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Sample records for b2 b6 b12

  1. Plasma Vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and Related Genetic Variants as Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Demosthenes; Katsoulis, Michael; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Skeie, Guri; Munoz, Xavier; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; VanGuelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background: B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer. Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and colorectal cancer are scarce or inconclusive. Methods: We carried out a neste

  2. Determination of Vitamin B1,B2,B6 and B12 in Qingda Vitamin B Capsules by HPLC%庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2B6B12的HPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉梅; 郭澄

    2008-01-01

    建立HPLC法测定庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2B6B12的含量.采用C18柱,乙腈-10mmol/L磷酸二氢钾(pH 3.2)为流动相,梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm.维生素B1、B2B6B12分别在50~150、20~60、20~60和0.5~1.5μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为101.9%、98.1%、99.6%和99.4%.

  3. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Halkjaer, J.; van Gils, C. H.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Ericson, U.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Waaseth, M.; Skeie, G.; Khaw, K. T.; Travis, R.; Ferrari, P.; Sanchez, M. J.; Agudo, A.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Weikert, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Evangelista, A.; Zylis, D.; Tsiotas, K.; Manjer, J.; van Guelpen, B.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Betw

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Vitamin B2 ,B6, B12 and Vitamin C at Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%多壁碳纳米管修饰电极同时测定维生素B2B6B12和维生素C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向伟; 李将渊; 马曾燕

    2007-01-01

    制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰玻碳电极(MWNT/GCE),研究了维生素B2B6B12和维生素C共存时在该电极上的电化学行为.实验发现,在HAc-NaAc缓冲溶液中,该电极可同时测定以上四种维生素,线性范围分别为1.0×10-6~1.0×10-4 mol/L、5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L、5.0×10-5~7.5×10-4 mol/L和5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L,其检出限分别为7.0×10-7 mol/L、1.0×10-5 mol/L、2.5×10-5 mol/L和5.0×10-6 mol/L.样品分析的RSD分别为1.66%、1.71%、2.26%和1.46%.方法简便快捷,可用于四种维生素同时分析测定.

  5. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  6. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  7. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  8. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and vitamin B(6) dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 microg), vitamin B(12) (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA

  9. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2002-01-01

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  10. Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari

    2009-04-27

    A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine.

  11. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  12. Genome-wide association study of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an independent sample of 687 participants in the Progetto Nutrizione study. Polymorphisms in the ALPL gene (rs4654748, p = 8.30 x 10(-18)) were associated with vitamin B6 and FUT2 (rs602662, [corrected] p = 2.83 x 10(-20)) with vitamin B12 serum levels. The association of MTHFR, a gene consistently associated with homocysteine, was confirmed in this meta-analysis. The ALPL gene likely influences the catabolism of vitamin B6 while FUT2 interferes with absorption of vitamin B12. These findings highlight mechanisms that affect vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and homocysteine serum levels.

  13. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1), nicotinamide (B3), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6) and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12) was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VI...

  14. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Elizabeth Masko; Allott, Emma H.; Kathryn Shuler; Megan McPhail; Alexis Gaines; Elizabeth Calloway; Leah Gerber; Jen-Tsan Chi; Freedland, Stephen J; Cathrine Hoyo

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regr...

  15. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Holly Ruth; Cramer, Daniel William; Vitonis, Allison F.; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic s...

  16. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  17. EFFET DES VITAMINES B12, B9 ET B6 ET LEURS INTERACTIONS SUR LA FRAGILITE OSMOTIQUE DES ERYTHROCYTES HUMAINS

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    B HOUCHER

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L’effet des vitamines B12, B9 et B6 sur la fragilité osmotique des érythrocytes humains a été exploré in vitro. De fortes concentrations de vitamines B12 et B6 ont protégé les érythrocytes de l’hémolyse hypotonique, avec une protection maxima atteinte respectivement à 10 et 500 µg/ml. A concentrations plus faibles, cependant, ces vitamines ont favorisé grandement l’hémolyse hypotonique. Par contre, la vitamine B9 a montré uniquement un effet hémolytique de 4 à 200 µg/ml. Cet effet peut être expliqué par la nature acide de la molécule. L’effet nul sur la fragilité osmotique de deux vitamines antagonistes, peut probablement être expliqué par l’antagonisme partiel ou par la présence de ces deux vitamines simultanément: ces dernières se lient en quantités appréciables à la cellule intacte de même qu’à l’hémolysat et il y’ a compétition mutuelle entre ces vitamines et leur transport.

