugs orwhere they have failed; even in newly diagnosed cases of IS.

  18. High Pressure Study of Electrical Resistivity of CeB6 to 136 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzani, Neda; Lim, Jinhyuk; Schilling, James; Fabbris, Gilberto; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1960's the dense Kondo compound cerium hexaboride (CeB6) has attracted a great deal of interest. To investigate whether this material might evolve into a topological insulator under sufficient pressure, we have carried out four-point electrical resistivity measurements on CeB6 over the temperature range 1.3 K to 295 K in a diamond anvil cell to 136 GPa. Although a transition into an insulating phase is not observed, the evolution of the initial dense Kondo state under such extreme pressures is of considerable interest. As reported in earlier studies to 13 GPa, the temperature of the resistivity maximum near 3 K initially increases with pressure. We observe that between 33 and 53 GPa the resistivity maximum disappears and by 83 GPa CeB6 appears to have settled into a Fermi liquid state. The marked changes observed under pressure suggest that a change in valence and/or a structural transition may have occurred. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements are being carried out to investigate possible changes in crystal structure under extreme pressures. Work at Washington Univ. supported by NSF DMR-1104742 and Carnegie/DOE/NNSA DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  19. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance-A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Andresen, Elisa; Mattusch, Jürgen; Hubáček, Tomáš; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-08-01

    Essential trace elements (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu(2+) and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non-summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5-35nM Cu, while PSII activity (Fv/Fm) was maximal around 7.5nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (ΦPSII). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production. PMID:27309311

  20. Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Wang, Hansong; Selhub, Jacob; Vogt, Thomas M.; Yokochi, Lance; Decker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy sc...

  1. 高效液相色谱法测定斑蝥素钠维生素B6注射液中维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Disodium Cantharidinate and Vitamin B6 Injection by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秋琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液中维生素B6含量测定的HPLC法。方法采用waters symmetry C18柱(150mm×4.6mm,5.0μm),流动相为0.04%戊烷磺酸钠(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(88∶12),流速1.0ml•min-1,检测波长291nm,柱温35℃。结果维生素B6在39.33~196.6 mg•L-1的范围内线性关系良好(r=1.0000, n=5),测得平均回收率为99.8%,RSD=0.47%(n=9)。结论本方法简便,准确,专属性强。%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of vitamin C and vitamin B6 in ferrous fumarate granules. Methods The HPLC column was Waters symmetry C18 (150mm×4.6mm,5.0μm);the mobile phase was 0.04% sodium heptanesulfonate solution(the pH was adjusted to 3.0 by acetic acid) - methanol(88∶12);the flow rate was 1.0mL•min-1,the detection wavelength was 291 nm , the column temperature was 35℃. Results The linear of Vitamin B6 was 39.33~196.6mg• L-1(r=1.0000),the average recovery was 99.8% with RSD=0.47%(n=6).Conclusion The method is simple,accurate and sensitive.

  2. High-throughput screening assays for CYP2B6 metabolism and inhibition using fluorogenic vivid substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Bryan D; Goossens, Tony A; Braun, Heidi A; Ozers, Mary S; Smith, Ronald W; Lebakken, Connie; Trubetskoy, Olga V

    2003-01-01

    CYP2B6 is a highly polymorphic P450 isozyme involved in the metabolism of endo- and xenobiotics with known implications for the activation of many procarcinogens resulting in carcinogenesis. However, lack of validated high-throughput screening (HTS) CYP2B6 assays has limited the current understanding and full characterization of this isozyme's involvement in human drug metabolism. Here, we have developed and characterized a fluorescence-based HTS assay employing recombinant human CYP2B6 and 2 novel fluorogenic substrates (the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Substrates). Assay validation included testing the inhibitory potency of a panel of drugs and compounds known to be metabolized by this isozyme, including CYP2B6 substrates, inhibitors, and known inducers. Compound rankings based on inhibitory potency in the Vivid CYP2B6 Blue and Cyan Assays matched compound rankings based on relative affinity measurements from previously published data (K(i), K(d), or K(m) values) for the CYP2B6 isozyme. In conclusion, these assays are proven to be robust and sensitive, with broad dynamic ranges and kinetic parameters allowing screening in HTS mode of a large panel of compounds for CYP2B6 metabolism and inhibition, and are a valuable new tool for CYP2B6 studies.

  3. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie; Kall, Morten A; Nexø, Ebba

    2002-06-01

    Marginal deficiency of vitamin B6 has recently been related to cardiovascular diseases. Because of that there is an increasing interest in a suitable and reliable method for quantifying this vitamin in routine laboratory medicine. We have developed a HPLC-based method able to quantify the B6 vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers were eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile (0.5-15%) in a potassium phosphate buffer with 1-octanesulfonic acid and triethylamine, pH 2.16. The concentration of the vitamers was determined with fluorescence detector (328 nm excitation, 393 nm emission) after postcolumn derivatization with phosphate buffer containing 1 g/L sodium bisulfite. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analyzing six plasma samples with interrelated concentration and two control samples (unspiked and vitamer spiked) over a 3-months period. The HPLC method was able to identify PLP, 4-PA, PM, PL, PN, and PMP from all other compounds in plasma in an analytical run of 46 min. The imprecisions and mean values (presented in parenthesis in nmol/L) were (unspiked and spiked sample) 9-8% (41-65) for PLP, 12-7% (18-40) for 4-PA, 67-28% (4-19) for PL, 15% (21) for PN, 10% (27) for PM, and 27% (17) for PMP. All three B6 vitamers (PLP, 4-PA, and PL) present in unspiked plasma showed an excellent linearity within the range of (nM) 8-60 (4-PA), 1-19 (PL), and 11-99 (PLP). In conclusion, we report a HPLC-based method that separates and detects nanomolar quantities of six B6 vitamers and demonstrate that the method will be suitable for routine quantitation of PLP and 4-PA in human plasma. PMID:12018948

  4. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  5. The root application of a purified leonardite humic acid modifies the transcriptional regulation of the main physiological root responses to Fe deficiency in Fe-sufficient cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Elena; Elena, Aguirre; Leménager, Diane; Diane, Leménager; Bacaicoa, Eva; Eva, Bacaicoa; Fuentes, Marta; Marta, Fuentes; Baigorri, Roberto; Roberto, Baigorri; Zamarreño, Angel Ma; García-Mina, José Ma

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a well-characterized purified humic acid (non-measurable concentrations of the main plant hormones were detected) on the transcriptional regulation of the principal molecular agents involved in iron assimilation. To this end, non-deficient cucumber plants were treated with different concentrations of a purified humic acid (PHA) (2, 5, 100 and 250 mg of organic carbonL(-1)) and harvested 4, 24, 48, 76 and 92 h from the onset of the treatment. At harvest times, the mRNA transcript accumulation of CsFRO1 encoding for Fe(III) chelate-reductase (EC 1.16.1.7); CsHa1 and CsHa2 encoding for plasma membrane H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6); and CsIRT1 encoding for Fe(II) high-affinity transporter, was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Meanwhile, the respective enzyme activity of the Fe(III) chelate-reductase and plasma membrane H+-ATPase was also investigated. The results obtained indicated that PHA root treatments affected the regulation of the expression of the studied genes, but this effect was transient and differed (up-regulation or down-regulation) depending on the genes studied. Thus, principally the higher doses of PHA caused a transient increase in the expression of the CsHa2 isoform for 24 and 48 h whereas the CsHa1 isoform was unaffected or down-regulated. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity for 4, 48 and 96 h. Likewise, PHA root treatments (principally the higher doses) up-regulated CsFRO1 and CsIRT1 expression for 48 and 72 h; whereas these genes were down-regulated by PHA for 96 h. These effects were associated with an increase in the Fe(III) chelate-reductase activity for 72 h. These effects were not associated with a significant decrease in the Fe root or leaf concentrations, although an eventual effect on the Fe root assimilation pattern cannot be ruled out. These results stress the close relationships between the effects of humic substances on plant development

  6. 维生素B6注射液的细菌内毒素检查实验研究%Bacterial endotoxin test for Vitamin B6 Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵嘉将; 刘静; 尤良玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察维生素B6注射液细菌内毒素检查方法.方法 用不同厂家的鲎试剂对不同批号的维生素B6注射液分别进行干扰试验,确定维生素B6注射液细菌内毒素检查方法.结果 维生素B6注射液的最大不干扰浓度为0.2mg·mL-1.结论 维生素B6注射液采用凝胶法进行细菌内毒素检查满足中国药典2010年版要求.

  7. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  8. Modeling of LaB6 hollow cathode performance and lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Daniela; Albertoni, Riccardo; Paganucci, Fabrizio; Andrenucci, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Thermionic hollow cathodes are currently used as sources of electrons in a variety of space applications, in particular as cathodes/neutralizers of electric thrusters (Hall effect and ion thrusters). Numerical tools are needed to guide the design of new devices before their manufacturing and testing, since multiple geometrical parameters influence the cathode performance. A reduced-order, numerical model was developed to assess the performance of orificed hollow cathodes, with a focus on the operational lifetime. The importance of the lifetime prediction is tied to its impact on the operational lifetime of the thruster to which the cathode is coupled. The cathode architecture consists of a refractory metal tube with an internal electron emitter made of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6). The choice of LaB6 accounts for the reduced evaporation rate, the low sensitivity to poisoning and the absence of an activation procedure with respect to oxide cathodes. A LaB6 emitter is thus a valuable option for long-lasting cathodes, despite its relatively high work-function and reactivity with many refractory metals at high temperatures. The suggested reduced-order model self-consistently predicts the key parameters of the cathode operation, shedding light on the power deposition processes as well as on the main erosion mechanisms. Preliminary results showed good agreement with both the experimental data collected by Alta and data available from the literature for different operating conditions and power levels. Next developments will include further comparisons between theoretical and experimental data, considering cathodes of various size and operating conditions.

  9. Crystallization Kinetics of Pr8Fe86-xZrxB6 Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of Pr8Fe86-xZrxB6 (x=0, 1, 2) amorphous alloys was studied by DTA and XRD methods. The experimental results showed that the crystalline phases of Pr8Fe86B6 alloy are composed of α-Fe phase, Pr2Fe23B3 and Pr2Fe14B, when crystallization temperature is below 900 ℃. The activation energy of α-Fe phase remains relatively constant about 306.09 kJ/mol, as the crystalline fraction of α-Fe phase is below 8 %. At the beginning of crystallization, the activation energy of Pr2Fe23B3 and Pr2Fe14B phases are 510.85 kJ/mol and 725.97 kJ/mol, respectively, and then the activation energy of three phases declines with increasing the crystalline fraction. The crystallization behavior of α-Fe and Pr2Fe14B essentially results in the formation of a α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B composite microstructure with a coarse grain size in annealed Pr8Fe86B6 alloy, which is attributed to a difficult nucleation and an easy growth for both the α-Fe and Pr2Fe14B in the alloy. Zr can be used to change the crystallization behavior of the α-Fe phase in Pr-Fe-B amorphous alloy, which is helpful to the formation of the α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B nanocomposite microstructure with a fine grain size for the α-Fe phase in the alloy.

  10. Characterization of the Chloroplast Cytochrome b6f Complex as a Structural and Functional Dimer†

    OpenAIRE

    D. Huang; Everly, R. M.; Cheng, R H; Heymann, J. B.; Schägger, H.; Sled, V.; Ohnishi, T.; Baker, T S; Cramer, W A

    1994-01-01

    Size analysis of the cytochrome b6f complex by FPLC Superose-12 chromatography and Blue Native PAGE indicated a predominantly dimeric component with Mr = (1.9–2.5) × 105. The true dimer molecular weight including bound lipid, but not detergent, was estimated to be 2.3 × 105. Size and shape analysis by negative-stain single-particle electron microscopy indicated that the preparation of dimeric complexes contains a major population that has a protein cross section 40% larger than the monomer, b...

  11. Low-intensity microwave radiation and the virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H A; Raymond, R; Fox, M; Galsky, A G

    1979-01-01

    When virulent cells of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 were exposed to low-level microwave radiation at a frequency of 10,000 MHz and an intensity of 0.58 mW/cm2 for 30 to 120 min, a 30 to 60% decrease in their ability to produce tumors on potato and turnip disks was observed. This microwave exposure did not affect the viability of these bacteria or their ability to attach to a tumor-binding site nor did it induce thermal shock. This loss of virulence was reversible within 12 h.

  12. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sofya eSuidasari; Jan eStautemas; Shinji eUragami; Noriyuki eYanaka; Wim eDerave; Norihisa eKato

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the...

  13. The origin of fast valence fluctuations in SmB 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluchanko, N. E.; Glushkov, V. V.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Demishev, S. V.; Kondrin, M. V.; Pronin, A. A.; Volkov, A. A.; Bruynseraede, Y.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Kunii, S.

    2000-07-01

    Low-temperature transport has been studied in steady and pulsed magnetic field on a single crystal of SmB 6. Measurements in the range of intrinsic conduction allowed us to determine the indirect gap E g≈20 meV and microscopic parameters of carriers. The results obtained in the region of extrinsic conduction are discussed within the Kikoin-Mishchenko polaron-exciton model of charge fluctuations with short-range excitonic states E ex≈3.5 meV, R ex≈6 Å.

  14. Effect of pressure on the metamagnetic transition of DyB6 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pressure on the magnetization (M) and the magnetostriction (MS) for DyB6 single crystal have been measured at 4.2 K. It is found that the M loops are insensitive to pressure, whereas the large MS with magnitude of 0.5% at 5 T at ambient pressure is rapidly suppressed by applying pressure. The metamagnetic transition field H M in the M curve increases slightly by applying pressure with the rate of increase, ∂ ln H M/∂P, of 0.03 GPa-1, which is almost the same value as that for T N, 0.04 GPa-1

  15. Synthesis and characterization of EuB6 by borothermic reduction of Eu2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon free high pure europium hexaboride is an urgent need for the fast breeder nuclear reactor program. The properties of EuB6 are highly influenced by the presence of one or more substitutional impurities, particularly, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. In the present investigation carbon and nitrogen free high pure europium hexaboride was synthesized by borothermic reduction of europium oxide Eu2O3 (using boron as a reducing agent at relatively low temperature ( 90 % of theoretical density was studied at 850°C and revealed that an adherent thin surface of Eu2O3 was formed which prevent further oxidation.

  16. Photothermal Investigation of Surface Defects of Pure Semiconducting A2B6 Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Madaj, D.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2012-04-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a sensitive and useful method to investigate the quality of semiconducting A2B6 crystals. An imperfection of surface quality can strongly influence photoacoustic spectra but it shows the different character for the different kinds of semiconducting materials. To properly interpret the amplitude and phase spectra, the temperature distribution and its modifications, due to the surface defects, are needed. The Blonskij model of the temperature distribution was used to investigate the influence of the defect on the amplitude and phase spectra.

  17. CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence sensor for the determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Fang Sun; Cui Ling Ren; Li Hong Liu; Xing Guo Chen

    2008-01-01

    A novel,rapid and simple CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based technology platform was established for selective and sensitive determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous solution.It can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of vitamin B6 in pharmaceutical with satisfactory results.

  18. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved. Objective: Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of ...

  19. The Intestine Plays a Substantial Role in Human Vitamin B6 Metabolism : A Caco-2 Cell Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Knoers, Nine V. V. A. M.; de Ruiter, Berna H. B.; Diekman, Eugene F.; de Ruijter, Jessica; Visser, Wouter F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is present in various forms (vitamers) in the diet that need to be metabolized to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active cofactor form of vitamin B6. In literature, the liver has been reported to be the major site for this conversion, whereas the exact role of the intestine rem

  20. Kondo hybridisation and the origin of metallic states at the (001) surface of SmB6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Frantzeskakis; N. de Jong; B. Zwartsenberg; Y.K. Huang; Y. Pan; X. Zhang; F.X. Zhang; L.H. Bao; O. Tegus; A. Varykhalov; A. de Visser; M. Golden

    2013-01-01

    SmB6, a well-known Kondo insulator, has been proposed to be an ideal topological insulator with states of topological character located in a clean, bulk electronic gap, namely, the Kondo-hybridization gap. Since the Kondo gap arises from many-body electronic correlations, SmB6 would be placed at the

  1. On the Chemistry and Physical Properties of Flux and Floating Zone Grown SmB6 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, W. A.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Cottingham, P.; Tutmaher, J. A.; Leiner, J. C.; Lumsden, M. D.; Lavelle, C. M.; Wang, X. P.; Hoffmann, C.; Siegler, M. A.; Haldolaarachchige, N.; Young, D. P.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental findings suggest the long-known but not well understood low temperature resistance plateau of SmB6 may originate from protected surface states arising from a topologically non-trivial bulk band structure having strong Kondo hybridization. Yet others have ascribed this feature to impurities, vacancies, and surface reconstructions. Given the typical methods used to prepare SmB6 single crystals, flux and floating-zone procedures, such ascriptions should not be taken lightly. We demonstrate how compositional variations and/or observable amounts of impurities in SmB6 crystals grown using both procedures affect the physical properties. From X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and X-ray computed tomography experiments we observe that natural isotope containing (SmB6) and doubly isotope enriched (154Sm11B6) crystals prepared using aluminum flux contain co-crystallized, epitaxial aluminum. Further, a large, nearly stoichiometric crystal of SmB6 was successfully grown using the float-zone technique; upon continuing the zone melting, samarium vacancies were introduced. These samarium vacancies drastically alter the resistance and plateauing magnitude of the low temperature resistance compared to stoichiometric SmB6. These results highlight that impurities and compositional variations, even at low concentrations, must be considered when collecting/analyzing physical property data of SmB6. Finally, a more accurate samarium-154 coherent neutron scattering length, 8.9(1) fm, is reported. PMID:26892648

  2. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Ying Xu; Ming-Liang He; Li-Ping Guo; Shui-Shan Lee; Qing-Ming Dong; Yi Tan; Hong Yao; Li-Hua Li; Che-Kit Lin; Hsiang-Fu Kung

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations.METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups,the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing.RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Hah majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China.CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity.Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme.

  3. Experiment data report for Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundle B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference source of MRBT bundle B-6 test data is presented with minimum interpretation. The primary objective of this 8 x 8 multirod burst test was to investigate cladding deformation in the alpha-plus-beta-Zircaloy temperature range under simulated light-water-reactor (LWR) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. B-6 test conditions simulated the adiabatic heatup (reheat) phase of an LOCA and produced very uniform temperature distributions. The fuel pin simulators were electrically heated (average linear power generation of 1.42 kW/m) and were slightly cooled with a very low flow (Re approx. 140) of low-pressure superheated steam. The cladding temperature increased from the initial temperature (3300C) to the burst temperature at a rate of 3.50C/s. The simulators burst in a very narrow temperature range, with an average of 9300C. Cladding burst strain ranged from 21 to 56%, with an average of 31%. Volumetric expansion over the heated length of the cladding ranged from 16 to 32%, with an average of 23%. 23 references

  4. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Haruki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimosato, Takeshi; Kawai, Yasushi; Itoh, Takatoshi; Saito, Tadao

    2003-08-15

    The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 induced a significant proliferation of both cells. When the DNA was cloned and amplified using PCR, the mitogenic activities to B cells were significantly increased by 13 of 135 DNA clones. Ten homologous nucleotide sequences were found as possible oligonucleotide sequences of mitogens, and were then chemically synthesized (sOL-LB1 to sOL-LB10). One CpG-like motif (sOL-LB7; 5'-CGGCACGCTCACGATTCTTG-3') was identified as an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, but it did not contain palindromic CpG structure known as a B cell-specific mitogen. The sOL-LB7 substantially bound to B cells and increased the CD69 positive cells in peyer's patch cells. This study demonstrated that L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 was a good candidate of a starter culture for the production of new functional foods, "Bio-Defense Foods".

  5. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-22

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk. PMID:27152816

  6. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB_{6} Microcrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-22

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB_{6}, 100  μm in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB_{6} is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  7. In-gap states on the non-polar (110) surface of SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, J. D.; Jang, Sooyoung; Min, C.-H.; Reinert, F.; Kang, Boyoun; Cho, B.-K.; Kim, D. J.; Fisk, Z.; Allen, J. W.