  18. Plasma folate but not vitamin B(12) or homocysteine concentrations are reduced after short-term vitamin B(6) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Holzapfel, A; Czech, N; Müller, M J

    2001-01-01

    Adverse effects of high vitamin B(6) intake include peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies focussing on the reduction of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease showed that vitamin B(6) reduces plasma folate levels. The significance of this finding is unclear. We therefore analyzed plasma folate and basal homocysteine levels as well as the response to an oral methionine loading test in 8 healthy individuals before and after a controlled supplementation with oral doses of 25 mg pyridoxine for 10 days. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate increased from 40.6 +/- 13.6 to 426.8 +/- 200.3 nmol/l (p < 0.001), whereas plasma folate decreased from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 4.6 +/-1.5 ng/ml (p < 0.01), respectively. Plasma vitamin B(12) and basal homocysteine levels remained unchanged (234.0 +/- 27.8 vs. 217.1 +/- 50.4 pg/ml and 10.9 +/- 4.8 vs. 10.1 +/- 3.6 micromol/l). There was no significant effect of vitamin B(6) supplementation on the area under methionine and homocysteine concentration versus time curve. Significant correlations were found between pre- and post-supplement levels of folate as well as PLP levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.05; r = 0.75, p < 0.05). These data suggest that a dose of 25 mg vitamin B(6) supplemented for 10 days reduces plasma folate but did not affect basal and postprandial homocysteine levels suggesting (1) a normal cellular availability of folate or (2) a compensation of impaired homocysteine remethylation by increased transsulfuration.

  19. Folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in adolescence: serum concentrations, prevalence of inadequate intakes and sources in food

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Steluti; Martini, Lígia A; Barbara S. E. Peters; MARCHIONI, Dirce M. L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão dietética de folato e das vitaminas B6 e B12, identificando os alimentos contribuintes para a ingestão desses nutrientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de 16 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, conduzido em Indaiatuba (SP). Coletou-se o registro alimentar de 3 dias não consecutivos. A dieta habitual foi estimada pela remoção da variabilidade intrapessoal, e a prevalência de inadequação da...

  20. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9 The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73. The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR =6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8, compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR =0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92 (p-interaction =0.045. There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6 and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  1. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  2. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  3. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Keith L; Wei-Min eChen; Fang eChen; Stephen Richardson Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Fang-Chi eHsu; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberley F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Hua eLing; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC) measures re...

  4. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Keith L; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Stephen R Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality...

  5. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  6. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L Keene

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  7. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  8. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  9. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  10. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  11. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 ...

  12. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2010-01-01

    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...... of FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  13. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression: Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W J; Bockting, Claudi L H; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, François; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2015-10-30

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and structural FA-indices (chain length, unsaturation, peroxidation)]. Results show significant positive associations of folate with EPA, DHA, and the peroxidation index, which were similar in patients and controls. After correction for confounders, these associations were lost except for EPA. Associations between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters of one-carbon and FA-metabolism in recurrent MDD patients vs. controls, which may reflect differences in handling of oxidative stress. Further research should test the consequences of these differences, particularly the premature development of CVD in MDD.

  14. Accurate prediction of hard-sphere virial coefficients B6 to B12 from a compressibility-based equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We derive an analytical equation of state for the hard-sphere fluid that is within 0.01% of computer simulations for the whole range of the stable fluid phase. In contrast, the commonly used Carnahan-Starling equation of state deviates by up to 0.3% from simulations. The derivation uses the functional form of the isothermal compressibility from the Percus-Yevick closure of the Ornstein-Zernike relation as a starting point. Two additional degrees of freedom are introduced, which are constrained by requiring the equation of state to (i) recover the exact fourth virial coefficient B4 and (ii) involve only integer coefficients on the level of the ideal gas, while providing best possible agreement with the numerical result for B5. Virial coefficients B6 to B10 obtained from the equation of state are within 0.5% of numerical computations, and coefficients B11 and B12 are within the error of numerical results. We conjecture that even higher virial coefficients are reliably predicted.

  15. The effect of melatonin and/or complex vitamin B1,B6,B12 in modulating epinephrine-induced stress in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yossef EL-Toweissy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the modulating effects of intramuscular administration of melatonin (MT(1mg/ kg and/or Tri-B (B 1 , B 6 and B 12 (20mg/kg on body weight and some biochemical changes in rats induced by Epinephrine (Epi injection. The data showed that MT and/or Tri-B treatment effectively improved the changes in malondialdehyde, lipid profile, blood sugar level and insulin. MT and/or Tri-B administration following Epi improved partially the decrease in body weight and liver glycogen levels. Tri B injection following Epi partialy improved all the tested parameters except malondialdehyde and blood sugar level that completely improved in stressed rats. It was evident that a combination of MT and vitamin B complex had protective actions and further it was better than either of them introduced alone in stressed rats. The possible interaction between MT and Tri B provided further support to MT synergistic actions with the aim of advocating MT and Tri B as a possible synergistic therapy.

  16. Dietary Intake of Folate, but not Vitamin B(2) or B (12), Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density 5 Years after the Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P;

    2008-01-01

    on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B(2,) and vitamin B(12), as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study......, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B(2), and vitamin B(12) were 417 (range 290-494) mug/day, 2.70 (range 1......Folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), and vitamin B(12 )may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data...

  17. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, J.E.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Korosi, A.; Lucassen, P.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Schierbeek, H.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrie

  18. Prevalence of metilentetrahidrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, consumption of vitamins B6, B9, B12 and determination of lipidic hydroperoxides in obese and normal weight Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hernández-Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxidative stress is a key factor in the development of the principal comorbidities of obesity. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme (MTHFR participates in the metabolism of folate with the action of vitamins B6 and B12. The gene of MTHFR may present a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 677 (C677T, which can promote homocysteinemia associated to the production of free radicals. Objective: To determine the frequency of SNP C677T of the MTHFR, evaluate the consumption of vitamins B6, B9, B12 and determine the concentration of plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH in obese and control groups. Methods: 128 Mexican mestizo according to their body mass index were classified as normal weight (Nw; n = 75 and obesity (ObeI-III; n = 53. Identification of SNP C677T of MTHFR was performed by PCR-RFLP technic. The consumption of vitamins B6, B9 and B12 was assessed by a validate survey. LOOH was determined as an indicator of peripheral oxidative stress. Results: There was no statistical difference in the frequency of the C677T polymorphism between the TT homozygous genotype in Nw (0.19 and ObeI-III (0.25. The frequency of T allele in Nw was 0.45 and 0.51 in ObI-III group. There were no statistical differences in the consumption of vitamins B6, B9 and B12 between Nw and ObI-III groups. The LOOH showed statistical difference (p < 0.05 between Nw and ObI-III group. Discussion: Oxidative stress is present in all grades of obesity although there were no differences in the vitamin consumption and the SNP C677T between Nw and ObeI-III groups.

  19. The role of vitamin B6 as an antioxidant in the presence of vitamin B2-photogenerated reactive oxygen species. A kinetic and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera, José; Massad, Walter; García, Norman A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the photostability of a mixture of vitamins B6 and B2 (riboflavin, Rf) upon visible light irradiation and on the possible role of the vitamin B6 family (B6D) as deactivators of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The work is a systematic kinetic and mechanistic study under conditions in which only Rf absorbs photoirradiation. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal hydrochloride, pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine dihydrochloride were studied as representative members of the vitamin B6 family. The visible light irradiation of dissolved Rf and B6D in pH 7.4 aqueous medium under aerobic conditions induces photoprocesses that mainly produce B6D degradation. The overall oxidative mechanism involves the participation of ROS. Photogenerated (3)Rf* is quenched either by oxygen, giving rise to O(2)((1)Δ(g)) by electronic energy transfer to dissolved ground state oxygen, or by B6D yielding, through an electron transfer process, the neutral radical RfH˙, and O(2)˙(-) in an subsequent step. B6D act as quenchers of O(2)((1)Δ(g)) and O(2)˙(-), the former in a totally reactive event that also inhibits Rf photoconsumption. The common chromophoric moiety of B6D represented by 3-hydroxypyridine, constitutes an excellent model that mimics the kinetic behavior of the vitamin as an antioxidant towards Rf-generated ROS. The protein lysozyme, taken as an O(2)((1)Δ(g))-mediated oxidizable biological target, is photoprotected by B6D from Rf-sensitized photodegradation through the quenching of electronically excited triplet state of the pigment, in a process that competes with O(2)((1)Δ(g)) generation.