    Mixed-valent SmB6 with a temperature-dependent bulk gap is the first candidate example of a new class of strongly correlated topological insulators with f- d band inversion. The topological origin of in-gap states on cleaved (001) surfaces as measured by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) is not without controversy, since the X states span the full ~20 meV hybridization gap at low temperature without exhibiting any clear Dirac point. Furthermore, reports exist of band-bending due to the polarity of the (001) surface and depth-dependent deviations from bulk stoichiometry or Sm valency. In this work we explore ARPES of the non - polar (110) surface of SmB6 prepared by polishing and high-temperature annealing. We find in-gap states at X and Y points with very similar properties as the (001) X states. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the TI and other proposed models, and to the recent discrepancy between 2D and 3D interpretations of dHvA Fermi surface orbits. Supported by U.S. DOE at the Advanced Light Source (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  8. Radio Frequency Tunable Oscillator Device Based on a SmB6 Microcrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Galitski, Victor; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Radio frequency tunable oscillators are vital electronic components for signal generation, characterization, and processing. They are often constructed with a resonant circuit and a "negative" resistor, such as a Gunn diode, involving complex structure and large footprints. Here we report that a piece of SmB6 , 100 μ m in size, works as a current-controlled oscillator in the 30 MHz frequency range. SmB6 is a strongly correlated Kondo insulator that was recently found to have a robust surface state likely to be protected by the topology of its electronics structure. We exploit its nonlinear dynamics, and demonstrate large ac voltage outputs with frequencies from 20 Hz to 30 MHz by adjusting a small dc bias current. The behaviors of these oscillators agree well with a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. With reduced crystal size we anticipate the device to work at higher frequencies, even in the THz regime. This type of oscillator might be realized in other materials with a metallic surface and a semiconducting bulk.

  9. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at TMI and TC. Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  10. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  11. Magnetic field dependence of the neutron spin resonance in CeB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnichenko, P. Y.; Demishev, S. V.; Semeno, A. V.; Ohta, H.; Cameron, A. S.; Surmach, M. A.; Jang, H.; Friemel, G.; Dukhnenko, A. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Filipov, V. B.; Schneidewind, A.; Ollivier, J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Inosov, D. S.

    2016-07-01

    In zero magnetic field, the famous neutron spin resonance in the f -electron superconductor CeCoIn5 is similar to the recently discovered exciton peak in the nonsuperconducting CeB6. A magnetic field splits the resonance in CeCoIn5 into two components, indicating that it is a doublet. Here we employ inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to scrutinize the field dependence of spin fluctuations in CeB6. The exciton shows a markedly different behavior without any field splitting. Instead, we observe a second field-induced magnon whose energy increases with field. At the ferromagnetic zone center, however, we find only a single mode with a nonmonotonic field dependence. At low fields, it is initially suppressed to zero together with the antiferromagnetic order parameter, but then reappears at higher fields inside the hidden-order phase, following the energy of an electron spin resonance (ESR). This is a unique example of a ferromagnetic resonance in a heavy-fermion metal seen by both ESR and INS consistently over a broad range of magnetic fields.

  12. Cytochrome b 6 f function and localization, phosphorylation state of thylakoid membrane proteins and consequences on cyclic electron flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Louis; Chazaux, Marie; Peltier, Gilles; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Both the structure and the protein composition of thylakoid membranes have an impact on light harvesting and electron transfer in the photosynthetic chain. Thylakoid membranes form stacks and lamellae where photosystem II and photosystem I localize, respectively. Light-harvesting complexes II can be associated to either PSII or PSI depending on the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, and their distribution is governed by state transitions. Upon state transitions, the thylakoid ultrastructure and lateral distribution of proteins along the membrane are subject to significant rearrangements. In addition, quinone diffusion is limited to membrane microdomains and the cytochrome b 6 f complex localizes either to PSII-containing grana stacks or PSI-containing stroma lamellae. Here, we discuss possible similarities or differences between green algae and C3 plants on the functional consequences of such heterogeneities in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and propose a model in which quinones, accepting electrons either from PSII (linear flow) or NDH/PGR pathways (cyclic flow), represent a crucial control point. Our aim is to give an integrated description of these processes and discuss their potential roles in the balance between linear and cyclic electron flows. PMID:27534565

  13. Cellular basis of the immunohematologic defects observed in short-term semiallogeneic B6C3F1→C3H chimeras: evidence for host-versus-graft reaction initiated by radioresistant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethally irradiated C3Hf mice reconstituted with a relatively low dose (2 x 106) of B6C3F1 bone marrow cells (B6C3F1→C3Hf chimeras) frequently manifest immunohematologic deficiencies during the first month following injection of bone marrow cells. They show slow recovery of antibody-forming potential to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as compared to that observed in syngeneic (C3Hf→C3Hf or B6C3F1→B6C3F1) chimeras. They also show a deficiency of B-cell activity as assessed by antibody response to SRBC following further reconstitution with B6C3F1-derived thymus cells 1 week after injection of bone marrow cells. A significant fraction of B6C3F1→C3Hf chimeras was shown to manifest a sudden loss of cellularity of spleens during the second week following injection of bone marrow cells even though cellularity was restored to the normal level within 1 week. The splenic mononuclear cells recovered from such chimeras almost invariably showed strong cytotoxicity against target cells expressing donor-type specific H-2 antigens (H-2/sup b/) when assesed by 51Cr-release assay in vitro. The effector cells responsible for the observed anti-donor specific cytotoxicity were shown to be residual host-derived T cells. These results indicate strongly that residual host T cells could develop anti-donor specific cytotoxicity even after exposure to a supralethal dose (1050 R) of radiation and that the immunohematologic disturbances observed in shortterm F1 to parent bone marrow chimeras (B6C3F1→C3Hf) were due to host-versus-graft reaction (HVGR) initiated by residual host T cells. The implication of these findings on the radiobiological nature of the residual T cells and the persistence of potentially anti-donor reactive T-cell clones in long-surviving allogeneic bone marrow chimeras was discussed

  14. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L Keene

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  15. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. ...

  16. Comparing the Effectiveness of Vitamin B6 and Ginger in Treatment of Pregnancy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Seid Javadi, Ezzatalsadat; Salehi, Fatemeh; Mashrabi, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Comparing the effectiveness of vitamin B6 (40 mg twice daily) and ginger (250 mg four times daily) in treatment of pregnancy nausea. Methods. In a clinical trial in health centers of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences from November 2010 to February 2011 on pregnant mothers, the effects of vitamin B6 (40 mg twice daily) and ginger (250 mg four times daily) were evaluated in treatment of pregnancy nausea. Results. In both groups, treatments with vitamin B6 or ginger led to signifi...

  17. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions.

  18. Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission on the topological Kondo insulator candidate: SmB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Ding, Hong; Shi, Ming

    2016-09-14

    Topological Kondo insulators are a new class of topological insulators in which metallic surface states protected by topological invariants reside in the bulk band gap at low temperatures. Unlike other 3D topological insulators, a truly insulating bulk state, which is critical for potential applications in next-generation electronic devices, is guaranteed by many-body effects in the topological Kondo insulator. Furthermore, the system has strong electron correlations that can serve as a testbed for interacting topological theories. This topical review focuses on recent advances in the study of SmB6, the most promising candidate for a topological Kondo insulator, from the perspective of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with highlights of some important transport results. PMID:27391865

  19. Surface Analysis of LaB6 Single Crystal Thermionic Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Hosoki, Shigeyuki; Usami, Katuhisa

    1980-07-01

    Surface analysis of heated LaB6 thermionic emitter is made by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Changes in surface state with changing emitter temperature and ambient oxygen pressure are investigated. The emitter temperature is varied from room temperature to 1700°C, and the oxygen pressure from 1× 10-5 Pa to 7× 10-3 Pa. With the increase of temperature the emitter surface passes through four states depending on oxygen pressure, before it reaches a clean state. Among them a state is particularly noteworthy that the emitter surface is covered with a layer of lanthanum oxide just before assuming the clean surface state. A surface state diagram is shown. The optimum conditions of emitter temperature and oxygen gas pressure to exhibit high emission properties are described.

  20. Effect of high pressure on microstructure of crystallizing amorphous Nd9Fe85B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; LI Hui; XIE Yanwu; ZHANG Xiangyi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of high pressure on the microstructure of annealed amorphous NdgFegsB6 alloy was studied. It was found that applica- tion of high pressure made the microstructure of the crystallized alloy much more homogeneous. The average grain size of the Nd2Fe14B phase decreased with the increase of pressure, whereas, the size of the α-Fe first increased when a pressure of 1 Gpa was applied and then decreased with further increase of pressure. Pressure-induced (410) texture of the Nd2Fe14B phase was also observed. The present study sug-gested an effective route for controlling the microstructure in a nanoscale solid.

  1. Effect of pressure and magnetic field on the electrical resistivity of TbB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity of a single crystal of TbB6 was studied under hydrostatic pressures up to 2.1 GPa and magnetic fields up to 9 T. The Neel temperature, rN, decreases linearly with increasing pressure: dlnTN/dP = 3.14x10-2 GPa-1 at zero external field. This pressure dependence of TN weakens as external fields increase. At ambient pressure, the magnetoresistance at 4.2 K is positive up to 4.8 T and becomes negative above 4.8 T. The positive magnetoresistance observed at ambient pressure is suppressed by applying pressure, which enhances the negative magnetoresistance. These results are interpreted in terms of the reduction of the scattering of conduction electrons, due to disordered magnetic moment being suppressed by derealization of 4f electrons at high pressure, and the magnetic field variation of the large transition probability between the ground state and the excited levels.

  2. Transmembrane pH gradients in vivo: measurements using fluorinated vitamin B6 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R P

    1999-06-01

    It is well recognized that pH plays a significant regulatory role in most cellular processes. Increasingly, there is interest in transmembrane pH gradients, particularly with respect to tumor growth and response to therapy. NMR offers a non-invasive approach to monitoring cellular pH and detecting changes in response to interventions. This review will consider the strengths of various approaches to measuring pH with particular focus on the reporter molecules designed to interrogate the cellular milieu. In particular, fluorinated vitamin B6 derivatives (6-fluoropyridoxol and 6-fluoropyridoxamine) will be described, which for the first time provide a practical non-destructive method to measure simultaneously intra- and extracellular pH, i.e., the transmembrane pH gradient in animals in vivo based on a single reporter molecule.

  3. Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission on the topological Kondo insulator candidate: SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Ding, Hong; Shi, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Topological Kondo insulators are a new class of topological insulators in which metallic surface states protected by topological invariants reside in the bulk band gap at low temperatures. Unlike other 3D topological insulators, a truly insulating bulk state, which is critical for potential applications in next-generation electronic devices, is guaranteed by many-body effects in the topological Kondo insulator. Furthermore, the system has strong electron correlations that can serve as a testbed for interacting topological theories. This topical review focuses on recent advances in the study of SmB6, the most promising candidate for a topological Kondo insulator, from the perspective of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with highlights of some important transport results.

  4. 维生素B6对断奶仔猪生长的研究进展%Research Advance of Vitamin B6 on Weanling Piglets Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋克军

    2002-01-01

    @@ 维生素B6是断奶仔猪饲料的常规添加剂,营养学家所建议的添加量因所用的饲料原料不同而有所不同.现有研究表明,NRC(1998)所规定的维生素B6需求标准可能太低.

  5. Determination of vitamine B6 in compound isoniazid tablets using UV spectrophotometry%紫外分光光度法测定复方异烟肼片中维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵密; 李晶; 许桂艳; 孙守平

    1999-01-01

    采用丙酮为溶媒溶出共存的异烟肼,在0.1mol/L HCl中于291nm波长处测定维生素B6的含量.维生素B6在6-18μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好.平均回收率为100.1%,RSD为0.40%.

  6. Bacteria Endotoxin Test of Vitamin B6 for Injection%注射用维生素B6细菌内毒素检查法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘骅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish the bacterial endotoxin test of vitamin B6 for injection. METHODS The experiment was carried out according to the appendix of ChP 2010 Vol Ⅱ. tachypleus amabocyte lysate from two manufacturers were used to test the bacterial endotoxin. RESULTS The endotoxin limit of vitamin B6 for injection was 0.30 EU·mg‐1. The reactions were not disturbed in 0.208 mg·mL‐1 for vitamin B6, which was the maximum nondisrurbing concentration. It was effective that endotoxin was tested by amebocyte lysate agent with the sensitivity of 0.06 EU·mL ‐1 or much higher. CONCLUSION ft is feasible to control quality of vitamin B6 for injection by bacterial endotoxin test.%目的 建立注射用维生素B6的细菌内毒素检查方法.方法 根据中国药典2010年版二部附录细菌内毒素检查法,采用2个不同厂家的鲎试剂对注射用维生素B6进行研究.结果 注射用维生素B6细菌内毒素检查限值为0.30 EU·mg-1,其最大不干扰浓度为0.208 mg·mL-1,用灵敏度为0.06 EU·mL-1或更高灵敏度的鲎试剂可进行检验.结论 细菌内毒素检查法可用于注射用维生素B6中内毒素的检查.

  7. Studies on the Non-isothermal Decomposition Kinetics of Vitamin B6%维生素B6的热分解过程和非等温热分解动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋华; 张健; 邹旺; 唐万军

    2001-01-01

    AIM The purpose is to study the non-isothermal decomposition process and mechanics of vitamin B6. METHOD The TG technique was used to observe between 30~700℃. RESULTS The decomposition of vitamin B6 was performed by two stages. Vitamin B6 loses HCl at the first stage together with losing H2O. The kinetic equation obtained was dα/dt=A*e-E/RT*1/2(1-α)3; activation energy obtained was 325.27 kJ/mol; and preexponential factor A obtained was 7.22×1032/s as well. CONCLUSION Vitamin B6 is rather thermal stable, and it loses HCl together with losing H2O at temperature range of 173℃~271℃.%目的:研究维生素B6的热分解过程及机理。方法:应用热重法研究维生素B6在30~700℃的热分解。结果:维生素B6的热分解分二步。第一步在脱HCl的同时伴随有分子间脱H2O,其动力学方程为:dα/dt=A*e-E/RT*1/2(1-α)3, 表观活化能E=325.27 kJ/mol, 指前因子A=7.22×1032/s。结论:维生素B6的热稳定性较好,在173℃~271℃脱去HCl的同时伴随二分子间脱水形成醚。

  8. 产维生素B6乳酸菌的筛选及其鉴定%Screening and identification of Lactobacillus Strains for Vitamin B6 production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开屏; 田建军; 刘静

    2013-01-01

    10 Lactobacillus strains isolated from infant faeces in Huhhot were assayed for Production of Vitamin B6 by Microbiological methods in the paper.Results showed that 4 strains,B25、B72、B76 and N59-1 had higher vitamin B6 Production activity.The N59-1 had highest capability of vitamin B6 Production than others,the yield was 32.62 mg/100 mL.N59-1 was further identified to Lactobadllus plantarum as potential probiotics.%以源自内蒙古呼和浩特市婴儿粪便选出的10株乳酸杆菌为试验材料,通过微生物分析方法,筛选乳酸菌合成维生素B6能力较强的菌株并对其进行初步鉴定.结果表明,有4株菌株B25、B72、B76和N59-1合成维生素B6的能力较高,其中菌株N59-1合成维生素B6的量可高达32.62 g/100 L,菌株N59-1经鉴定为植物乳杆菌.

  9. 血府逐瘀汤加维生素B6治疗痛经120例%Xue Fu Zhu Yu decoction combine with vitamin B6 in the treatment of 120 cases of dysmenorrheal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨血府逐瘀汤加维生素B6治疗痛经的效果。方法:收治120例痛经患者,采用血府逐瘀汤加维生素B6治疗,观察疗效。结果:治疗3个疗程后,84例患者(70%)治愈,28例(23.3%)患者有效,8例(6.7%)患者无效,总有效率93.3%。结论:血府逐瘀汤加维生素B6治疗痛经效果显著。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of Xue Fu Zhu Yu decoction combine with vitamin B6 in the treatment of dysmenorrheal.Methods:120 patients with dysmenorrhea were selected,they were treated by Xue Fu Zhu Yu decoction combine with vitamin B6.We observed the treatment efficacy.Results:After 3 courses of treatment,84 patients were cured(70%),28 patients were effective(23.3%),8 cases were ineffective(6.7%),the total efficiency rate was 93.3%.Conclusion:The clinical effect of Xue Fu Zhu Yu decoction combine with vitamin B6 in the treatment of dysmenorrheal is significant.

  10. 应用维生素B6拮抗米诺环素副作用的研究%Study in Antagonism of Vitamin B6 to Side- Effects of Minocycline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正刚; 白义杰

    2003-01-01

    目的评价维生素B6在拮抗米诺环素副作用中的作用.方法采用随机、双盲法,比较服米诺环素时并用维生素B6与并用空白淀粉片两者间副作用的差异,同时观察维生素B6对米诺环素的疗效有无影响.结果服米诺环素时并用维生素B6可显著降低前者副作用的发生率与严重程度;维生素B6对米诺环素的疗效无显著性影响.结论维生素B6在拮抗米诺环素的副作用中作用显著.

  11. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  12. Treatment of mid-late stage NSCLC using sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen in clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6/GP regimen had fair effectiveness and synergistically improved the clinical outcomes. It lowered the toxic/adverse effects and its application is worth further investigation and promotion.

  13. First-principles prediction of solar radiation shielding performance for transparent windows of GdB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lihua; Su, Yuchang; Ran, Jingyu; Liu, Yike; Qiu, Wei; Wu, Jianming; Lu, Fanghai; Shao, Fang; Tang, Dongsheng; Peng, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 are studied using the first-principles calculations. Calculated values for magnetic and optical properties and lattice constant are found to be consistent with previously reported experimental results. The calculated results show that GdB6 is a perfect near-infrared absorption/reflectance material that could serve as a solar radiation shielding material for windows with high visible light transmittance, similar to LaB6, which is assigned to its plasma oscillation and a collective oscillation (volume plasmon) of carrier electrons. It was found that the magnetic 4f electrons of Gd are not relevant to the important optical properties of GdB6. These theoretical studies serve as a reference for future studies.

  14. Density-functional theory study of the effect of pressure on the elastic properties of CaB6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Han

    2013-01-01

    Under high pressure,the long believed single-phase material CaB6 was latterly discovered to have a new phase tI56.Based on the density-functional theory,the pressure effects on the structural and elastic properties of CaB6 are obtained.The calculated bulk,shear,and Young's moduli of the recently synthesized high pressure phase tI56-CaB6 are larger than those of the low pressure phase.Moreover,the high pressure phase of CaB6 has ductile behaviors,and its ductility increases with the increase of pressure.On the contrary,the calculated results indicate that the low pressure phase of CaB6 is brittle.The calculated Debye temperature indicates that the thermal conductivity of CaB6 is not very good.Furthermore,based on the Christoffel equation,the slowness surface of the acoustic waves is obtained.