  20. Folato, B6 e B12 na adolescência: níveis séricos, prevalência de inadequação de ingestão e alimentos contribuintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Steluti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão dietética de folato e das vitaminas B6 e B12, identificando os alimentos contribuintes para a ingestão desses nutrientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de 16 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, conduzido em Indaiatuba (SP. Coletou-se o registro alimentar de 3 dias não consecutivos. A dieta habitual foi estimada pela remoção da variabilidade intrapessoal, e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão, pelo método da estimated average requirement como ponto de corte. As análises bioquímicas de folato, B6 e B12 foram conduzidas de acordo com os métodos aceitos na literatura. RESULTADOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 99 adolescentes, a maioria do sexo feminino (58,6%, com média de idade de 17,6 (desvio padrão, DP 0,9 anos. As médias da concentração sérica de folato, B6 e B12 foram de 9,2 (DP 3,4 ng/mL, 18,7 (DP 5,1 nmol/L e 397,5 (DP 188,4 pg/mL, respectivamente; e a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão das vitaminas foi de 15,2, 10,2 e < 1%, respectivamente. Os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a ingestão dos nutrientes foram, para folato: pão francês, macarrão e feijões; para B6: arroz branco, carne de frango e carne bovina; e para B12: carne bovina magra, leite integral e carne bovina gorda. CONCLUSÕES: As prevalências de inadequação de folato, B6 e B12 mostraram-se baixas, possivelmente em decorrência da melhoria do acesso e da disponibilidade de alimentos, fontes dietéticas das vitaminas. Os feijões, presentes na dieta tradicional brasileira, ainda estão entre os principais alimentos que contribuíram para a ingestão de folato, mesmo após a fortificação mandatória com ácido fólico no Brasil.

  1. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease%联用叶酸、维生素B6和维生素B12降低同型半胱氨酸水平影响心血管疾病风险的荟萃分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李彬; 齐娟飞; 沈波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of folic acid,vitamin B6 and B12 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease.Methods The databases,including Embase,Pubmed,Ovid,Biosis,China National Knowledge Infra-structure(CNKI),Wanfang Data,VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP),Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CMB),were searched to identify random control trials between February 1994 to February 2014 on the effect of folic acid,vitamin B6 and B12 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease.The screening,data extraction and quality assessment were conducted in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers independently.The software Review Manager 5.2 was used.Funnel plots and Egger's regression test were applied to evaluate the publication bias.Results Data from 12 studies including 34 481 patients were analyzed using a fixed-effects model.Funnel plot and Egger's test(P > 0.10) confirmed the absence of publication bias.No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected on testing after excluding the sources of heterogeneity (chi-square test,I2 < 50%).Baseline homocysteine levels were similar between the placebo and folic acid,vitamin B6 and B12 groups (all P > 0.05).Mean homocysteine levels were significantly lower with folic acid,vitamin B6 and B12 therapy compared with placebo during follow-up (all P < 0.05).The pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals of outcomes for patients treated with folic acid,vitamin B6 and B12 supplementation compared with placebo were 0.98 (0.93-1.03) for cardiovascular event,0.97 (0.87-1.07) for coronary artery disease,1.00 (0.92-1.08) for myocardial infarction and 0.92(0.82-1.03) for cardiovascular death.Conclusions Folic aicd combined with vitamin B6 and B12 treatment significantly reduced plasma homocysteine level,but did not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease.Thus,folic acid combined with

  2. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.;

    2002-01-01

    In this study different simulated meal-service systems were compared with respect to vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 retention, and cooking yield in pork roasts. Initially the roasts were cooked traditionally or sous vide. No significant differences were observed between cooking methods. Further...... processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  3. A novel spectral resolution and simultaneous determination of multicomponent mixture of Vitamins B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac in tablets and capsules by derivative and MCR-ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha A; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fayed, Ahmed S

    2015-04-05

    A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.

  4. 叶酸、维生素B12B6联合使用对心脑血管病发生风险影响随机对照试验的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on effect of combined supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 on risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in randomized control trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰欣; 党少农; 赵亚玲; 颜虹; 严惠

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价联合补充叶酸、维生素B12B6对心脑血管疾病发生风险的影响.方法 检索1980-2014年有关补充叶酸、维生素B12B6与心脑血管疾病发生关系的随机对照试验文献,筛选符合条件的研究.研究指标包括心脑血管疾病事件、心肌梗死及中风,效应指标为反映发生风险的相对危险度(RR)及其95%CI.运用Meta分析方法进行效应综合,并做亚组分析和敏感性分析.采用Jadad评分对文献质量进行评价.结果 共纳入11项随机对照试验研究,包含26 395名研究对象.有8项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用对心脑血管疾病事件的发生无显著影响(RR=1.00,95%CI:0.94~ 1.07);9项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用对心肌梗死的发生无显著影响(RR=1.03,95%CI:0.94~ 1.13).9项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用可使中风的发生风险降低14%(RR=0.86,95%CI:0.78 ~ 0.95).维生素B合剂组与对照组同型半胱氨酸水平比较,联合服用叶酸、维生素B12B6能使同型半胱氨酸水平降低2.53 μtmol/L(95%CI:-3.93 ~-1.12);亚组分析显示,随访时间、维生素剂量、疾病史均对心脑血管疾病事件的研究结论无显著影响;而中风的亚组分析显示,随着随访时间延长,补充B族维生素能降低中风的发生风险,叶酸和维生素B12在小剂量下预防中风的作用更为显著,而维生素B6随着剂量的增加效果显著,有心脑血管病史者联合补充B族维生素降低中风风险的效果较好.结论 联合补充叶酸、维生素B12B6对心脑血管疾病事件、心肌梗死的发生无显著影响,但可以降低中风发生的风险和同型半胱氨酸的水平.%Objective To evaluate the effect of the combined supplementation of folic acid,vitamin B12 and B6 on the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases.Methods The literatures of randomized control trials about the relationship between the combined supplementation

  5. Prevalence of metilentetrahidrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, consumption of vitamins B6, B9, B12 and determination of lipidic hydroperoxides in obese and normal weight Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Romo-Palafox, Inés; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Mary Carmen; Iturbe-García, Mariana; Texcahua-Salazar, Alejandra; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha

    2013-11-01

    Introducción. El estrés oxidativo es un factor clave en el inicio y el desarrollo de las comorbilidades de la obesidad. La enzima metiltetrahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR) participa en el metabolismo del folato con la acción de las vitaminas B9 y B12. El gen MTHFR puede presentar un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) en la posición 677 (C677T), que puede promover homocisteinemia asociada a la producción de radicales libres. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia del SNP C677T de la MTHFR, evaluar el consumo de vitaminas B6, B9, B12 y determinar la concentración de hidroperóxidos lipídicos (LOOH) en plasma en un grupo de obesos y testigo. Métodos. Se clasificaron 128 mexicanos mestizos de acuerdo a su índice de masa corporal en normopeso (Nw; n=75) y obesidad (ObeI-III; n=53). Se identificó el SNP C677T de la MTHFR mediante la técnica de PCR-RFLP. El consumo de vitaminas B6, B9 y B12 se evaluó mediante una encuesta validada. Se determinaron LOOH como un indicador de estrés oxidativo periférico. Resultados. No hubo diferencia estadística significativa en la frecuencia del polimorfismo C677T entre homocigotos TT en Nw (0.19) y ObeI-III (0.25). La frecuencia del alelo T en Nw fue de 0.45, y 0.51 en el grupo ObeI-III. Los LOOH mostraron diferencia estadística significativa (p.

  6. Preditores dietéticos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo Examinar a correlação entre fatores dietéticos, obtidos por questionário de freqüência alimentar (QFA) validado, e concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína (hcy), ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de São Paulo. População e métodos Foram analisados os dados dietéticos de 1.434 mulheres de 21 a 65 anos de um estudo caso-controle sobre consumo alimentar e lesões neoplásicas do colo uterino realizado em três hospitais públicos da cidade de São Paulo, excluindo-se o...

  7. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30μL plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in lactating mothers and developing offspring.

  8. Application of Artificial Neural Network to Simultaneous Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Vitamin B1,B2 and B6%人工神经网络-荧光光谱法同时测定维生素B1,B2,B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴根华; 何池洋

    2003-01-01

    应用人工神经网络原理,以Levenberg-Marquardt BP算法对荧光光谱严重重叠的维生素B1,B2,B6三组份混合体系同时进行了含量测定.在390~520 nm的范围内,以15个特征波长处的荧光强度值作为网络特征参数,并通过均匀设计安排样本,经网络训练和计算得出维生素B1,B2,B6三者的平均回收率分别为99.86%,99.60%,99.49%,测定结果的相对标准偏差各为1.7%,1.6%,1.7%.