  15. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [3H]vitamin B6 or a gelled test meal containing [3H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [14C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [3H]B6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [3H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (1210C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [3H]B6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[3H]B6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [14C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  16. Characterization of the myelotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the B6C3F1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, John A; Fagg, Rajni; Sones, William R; Williams, Thomas C; Andrews, C Michael

    2006-04-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is haemotoxic in man, inducing two types of toxicity. First, a dose-related, reversible anaemia with reticulocytopenia, sometimes seen in conjunction with leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; this form of toxicity develops during drug treatment. The second haemotoxicity is aplastic anaemia (AA) which is evident in the blood as severe pancytopenia. AA development is not dose-related and occurs weeks or months after treatment. We wish, in the longer term, to investigate CAP-induced AA in the busulphan-pretreated mouse. However, as a prelude to that study, we wanted to characterize in detail the reversible haemotoxicity of CAP succinate (CAPS), administered at high dose levels in the mouse, and follow the recovery of the bone marrow in the post-dosing period. Female B6C3F1 mice were gavaged with CAPS at 0, 2500 and 3500 mg/kg, daily, for 5 days and sampled (n = 5) at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days post-dosing. Blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were analysed and clonogenic assays carried out. At day 1 post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, decreases were seen in erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursors; marrow erythroid cells were reduced. Reductions were also evident in splenic nucleated cell counts, blood high fluorescence ratio (HFR) reticulocyte counts and total reticulocyte counts; burst-forming units-erythroid and colony-forming units-erythroid showed decreases. At day 7 post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), there was regeneration of erythrocyte production, with marked splenic erythropoietic activity, and raised blood HFR reticulocytes. At day 7, at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters remained depressed. At 14 days post-dosing (2500 mg/kg CAPS), many erythrocyte parameters had returned to normal; at 3500 mg/kg CAPS, there was erythroid regeneration. By 21 days post-dosing, at both CAPS dose levels, most erythrocytic parameters were equivalent to control values. For leucocyte parameters, there was some depression at day 1 post-dosing (at

  17. Boronyl as a terminal ligand in boron oxide clusters: hexagonal ring C(2v) B6O4 and ethylene-like D(2h) B6O4(-/2-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Ying-Jin; Bai, Hui; Gao, Ting-Ting; Li, Hai-Ru; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-08-14

    Considerable recent research effort has been devoted to the development of boronyl (BO) chemistry. Here we predict three perfectly planar boron boronyl clusters: C2v B6O4 (1, (1)A1), D2h B6O4(−) (2, (2)B3u), and D2h B6O4(2−) (3, (1)Ag). These are established as the global-minimum structures on the basis of the coalescence kick and basin hopping structural searches and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level, with complementary CCSD/6-311+G* and single-point CCSD(T)/6-311+G*//B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations for 2. The C2v B6O4 neutral cluster features a hexagonal B4O2 ring with two terminal BO groups. The D2h B6O4(−/2−) clusters have ethylene-like structures and are readily formulated as B2(BO)4(−/2−), in which a B2 core with double bond character is bonded to four terminal BO groups. Chemical bonding analyses show that B6O4 (1) possesses an aromatic π bonding system with three delocalized, six-centered π bonds over the hexagonal ring, rendering it an inorganic analogue of benzene, whereas the B6O4(−/2−) (2 and 3) species closely resemble ethylene in terms of structures and bonding. This work provides new examples for the analogy between boron oxides and hydrocarbons. PMID:26166194

  18. Comparison of curative effects of different administration routes of vitamin B6 for hyperemesis gravidarum%维生素B6不同用药途径对妊娠剧吐疗效的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丽丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较维生素B6不同用药途径对妊娠剧吐的治疗效果.方法:将60例妊娠剧吐患者随机分为维生素B6穴位注射组和静脉给药组各30例,按相应的给药途径给药,比较不同用药途径的治疗效果.结果:穴位注射组的治疗总有效率明显大于静脉给药组,治疗时间明显小于静脉给药组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:与静脉点滴给药途径比较,穴位注射维生素B6治疗妊娠剧吐效果更好,临床应用价值更高.%Objective:To compare the curative effects of different administration routes of vitamin B6 for hyperemesis gravidarum.Methods:Sixty patients with hyperemesis gravidarum were randomly divided into acupoint injection group and intravenous administration group,30 patients in each group,and then the patients were treated according to corresponding route,the curative effects of different administration routes of vitamin B6 were compared.Results:The total effective rate in acupoint injection group was statistically significantly higher than that in intravenous administration group (P < 0.05),and the curative time in acupoint injection group was statistically significantly shorter than that in intravenous administration group (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Compared with intravenous administration of vitamin B6,the curative effect of acupoint injection of vitamin B6 is better,and the clinical application value is higher.

  19. 多元校正紫外光度法同时测定甲硝唑与维生素B6%Simultaneous Ultra Violet Spectrophotometric Determination of Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 by Multivariate Calibration Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐正保; 程志民; 朱蔓菁

    2009-01-01

    Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 have overlapping spectra in UV range, and it is difficult to determine them individually. The chemometric multivariate calibration methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were applied to the simultaneous determination of metronidazole and Vitamin B6 in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid by resolving the overlapping spectra. The linear ranges were 1.0 ~ 28.0 mg/L and 1.0 ~ 28.0 mg/L for metronidazole and vitamin B6,respectively. The limits of detection were 0.568 mg/L and 0.364 mg/L for metronidazole and vitamin B6, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of samples with satisfied results.%本文报道多元校正紫外光度法同时测定甲硝唑和维生素B6.首先在0.1 mol/L HCl溶液中对甲硝唑和维生素B6两组分混合溶液进行分光光度法测定,然后将所得的重叠光谱数据经计算机采集后,分别用化学计量学方法中的偏最小二乘法(PLS)和主成分回归法(PCR)进行处理,并用于药物样品的测定,获得了较好的定量分析结果.该法甲硝唑和维生素B6的线性范围分别为1.0~28.0 mg/L和1.0~28.0 mg/L,检出限分别为0.568 mg/L和0.364 mg/L.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency dwarfism isolated GH deficiency isolated HGH deficiency isolated human growth hormone deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency disorder ...

  1. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants. PMID:26138548

  2. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants.

  3. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N;

    2006-01-01

    -negative diagnoses of VLCADD in asymptomatic newborn babies. In view of the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in this disorder, the information derived from mutational analysis can be helpful in designing the appropriate follow-up and therapeutic regime for these patients.......We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...... samples taken at age 48-72 h were diagnostic whereas repeat samples at an older age were normal in 4/6 babies. Urine analysis was normal in 5/5. We conclude that the timing of blood sampling for newborn screening is important and that it is important to perform mutation analysis to avoid false...

  4. Synthesis of Al-SrB6 composite via powder metallurgy processing%粉末冶金法制备Al-SrB6复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucel BIROL

    2015-01-01

    The potential of powder metallurgy processing for the manufacture of Al−SrB6 composites was explored. Al4Sr particles fractured extensively during the ball milling of Al−15Sr/Al−4B powder mixtures. There was no interaction between the Al4Sr and AlB2 compounds across the section of the aluminium grains in the as-milled state. SrB6 formed, when the ball milled powder blends were subsequently annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. Ball milling for 1 h was sufficient for SrB6 to become the major constituent in powder blends annealed at 700 °C while it took 2 h of ball milling for powder blends annealed at 600 °C. Higher annealing temperatures and longer ball milling time encouraged the formation of the SrB6 compound while the latter made a great impact on the microstructural features of the Al−SrB6 composite. The SrB6 compound particles were much smaller and more uniformly distributed across the aluminium matrix grains in powder grains ball milled for 2 h before the annealing treatments at 600 °C and 700 °C.%采用粉末冶金法制备Al−SrB6复合材料。对Al−15Sr/Al−4B混合粉末进行球磨,在球磨过程中Al4Sr颗粒充分破碎。球磨态铝合金晶粒截面表明Al4Sr与AlB2之间不发生反应。混合球磨粉末经高温退火后形成SrB6。若在700°C进行退火,混合粉末需球磨1 h可使SrB6成为主要相,而若在600°C进行退火,混合粉末则需球磨2 h才能使SrB6成为主要相。提高退火温度和延长球磨时间都可以促进SrB6相的形成,但后者对Al−SrB6复合材料的微观组织影响更大。经600°C和700°C退火处理之前,SrB6颗粒更细小,在铝基体中分布也更均匀。

  5. Microbiological Method for Assay of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin Drinks%微生物法测定维生素饮料中的维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚波; 周敏; 杨彤

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To establish a microbiological method for assay of vitamin B6 in vitamin drinks.[Method] The Saccharomyces Carlsbrgensis (ATCC 9080) has great sensitivity for vitamin B6 in materials.According to this specificity,it can be assay vitamin B6 in samples.Prepare standard concentrate-response curve by plotting absorbance reading for each level of standard solution.Determine the amount of vitamin B6 activity for each level of assay solution by interpolating from standard curve.[Result] The precision were 1.5%,1.1% and 1.5%.The RSD was 0.788 7%.The recoveries were all above 96.5%.[Conclusion] Microbiological method can be used to determination of vitamin B12 in vitamin drinks and this method has high sensitivity.The results are precise.%[目的]建立维生素饮料中维生素B6的微生物检测法.[方法]利用卡尔斯伯酵母菌(ATCC 9080)对维生素B6极高的灵敏性和特异性,定量测定出试样中维生素B6含量.即以不同浓度标准溶液的吸光度相对于各浓度水平标准物质的浓度绘制标准曲线,再根据标准曲线计算出试样中维生素B6的含量.[结果]试验方法精密度分别为1.5%、1.1%及1.5%,相对标准偏差为0.788 7%,回收率在96.5%以上.[结论]微生物法可以作为维生素饮料中维生素B6的检测方法,且灵敏度高、测定结果准确.

  6. 注射用维生素B6与3种常用输液的配伍稳定性考察%Compatible Stability of Vitamin B6 for Injection in 3 Kinds of Common Infusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海燕; 刘放

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the compatible stability of Vitamin B6 for injection in 5% Glucose injection, 0.9% Sodium chloride injection and Glucose and sodium chloride injection and provide scientific basis for rational use of drugs in the clinic.METHODS: The content of vitamin B6 and related substances in 3 mixtures were determined by UV spectrophotometry within 6 h after Vitamin B6 for injection was mixed with 3 kinds of infusions at room temperature. Their appearance, pH values and HPLC at 6 h were determined. RESULTS: The results showed that there were no significant changes after mixing in the appearance, pH values, content and related substances for 6 hours at room temperature. CONCLUSION:Vitamin B6 for injection can be combined with 5% Glucose injection, 0.9% Sodium chloride injection and Glucose and sodium chloride injection.%目的:考察注射用维生素B6与5%葡萄糖注射液、0.9%氯化钠注射液和葡萄糖氯化钠注射液的配伍稳定性,为临床合理用药提供科学依据.方法:注射用维生素B6与3种输液配伍后,在室温6 h内采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素B6与有关物质的含量,同时考察外观、pH值和6 h时的高效液相色谱图.结果:在室温条件下,注射用维生素B6与上述3种输液配伍6h内,外观、pH值、含量和有关物质均无明显变化.结论:注射用维生素B6可与5%葡萄糖注射液、0.9%氯化钠注射液和葡萄糖氯化钠注射液配伍使用.

  7. Hydrogen disproportionation phase diagram and magnetic properties for Nd15Fe79B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateusz Szymaski; Bartosz Michalski; Elbieta Jezierska; Marcin Leonowicz; Zbigniew Miazga

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-temperature-hydrogen pressure phase diagram was constructed for a Nd15Fe79B6 alloy in order to estimate appropriate conditions for hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination reaction (the HDDR). Optimised recom-bination time (the highest coercivity) was found to be 10 min. for 5 g samples processed at 740 ºC. Several HDDR processes were carried out at 30 kPa of hydrogen pressure at various temperatures. No correlation between magnetic propertiec and a direction of measurement was observed for the samples processed at 740 ºC. Remanence anisotropy was induced along an alignment direction when the temperature of the HDDR process was increased up to 800 ºC and 850 ºC for<100μm and 100–160μm particles, respec-tively. Simultaneously, a small drop in coercivity was observed in the direction of alignment for <100 μm particles, but no for 100–160μm particles. Furthermore, probably an ordered phase was found by TEM microstructure analysis in the bulk sample dis-proportionated at 850 ºC under 150 kPa of hydrogen. Grains with antiphase domains were observed and corresponding electron dif-fraction patterns were resolved, likely indicating superlattice structures.

  8. Benzene-induced hematotoxicity and bone marrow compensation in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, G M; Robinson, S N; Gaido, K W; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Hahn, W P; Shah, R S

    1997-04-01

    Long-term inhalation exposure of benzene has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and an increased incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. The progression of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and the features of the toxicity that may play a major role in the leukemogenesis are not known. We report the hematological consequences of benzene inhalation in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1, 5, 10, 100, and 200 ppm benzene for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks and a recovery group. There were no significant effects on hematopoietic parameters from exposure to 10 ppm benzene or less. Exposure of mice to 100 and 200 ppm benzene reduced the number of total bone marrow cells, progenitor cells, differentiating hematopoietic cells, and most blood parameters. Replication of primitive progenitor cells in the bone marrow was increased during the exposure period as a compensation for the cytotoxicity induced by 100 and 200 ppm benzene. In mice exposed to 200 ppm benzene, the primitive progenitor cells maintained an increased percentage of cells in S-phase through 25 days of recovery compared with controls. The increased replication of primitive progenitor cells in concert with the reported genotoxicity induced by benzene provides the components necessary for producing an increased incidence of lymphoma in mice. Furthermore, we propose this mode of action as a biologically plausible mechanism for benzene-induced leukemia in humans exposed to high concentrations of benzene.

  9. High-current-density gun with a LaB6 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, K.; Hiramatsu, S.

    1996-08-01

    To develop a high-current electron gun for an induction linac, a prototype of a Pierce-type electron gun using planar 12-mm-diam lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) is studied as a thermionic emitter at high current densities. The cathode is heated up to temperatures of 1750 °C by electron bombardment and thermal radiation from a tungsten heater. The heater that has the highest temperature in the gun is thermally isolated from the outer vacuum chamber with heat shields. The bombardment voltage of ˜1 kV is typically applied to a gap between the cathode and the heater. The gun has been operated up to voltages of 55 kV, obtaining a maximum current density of 20 A/cm2 with a pulse width of 250 ns at a cathode temperature of 1600 °C. High-voltage pulsing results show that the gun, with applied voltages of over 40 kV, is operated in space-charge-limited region at temperatures of over 1600 °C; also it is operated in a temperature-limited region at temperatures of less than 1500 °C. An effective work function of 2.68 eV is obtained. The cathode, when heated up to 1600 °C, emits over 7 A of electrons with a ˜20% reduction after 850 h of continuous operation. These measurements were made between vacuum pressures of 10-6 and 10-7 Torr.

  10. Synthesis, thermionic emission and magnetic properties of (NdxGd1-x)B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Li-Hong; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Zhou Shen-Lin; Tegus

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline rare-earth hexaborides (NdxGd1-x)B6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1) were prepared by the reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) method using mixed powder of GdH2, NdH2 and B. The effects of Nd doping on the crystal structure, the grain orientation, the thermionic emission and the magnetic properties of the hexaboride were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is found that all the samples sintered by the SPS method exhibit high densities (> 95%) and high values of Vickers hardness (2319 kg/mm2). The values are much higher than those obtained in the traditional method. With the increase of Nd content, the thermionic emission current density increases from 11 to 16.30 A/cm2 and the magnetic phase transition temperature increases from 5.85 to 7.95 K. Thus, the SPS technique is a suitable method to synthesize the dense rare-earth hexaborides with excellent properties.

  11. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  12. Thermal evolution of magnetic-excitation spectrum of PrB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazukov, V. N.; Alekseev, P. A.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Philippov, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic dynamic response of a PrB6 single crystal has been studied using inelastic neutron scattering in a temperature range of 10-120 K, which is above the temperatures of the phase transitions to the magnetic-ordered state. The study is aimed at revealing peculiarities of the state with a low magnetic moment in a temperature range of 7 K < T ≤ 20 K, which was identified in a number of magnetometric experiments. In addition to a quasielastic signal, a weak-dispersion excitation with an energy of ~1 meV has been detected, which exists at temperatures below 24 K. The results have been analyzed from the viewpoint of the formation of a spatially nonuniform state based on domains with short-range magnetic correlations at temperatures of 10-20 K. Judging by the dispersion of excitations, the character of the correlation is similar to that observed in a state with long-range magnetic order which arises at lower temperatures.

  13. Transport properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the irradiation of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Bao; Yang, Hui-Min

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study transport properties of the X point in the Brillouin zone of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the application of a circularly polarized light. The transport properties at high-frequency regime and low-frequency regime as a function of the ratio (κ) of the Dresselhaus-like and Rashba-like spin-orbit parameter are studied based on the Floquet theory and Boltzmann equation respectively. The sign of Hall conductivity at high-frequency regime can be reversed by the ratio κ and the amplitude of the light. The amplitude of the current can be enhanced by the ratio κ. Our findings provide a way to control the transport properties of the Dirac materials at low-frequency regime. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504095 and 11447145), the Foundation of Heze University (Grant Nos. XY14B002 and XYPY01), and the Project funded by the Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. J15LJ55).

  14. The Effects of Cobalt-60 Gamma Radiation on Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the behaviour of pyridoxine and folic acid, including structural changes, after 60Co gamma irradiation. The irradiation of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and folic acid in aqueous solutions leads to their partial or total destruction, depending on the dose. The irradiation of pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state mainly results in the elimination of hydrogen atoms (free radicals). After dissolving the irradiated samples in acid solutions it was observed that the irradiated molecule was renewed through replacement of the eliminated hydrogen atoms, which depend on the pH-value of the solution. This gives the possibility of sterilizing both pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state by irradiation at 2 Mrad. Most of the radiolysis products of pyridoxine and folic acid irradiated in solution and in the solid state have been separated and identified by means of chromatography (paper and thin layer) and cellulose column electrophoresis. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the concentration and nature of the free radicals after irradiation of pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state. (author)

  15. An analysis of inappropriate compatibility of potassium dehydrograpolide succinate and vitamin B6%穿琥宁与维生素B6不恰当配伍状态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹立岩; 王晓琳; 吴连芬; 武广云

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨穿琥宁与维生素B6不恰当配伍情况.方法:用10%葡萄糖分别稀释穿琥宁、维生素B6、阿奇霉素至不同稀释浓度,将稀释后溶液两两混合,用肉眼观察各管结果.结果:0.05%~5%稀释的阿奇霉素与0.05%~5%不同稀释的注射用穿琥宁溶液、1:5~1:80不同稀释的维生素B6溶液混合管未产生浑浊.而0.05%~5%稀释的注射用穿琥宁与1:5~1:80不同稀释的维生素B6溶液混合管均产生乳白色浑浊.结论:穿琥宁与维生素B6存在配伍禁忌.

  16. 运用微生物法测定保健食品中的维生素B6%The measurement of vitamin B6 in health foods by microbiological method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王为黎; 马景宏; 张旭; 张志宏

    2006-01-01

    介绍运用微生物法测定保健食品中维生素B6的含量.GB/T5009.154-2003将微生物法规定为测定食品中维生素B6的国家标准方法[1].其原理为卡尔斯伯酵母菌需在有维生素B6存在的条件下才能生长,在一定条件下维生素B6的量与其生长量成正比关系.用分光光度仪在550 nm波长下测定该菌的生长,与标准曲线相比较,从而得出该样品中维生素B6的含量.通过对国标方法作较详细的注解,并对有些地方作适当的修改,以期对需要开展此项工作的实验室及其人员会有较大的帮助.

  17. 玻碳电极-循环伏安法研究维生素B6与DNA的相互作用%Cyclic Voltammetric Studies on the Interaction between DNA and Vitamin-B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守清; 余晨燕

    2005-01-01

    利用探针分子通过电化学循环伏安法研究了鱼精脱氧核糖核酸与维生素B6的相互作用.研究表明,在含5×10-5 mol/L Co(phen)33+ pH7.1的Tris缓冲溶液中,当维生素B6插入到DNA的双螺旋结构中时,探针分子的峰电流就会下降;当其浓度达到10.0 mg/mL时,峰电流的降低达到最大值并趋于饱和.这表明在DNA与维生素B6之间以及DNA与探针分子之间达到了一个竞争平衡.进一步的研究表明脱氧核糖核酸对维生素B6的吸附作用符合Langmuir规律,其作用常数为115.3(mol/L)-1.紫外可见光谱法研究更进一步证实了维生素B6与DNA的相互作用.

  18. 应用微生物法试剂盒检测奶粉中维生素B6的含量%The measurement of vitamin B6 in milk powder by microbiological method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑悦康; 叶志英; 刘绮明

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立应用微生物法试剂盒检测奶粉中维生素B6含量的分析方法.方法 采用维生素B6微生物检测试剂盒定量检测奶粉中添加维生素B6的含量.结果 维生素B6的线性范围为0.002~0.012 mg/100 g(ml),检出限为0.002 mg/100 g(ml),其标准曲线的相关系数为0.9987,相对标准偏差均<10%,其回收率达到90.0%~108%.结论 微生物法试剂盒具有灵敏度高,检出限低,线性范围宽,操作方法简便、快捷,结果准确可靠等优点,可用于奶粉中维生素B6的检测工作.

  19. Root responses of Medicago truncatula plants grown in two different iron deficiency conditions: changes in root protein profile and riboflavin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron deficiency is a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in one-third of the world's agricultural areas, especially those with high soil CaCO3. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomic approach was combined with a study on the riboflavin synthesis pathway, ...