  9. HPLC法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、B2B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Compound Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀梅; 祖述春

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱:Wondasil C18色谱柱,流动相为醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液(pH 4.5)-甲醇(65∶35),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为270 nm.结果 维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6浓度分别在0.6 μg·mL-1~0.75 mg·mL-1、0.3 μg·mL-1~0.62 mg·mL-1、80~415 μg·mL1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好.结论 该方法简便、快速、准确可靠,可用于复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量测定.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF VITAMINS B1, B2 AND B6 IN MULTIVITAMIN TABLET AND BIOLOGICAL FLUID BY RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himesh Soni*, A.K. Singhai, Kaushelendra Mishra & Sarvesh Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivitamin tablets containing various substances of varying characteristics may have a problem in quantitative analysis. This research has developed HPLC method for simultaneous determination of three vitamin components that is thiamine (Vit. B1, riboflavin (Vit. B2 and pyridoxine (Vit. B3 in tablet formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using a C-18 column with dimension of 4.6 mm I.D.X 250 mm and particle size of 5μm. A mixture of methanol: water (22:78 was used as mobile phase. The aqueous mobile phase contained O- phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 2.5, with flow rate of 1mL/min. The effluent was monitored at 290 nm at ambient temperature. Effective separation and quantification was achieved in less than 10 min. The method was simple, accurate, precise, and could be successfully applied for the analysis of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine multivitamin tablets. The HPLC results revealed that % vitamins were found to be for B1, B2 and B6 respectively in marketed multivitamin formulation. HPLC analysis of biological fluid (urine showed that % Vit.B1 in 2, 4, 6 hrs were found to be 0.69, 0.12 and 0.015.

  11. PERBANDINGAN ANALISIS KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI ELUASI GRADIEN DENGAN ISOKRATIK PADA PENENTUAN VITAMIN B1, B2 DAN B6 DALAM SEDIAAN SIRUP MULTIVITAMIN SECARA SIMULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Kasih Ariani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Vitamin B terutama B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, dan B6 (Piridoksin sering terkandung dalam sirup multivitamin sehingga diperlukan analisis untuk mendeteksi secara simultan dalam campuran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan analisis vitamin B1, B2, dan B6 dalam sirup multivitamin secara simultan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi eluasi gradien dan isokratik, menggunakan kolom C18, panjang 15 cm, dan dengan pelarut campuran metanol: air : asam asetat glasial (10:90:1. Fase gerak adalah campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dalam asam asetat glasial 0,5% dengan metanol yang dicampur secara gradien. Kondisi optimum metode gradien diperoleh pada laju alir 2,0 mL/menit, panjang gelombang 280 nm dengan waktu retensi 3,441 menit untuk piridoksin; 4,985 menit untuk riboflavin dan 7,393 menit untuk tiamin dengan resolusi 2,272 antara riboflavin dan piridoksin. Hasil uji presisi riboflavin dan piridoksin menggunakan metode isokratik (campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dengan metanol dengan perbandingan 70 : 30 masing-masing dengan RSD adalah 1,377 dan 1,376 sedangkan metode gradien adalah 0,693 dan 0,825. Uji linearitas ketiga vitamin menggunakan dua metode isokratik dan gradien memenuhi persyaratan dengan R2 = 0,999. Kata kunci : Vitamin B, sirup multivitamin, kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to compare the simultaneous analytical results of B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, and B6 (Piridoxin in multivitamin syrup between gradient and isocratic methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The separation was performed on 15 cm length of C18 column and a mixture of methanol, water and glacial acetate acid with ratio of 10:90:1 was used as solvent. The eluent was a mixture of methanol and 5 mM sodium hexane sulfonate in 0.5% glacial acetate acid and gradually mixed using 2 different pumps. The optimal analytical conditions for gradient method were found to be 2,0 mL/min of flow rate and

  12. HPLC法测定复方吡拉西坦脑蛋白水解物片中维生素B1、B2B6含量%Determination of Vitamin B1 , B2 and B6 in Compound Piracetam and Cerebroprotein Hydryolysate Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of vitamin B1,B2 and B6 in compound piracetam and cerebroprotein hydryolysate tablets.Method:The determination was performed on an Insteril ODS-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5μm) at 30℃ with the detection wavelength at 280 nm.The mobile phase was composed of 0.01 mol · L-1 sodium heptanesulfonate solution (containing 0.25% triethylamine and the pH value was adjusted to 3.8 by glacial acetic acid) and methanol(75∶ 25)with a flow rate of 1.0 ml · min-1.Result:Vitamin B1,B2 and B6 was in good linearity within the range of 3.98-99.40 μg · ml-1(r =0.999 7),4.08-101.91 μg · ml-1 (r =0.999 9) and 2.08-52.00 μg · ml-1 (r =0.999 9),respectively.The mean recovery was 99.18%,99.53% and 99.27% with RSD of 0.60%,0.67% and 0.71% (n =9),respectively.Conclusion:The method is simple,accurate and reliable,and appropriate for the quality control of vitamin B1,B2 and B6 in compound piracetam and cerebroprotein hydryolysate tablets.%目的:建立HPLC法测定复方吡拉西坦脑蛋白水解物片中维生素B1、维生素B2和维生素B6含量的方法.方法:采用Insteril ODS-3色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相:0.01 mol·L-1庚烷磺酸钠(含0.25%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH至3.8)-甲醇(75∶ 25),柱温30℃,检测波长为280 nm,流速:1.0 ml·min-1.结果:维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6分别在3.98~99.40 μg· ml-1(r =0.999 7)、4.08 ~ 101.91μg·ml-1(r =0.999 9)、2.08~52.00 μg· ml-1(r =0.999 9)范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为99.18%、99.53%、99.27%,RSD分别为0.60%、0.67%、0.71%(n=9).结论:本法简便、快速、准确,可用于复方吡拉西坦脑蛋白水解物片中维生素B1、维生素B2和维生素B6的含量测定.

  13. Determination Based on Chemometrics Spectral Geminated Vitamin B1, B2 and B6%基于化学计量法对荧光光谱重叠的维生素B1、B2B6的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛永林; 高玲; 任守信

    2011-01-01

    A DOSC-WPT-PLS method based on partial least squares (PLS) regression with direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) and wavelet packet transform ( WPT) as preprocessed tools was proposed for the simultaneous fluorespectrophotometric determination of Vitamin B1 , vitamin B2 and vitamin B6. A program (PDOSCWPTPLS) was designed to execute the relative calculations. Three chemometric methods (DOSC-WPT-PLS, WPT-PLS and PLS) were compared in this study. The relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) obtained for all components with DOSC-WPT-PLS, WPT-PLS and PLS were 2. 29% , 4. 23% and 5.36% , respectively. Experimental results showed that the DOSC-WPT-PLS method was successful and had advantages over the WPT-PLS and PLS. The method was applied to determine the contents of vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 in the tap water with satisfactory results and their recoveries were 93. 4% ~ 109. 2% , 91.0% ~105.2% and 94.7% ~ 107.7%, respectively.%利用直接正交信号校正( DOSC)-小波包变换(WPT)-偏最小二乘法(PLS)(DOSC-WPT-PLS)新方法对荧光光谱严重重叠的维生素B1、B2B6三组分混合体系进行了同时测定.设计了 PDOSCWPTPLS程序执行相关计算,并将三种化学计量学方法(DOSC-WPT-PLS、WPT-PLS和PLS)进行了比较.三种维生素B的总体相对预测标准偏差分别为2.29% 、4.23%和5.36%.结果表明DOSC-WPT-PLS法是成功的且优于WPT-PLS 法和PLS法.将该法用于测定自来水中的维生素B1、B2B6的含量其回收率分别为93.4%~109.2%、91.0%~105.2%、94.7%~ 107.7%,获得了满意的结果.