  20. Repair progynova consociation vitamin B6 at application that return to milk under medical treatment%补佳乐联合维生素B6在回奶治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪蓉

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨补佳乐联合维生素B6在回奶治疗中的疗效.方法:选取哺乳期断乳的妇女,随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组口服补佳乐,观察组口服补佳乐和维生素B6.观察停止哺乳后5 d泌乳、乳胀情况及恶心、呕吐等副反应.结果:观察组较对照组回奶作用明显提高,且无副反应.结论:补佳乐与维生素B6合用提高了治疗效果,消除了不良反应,患者依从性好,值得推广.

  1. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior. PMID

  2. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior.

  3. 维生素B6反应性婴儿痉挛临床特征及预后分析%Clinical characteristics and prognosis analysis of vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛姣; 杨志仙; 吴晔; 熊晖; 张月华; 刘晓燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical characteristics,treatment and prognosis in a cohort of children with vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms.Method Ten patients were diagnosed as vitamin B6 responsive infantile spasms in Peking University First Hospital between January 2012 and May 2015.The clinical manifestations,diagnosis and treatment process,video-electroencephalogram,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),epilepsy related genes and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed.Result Of the 10 patients,5 were male,and 5 were female.Eight of them were normal at birth,and the other 2 patients had intracranial hemorrhage or anoxia.The age of epilepsy onset was from 3.5 to 8.0 months.All patients presented spasms primarily.Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) showed hypsarrhythmia at seizures onset.MRI showed normal in 8 patients,and subarachnoid hemorrhage or multiple encephalomalacia foci after hemorrhage respectively in the other 2 patients.The results of blood biochemical,cerebrospinal fluid examination and urinary metabolic screening were negative.Epilepsy related genes including ALDH7A1 gene analysis showed wild type in all patients.Two patients were classified as symptomatic and eight might be idiopathic or cryptogenic.The initial dose of vitamin B6 was 10.0 mg/(kg · d).The interval between seizures onset and taking vitamin B6 was 0 to 4.0 months.Seizures disappeared completely within a week after administration of vitamin B6 in 9 patients and in 1.5 months in one patient.Of the 8 patients whose seizures were controlled completely during the follow-up period,7 patients' EEG recovered within 1.5 to 4.0 months and then continued to be normal.The EEG of the rest of a patient returned to normal,but showed abnormal discharges after stopping taking vitamin B6.Two patients' EEG continued abnormal and seizures recurred due to vitamin B6 withdrawal.At the last follow-up,seizures were controlled in all patients.Drug treatment in one case had stopped.Vitamin B6 was used in 9

  4. Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences. PMID:23603926

  5. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita,Kiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA or a hyperventilation attack (HVA are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs. Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6 and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences.

  6. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women, which includes a group of psychological and physical symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of combined use of calcium and vitamin B6 on premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled was carried out on 76 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated to two groups. (38 people in each group. Student in intervention groups received calcium tablet (500mg and vitamin B6 (40 mg and student in intervention groups received only vitamin B6 twice a day for two consecutive months. The symptoms were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI and daily symptom records (DSR questionnaires. Analyses were carried out by test-retest method, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Independent t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS software ver.13. Results: The result showed that although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, but this reduction was more significant in the combined calcium and vitamin B6 group. Conclusion: According to the result, using of combination of calcium and vitamin B6 leads to better controlling of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Therefore it is recommended for women who suffer from these syndromes.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  8. Reconstitution of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 metallo-[beta]-lactamase activity with copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, N.P.; Shaw, R.W. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria become resistant to [beta]-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins through the production of enzymes called [beta]-lactamases. The authors have successfully reconstituted the enzymatic activity of the metallo-[beta]-lactamase of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 purified from an E. coli expression vector system by the addition of Cu(II) to the apoenzyme. This is the first report that copper supports catalytic activity in this enzyme. Maximal activity of the copper-reconstituted enzyme was achieved by a careful addition of a stoichiometric amount of CuSO[sub 4] to 200 [mu]M apoenzyme. Using either benzylpenicillin or cephalosporin C as the substrate, reconstitution of the activity by addition of copper to the apoenzyme resulted in the recovery of approximately 35% of the control activity of the native Zn(II) enzyme. In agreement with previous reports, in the presence of excess Cu(II), the preparation did not possess measurable catalytic activity. Electronic spectra of the copper-reconstituted enzyme displayed adsorption maxima at 394, 698 and 1,022 nm with extinction coefficients of 2,656, 55 and < 3 M[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]1] respectively. Circular dichorism spectra in the ultraviolent region (UVCD) of the copper-reconstituted enzyme were identical with those of the native Zn(II) enzyme. Addition of excess cephalosporin C to the copper-reconstituted enzyme caused a decrease of about 50% of the absorbance of the 394 nm band and the formation of a new feature at 350 nm.

  9. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Mattei, Josiemer; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved.

  10. Fabrication and Properties of SiB6-B4C with Phenolic Resin as a Carbon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Si-B-C ceramic composites were synthesized using SiB6, B4C, and phenolic resin as a carbon source by pressureless sintering in an Ar atmosphere. Then, the Si-B-C ceramic composites were fabricated to determine their potential for applications as high hardness and high temperature composites. The X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered bodies of SiB6-B4C with carbonized phenolic resin can be seen that SiB6 and C changed to B4C and SiC. In this study, it is obtained that carbonized phenolic resin is good addition material as a reaction material comparing to carbon powder at 1683 K for 1 h by pressureless sintering in an Ar atmosphere.

  11. High quality draft genome sequence of the heavy metal resistant bacterium Halomonas zincidurans type strain B6T

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ying-Yi; Li,Zheng-yang; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Chun-sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Halomonas zincidurans strain B6T was isolated from a deep-sea heavy metal rich sediment from the South Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The strain showed significant resistance to heavy metals, especially to zinc. Here we describe the genome sequence and annotation, as well as the features, of the organism. The genome contains 3,325 protein-coding genes (2,848 with predicted functions), 61 tRNA genes and 6 rRNA genes. H. zincidurans strain B6T encodes 31 genes related to heavy metal resistance. And ...

  12. Effects of selenium and vitamin B-6 on growth of chemically- induced transplanted tumors in BALB/c inbred mice

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Stephanie A.

    1989-01-01

    Male weanling inbred, mice were inoculated with fibrosarcoma cells (hindquarter) originally produced by 2-methylcholanthrene. Before inoculation, mice were randomly divided into three groups of 24 and one of 12 (control). After a one week acclimation period, each group was fed a diet containing either suboptimal vitamin B-6, 0.5 mg/kg diet; adequate, 7.0 mg/kg diet; or excess, 100 mg/kg diet. Controls were fed the adequate vitamin. B-6 diet. Twenty-four hours after tumor cell inocula...

  13. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  14. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1, B6, B12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜR, Mahmure Üstün; KOYUNCU, İkbal

    2002-01-01

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1, B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 m gml-1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin B12 at 361.7 nm (r=0.9998). The method was successfully applied for analyzing synthetic mixtures and c...

  15. Vitamin B6 regulates mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yanaka, Noriyuki; KANDA, MAYUMI; TOYA, KEIGO; Suehiro, Haruna; Kato, Norihisa

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that vitamin B6 suppresses tumorigenesis in the colon of mice and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB activation. As these effects resemble the pharmacological properties of thiazolidinedione (TZD), a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand, this study was designed to examine the effect of vitamin B6 on the activation of PPARγ and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), one of...

  16. Vitamin B6 injection of bacteria Analysis of inspection methods within the ADM%维生素B6注射液的细菌内霉素检查方法的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺; 唐晓晏

    2011-01-01

    目的:根据实验建立用于维生素B6类注射液的细菌内霉素检测法.方法:采用两个厂家的6个批号的维生素B6类注射液样品分别与两个厂家的鲎试剂进行干扰实验,观察并确立该样品的细菌内霉素检查方法.结果:维生素B6注射液对细菌内霉素检查方法的干扰作用在浓度低于0.500mg/mL时消除.结论:细茵内霉素检查方法对于维生素B6注射液的细菌内霉素限定值为0.5EU/mg.

  17. Design of a LaB6 gun using EGN2 and INTMAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to launch a high-density electron beam to be focused in the 5 T superconducting solenoid of the Frankfurt EBIS an electron gun has been designed, with a 0,5 mm diameter LaB6 cathode in a 70 mm diameter electrode geometry. The emitting surface is placed in the axial fringing field of the solenoid, modified by an axial shielding disk and a bucking coil, to provide either immersed flow or Brillouin flow conditions for the focused beam. Since the cathode diameter is small as compared to the electrodes, a new feature of EGN2 had to be used in order to have a sufficient number of meshes along the emitting surface. By starting a field line in the large geometry, a curved Neumann boundary is found for a subdivided part of the gun, which represents the influence of the larger part. EGN2 writes the coordinates of this field line on a file, which can be used by POLYGON (a boundary setup program for EGN2) to define a curved Neumann boundary. By this procedure, it becomes possible to get a reliable simulation of the emission properties of a small cathode in large gun electrodes. The magnetostatic field calculations have been performed with INTMAG which is a new program of the boundary element method type. Due to the integration calculus, the results do not need smoothing or 'Maxwellisation' for the use in EGN2, where the off-axis fields are evaluated by radial expansion. INTMAG provides an output file, which is suitably formatted to be read in by EGN2. The gun design is based on space-charge-limited emission, but no Pierce-type electrode has been provided in the vicinity of the cathode; instead a Wehnelt electrode on negative bias with respect to the cathode is used to create the correct Pierce-type equipotential in free space, ending on the cathode edge with the correct angle. This gives an additional adjustment tool, if the axial position of the gun is not perfect and it relaxes the radial tolerance requirements considerably. (orig./HSI)

  18. Modeling arsenite oxidation by chemoautotrophic Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 in a packed-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dastidar, Aniruddha, E-mail: andy.dastidar@ky.gov [USEPA Research Participant, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Wang, Yi-Tin, E-mail: ywang@engr.uky.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Arsenic is a major toxic pollutant of concern for the human health. Biological treatment of arsenic contaminated water is an alternative strategy to the prevalent conventional treatments. The biological treatment involves a pre-oxidation step transforming the most toxic form of arsenic, As (III), to the least toxic form, As (V), respectively. This intermediate process improves the overall efficiency of total arsenic removal from the contaminated water. As (III) oxidation by the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenivorans strain b6 was investigated in a fixed-film reactor under variable influent As (III) concentrations (500-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic residence times (HRTs) (0.2-1 day) for a duration of 137 days. During the entire operation, seven steady-state conditions were obtained with As (III) oxidation efficiency ranging from 48.2% to 99.3%. The strong resilience of the culture was exhibited by the recovery of the bioreactor from an As (III) overloading of 5300 {+-} 400 mg As (III)/L day operated at a HRT of 0.2 day. An arsenic mass balance revealed that As (III) was mainly oxidized to As (V) with unaccounted arsenic ({<=} 4%) well within the analytical error of measurement. A modified Monod flux expression was used to determine the biokinetic parameters by fitting the model against the observed steady-state flux data obtained from operating the bioreactor under a range of HRTs (0.2-1 day) and a constant influent As (III) concentration of 500 mg/L. Model parameters, k = 0.71 {+-} 0.1 mg As (III)/mg cells h, and K{sub s} = 13.2 {+-} 2.8 mg As (III)/L were obtained using a non-linear estimation routine and employing the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Sensitivity analysis revealed k to be more sensitive to model simulations of As (III) oxidation under steady-state conditions than parameter K{sub s}. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As (III) oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biokinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model validation

  19. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase‐like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish;

    2014-01-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  1. Investigation of suppression of lactation with vit B6 after induced abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the action of suppressing lactation with Vit B6 after induced abortion in second trimester of pregnancy and its clinical application. Methods: 60 Subjects in the second trimester of pregnancy were induced abortion with intra-amniotic injection of 100 mg rivanol. 30 subjects were not given any drug after the procedure (serving as controls) and the another 30 subjects started Vit B6 2h after operation. With a dose of 60 mg tid x 5 days P.o. Serum levels of PRL, E2, P Were determines with RIA before and on the 4 th day post-abortion. Presence or absence of lactation after abortion was observed by squeezing the breast in all subjects. Results: In both groups the post-operative serum levels of the three tested hormones were significantly lower than those before operation. The decrease of PRL was especially marked in the Vit B6 group (P 6 group (6.66%, 2/30); while it was present in 9 controls (30%, 9/30). Conclusion: Starting Vit B6 treatment with in 2h after terminal of pregnancy would very effectively suppress milk secretion (93.3%) and could satisfactorily replace the conventional stilbestrol treatment. Marked decrease in serum PRL level (42.85%) reflected a solid laboratory evidence

  2. Plasma Vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and Related Genetic Variants as Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Skeie, Guri; Munoz, Xavier; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; VanGuelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background: B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer. Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and colorectal cancer are scarce or inconclusive. Methods: We carried out a neste

  3. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  4. Preparation of CeB6 nano-powders by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Zhihe; ZHANG Ting'an; LIU Yan; GUO Yongnan; HE Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    CeB6 powders were prepared by high-temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS) in which CeO2,B2O3and Mg were taken as reactants.The adiabatic temperature and dynamics of SHS reactions were investigated.The SHS reaction products and leached products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results indicated that the adiabatic temperature of Mg-B2O3-CeO2 reaction system was rather.higher than 1800 K to make the reaction propagate by itself,and the apparent activation energy (Ea) and reaction order (n) of exothermic peak on Mg-B2O3-CeO2 differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve were 23.03 kJ/mol and 1.31,respectively.The apparent activation energy was lower,so the reaction occurred easily.The SHS products consisted of MgO,CeB6 and little Mg3B2O6.The leached products consisted of single CeB6 phase and its purity was higher than 99.0%,and the average particle sizes of CeB6 were smaller than 150 nm.

  5. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  6. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  7. N,N'-Bis(2-cyclohexylethyl)naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene Diimides: Effects of Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiro; Hashizume, Daisuke; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene-4,5,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (NDTI) is a promising electron-deficient building block for n-type organic conductors, and the performance of NDTI-based field-effect transistors (FETs) is largely dependent on the substituents that alter the supramolecular organization in the solid state and, in turn, the intermolecular orbital overlap. For this reason, the rational selection of substituent on imide nitrogen atoms and/or thiophene α-positions is the key to developing superior n-type organic semiconductors. We here report new NDTI derivatives having N-(2-cyclohexylethyl) groups. Despite their one-dimensional packing structures in the solid state regardless of the presence or absence of chlorine groups at the thiophene α-positions, their FETs show promising performance with electron mobilities higher than 0.1 cm²·V(-1)·s(-1) under ambient conditions. We also discuss how the cyclohexylethyl groups affect the packing structure in comparison with analogous n-octyl derivatives having the same number of carbon atoms. PMID:27483217

  8. Mechanisms of interaction between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and CYP2B6: An in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Rojas, Wilson; Rivera-Julio, Karen; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Aga, Diana S

    2016-09-01

    Human Cytochrome P450s (CYP450) are a group of heme-containing metalloenzymes responsible for recognition and metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, including drugs and environmental contaminants. CYP2B6, a member of CYP450, is well known for being a highly inducible and polymorphic enzyme and for its important role in the oxidative metabolism of environmental pollutants, such as the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). However the mechanisms of interaction of PBDEs and PCBs with CYP2B6 is not entirely known. In this work, a computational approach was carried out to study the interactions of 41 POPs (17 PBDEs, 17 PCBs, and 7 Dioxins) with four CYP2B6 protein structures downloaded from PDB data base (PDB: 3UA5, 3QOA, 3QU8 and 4I91) using molecular docking protocols with AutoDock Vina. The best binding affinity values (kcal/mol) were obtained for PBDE-99 (-8.5), PCB-187 (-9.6), and octachloro-dibenzo-dioxin (-9.8) that can be attributed to the hydrophobic interactions with important residues, such as Phe-363, in the catalytic site of CYP2B6. Molecular docking validation revealed the best values for PDB: 3UA5 (R = 0.622, p = 0.001) demonstrating the reliability of molecular docking predictions. The information obtained in this work can be useful in evaluating the modes of interaction of xenobiotic compounds with the catalytic site of CYP2B6 and provide insights on the important role of these enzymes in the metabolism of potentially toxic compounds in humans. PMID:27281544

  9. Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L

    2012-08-15

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) = 0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87; p(trend) cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.77; p(trend) = 0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; p(trend) = 0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk.

  10. Determination of Vitamin C and Vitamin B6 in Ferrous Fumarate Granules(Ⅱ) by HPLC%HPLC法测定二维亚铁颗粒(Ⅱ)中维生素C、维生素B6含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC测定二维亚铁颗粒(Ⅱ)中维生素C和维生素B6含量的方法.方法:采用Insteril ODS-3色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相:0.03 mol·L-1磷酸氢二铵溶液(加入0.01%庚烷磺酸钠,用磷酸调节pH至3.0) -甲醇,梯度洗脱,检测波长为280 nm,流速:0.7~1.0 ml·min-1,柱温30℃.结果:维生素C与维生素B6分别在37~594 μg·ml-1(r=0.999 9)与 3~51 μg·ml-1(r=1.000 0)范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为99.6%与99.2%,RSD分别为0.48%与0.54%(n=9).结论:本法简便、结果准确、可靠,可用于二维亚铁颗粒(Ⅱ)中维生素C、维生素B6的含量测定.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of vitamin C and vitamin B6 in ferrous fumarate granules. Method: The procedure was performed on an Insteril ODS-3 column( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm )at 30℃ with the detection wavelength at 280 nm. The mobile phase was composed of 0.03 mol·L-1 ammonium phosphate solution ( 0.01% sodium heptanesulfonate was added and the pH was adjusted to 3. 0 by phosphoric acid ) and methanol with gradient elution, and the flow rate was 0. 7-1.0 ml · min-1 . Result: Vitamin C and vitamin B6 were in good linearity within the range of 37-594 μg·ml-1 ( r = 0. 999 9 ) and 3-51 μg· ml-1 ,( r = 1.000 0), respectively. The mean recovery was 99. 6% and 99. 2% with RSD of 0.48% and 0. 54% ( n =9 ) accordingly. Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate, reliable and appropriate in the determination of vitamin C and vitamin B6 in ferrous fumarate granules.

  11. Quantitative Determination of Two Components in Isoniazid and Vitamin B6 Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定异烟肼维B6片中两组份的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄可

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC法测定异烟肼维B6片中异烟肼、维生素B6含量的方法。方法:采用Agilent Eclipse Plus C18(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以0.1%三乙胺溶液(加入20 mg辛烷磺酸钠,用磷酸调节pH至3.0±0.05)-甲醇(70∶30)为流动相,进样量为10μl,检测波长为291nm,流速为1.0 ml · min-1,柱温为30℃。结果:异烟肼、维生素 B6分别在2.535~50.70μg(r=1.0000)、0.1368~2.735μg(r=1.0000)范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为99.57%(RSD=0.89%)、99.59%(RSD=0.43%)(n=9)。结论:本法专属性强、结果准确、灵敏、操作简便,可用于本品的质量控制。%Objective:To establish a determination method for isoniazid and vitamin B6 tablets by HPLC. Methods: The proce-dure was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 (250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm) column at 30℃ and the detection wavelength was 291 nm. The mobile phase was composed of 0. 1% triethylamine [ in which 20 mg sodium 1-octanesulfonate was added and the pH value was adjusted to (3. 0 ± 0. 05) by phosphoric acid] and methanol (70∶30) at a flow rate of 1. 0 ml·min-1 , and the injection volume was 10 μl. Results:The linear range of isoniazid and vitamin B6 was within the range of 2. 535-50. 700 μg(r=1. 000 0)and 0. 137-2. 735 μg(r=1. 000 0), respectively. The mean recovery was 99. 57%(RSD=0. 89%) and 99. 59%(RSD=0. 43%) (n=9), re-spectively. Conclusion:The method is specific, accurate, sensitive and simple, which is applicable in the quality control of isoniazid and vitamin B6 tablets.

  12. Post-operative bariatric surgery complications: Deficiency of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.

  13. Study on Immobilization of Vitamin B6 with Magnetic Polystyrene Microspheres%磁性聚苯乙烯微球固定化辅酶维生素B6条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜崇旭; 曹巍; 范圣第

    2003-01-01

      In this paper, vitamin B6 especially pyridoxol was immobilized on the self-prepared composite microspheres with glutaraldehyde by cross-linking reaction. At the same time, the optimum immobilizational conditions were studied, such as glutaraldehyde density, reaction time and temperature etc.%  以自制的复合微球为载体,研究并确定了以戊二醛为交联剂,维生素B6——主要是盐酸吡哆醇的最佳固定化条件,诸如:戊二醛浓度、时间、温度等。

  14. Study on bacterial endotoxins test of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection%斑蝥酸钠维生素B_6注射液细菌内毒素检查法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵英; 唐继坤; 潘正兴

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for determination of the bacterial endotoxin test in disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.Method:Inhibition and bacterial endotoxin test was performed with amebcyte lysate manufactured by different companies with different specifications according to the method of bacterial endotoxin test approved by Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition.Results:The original solution had non-interference with the bacterial endotoxin test.The results of bacteria endotoxin test in six batchs all accorded with the standard of the quality control.Conclusion:The results suggested that bacteria endotoxin test can be used as an alternative method for the rabbit pyrogen test for disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.The limits of bacterial endotoxin was 6 EU·mg~(-1).%目的:建立斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液的细菌内毒素检查方法.方法:按中国药典2005年版二部附录XIE细菌内毒素检查法进行,用小同厂家不同规格的鲎试剂对小同批号的斑蝥酸钠维牛素B_6注射液进行了干扰试验和细菌内毒素检查.结果:本品原液对细菌内毒素检查无干扰作用.按拟定标准检验,该品种6批样品细菌内毒素检查结果均符合规定.结论:本品可用细菌内毒素检查法代替家兔热原检查法,其细菌内毒素的限值(L)为6 EU·mL~(-1).

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of maize (Zea mays) plants under zinc deficiency stress%缺锌玉米植株的傅立叶变换红外光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盛锋; 刘云霞; 高丽丽; 韩亚; 黄金生; Hilman; 刘荣乐; 汪洪

    2014-01-01

    锌导致玉米植株生长受抑,利用FTIR技术研究发现缺锌植株中碳水化合物、脂类、蛋白质及核酸组分发生变化,农大108植株中各组分变化受缺锌影响较大,品种农大108可能较郑单958对缺锌更为敏感。%[Objectives]Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR) is a structural analysis technique based on the vibrations of functional group and polar bond in chemical components. The objective of this study was to reveal the component changes in different organs of maize plants with and without zinc( Zn) application using FTIR. It would provide some physiological evidences of maize plants subjected to Zn deficiency stress.[Methods]Two maize cultivars, Nongda108 and Zhengdan958, were chosen as tested crops. Hydroponic culture experiments were conducted with 0 and 1. 0 μmol/L Zn treatments. The plant shoot and root biomass were weighted. Dry plant samples were digested with HNO3 -HClO4 ( 3:1 ) for Zn determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Root samples were stored in FAA solution ( 70% alcohol:38% formaldehyde:acetic acid = 90 :5:5 parts by volume) prior to measurements. The root systems were then digitized with the EsponV700 scanner at 300 dpi resolution for further analysis. The total root length and root volume were measured with WinRHIZO root analysis software ( Regent Instruments Inc. , Canada) . Dry samples of roots, stems and leaves were ground to through 0. 2 mm sieve. A potassium bromide tablet method was used to detect spectral characteristics of different plant parts with FTIR (VERTEX 70, Bruker) and data were collected and analyzed by the OPUS 6. 5 software. [Results]The results show that Zn concentrations in maize plants without Zn application are below the critical level of 20 μg/g, and the Zn deficiency stress significantly decreases shoot dry matter weight, root surface, root volume and total root length. The shoot biomass and root length of maize cultivar, Nongda108, are less than those

  16. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  17. RP-HPLC法测定复方甲硝唑片中甲硝唑和维生素B6的含量%Determination of Metronidazole and Vitamin B6 in Compound Metronidazole Tablets by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2003-01-01

    目的: 建立RP-HPLC法测定复方甲硝唑片中甲硝唑和维生素B6的含量.方法: 采用Shim-pack CLC-ODS柱(4.6 mm×200 mm, 5 μm),甲醇-水(30∶70)为流动相,290 nm为检测波长,外标法测定含量.结果: 甲硝唑和维生素B6的线性范围分别为50~500 μg*ml-1(r=0.999 6),5~50 μg*ml-1(r=0.999 8),平均回收率分别为100.2%(RSD=0.93%),99.5% (RSD=0.42%),n=6.结论: RP-HPLC法测定复方甲硝唑片中甲硝唑和维生素B6的含量,方法准确,操作简便,结果可靠.

  18. Composição mineral e sintomas visuais de deficiências de nutrientes em plantas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Mineral composition and visual symptoms of nutrients deficiencies in long pepper plants (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Veígas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é uma das principais fontes alternativas para a produção de safrol empregado como matéria prima na fabricação de inseticidas naturais e aromatizantes. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da omissão dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes, sobre a composição mineral de plantas de pimenta-longa, e caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências decorrentes dessa limitação, utilizando-se da técnica do elemento faltante. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com quatro repetições e doze tratamentos, completo e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os valores dos teores foliares nos tratamentos com omissão dos nutrientes foram inferiores àqueles obtidos no tratamento completo. As omissões individuais dos nutrientes promoveram alterações na composição mineral de macro e micronutrientes. Os teores de macronutrientes (g kg-1 e micronutrientes (mg kg-1 obtidos nas folhas sem (completo e com sintomas de deficiências (omissões foram, respectivamente: N = 18,32; P = 7,02; K = 22,17; Ca = 15,75; Mg = 8,25; S = 5,12; B = 42,25; Fe = 325,00; Mn = 100; Zn = 61,50, com deficiência: N = 8,98; P = 2,52; K = 8,57; Ca = 10,20; Mg = 1,85; S = 0,90; B = 15,50; Fe = 234,00; Mn = 55; Zn = 53.The long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is one of the main alternative sources for the production of safrol used as raw material in the manufacture of insecticides and natural flavoring. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of omission macronutrients and micronutrients, on the mineral composition of long pepper plants, and featuring the symptoms of deficiencies resulting from this limitation, using the missing element technique. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with four replicates and twelve treatments, complete and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in a completely

  19. Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process; Spurenelemente in NawaRo-Biogasanlagen zum Ausgleich substratbedingter Mangelerscheinungen und zur Stabilisierung des Gaerprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie; Preissler, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on trace elements in renewable resource biogas plants in order to compensate for substrate induced deficiency symptoms and to stabilize the fermentation process. The analysis of biological connections in biogas processes showed, that an optimal supply of the microorganisms with trace elements is essential for the course of the four stages of decomposition of the biogas process. Trace elements significantly are involved in the structure of coenzymes or cofactors, reduce the sulfide toxicity and stimulate the growth of methanogens. If the individual items are missing, the biogas process can be disrupted. This can result in a cut-off of the fermenter and in a stopping of the biogas production.

  20. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  1. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  2. Observation of Ultrastructure and Morphous of Mouse Embryonic Palate Interfered by TCDD and Vitamin B6.%TCDD和B6联合作用下小鼠腭板形态的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承浩; 石冰; 何苇; 蒙田; 卢胜军

    2010-01-01

    目的:二恶英(TCDD)和维生素B6联合作用下小鼠腭板形态的扫描电镜观察.方法:对孕期10 d(GD10)的小鼠,分别胃饲TCDD 24 μg/kg,5 mg、10 mg、20 mg B6/kg+TCDD 24 μg/kg,对照组胃饲芝麻油50 ml/kg,然后分别在GD12.5、GD13.5、GD14.5、GD15.5和GD17.5处死孕鼠,检查GD17.5胎鼠有无腭裂的发生,GD12.5、GD13.5、GD14.5、GD15.5胎鼠用于扫描电镜观察.结果:TCDD组的腭裂发生率为55.56%,对照组未见腭裂发生,TCDD+B6组浓度梯度下腭裂发生率为31.81%(5 mg),44.44%(10 mg),40.90%(20 mg).扫描电镜对照组腭中嵴上皮细胞形态规整,有大量微丝,伪足,随着孕期增加,融合的进行,微丝,伪足逐渐消失.TCDD组细胞肿胀变形,表面光滑,未见微丝,和伪足,而且形态并不随孕期的延长而改变,B6组腭中嵴上皮完全消失和TCDD组类似.结论:维生素B6不能恢复小鼠腭中嵴上皮细胞的表面超微结构,从而无法逆转TCDD导致腭裂效应.

  3. Determination of Vitamin B6 by Fluorimetry after Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction Based on Ionic Liquid%离子液体双水相萃取荧光法测定维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秀娟; 张振新

    2011-01-01

    Based on the fact that water-miscible sol vent, such as ionic liquid, can be used to form aqueous two-phase system for extraction of analytes in the presence of salts, ionic liquid-salt system of ionic liquid( [Bmim]Br )and(NH4)2SO4 was developed for the determination of trace vitamin B6 coupled with fluorimetry after aqueous two-phase extraction. Factors that affect the extraction efficiencies of vitamin B6 including pH, the amount of extractant and extraction time were well studied. Under the optimal conditions, I. E. , λex/λem = 342/418 nm,pH = 8. 69, 1. 3 mL ionic liquid, 2. 8 g ammonium sulfate and 3 min of extraction, the extraction method presented a linear range of 1. 6×10-7~l. 04×10-5 g/L with a detection limit of 4. 8 × 10-7 g/L.%基于离子液体在盐的作用下能够形成双水相,用于目标物质的萃取,提出了离子液体-硫酸铵双水相萃取、荧光法测定痕量维生素B6的新方法.实验探讨了影响维生素B6萃取率的主要因素,如酸度、萃取剂的用量、时间等.在最适条件下,即λex/λem=342/418 nm,pH=8.69,离子液体和硫酸铵的用量分别为1.3mL、2.8g,萃取3 min时,体系测定维生素B6的线性范围为1.6×10-7~1.04×10-5 g/L,检出限为4.8×10-7 g/L.

  4. The thermodynamics and kinetics of electron transfer between cytochrome b6f and photosystem I in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Johnson, Xenie; Finazzi, Giovanni; Barber, James; Rappaport, Fabrice; Telfer, Alison

    2008-09-12

    We have investigated the photosynthetic properties of Acaryochloris marina, a cyanobacterium distinguished by having a high level of chlorophyll d, which has its absorption bands shifted to the red when compared with chlorophyll a. Despite this unusual pigment content, the overall rate and thermodynamics of the photosynthetic electron flow are similar to those of chlorophyll a-containing species. The midpoint potential of both cytochrome f and the primary electron donor of photosystem I (P(740)) were found to be unchanged with respect to those prevailing in organisms having chlorophyll a, being 345 and 425 mV, respectively. Thus, contrary to previous reports (Hu, Q., Miyashita, H., Iwasaki, I. I., Kurano, N., Miyachi, S., Iwaki, M., and Itoh, S. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 13319-13323), the midpoint potential of the electron donor P(740) has not been tuned to compensate for the decrease in excitonic energy in A. marina and to maintain the reducing power of photosystem I. We argue that this is a weaker constraint on the engineering of the oxygenic photosynthetic electron transfer chain than preserving the driving force for plastoquinol oxidation by P(740), via the cytochrome b(6)f complex. We further show that there is no restriction in the diffusion of the soluble electron carrier between cytochrome b(6)f and photosystem I in A. marina, at variance with plants. This difference probably reflects the simplified ultrastructure of the thylakoids of this organism, where no segregation into grana and stroma lamellae is observed. Nevertheless, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements suggest that there is energy transfer between adjacent photosystem II complexes but not from photosystem II to photosystem I, indicating spatial separation between the two photosystems. PMID:18635535

  5. Comparison of Methods of Identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 Mice Used in a Carcinogenesis Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, James G.; MacGregor, Judith A.; Shen, Zeli; Li, Xiantang; Lewis, Robert; Dangler, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of ...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  7. Pilot Study of CYP2B6 Genetic Variation to Explore the Contribution of Nitrosamine Activation to Lung Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F. Tyndale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the contribution of nitrosamine metabolism to lung cancer in a pilot investigation of genetic variation in CYP2B6, a high-affinity enzymatic activator of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with a negligible role in nicotine metabolism. Previously we found that variation in CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 combined to increase lung cancer risk in a case-control study in European American ever-smokers (n = 860. However, these genes are involved in the pharmacology of both nicotine, through which they alter smoking behaviours, and carcinogenic nitrosamines. Herein, we separated participants by CYP2B6 genotype into a high- vs. low-risk group (*1/*1 + *1/*6 vs. *6/*6. Odds ratios estimated through logistic regression modeling were 1.25 (95% CI 0.68–2.30, 1.27 (95% CI 0.89–1.79 and 1.56 (95% CI 1.04–2.31 for CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, respectively, with negligible differences when all genes were evaluated concurrently. Modeling the combined impact of high-risk genotypes yielded odds ratios that rose from 2.05 (95% CI 0.39–10.9 to 2.43 (95% CI 0.47–12.7 to 3.94 (95% CI 0.72–21.5 for those with 1, 2 and 3 vs. 0 high-risk genotypes, respectively. Findings from this pilot point to genetic variation in CYP2B6 as a lung cancer risk factor supporting a role for nitrosamine metabolic activation in the molecular mechanism of lung carcinogenesis

  8. Effect of Vitamin B6 on Clinical Symptoms and Electrodiagnostic Results of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Talebi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS refers to a cluster of signs and symptoms that stems from compression of the median nerve traveling through carpal tunnel. Surgery is a definite treatment for CTS; however, many conservative therapies have been proposed. The present study set out to assess the effect of vitamin B6 in patients with CTS. Methods: Forty patients (67 hands with mild-moderate CTS were initially selected and randomly assigned into two groups as follows: 1 Case group with 20 subjects (32 affected hands receiving vitamin B6 (120 mg/day for 3 months and splinting. 2 Control group with 19 subjects (35 affected hands only received splinting. One subject from the control group dispensed with continuing participation in the research. Daily symptoms and electrodiagnostic (NCV-EMG results were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results: Nocturnal awakening frequency due to pain, daily pain, daily pain frequency, daily pain persistence, hand numbness, hand weakness, hand tingling, severity of nocturnal numbness and tingling, nocturnal awakening frequency owing to hand numbness and tingling, and clumsiness in handling objects improved significantly in the vitamin B6-treated patients; even so, only problem with opening a jam bottle and handling phone significantly reduced in the control group. The median nerve sensory latency mean decreased following the treatment; and the median nerve sensory amplitude mean and sensory conduction velocity mean increased. Conclusion: The present study suggests that vitamin B6 treatment improves clinical symptoms and sensory electrodiagnostic results in CTS patients, and thus is recommended for CTS treatment.

  9. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  10. Direct retroviral delivery of human cytochrome P450 2B6 for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, O; Griffiths, L; Baban, D; Iqball, S; Uden, M; Spearman, H; Slingsby, J; Price, T; Esapa, M; Kingsman, S; Kingsman, A; Slade, A; Naylor, S

    2001-07-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) metabolizes the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) to produce phosphoramide mustard that cross-links DNA leading to cell death. We have constructed a novel retroviral vector encoding CYP2B6 (designated "MetXia-P450") and used it to transduce the human tumor cell lines HT29 and T47D. MetXia-P450 transduction sensitised these cells to the cytotoxic effects of the prodrug CPA. Results from in vitro experiments demonstrated adverse effects on the clonogenic survival of cyclophosphamide-treated cells transduced with MetXia-P450. Cytotoxic activity accompanied by bystander effect was particularly evident in 3-D multicellular spheroid models suggesting that this in vitro system may be a more appropriate model for assessing the efficacy of gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). We have applied this approach in a clinically relevant gene therapy protocol on established subcutaneous tumor xenografts. These studies show for the first time the efficacy of a P450-based GDEPT strategy mediated by a direct retroviral gene transfer in vivo. PMID:11498768

  11. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) LAD is an immune deficiency in ... are slow to heal also may have LAD. Treatment and Research Doctors prescribe antibiotics to prevent and ...

  12. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  13. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL ... and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  16. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic disorders ...

  17. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakade Miyo; Akimitsu Osami; Wada Kai; Krejci Milada; Noji Teruki; Taniwaki Nozomi; Takeuchi Hitomi; Harada Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast) points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009) and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009) at breakfast. The positive an...

  18. Iron deficiency and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hulthén, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. One of the most worrying consequences of iron deficiency in children is the alteration of behaviour and cognitive performance. In iron-deficient children, striking behavioural changes are observed, such as reduced attention span, reduced emotional responsiveness and low scores on tests of intelligence. Animal studies on nutritional iron deficiency show effects on learning ability that parallel the human studies. Despite ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  1. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  2. Determination of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 in Oryzaol Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定谷维素双维B片中维生素B1和维生素B6的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申颖; 申和平

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC同时测定谷维素双维B片中维生素B1和维生素B6的含量.方法:采用C18柱;以0.04%戊烷磺酸钠-2%冰醋酸.甲醇(35:45:20)为流动相;检测波长:276nm;流速:1.0 mL·min-1.结果:维生素B1在50.64~118.16μg·L-1范围内峰面积与浓度具有良好线性关系,维生素B6在117.84~274.96μg·L-1范围内峰面积与浓度具有良好线性关系;维生素B1的回收率为:99.41%,RSD 1.45%(n=6);维生素B6的回收率为:99.16%,RSD 1.42%(n=6).结论:该方法准确、灵敏度高、重现性好、结果准确.

  3. HPLC determination of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 in compound gosspol acetate tablets%HPLC法测定复方醋酸棉酚片中维生素B1和B6的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发; 郭欢迎; 唐娜; 吴沛佳

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相法同时测定复方醋酸棉酚片中维生素B1和B6含量的方法.方法 采用C18( 150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱;流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.4 g,加三乙胺3 mL,加水至1 000 mL,用磷酸调pH值至3.5)-甲醇(75:25);流速:1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长:275 nm.结果 维生素B1在10.05~200.92 mg·L-1质量浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系Y=13 744.72X+44 526.49(r=0.999 9),回收率为99.4%,RSD=1.1%(n=9).维生素B6在10.43~208.60 mg·L-1质量浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系Y=120101.31X-14766.07(r=0.999 9),回收率100.1%,RSD=1.2%(n=9).结论 该方法 简便、准确,可同时测定复方醋酸棉酚片中维生素B1和B6的含量.%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 in compound gosspol acetate tablets. Methods The separation was performed on C18 column(150 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm) , and the mobile phase was composed of hep-tanesulfonic acid sodium salt solution ( pH =3.5): methanol ( 75: 25 ) with the flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min -1 and 275 nm as the detection wave length was set at 275 nm. Results The linear ranges of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 were 10.05 ~200.92 mg · L-1 (r =0. 999 9) and 10.43 ~208.60 mg · L-1(r = 0.999 9) ,respectively,and average recoveries were 99.4% (RSD = 1. 1% ) and 100. 1% (RSD = 1. 2% ) , respectively. Conclusion The method was simple and accurate, which can be used for determination of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 in compound gosspol acetate tablets.

  4. 德巴金及维生素B6联合治疗癫痫的临床观察%The Clinical Observe that Depakene and Vitamin B6 Unites to Cure the Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仰

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察德巴金的临床效果,以利于应用.方法:应用德巴金后进行临床观察(包括临床表现、脑电图、血象及肝功能).结果:发作得到控制,脑电图有所改善,血象及肝功能改变少.结论:德巴金及维生素B6联用疗效较好,副作用小,值得临床推广.

  5. Initial Magnetization Curve and Hardening Mechanism in the Nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 Ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The melt-spun Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon was prepared by the single roller method with the tangential speed of 20 m/s. A mixture of Nd2Fe14B and α-Fe phases with the average crystalline grain size of about 20 nm was found to exist in the as-quenched ribbons. The initial magnetization curve of the nanocomposite Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon can be divided into four sections by the inflection points on it. The magnetically hardening mechanism corresponding to each section was investigated. The initial susceptibility of the Nd8Fe85Nb1B6 ribbon is higher than that of the Nd15Fe85B9 powder, which may be attributed to the reversible magnetization rotation in the central region not influenced by the exchange-coupling effect within the α-Fe grains.The above-mentioned magnetization rotation leads to the formation of equilibrium 180 deg. domain walls at the boundaries of the α-Fe grains. With the increase of applied field, these domain walls are compressed reversibly towards the Nd2Fe14B grains and eventually invade into them.The irreversible movement of the domain walls in the Nd2Fe14B grains accounts for the steepest growth of magnetization with the applied field. Finally, the magnetically inhomogeneous “core regions” are formed in the Nd2Fe14B grains, and the magnetization rotation in these“core regions”indicates the end of the whole initial saturation process.

  6. Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids alleviate hyperlipidemia in B6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Hu, Yinran; Ma, Hang; Zou, Zongyao; Xiao, Yubo; Yang, Yong; Feng, Min; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) alkaloids exert their hypolipidemic effects primarily by targeting the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids (at a daily dose of 140mg/kg for 35days) in high-fat and high-cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic B6 mice. After treatment, serum lipid parameters were determined, the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and pathways such as the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and bile acid signaling in mice were also investigated. Meanwhile, Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota of B6 mice. The results indicated that RC alkaloids reduced the body weight gain and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA) and lipopolysaccharide of B6 mice. Liver fat deposition and epididymal adipose cell size were also deceased in therapy group. RC alkaloids feeding significantly promoted the abundance of Sporobacter termitidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut of mice, whereas, the abundance of Escherichia coli, Desulfovibrio C21_c20, Parabacteroides distasonis was suppressed. The observed antihyperlipidemic effects of RC alkaloids can also be attributed to their action as agonists of FXR and TGR5, activators for SREBP2, LDLR, UCP2 and CYP7A1, inhibitors of HMGCR, TXNIP, TLR4 and JNK. Therefore, this study expands current knowledge on hypolipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids and presents new evidence supporting a key role for RC alkaloids as regulators of lipid homeostasis by modulation gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27287254

  7. On reasons of different catalytic activity of 4B-6B subgroup metallocenedichlorides in carbon monoxide amalgam reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on catalytic activity of metallocenedichlorides of 4B-6B subgroup elements (Ti, Nb, Mo, W) in carbon monoxide amalgam reduction in THP and DMFA medium. It is shown that the difference in catalytic activity of these elements is conditioned by thermodynamic factors, which dictate impossibility of amalgam reduction of catalyst-substrate complex (4th subgroup), as well as by the difference in stability of corresponding metallocenes (5B and 6B subgroups). Amalgam reduction of CO bounded in complex with metallocene proceeds under conditions of the first electron transfer opposite to potential gradient

  8. Moderator effect of CYP2B6 genotype in HIV-1 patients with tuberculosis treated with rifampicin and efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C De la Calle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Efavirenz (EFV is the preferred non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor component of the ARV regimen in HIV-TB patients. Concomitant use of EFV with rifampicin (RIF, an important component of first-line tuberculosis treatment, induces various hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and is known to decrease EFV plasma concentrations in healthy volunteers and HIV-1 patients and EFV plasma concentrations below 1,000 µg/mL have been associated with an increased risk of virological failure [1]. Moreover, previous studies have shown that inter-individual variability in EFV plasma concentrations are associated with the presence of allelic variants in CYP2B6 gene. Carriers of the T allele of polymorphism 516 G>T are reported to be associated with slower EFV oral clearance. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of CYP2B6 genotype in EFV levels in HIV patients with TB treated with RIF. Four HIV patients who started ARV treatment concomitantly with TB treatment were analyzed. These patients started a regimen based on EFV at doses higher than standard due to RIF interaction. Viral load, CD4+ cell count and plasma levels of EFV in plasma were measured at each visit, and genotyping for CYP2B6 (516G>T polymorphism were performed. The self-reported rates of adherence to HAART were very high. One patient, who had TT genotype, required progressive dose reduction by toxic levels (Cmin: 20 µg/mL and effects on the central nervous system. Dose was adjusted to 600 mg qd despite treatment with RIF, and he required even lower doses after completion of TB treatment, 400 mg qd. Two other patients with non-mutated genotype (GG required dose escalation up to 1000 mg qd to achieve minimum recommended EFV concentrations between 1 and 4 µg/mL. All of them achieved virological suppression at six months. The fourth patient, who had non-mutated genotype, required dose increases for several months until dose adjustment. He needed 1600 mg qd during treatment with

  9. Multi-Seconds Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector Based on Arc-Discharge with LaB6 Hollow Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic neutral beam injector based on arc-discharge plasma source with LaB6 hollow cathode is described.The ion source of the diagnostic injector provides a proton beam with a current up to 2.5A, the particle energy up to 50 keV, the beam divergence is ∼0.5 deg. The beam species at the 2 A ion current are: H+-83%, H2+-5%, H3+-12%. The injector was tested at pulse duration up to 2 seconds

  10. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Vitamin B6 by 4-Hydroxy 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Yan(李燕); WEN, Xiao-Lin(文小林); LIU, Zhong-Li(刘中立)

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemistry of pyridoxine (vitamin B6, VB6) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical response of VB6 could be significantly enhanced by using 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (HO-TEMPO) as a mediator via an electrocatalytic EC' mechanism with the oxoammonium ion of HO-TEMPO as the active oxidant. The catalytic rate constant was determined to be 5.4×103 (mol·L-1)-1·s-1 by using chronoamperometry.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an in...

  12. Structure Determination and Characterization of the Vitamin B6 Degradative Enzyme 2-(Acetamidomethylene)succinate Hydrolase†‡

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The gene identification and kinetic characterization of E-2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate (E-2AMS) hydrolase has recently been described. This enzyme catalyzes the final reaction in the degradation of vitamin B6 and produces succinic semialdehyde, acetate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide from E-2AMS. The structure of E-2AMS hydrolase was determined to 2.3 Å using SAD phasing. E-2AMS hydrolase is a member of the α/β hydrolase superfamily and utilizes a serine/histidine/aspartic acid catalytic tria...

  13. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  14. SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-08-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.

  15. Effects of salvianolate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated lupus-prone B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzhi; Cui, Yang; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Xiang; Su, Yanjie; Xu, Bilian; Wu, Tie; Chen, Wenshuang; Cui, Liao

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the bone-protective effects of salvianolate (Sal), a total polyphenol from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, on bone tissue in the spontaneous lupus-prone mouse model, B6.MRL-Faslpr/J, undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Methods Fifteen-week-old female B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were administered either a daily dose of saline (lupus group), prednisone 6 mg/kg (GC group), Sal 60 mg/kg (Sal group); or GC plus Sal (GC + Sal group) for a duration of 12 weeks. Age-matched female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were used for control. Micro-computed tomography assessments, bone histomorphometry analysis, bone biomechanical test, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting analysis for bone markers, and renal histology analysis were performed to support our research endeavor. Results Lupus mice developed a marked bone loss and deterioration of mechanical properties of bone due to an increase in bone resorption rather than suppression of bone formation. GC treatment strongly inhibited bone formation in lupus mice. Sal treatment significantly attenuated osteogenic inhibition, and also suppressed hyperactive bone resorption, which recovered the bone mass and mechanical properties of bone in both the untreated and GC-treated lupus mice. Conclusion The data support further preclinical investigation of Sal as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus-related bone loss. PMID:27563234

  16. Effects of Two-Step Sintering on Performance of SiC/SiB6 Composite Ceramics%两步烧结对SiC/纳米SiB6复合陶瓷性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲洁; 盛建松; 郭兴忠; 杨辉

    2012-01-01

    SiC/SiB6 composite ceramics were synthesized by pressureless liquid phase sintering, using SiBe nanoparticles as the reinforcement and YAG as the sintering aid. The effects of two-step sintering on their sintering properties and mechanical performance were studied. Results show, two-step sintering could affect the sintering properties and mechanical performance of the composite ceramics. When the temperature of the first sintering rose from 1850℃ to 1900℃, the contractiveness, mass loss and relative density of SiC/SiBe composite ceramics increased, but the flexural strength and Vickers hardness decreased; when the temperature of the second sintering rose from 1850℃ to 1900℃, the mass loss increased, the contravenes and relative density decreased, but the flexural strength and Vickers hardness were enhanced.%以纳米SiB6颗粒为增强相,YAG为烧结助剂,采用无压液相烧结技术制备了SiC/纳米SiB6复合陶瓷,主要研究两步烧结对复合陶瓷烧结特性和力学性能的影响。研究结果表明,两步烧结对复合陶瓷的烧结性能和力学性能有一定的影响。第一步烧结温度由1850℃升至1900℃,SiC/纳米SiB。复合陶瓷的收缩率、失重率和相对密度增加,抗弯强度和维氏硬度整体下降;而第二步烧结温度由1850℃升高到1900℃,复合陶瓷失重率增加,收缩率和相对密度下降,抗弯强度和维氏硬度均有所提高。

  17. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  18. Dimetallaborane analogues of the octaboranes of the type Cp2M2B6H10: structural variations with changes in the skeletal electron count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brânzanic, Adrian M V; Lupan, Alexandru; King, R Bruce

    2016-05-31

    The structures and energetics of the complete series of hydrogen-rich dimetallaboranes Cp2M2B6H10 and Cp*2M2B6H10 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5; Cp* = η(5)-Me5C5; M = Pd, Pt; Rh, Ir; Ru, Os; Re; Mo, W; Ta), including the experimentally known Cp*2Rh2B6H10 and Cp*2W2B6H10 (Cp* = η(5)-Me5C5), have been investigated by density functional theory. The lowest energy structures of the hyperelectronic Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Pd, Pt; Rh, Ir) systems have central M2B6 frameworks with a hexagonal open face similar to the B8 networks in arachno-B8H14 and nido-B8H12. The two lowest energy structures for Cp2Rh2B6H10 and Cp*2Rh2B6H10, lying within 1 kcal mol(-1) of energy, differ only in the locations of the bridging hydrogen atoms around the hexagonal hole consistent with the experimentally observed fluxionality of the hydrogen atoms in Cp*2Rh2B6H10. Most of the lowest energy Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Ru, Os) structures also have a central M2B6 framework similar to B8H12, typically with such additional features as an additional metal-metal bond or a formal metal-metal double bond. A common motif for the low-energy structures of the hypoelectronic Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Re; Mo, W; Ta) systems, including the experimentally known Cp*2W2B6H10, is a central M2B4 octahedron with its two M2B faces capped by the remaining boron atoms and with four M-B edges bridged by hydrogen atoms. Such structures can also be considered as oblatonido structures derived from the experimentally known 9-vertex oblatocloso Cp*2Re2B7H7 structure by removal of the unique degree 4 vertex atom. PMID:27186632

  19. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also ... is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember ...

  20. The effects of detergents DDM and β-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoBo; ZHAO XiaoHui; ZHANG JianPing; LI LiangBi; KUANG TingYun

    2007-01-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chi a) in cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b6f complexes from different sources (~200 and ~600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singiet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b6f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b6f dissolved in β-OG, the Cyt b6f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, ~200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b6f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  1. Respostas de plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. amazonicum] e Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] à deficiência hídrica Responses of Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. Amazonicum] and Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] plants to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Reis de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas jovens de S. amazonicum (paricá e S. parahyba (guapuruvu foram submetidas a dois ciclos de deficiência hídrica em casa de vegetação. O déficit hídrico induziu o aumento dos teores de aminoácidos solúveis totais, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e K+ nos tecidos foliares, ocasionando o abaixamento do potencial osmótico em ambas as espécies. Porém, a análise dos resultados das curvas pressão-volume indica que as espécies respondem, de maneira diferente, ao estresse hídrico e o S. amazonicum apresenta maior capacidade de adaptação osmótica do que o S. parahyba.Juvenile plants of S. amazonicum (paricá and S. parahyba (guapuruvu were subjected to two cycles of water stress in greenhouse conditions. The water deficit induced the increase in total soluble amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and K+ contents in the leaf tissues, lowering osmotic potential values in both species. However, the analysis of the pressure-volume curve results suggests that the species respond differently to water stress, and that S. amazonicum presents greater capacity of osmotic adaptation than S. parahyba.

  2. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  3. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  4. Restricted TCR-alpha CDR3 diversity disadvantages natural regulatory T cell development in the B6.2.16 beta-chain transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Ferreira, Cristina; Chan, Andrew C Y; Dyson, Julian; Garden, Oliver A

    2010-09-15

    To date, analysis of mice expressing TCR-beta transgenes derived from CD4(+) T cell clones has demonstrated equivalent or higher TCR diversity in naturally occurring regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs) versus conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcons). However, TCR-alpha-chain diversity in these mice may be influenced by the inherent bias toward the CD4(+) lineage in the selected repertoires. We wished to determine whether the choice of TCR-beta-chain influences the relative diversity of the Treg and Tcon repertoires, examining as a model the B6.2.16beta-transgenic mouse, in which the fixed beta-chain is derived from a CD8(+) T cell clone. B6.2.16beta Treg thymocytes showed significantly lower TRAV17 (AV9) CDR3 sequence diversity than both syngeneic Tcon thymocytes, and Treg and Tcon thymocytes from wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The ratio of single-positive CD4(+)/single-positive CD8(+) thymocytes in B6.2.16beta mice was similar to that in B6, yet both the proportional frequency and absolute number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells was significantly lower in the thymi and peripheral lymph nodes of B6.2.16beta mice. Furthermore, B6 + B6.2.16beta-->B6 mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that the transgenic beta-chain disadvantaged Treg development in a competitive environment. These data underline the importance of the beta-chain in assessments of Treg alpha-chain diversity and provide further support for the notion that interclonal competition for entry into the Treg lineage is a significant factor in determining the composition of this lineage.

  5. High prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia and folate, B/sub 12/ and B/sub 6/ deficiencies in an urban population in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and deficiencies of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in an urban population in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: In a pre and post experimental study, eight hundred and seventy-two apparently healthy adults (aged 18-60 years; 355 males and 517 females) were recruited from a low-income urban locality in East of Karachi from February 2006 to March 2007. Fasting venous blood was obtained. Serum was analyzed for folate and vitamin B12. Plasma was analyzed for pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, co enzymic form of B6) and total homocysteine. A group of vitamin-deficient individuals (n=194) was given 3-week supplementation with folic acid (5mg/ day), methylcobalamin (0.5mg/day) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, 50 mg/day). After supplementation, serum/plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, PLP and homocysteine were again determined. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 mu mol/l) was 32%. Similarly percent values of folate deficiency (<3.5ng/ml), vitamin B6 deficiency (PLP<20 nmol/l) and vitamin B12 deficiency (<200pg/ml) in the study population were 27.5%, 33.7% and 9.74%, respectively. Hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with male sex, folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency [OR (95%CI), 8.3(5.7-12.1); 2.5(1.76-3.58); 2.6(1.5-4.5), respectively]. A 3-week supplementation with folic acid, methylcobalamin and pyridoxine hydrochloride in vitamin deficient subjects decreased plasma homocysteine levels by 37%. High prevalence estimates of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 deficiencies appear to be the major determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income general population in Karachi. (author)

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB6 protein participates in formation of VirB7 and VirB9 complexes required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Simon J; Krishnamoorthy, Vidhya; Christie, Peter J

    2003-05-01

    This study characterized the contribution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB6, a polytopic inner membrane protein, to the formation of outer membrane VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9 protein multimers required for type IV secretion. VirB7 assembles as a disulfide cross-linked homodimer that associates with the T pilus and a VirB7-VirB9 heterodimer that stabilizes other VirB proteins during biogenesis of the secretion machine. Two presumptive VirB protein complexes, composed of VirB6, VirB7, and VirB9 and of VirB7, VirB9, and VirB10, were isolated by immunoprecipitation or glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348 and a strain producing only VirB6 through VirB10 among the VirB proteins. To examine the biological importance of VirB6 complex formation for type IV secretion, we monitored the effects of nonstoichiometric VirB6 production and the synthesis of VirB6 derivatives with 4-residue insertions (VirB6.i4) on VirB7 and VirB9 multimerization, T-pilus assembly, and substrate transfer. A virB6 gene deletion mutant accumulated VirB7 dimers at diminished steady-state levels, whereas complementation with a plasmid bearing wild-type virB6 partially restored accumulation of the dimers. VirB6 overproduction was correlated with formation of higher-order VirB9 complexes or aggregates and also blocked substrate transfer without a detectable disruption of T-pilus production; these phenotypes were displayed by cells grown at 28 degrees C, a temperature that favors VirB protein turnover, but not by cells grown at 20 degrees C. Strains producing several VirB6.i4 mutant proteins assembled novel VirB7 and VirB9 complexes detectable by nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and two strains producing the D60.i4 and L191.i4 mutant proteins translocated IncQ plasmid and VirE2 effector protein substrates in the absence of a detectable T pilus. Our findings support a model that VirB6 mediates

  7. Optic phonon anomalies and f-d hybridization in SmS and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optic phonons of semiconducting SmS and of (homogeneously) mixed-valent SmS and SmB6 have been investigated by means of Raman scattering. The dominant electron-phonon interaction upon resonantly exciting the 4f shell is revealed as a coupling of the strongly localized 4f hole at the Sm site to full symmetric (Asub(1g)) displacements of the nearest neighbour anions, i.e. mainly to LO(L) phonons. Semiconducting and mixed-valent, metallic SmS show a 'softening' of the LO(L) phonon frequencies with respect to the other divalent and trivalent rare earth sulfides, respectively, going in parallel with a 'softening' of the bulk modulus. The f-d hybridization is considered as the common origin of these phonon frequency renormalizations. (author)

  8. Induction of Apoptosis in Purified Nuclei from Tobacco-Suspension Cells by Cytochrome b6/f Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 李萍; 朱瑞宇; 田瑞华; 戴尧仁

    2004-01-01

    An apoptotic cell-free system containing cytosol and nuclei from normally cultured tobacco suspension cells was used to show that a spinach chloroplast preparation can induce apoptosis in nuclei,evidenced by DNA electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy observations.Further study showed that the chloroplast preparation or its pellet (thylakoid membrane) after hypoosmotic or supersonic treatment still exhibited the apoptosis-inducing activity,but the supernatant had no effect,which indicates that the apoptosis-inducing effector in the chloroplast preparation is water-insoluble.The induction of apoptosis by chloroplast preparation could be attenuated by Ac-DEVD-CHO,the specific inhibitor of Caspase-3,implying involvement of a Caspase-3-like protease during the process.Furthermore,extensive apoptosis in nuclei was induced by cytochrome b6/f on the thylakoid membrane,indicating that this important cytochrome complex may have an important role in the chloroplast-related apoptotic pathway.

  9. Radial profiles of electron density and current components at cathode surface in LaB6 hollow cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies on a hydrogen-fed LaB6 hollow cathode arc have been pursued. The plasma parameter in the cathode has been measured by a Langmuir probe. The radial variation in the electron density inside the cathode was calculated using the continuity and momentum equations, showing good agreement with the experimental results. The electron density at the cathode surface was estimated to be 15 % - 20 % of that at the cathode axis. It was also found from the current balance that the arc current components at the cathode surface consist of a thermionic current which takes into account the Schottky effect, the ion current and the secondary electron current induced by ion bombardment. The ion current and the cathode surface is larger than the electron current emitted from the cathode. (author)

  10. The effect of antivitamin B6 administration on gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in retina and electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, A; Kamada, Y; Kunita, M; Matsuda, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of several antivitamin B6 on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism was studied in the rat retina. The rat electroretinogram (ERG) was also recorded after administration of these drugs. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and hydrazine administration increased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA degrading enzyme, GABA transaminase in retina. In addition, there drugs elongated the peak latency of the oscillatory potential in the rat ERG. In contrast, 4-deoxypyridoxine (DOP) or isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) administration decreased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase in retina, and administration of these drugs together with AOAA lessened the degrees of elevation of GABA content and of the elongation of the peak latency produced as compared with AOAA alone, though neither of the former drugs had a significant effect on ERG. The retinal GABA seems to play an important role in relation to the oscillatory potential of ERG.

  11. Study of corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel in calcium - hypochlorite solution. Part 1. Steels uranus b6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of Cr - Ni (special steels specimen is tested by electrochemical methods, numerical method of linear polarization and polarization resistance method in calcium-hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 solutions. With increasing of Ca(OCl2 concentration, pH value of the solution increases, as well as active chlorine concentration and corrosion activity of the medium. According to the quantitative method of the corrosion resistance determination it can be concluded that the steels tested in 1 wt % Ca(OCl2 solution are resistant, in 10 wt % solution constant, and in 50 wt % suspension less resistant. URANUS B6 showed the best corrosion resistance of all tested chromium - nickel steels in all tested corrosion mediums.

  12. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. PMID:25178718

  13. Effects of salvianolate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-treated lupus-prone B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhi Liu,1,2 Yang Cui,3 Xiao Zhang,3 Xiang Gao,4 Yanjie Su,2 Bilian Xu,2 Tie Wu,2 Wenshuang Chen,2 Liao Cui1,2 1College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou City, 2Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 3Department of Rheumatology, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangzhou, 4Stem Cell Research and Cellular Therapy Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China Aim: To investigate the bone-protective effects of salvianolate (Sal, a total polyphenol from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, on bone tissue in the spontaneous lupus-prone mouse model, B6.MRL-Faslpr/J, undergoing glucocorticoid (GC treatment.Methods: Fifteen-week-old female B6.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were administered either a daily dose of saline (lupus group, prednisone 6 mg/kg (GC group, Sal 60 mg/kg (Sal group; or GC plus Sal (GC + Sal group for a duration of 12 weeks. Age-matched female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice were used for control. Micro-computed tomography assessments, bone histomorphometry analysis, bone biomechanical test, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting analysis for bone markers, and renal histology analysis were performed to support our research endeavor.Results: Lupus mice developed a marked bone loss and deterioration of mechanical properties of bone due to an increase in bone resorption rather than suppression of bone formation. GC treatment strongly inhibited bone formation in lupus mice. Sal treatment significantly attenuated osteogenic inhibition, and also suppressed hyperactive bone resorption, which recovered the bone mass and mechanical properties of bone in both the untreated and GC-treated lupus mice.Conclusion: The data support further preclinical investigation of Sal as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus-related bone

  14. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles design and development for the selective determination of Vitamin B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seed mediated growth of Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle. • Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle provided good peak current for pyridoxine. • Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC exhibited excellent vitamin B6 peak separation with other vitamin. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of gold (core)-copper oxide (shell) nanoparticles using a simple seed mediated growth method. Pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles were used as seed materials for copper oxide shell growth, which were shown to be effective for Au-CuO core-shell formation. The novelty of this assembly strategy is that the exploitation of the Cu-ligand, which is thermolyzed on the Au nanoseed surface, results in the formation of CuO. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as prepared Au-CuO was used to fabricate a Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode, which was applied to Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) determination by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The MWCNTs enhance the pyridoxine oxidation rate by increasing the peak current with Au-CuO, hence pyridoxine oxidized lower operating potentials. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards pyridoxine (PY) in the presence of other typical vitamins, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The linear calibration graph was obtained over the PY concentration range of 0.79 μM–18.4 μM and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.15 μM. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed good stability, repeatability and recovery of real sample analysis

  15. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar K; Bava H; Shetty J; Joshi M

    1997-01-01

    A rare case of a 3 month old child with lipoprotein lipase deficiency who presented with bronchopneumonia is reported. After noticing lipaemic serum and lipaemia retinalis, a diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinaemia was considered. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency was confirmed with post heparin lipoprotein lipase enzyme activity estimation.

  16. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  17. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Uijterschout

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  18. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  19. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  1. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  2. Zinc deficiency alters soybean susceptibility to pathogens and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate plant nutrition and biotic stress are key threats to current and future crop yields. Zinc deficiency and toxicity in major crop plants have been documented, but there is limited information on how pathogen and pest damage may be affected by differing plant zinc levels. In our study, we us...

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  4. HPLC测定谷维素双维B片中维生素B1和维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 in Oryzanol, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱测定谷维素双维B片中维生素B1和维生素B6含量的方法.方法 色谱柱以十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂; 乙腈-庚烷磺酸钠溶液(庚烷磺酸钠0.32 g,三乙胺2 mL,冰醋酸10 mL,加水至1 000 mL) (10∶ 90)为流动相;检测波长为280 nm;流速:1.0 mL/min;进样量:10 μL;柱温:35 ℃.结果 维生素B1及维生素B6的线性范围分别为4.04~80.00 μg/mL(r=0.999 9)和10.16~203.12 μg/mL (r=0.999 9).平均回收率分别为100.88%(RSD=1.88%,n=9)和101.11%(RSD=1.42%,n=9).结论 此法操作简便准确,可作为该制剂含量的质量控制方法.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain B6, a 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Heum; Um, Youngsoon; Beak, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sehwan; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2013-06-27

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain B6, a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This 2,3-butanediol-producing bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated soil on Backwoon Mountain in South Korea. Strain B6 contains 5,398,151 bp with 4,909 protein-coding genes, 104 structural RNAs, and 55.88% G+C content.

  6. Nanocomposite Nd10Fe84-xB6Inx (x=0, 1) Permanent Magnet and Its Heat-treatment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nanocomposite magnet of Nd10Fe84-xB6lnx (x=0,1) has been fabricated and magnetic properties have been in vestigated. Addition of indium damages the magnetic behavior, but can change its heat-treatment effect. Annealing does not improve the properties very much to the In-free magnet, but changes the intrinsic coercivity of Nd10Fe83B6ln obviously.

  7. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  8. root uv-b sensitive Mutants Are Suppressed by Specific Mutations in ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 and by Exogenous Vitamin B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin D. Leasure; Hong-Yun Tong; Xue-Wen Hou; Amy Shelton; Mike Minton; Raymond Esquerra; Sanja Roje; Hanjo Hellmann; Zheng-Hui He

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (vitB6)serves as an essential cofactor for more than 140 enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP),active cofactor form of vitB6, can be photolytically destroyed by trace amounts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B). How sun-exposed organisms cope with PLP photosensitivity and modulate vitB6 homeostasis is currently unknown. We previously reported on two Arabidopsis mutants, rusl and rus2, that are hypersensitive to trace amounts of UV-B light. We performed mu-tagenesis screens for second-site suppressors of the rus mutant phenotype and identified mutations in the ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 (ASP2)gene. ASP2 encodes for cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), a PLP-dependent en-zyme that plays a key role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Genetic analyses have shown that specific amino acid substitutions in ASP2 override the phenotypes of rusl and rus2 single mutants as well as rusl rus2 double mutant. These substitutions, all shown to reside at specific positions in the PLP-binding pocket, resulted in no PLP binding. Additional asp2 mutants that abolish AAT enzymatic activity, but which alter amino acids outside of the PLP-binding pocket, fail to suppress the rus phenotype. Furthermore, exogenously adding vitB6 in growth media can rescue both rusl and rus2. Our data suggest that AAT plays a role in vitB6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  9. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  10. Analysis of a Horizontally Transferred Pathway Involved in Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis from the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterodera glycines is an obligate plant parasite capable of biochemically and developmentally altering its host's cells in order to create a specialized feeding cell. Although the exact mechanism of feeding cell morphogenesis remains a mystery, the nematode's ability to manipulate the plant is thou...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ... 18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, ...

  14. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... such as tiredness, poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  19. On Potassium Deficiency in Cotton– Disorder, Cause and Tissue Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhong Dong

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As modern cotton varieties including Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic cotton are adopted and yield per unit area continues to increase, potassium deficiency is occurring with rising frequency in many cotton-growing countries. Symptoms of K deficiencies used to occur at the bottom of the plant on the older or mature leaves, but more recently described symptoms show up on young leaves near the top of the plant. Potassium deficiency induces numerous disorders in cotton, including decreased leaf area index, photosynthesis and plant biomass, but enhances specific leaf weight and earliness of maturity. Low supply and uptake of K, adoption of modern cotton varieties particularly Bt transgenic cotton, and environmental stress are obvious contributors to potassium deficiency. Single leaf photosynthesis (Pn reduction results mainly from decreased stomatal conductance, low chlorophyl content, poor chloroplast ultrastructure, restricted saccharide translocation, and decreased synthesis of RuBP carboxylase under K deficient conditions. Canopy photosynthesis reduction in K-deficient plants is mainly attributed to both inhibited single leaf Pn rate and decreased leaf area index. Potassium concentrations in both blade and petiole of top fully expanded leaves on main stem are good indicators of K deficiency.

  20. Nasal dosimetry of inspired naphthalene vapor in the male and female B6C3F1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naphthalene vapor is a nasal cytotoxicant in the rat and mouse but is a nasal carcinogen in only the rat. Inhalation dosimetry is a critical aspect of the inhalation toxicology of inspired vapors and may contribute to the species differences in the nasal response. To define the nasal dosimetry of naphthalene in the B6C3F1 male and female mouse, uptake of naphthalene vapor was measured in the surgically isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) at inspiratory flow rates of 25 or 50 ml/min. Uptake was measured at multiple concentrations (0.5, 3, 10, 30 ppm) in controls and mice treated with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 5-phenyl-1-pentyne. In both sexes, URT uptake efficiency was strongly concentration dependent averaging 90% at 0.5 ppm compared to 50% at 30 ppm (25 ml/min flow rate), indicating saturable processes were involved. Both uptake efficiency and the concentration dependence of uptake were significantly diminished by 5-phenyl-1-pentyne indicating inspired naphthalene vapor is extensively metabolized in the mouse nose with saturation of metabolism occurring at the higher concentrations. A hybrid computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for nasal dosimetry. This model accurately predicted the observed URT uptake efficiencies. Overall, the high URT uptake efficiency of naphthalene in the mouse nose indicates the absence of a tumorigenic response is not attributable to low delivered dose rates in this species

  1. Electronic configurations of Sm2+ in SmS and SmB6, and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Dirac's theory the 4f shell is divided into two subshells: 4f/sub 5/2/ with six quantum states and 4f/sub 7/2/ with eight quantum states. Assuming that these two subshells can be filled up successively, we had successfully obtained the saturation magnetic moment of the garnets Ln3Fe5O12. This study is devoted to establish the role of the subshells in the case of SmS phase transformation under pressure P. Particularly for Sm2+ the low spin configuration 4f/sub 5/2/6 4f/sub 7/2/0 which with six 4f electrons has a filled subshell 4f/sub 5/2/ leading to a zero magnetic moment. But as the insulator in equilibrium metal I in equilibrium M transition exhibited with this phase transition, is explained through a valence change, we first consider the localized electron model proposed in the case of Fe3O4 to show that large variations of electrical resistivity of SmS and SmB6 also can be understood through this model. A result which allows us to consider the ion Sm2+ in both phases of SmS. 1 figure

  2. [The real-time FOCSDT detection method and conditions for dissolution test of metronidazole and vitamin B6 tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yang, Mei; Li, Xin-Xia; Chen, Jian

    2006-09-01

    A method to monitor the dissolution rate of drug on-line fiber optic chemical sensor dissolution test(FOCSDT) was studied. Bifurcated optical fiber was used to connect the light source and detector, and the common end was dipped in the dissolution vessel. The dissolution process could be monitored through computer. The results show that the high, middle and low concentration group's recovery of metronidazole is 100.8%, 99.8% and 100.6%; and RSD is 2.5, 0.8 and 1.1 respectively, The high, middle and low Concentration group's recovery of vitamin B6 is 98.8%, 100.8% and 98.8%; and RSD is 4.1, 4.1 and 2.5 respectively. This process of analysis can test the whole process of drug and get dissolution graph. The study shows that this process analysis can reflect the real dissolution of drug and obtain the total information. PMID:17112065

  3. Effect of particle size on the polycrystalline CeB6 cathode prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Lihong; ZHANG Jiuxing; ZHOU Shenlin

    2011-01-01

    The full densification polycrystalline cerium hexaboride (CeB6) cathode material was prepared by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method in an oxygen free system. The starting precursor nanopowders with an average grain size of 50 nm were prepared by high-energy ball milling. The ball-milled nanopowder was fully densified at 1550 ℃ under 50 MPa, which was about 350 ℃ lower than the conventional hot-pressing method and it was also lower than that of coarse powder under the same sintering condition. The mechanical properties of nanopowder sintered samples were significantly better than that of coarse powder, e.g., the flexural strength and Vickers hardness were 211% and 51% higher than that of coarse powder, respectively. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) result showed that the (100) fiber texture could be fabricated by the ball-milled nanopowder sintered at 1550 ℃ and the thermionic emission current density was measured to be 16.04 A/cm2 at a cathode temperature of 1873 K.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectral characterization and biological exploration of water soluble Cu(II) complexes of vitamin B6 derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaraj, B; Neelakantan, M A

    2015-09-18

    The synthesis and characterization of Copper(II) complexes of a Schiff base derived from vitamin B6 component (pyridoxal) and ethanol amine [CuL2] (1), and its mixed ligand complexes [Cu(L)(N,N')]NO3, where N,N' is bipyridine (2) and 1,10-phenanthroline (3) are reported, including the X-ray crystal structures of [CuL2] (1). The crystal structure of 1 has square planar geometry with ligand to the metal ratio 2:1. The molecules are assembled in 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonding interactions. DNA is considered as the major pharmacological target of metal based drugs, the objective of the present work includes the understanding of DNA binding mode of the synthesized compounds. The complexes bind with DNA through non intercalative interaction has been evidenced from the results of UV-Visible and fluorescence spectral titrations. It is further validated by molecular docking studies. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding studies revealed that the complexes can strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching mechanism. The complexes promote the DNA cleavage even in the absence of additives which follows the order 2 > 1 > 3. Further, the complexes show potential cytotoxicity towards human breast cancer cell MCF-7 and induce the cell death. PMID:26241872

  5. Crystallization behaviour and high coercivity of (Nd,Pr)13Fe80Nb1B6 melt-spun ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Pengju; LIU Xincai; PAN Jing; XU Feng; LI Yong; CUI Ping

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous (Nd,Pr)13Fe80Nb1B6 ribbons were crystallized at 670-730℃ for 5-25 min to study the effects of isothermal crystallization on their behavior and magnetic properties. XRD results indicate that the isothermal incubation time is 12, 5, and less than 5 min at 670, 700, and 730℃, respectively. High eoercivities, with the maximum value of iHc = 1616 kA/m at 700℃ for 19 min, measured by a physical measurement system, are obtained in the crystallized ribbons. This is mainly attributed to the addition of Pr and Nb, because Pr2Fe14B has a higher anisotropic field than Nd2Fe14B, and Nb enriched in the grain boundary regions can not only reduce the exchange-coupling effects among hard grains, but also impede grain growth during the crystallization process. In addition, it should also be related to the characteristics of the furnace that the authors designed.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  7. Directional anisotropy of magnetostriction and magnetic phase transition in Nd14 Dy2 Fe78 B6 solid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this research. The magnetic phase transition and anisotropic magnetoelastic effects of a polycrystalline sample of Nd14Dy2Fe78B6 were studied by susceptibility and magnetostriction measurements. The composition was prepared by casting method. SEM pictures and XRD analysis showed that it was composed of polycrystalline magnetic phases with the main phase of 2-14-1. Results of ac susceptibility measurements show that the sample undergoes a magnetic phase transition at about 130 K, which is due to a gradual spin reorientaion accompanied with crystal structure distortion. Magnetostriction measurements in three orthogonal directions of the main body of the sample were performed in the range of 77 K to 300 K and in the field up to 1.5 T. At temperatures below 125 K, the magnetostriction values in three orthogonal directions differ by a factor of two to three. This anisotropy in magnetostriction indicates preferential orientation of the crystalline grains in the volume of the sample. In addition, magnetostriction curves show minimum values near the phase transition temperature with different values in the different directions. Minimum values of magnetostriction can be explained by the critical behavior of the orbital magnetic moments of the Fe atoms at the phase transition temperature.

  8. Paulus als Schriftuitlegger Paulus’ vertolking van Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romeinen 4:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K. Baaij

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul as expositor of Scripture. Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romans 4:3 The author of this article has since 1986 been working exclusively on the translation and exegesis of the Epistle to the Romans. In the course of this work, he discovered that Paul first carefully considered his text in Biblical Hebrew before writing it accurately in Greek. It then transpires that “the difficult Paul” proclaimed the gospel of the crowning of the Law (10:4 with great clarity. The real Paul is pre-eminently the expositor of Scripture. Provided we use the instruments provided to the reader by Paul, we shall thus not only understand the proclamation of Paul better but also Scripture itself.  In this article the author illustrates that Paul in Romans 4:3 accurately renders what is written in Genesis 15:5b and 6. Paul teaches us to understand the Hebrew text better by indicating where the emphasis lies in the Hebrew text and how we must interpret the Hebrew terms used. For this reason Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b and 6 in Romans 4:3 is of great importance in the continually more topical debate on how we must translate the Bible.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  10. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy study of Kondo insulating thin film SmB6: evidence for an emergent surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Yong, Jie; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard; Averitt, Richard

    We utilize terahertz time domain spectroscopy to investigate thin films of the heavy fermion compound SmB6, a prototype Kondo insulator. Temperature dependent terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements reveal a rapid decrease in the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate at ~T* =20 K, well below the hybridization gap onset temperature (100 K). Moreover, a low-temperature conductivity plateau (below 20K) indicates the emergence of a surface state with an effective electron mass of 0.1me. Conductivity dynamics following optical excitation are also measured and interpreted using Rothwarf-Taylor (R-T) phenomenology, yielding a hybridization gap energy of 17 meV. However, R-T modeling of the conductivity dynamics reveals a deviation from the expected thermally excited quasiparticle density at temperatures below 20K, indicative of another channel opening up in the low energy electrodynamics. Taken together, these results suggest the onset of a surface state well below the crossover temperature (100K) after long-range coherence of the f-electron Kondo lattice is established. JZ and RDA acknowledge support from DOE - Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER46643, under which the THz measurements and data analysis were performed. JY, IT and RLG acknowledge support from ONR N00014-13-1-0635 and NSF DMR 1410665.

  11. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  12. Clinical significance of complement deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-09-01

    The complement system is composed of more than 30 serum and membrane-bound proteins, all of which are needed for normal function of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Historically, deficiencies within the complement system have been suspected when young children have had recurrent and difficult-to-control infections. As our understanding of the complement system has increased, many other diseases have been attributed to deficiencies within the complement system. Generally, complement deficiencies within the classical pathway lead to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections as well as a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement deficiencies within the mannose-binding lectin pathway generally lead to increased bacterial infections, and deficiencies within the alternative pathway usually lead to an increased frequency of Neisseria infections. However, factor H deficiency can lead to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, deficiencies within the terminal complement pathway lead to an increased incidence of Neisseria infections. Two other notable complement-associated deficiencies are complement receptor 3 and 4 deficiency, which result from a deficiency of CD18, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, and CD59 deficiency, which causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Most inherited deficiencies of the complement system are autosomal recessive, but properidin deficiency is X-linked recessive, deficiency of C1 inhibitor is autosomal dominant, and mannose-binding lectin and factor I deficiencies are autosomal co-dominant. The diversity of clinical manifestations of complement deficiencies reflects the complexity of the complement system. PMID:19758139

  13. Follow-up Efficacy of Integrative Chinese and Western Drugs on Localized Scleroderma with Vitamine B6 and Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction (血府逐阏汤)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-ling; SU You-ming; YANG Rong-ya; ZHANG Jie; XU Yang

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of vitamine B6 (Vit B6) and Xuefu Zhuyu Deoderma(LSD). Methods: Thirty-three patients were treated with XFZY and Vit B6, with 15 cases taking orally prednisone acetate and 20 healthy volunteers as the control. Their level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients with LSD before and after treatment were observed. Results: The level of sIL-2R and TNF-α in the serum from the patients with LSD were higher than those of healthy volunteers (P<0. 01). After treatment with Vit B6 and XFZY, the level of sIL-2R and TNF-αfrom the patients with LSD decreased significantly (P<0.01), but there were no difference between the group taking Vit B6 plus XFZY and the group given prednisone. Conclusion: The activating blood circulation to remove stasis approach in treating LSD with integrative Chinese and Western drugs got better results, and metabolic disorder of tryptophan might be correlated with the etiology of LSD.

  14. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  15. Microstructures of Fe77-xNixCu1Nb2P14B6 Soft Magnetic AlloysStudied by X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shi-Long; BIAN Qing; WEI Shi-Qiang

    2000-01-01

    Local structures of the mechanically alloyed Fe77-xNixCu1Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials have been in vestigated by x-ray absorption fine structure. The results show that mechanical alloying (MA) can drive the Fe77-xNixCu1Nb2P14B6 powder mixture to produce amorphous alloy when the atomic concentration of Fe ele ment is about and over 40%. On the contrary, the MA Fe77-xNixCu1Nb2P14B6 is a solid solution with an fcc-like structure in the region of lower Fe atomic concentration (< 22%), preserving a medium-range order around Ni and Fe atoms. Moreover, we have found that the local structure geometry of Fe atom is similar to that of Ni atom for all the MA Fer7-xNixCu1 Nb2P14B6 samples. It indicates that the local structures of Fe and Ni atoms in a Fe77-xNixCu1 Nb2P14B6 sample only depend on the x value of element Ni after ball milling.

  16. Early metabolomics changes in heart and plasma during chronic doxorubicin treatment in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Pence, Lisa; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L; George, Nysia; Cao, Zhijun; Yu, Li-Rong; Fuscoe, James C; Beger, Richard D; Desai, Varsha G

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify molecular markers of early stages of cardiotoxicity induced by a potent chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Male B6C3F1 mice were dosed with 3 mg kg(-1) DOX or saline via tail vein weekly for 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 weeks (cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18 or 24 mg kg(-1) , respectively) and euthanized a week after the last dose. Mass spectrometry-based and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry-based metabolic profiling were employed to identify initial biomarkers of cardiotoxicity before myocardial injury and cardiac pathology, which were not noted until after the 18 and 24 mg kg(-1) cumulative doses, respectively. After a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) , 18 amino acids and four biogenic amines (acetylornithine, kynurenine, putrescine and serotonin) were significantly increased in cardiac tissue; 16 amino acids and two biogenic amines (acetylornithine and hydroxyproline) were significantly altered in plasma. In addition, 16 acylcarnitines were significantly increased in plasma and five were significantly decreased in cardiac tissue compared to saline-treated controls. Plasma lactate and succinate, involved in the Krebs cycle, were significantly altered after a cumulative dose of 6 mg kg(-1) . A few metabolites remained altered at higher cumulative DOX doses, which could partly indicate a transition from injury processes at 2 weeks to repair processes with additional injury happening concurrently before myocardial injury at 8 weeks. These altered metabolic profiles in mouse heart and plasma during the initial stages of injury progression due to DOX treatment may suggest these metabolites as candidate early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Toxicity of divinylbenzene-55 for B6C3F1 mice in a two-week inhalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Mahler, J F; Wilson, R E; Moorman, M P; Price, H C; O'connor, R W

    1997-10-01

    Divinylbenzene (DVB) is a crosslinking monomer used primarily for copolymerization with styrene to produce ion-exchange resins. The toxicity of inhaled DVB was investigated because of the potential for worker exposure and the structural similarity of DVB to styrene, a potential carcinogen. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, or 75 ppm DVB for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 2 weeks. Six mice/sex/dose group were killed after 3, 5, and 10 exposures and six mice/sex in the 75 ppm group were killed 7 days after 10 exposures. The most severe effects occurred in the nasal cavity and liver, with less severe effects occurring in the kidneys. In the nasal cavity olfactory epithelium acute necrosis and inflammation were present at early time points followed by regeneration, architectural reorganization, and focal respiratory metaplasia by 7 days after the last exposure. Olfactory epithelial changes were concentration-dependent with extensive involvement at 75 ppm and peripheral sparing at 25 ppm. There was also necrosis and regeneration of olfactory-associated Bowman's glands as well as the lateral nasal (Steno's) glands. Hepatocellular centrilobular (CL) necrosis was observed only in the 75 ppm dose group and was similar to that caused by styrene. A time-dependent progression was observed, characterized by CL degeneration after 1 exposure, necrosis after 3 and 5 exposures, and chronic inflammation with CL karyomegaly after 10 exposures and 7 days after the 10th exposure. Hepatic GSH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In the kidneys, transient tubular damage was observed in some male mice exposed to 75 ppm, and appeared to be a response to DVB-induced tubular epithelial injury.

  18. Effects of in vitro fertilization and embryo culture on TRP53 and Bax expression in B6 mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chami Omar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the mouse, embryo culture results in a characteristic phenotype of retarded embryo preimplantation development and reduced numbers of cells within embryos. The expression of TRP53 is central to the regulation of the cell's capacity to proliferate and survive. In this study we found that Trp53 mRNA is expressed throughout the preimplantation stage of development. Levels of TRP53 protein expression were low during the cleavage stages and increased at the morula and blastocyst stages in B6 embryos collected from the reproductive tract. Embryos collected at the zygote stage and cultured for 96 h also showed low levels of TRP53 expression at precompaction stages. There were higher levels of TRP53 in cultured morula and the level in cultured blastocysts was clearly increased above blastocysts collected directly from the uterus. Immunolocalization of TRP53 showed that its increased expression in cultured blastocysts corresponded with a marked accumulation of TRP53 within the nuclei of embryonic cells. This pattern of expression was enhanced in embryos produced by in vitro fertilization and subjected to culture. The TRP53 was transcriptionally active since culture also induced increased expression of Bax, yet this did not occur in embryos lacking Trp53 (Trp53-/-. The rate of development of Trp53-/- zygotes to the blastocyst stage was not different to wildtype controls when embryos were cultured in groups of ten but was significantly faster when cultured individually. The results show that zygote culture resulted in the accumulation of transcription activity of TRP53 in the resulting blastocysts. This accounts for the adverse effects of culture of embryos individually, but does not appear to be the sole cause of the retarded preimplantation stage growth phenotype associated with culture in vitro.

  19. Structure, Raman and infrared spectroscopic properties of new nonlinear optical material Na3VO2B6O11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Dou, Renqin; Zhang, Deming; Zhang, Qingli; Yin, Shaotang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we report on the structure of Na3VO2B6O11 (NVBO) single crystals which were investigated by XRD, polarized Raman spectra in the range from 10 to 1600 cm-1 and infrared spectrum (IR) in the range from 100 to 1600 cm-1. Factor group analysis has been used to study the full vibrational representation of the crystal. More than 120 phonon modes have been obtained, which are related to Bsbnd O and Vsbnd O vibration in the trigonal planar BO3 triangle groups and tetrahedral BO4/VO4 groups. The high frequency bands located at 1300-1415 cm-1 are assigned to stretching modes of the trigonal planar BO3 groups. Moreover, intense Raman modes located at 631 cm-1 is related to BO3 bending vibration as well. The weak band at 1158 cm-1 (A1 mode) and strong band at 431 cm-1 (A1 mode) are attributed to asymmetric stretching and bending vibration mode of tetrahedral BO4 groups respectively. The vibrational band at 765-738 cm-1 in the Raman spectra of NVBO crystal maybe related to the breathing vibration of the boroxol ring consisting of two BO4 tetrahedra. In addition, we assigned the intense band 900 (A1 mode) and 831 cm-1 (B2 mode) are relative to the v1 symmetric stretching vibration of VO4 tetrahedra. And the middle intense band at 382 (A1 mode) and 385 (A2 mode) are due to Osbnd Vsbnd O vibration in VO4 tetrahedra.

  20. Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, widely used as an organic solvent in the industry, is a common contaminant in air, soil, and water. Chronic TCE exposure induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 5 days. After 5 days TCE treatment at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg b.w., a total of 431 differentially expressed genes were identified in mouse liver by microarray, of which 291 were up-regulated and 140 down-regulated. The expression changed genes were involved in key signal pathways including PPAR, proliferation, apoptosis and homologous recombination. Notably, the expression level of a number of vital genes involved in the regulation of DNA methylation, such as Utrf1, Tet2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, were dysregulated. Although global DNA methylation change was not detected in the liver of mice exposed to TCE, the promoter regions of Cdkn1a and Ihh were found to be hypo- and hypermethylated respectively, which correlated negatively with their mRNA expression changes. Furthermore, the gene expression and DNA methylation changes induced by TCE were dose dependent. The overall data indicate that TCE exposure leads to aberrant DNA methylation changes, which might alter the expression of genes involved in the TCE-induced liver tumorgenesis.

  1. Solid-liquid stable phase equilibria of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10+ H2O AND MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzong Meng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solubilities and the relevant physicochemical properties of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10 + H2O and MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there is one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions of the systems. The systems belong to a simple co-saturated type, and neither double salts nor solid solutions were found. Based on the extended HW model and its temperature-dependent equations, the single-salt Pitzer parameters β(0, β(1, β(2 and CØ for MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(B6O7(OH6, the mixed ion-interaction parameters θCl,B6O10, θSO4,B6O10, ΨMg,Cl,B6O10, ΨMg,SO4,B6O10 of the systems at 308.15 K were fitted, In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 308.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. Then the solubilities of the ternary systems are calculated. The calculated solubilities agree well with the experimental values.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  3. Improvement of biological nitrogen removal with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation bacterium Aquabacterium parvum B6 in an up-flow bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Li, Ang; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Ma, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Aquabacterium parvum strain B6 exhibited efficient nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation ability using nitrate as an electron acceptor. A continuous up-flow bioreactor that included an aerobic and an anoxic section was constructed, and strain B6 was added to the bioreactor as inocula to explore the application of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing (NDFO) efficiency in wastewater treatment. The maximum NRE (anoxic section) and TNRE of 46.9% and 79.7%, respectively, could be obtained at a C/N ratio of 5.3:1 in the influent with HRT of 17. Meanwhile, the taxonomy composition of the reactor was assessed, as well. The NDFO metabolism of strain B6 could be expected because of its relatively dominant position in the anoxic section, whereas potential heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification developed into the prevailing status in the aerobic section after 50days of continuous operation. PMID:27544912

  4. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (PB6. PMID:27054283

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI apu gene and purification and characterization of the amylopullulanase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M V; Podkovyrov, S M; Lowe, S E; Zeikus, J G

    1994-01-01

    The amylopullulanase gene (apu) of the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI was cloned into Escherichia coli. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. It encoded a protein consisting of 1,288 amino acids with a signal peptide of 35 amino acids. The enzyme purified from E. coli was a monomer with an M(r) of 142,000 +/- 2,000 and had same the catalytic and thermal characteristics as the native glycoprotein from T. saccharolyticum B6A. Linear alignment and the hydrophobic cluster analysis were used to compare this amylopullulanase with other amylolytic enzymes. Both methods revealed strictly conserved amino acid residues among these enzymes, and it is proposed that Asp-594, Asp-700, and Glu-623 are a putative catalytic triad of the T. saccharolyticum B6A-RI amylopullulanase.

  6. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CYP2B6 G516T AND THEIR IMPACT IN EFAVIRENZ BASED HAART: A META-ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mulugeta et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is recommended as part of first-line therapy in HIV-infected patients and prescribed at a standard dose of 600 mg once daily. EFV is extensively metabolized primarily by hepatic CYP2B6 with partial involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6. The aim of the study was to assess CYP 2B6 G516T polymorphism and their impact in efavirenz based therapy Methods: A computerized literature search was conducted using the Medline, PubMed, and High wire. Statistical analysis was conducted using comprehensive Meta analysis version 2 software.Result: From fifty four articles only twenty two articles were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria. The average frequency of CYP 2B6 G516T polymorphism, from forest plot of 7 studies, was around 30% which strengthened the idea of substantial number of this polymorphism. Most of the studies had high proportion of mutant allele and the average of the all is around 49%. The mean plasma efavirenz concentration among 516GG, 516 GT and 516 TT holders was 2.869 ± 0.294 µg/ml, 3.464 ± 0.276 µg/ml and 9.659 ± 1.262 µg/ml, respectively and it has significant association with genetic polymorphism of CYP 2B6 G516T. Conclusion: The most common type of CYP 2B6 polymorphism is CYP 2B6 G516T that have significant association with plasma efavirenz concentration. Having genetic test before drug starting is promising in HIV therapy to decrease side effects and to have better treatment outcome.

  7. Structural and biophysical characterization of human cytochromes P450 2B6 and 2A6 bound to volatile hydrocarbons: analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish B; Wilderman, P Ross; Liu, Jingbao; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2015-04-01

    X-ray crystal structures of complexes of cytochromes CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 with the monoterpene sabinene revealed two distinct binding modes in the active sites. In CYP2B6, sabinene positioned itself with the putative oxidation site located closer to the heme iron. In contrast, sabinene was found in an alternate conformation in the more compact CYP2A6, where the larger hydrophobic side chains resulted in a significantly reduced active-site cavity. Furthermore, results from isothermal titration calorimetry indicated a much more substantial contribution of favorable enthalpy to sabinene binding to CYP2B6 as opposed to CYP2A6, consistent with the previous observations with (+)-α-pinene. Structural analysis of CYP2B6 complexes with sabinene and the structurally similar (3)-carene and comparison with previously solved structures revealed how the movement of the F206 side chain influences the volume of the binding pocket. In addition, retrospective analysis of prior structures revealed that ligands containing -Cl and -NH functional groups adopted a distinct orientation in the CYP2B active site compared with other ligands. This binding mode may reflect the formation of Cl-π or NH-π bonds with aromatic rings in the active site, which serve as important contributors to protein-ligand binding affinity and specificity. Overall, the findings from multiple techniques illustrate how drugs metabolizing CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 handle a common hydrocarbon found in the environment. The study also provides insight into the role of specific functional groups of the ligand that may influence the binding to CYP2B6.

  8. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left. PMID:25759629

  9. Protective effects of vitamin B6 alone and in combination with L-cysteine and NaHS on ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Ashabi, Ardeshir; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of vitamin B6, cofactor for cystathionine-γ lyase and cystathionine-β synthase (producers of H2S), alone and in combination with L-cysteine, H2S precursor, on indomethacin-, and ethanol-induced gastric lesions in male NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Fasted male NMRI mice were randomly assigned into 12 groups (7 in each). The gastroprotective activity of vitamin B6 alone and in combination with L-cysteine and sodiu...

  10. Role of vitamin B6 status on antioxidant defenses, glutathione, and related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi-Chia; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 may directly or indirectly play a role in oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of vitamin B6 status with cysteine, glutathione, and its related enzyme activities in mice with homocysteine-induced oxidative stress.Design: Four-week-old male BALB/c mice were weighed and divided into one of four dietary treatment groups fed either a normal diet (as a control group and a homocysteine group),...

  11. Cloning and Sequencing of the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI apu Gene and Purification and Characterization of the Amylopullulanase from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The amylopullulanase gene (apu) of the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI was cloned into Escherichia coli. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. It encoded a protein consisting of 1,288 amino acids with a signal peptide of 35 amino acids. The enzyme purified from E. coli was a monomer with an M(r) of 142,000 +/- 2,000 and had same the catalytic and thermal characteristics as the native glycoprotein from T. saccharolyticum B6A....

  12. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Suever, Barbara L.; Shaurya Prakash, Ruchika; Colcombe, Stanley J.; McAuley, Edward; Arthur F Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamin B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamin B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized ...

  13. Aromatic L-Amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: A new case from Turkey with a novel mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivilcim Gucuyener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, a vitamin B6-requiring enzyme that converts L-dopa to dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin. Deficiency of this enzyme results in developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, dystonia, involuntary movements, autonomic dysfunction, and oculogyric crises. We now report a 2-year-old Turkish boy with AADC deficiency confirmed by greatly reduced AADC activity in the plasma and by genetic studies. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous mutation c.208C > T (p. His70Tyr in exon 3 of the AADC gene which has not been described to date.

  14. Potassium deficiency induces the biosynthesis of oxylipins and glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troufflard Stephanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral fertilization and pest control are essential and costly requirements for modern crop production. The two measures go hand in hand because plant mineral status affects plant susceptibility to pests and vice versa. Nutrient deficiency triggers specific responses in plants that optimize nutrient acquisition and reprogram metabolism. K-deficient plants illustrate these strategies by inducing high-affinity K-uptake and adjusting primary metabolism. Whether and how K deficient plants also alter their secondary metabolism for nutrient management and defense is not known. Results Here we show that K-deficient plants contain higher levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA, hydroxy-12-oxo-octadecadienoic acids (HODs and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA than K-sufficient plants. Up-regulation of the 13-LOX pathway in response to low K was evident in increased transcript levels of several biosynthetic enzymes. Indole and aliphatic glucosinolates accumulated in response to K-deficiency in a manner that was respectively dependent or independent on signaling through Coronatine-Insensitive 1 (COI1. Transcript and glucosinolate profiles of K-deficient plants resembled those of herbivore attacked plants. Conclusions Based on our results we propose that under K-deficiency plants produce oxylipins and glucosinolates to enhance their defense potential against herbivorous insects and create reversible storage for excess S and N.

  15. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  16. Characterization of hepatocellular resistance and susceptibility to styrene toxicity in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, J F; Price, H C; O'Connor, R W; Wilson, R F; Eldridge, S R; Moorman, M P; Morgan, D L

    1999-03-01

    Short-term inhalation exposure of B6C3F1 mice to styrene causes necrosis of centrilobular (CL) hepatocytes. However, in spite of continued exposure, the necrotic parenchyma is rapidly regenerated, indicating resistance by regenerated cells to styrene toxicity. These studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that resistance to repeated styrene exposure is due to sustained cell proliferation, with production of hepatocytes that have reduced metabolic capacity. Male mice were exposed to air or 500 ppm styrene (6 h/day); hepatotoxicity was evaluated by microscopic examination, serum liver enzyme levels, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling index (LI). Metabolism was assessed by measurement of blood styrene and styrene oxide. Both single and repeated exposures to styrene resulted in mortality by Day 2; in mice that survived, there was CL necrosis with elevated BrdU LI at Day 6, and complete restoration of the necrotic parenchyma by Day 15. The BrdU LI in mice given a single exposure had returned to control levels by Day 15. Re-exposure of these mice on Day 15 resulted in additional mortality and hepatocellular necrosis, indicating that regenerated CL cells were again susceptible to the cytolethal effect of styrene following a 14-day recovery. However, in mice repeatedly exposed to styrene for 14 days, the BrdU LI remained significantly increased on Day 15, with preferential labeling of CL hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei (karyomegaly). If repeated exposures were followed by a 10-day recovery period, CL karyomegaly persisted, but the BrdU LI returned to control level and CL hepatocytes became susceptible again to styrene toxicity as demonstrated by additional mortality and acute necrosis after a challenge exposure. These findings indicated a requirement for continued styrene exposure and DNA synthesis in order to maintain this resistant phenotype. Analyses of proliferating-cell nuclear-antigen (PCNA) labeling were conducted to further characterize the cell cycle

  17. Comparison of methods of identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 mice used in a carcinogenesis bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; MacGregor, J A; Shen, Z; Li, X; Lewis, R; Dangler, C A

    1998-05-01

    In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of carcinogenic activity, was also noted in female mice. However, H. hepaticus was not considered a complicating factor, because the livers of the female mice did not have histological features compatible with H. hepaticus infection. A retrospective analysis of 51 liver tissue samples from the original carcinogenicity study was conducted to determine the incidence of H. hepaticus infection and to evaluate different diagnostic approaches for assessing the presence of H. hepaticus in livers lacking characteristic lesions. In an initial evaluation of seven mice with liver tumors, argyrophilic bacteria resembling H. hepaticus were observed in liver sections, associated with characteristic liver lesions of hepatocytic karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. Frozen liver tissue was available from four of these mice; all were confirmed to be infected with H. hepaticus by culture and PCR. In a larger subsequent analysis using frozen liver tissues from 44 mice without characteristic hepatic lesions, H. hepaticus-specific DNA was amplified from the livers of 21 of 44 of the mice (47%), compared to 14 of 44 of the mice (32%) having H. hepaticus cultured from their frozen liver tumors. The results of H. hepaticus culture and H. hepaticus-specific PCR concurred (i.e., both positive and negative results) in 84% of the cases. Microscopic detection of immunofluorescence-labeled or silver-stained bacteria in liver sections was relatively insensitive compared to either culture or PCR detection. This

  18. Iodine Deficiency and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sviridonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is а vital microelements that are essential for the normal human development and functions. Iodine deficiency is a global problem: about 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from a lack of iodine. Despite goiter is the most visually noticeable manifestation of iodine deficiency, the most significant consequence of the iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. Moreover, moderate to severe iodine deficiency increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and infant mortality. Babies in utero affected by iodine deficiency are at increased risk of mental developmental disorders, cretinism is their extreme degree. In addition, moderate to severe iodine deficiency in childhood negatively affects somatic growth. Iodine deficiency compensation improves cognitive and motor function in children. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations is an extremely effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  19. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2-3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....