  14. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  15. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  16. HPLC 法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量%Determination of Nicotinamide, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu Capsules (15) by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟姣; 唐湘伟; 黄莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中的烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法:采用Boston Green ODS C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.941 g,加冰乙酸10 ml,加水1 000 ml溶解,用NaOH试液调节pH至3.8)-甲醇(70:30);进样量:20 μl;检测波长为280 nm;柱温:30℃;流速1.0 ml·min-1.结果:烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6分别在38.83~349.44,9.88~88.94,4.03~36.25,3.97~35.77 μg·ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999 6);平均回收率分别为98.7%(RSD=0.89%),98.7%(RSD=1.03%),99.0%(RSD=1.03%),99.8%(RSD=1.49%).结论:该方法准确,灵敏度高,重复性好,可作为多维元素胶囊(15)的质量控制方法之一.%Objective: To develop an HPLC method for the determination of nicotinamide, vitamin B, , vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ). Method: The separation was preformed on a Boston Green ODS C18 column ( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) and the mobile phase consisted of sodium heptanesulfonate solution ( containing 0. 941 g sodium heptanesulfonate and 10ml glacial acetic acid in 1000ml water, and adjusting Ph to 3. 80 with NaOH test solution )-methanol ( 70: 30 ). The detection wavelength was set at 280nm. The flow rate was 1.0 ml ? Min-1 , and the column temperature was 30℃. Result: The calibration curve was linear within the range of 38. 83 ~349.44 μg ? Ml-1 for nicotinamide, 9. 88 ~ 88. 94 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B, , 4.03 ~36. 25 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B2 and3.97 -35.77 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B6. The average recovery was 98.7%( RSD =0. 89% ), 98.7%( RSD = 1.03% ), 99.0% ( RSD = 1. 03% ) and 99. 8%( RSD = 1. 49% ), respectively. Conclusion: This method is sensitive and accurate with good reproduc-ibility, and can be used for the quality control of Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ) .

  17. Vitamins B2 and B6 and Genetic Polymorphisms Related to One-Carbon Metabolism as Risk Factors for Gastric Adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Agudo, Antonio; Sala, Nuria; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buechner, Frederike L.; Carneiro, Fatima; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goeran; Martinez, Carmen; Arrizola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Plebani, Mario; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  18. Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.; Vollset, S.E.; Hustad, S.; Midttun, O.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Agudo, A.; Sala, N.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Carneiro, F.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Arrizola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Morois, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Plebani, M.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  19. Impact of the vulcanization process on the structural characteristics and IgE recognition of two allergens, Hev b 2 and Hev b 6.02, extracted from latex surgical gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Christian; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2015-06-01

    Latex allergy is a health problem that mainly affects medical environments, causing anaphylactic shocks in extreme cases. Sensitization and reactions to this material is closely linked to the use of latex gloves. The objective of this study was to purify two of the major allergens from latex surgical gloves to study the biochemical and structural changes that could be generated during the product manufacture and to compare their IgE recognition with the non-processed allergens. Glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (β-1,3-glucanase) and Hev b 6.02 (hevein) were purified from glove extracts using affinity (Concanavalin A) and reversed-phase chromatographies, respectively. ELISA experiments were performed with both proteins and sera from allergic patients to assess the IgE recognition, which was heterogeneous. Crystallographic methods were used to obtain the 3D structure of Hev b 6.02 from surgical gloves, which did not show evident modification when compared with the protein from the natural non-processed form. Despite having the same crystallographic structure, the IgE from some patients showed different recognition when the glove and the natural allergen were used in ELISA. Furthermore, using electrophoretic techniques, we identified three forms of Hev b 2: one corresponding to the complete polypeptide chain with posttranslational modifications, and two glycosylated fragments. The mixture of these three forms showed stronger recognition by IgE from latex-allergic patients than the pure non-processed allergen. In conclusion, IgE from subjects sensitized to latex products showed different recognition between the allergens obtained from a natural source and the processed material, even when the structure was maintained. This demonstrates the importance of using processed allergens in further investigations of diagnosis, prevalence, product allergenicity, and therapies.

  20. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in vitamin B12 if I’m vegetarian or vegan?ResourcesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, Vitamin B12 Last Updated: March 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: B12, B12 deficiency, diet, nutrition, vitamin B12, vitamins Food and Nutrition, Nutrients ...

  1. Folato, vitamina B6 e B12: Ingestão dietética, níveis sanguíneos e relação com a concentração sérica de homocisteína em adolescentes de Indaiatuba, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Steluti

    2010-01-01

    Introdução: O folato e outras vitaminas do complexo B estão metabolicamente relacionadas à elevação sanguínea do aminoácido homocisteína (hcy). Este, por sua vez, se mostrou associada ao aumento de risco de eventos adversos, sobretudo as doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Investigar a ingestão dietética e níveis sanguíneos das vitaminas folato, B6, e B12, e sua relação com a concentração sérica de hcy, entre adolescentes Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal, em adolescentes de ambos os...

  2. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  3. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000574.htm Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on ... tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell ...

  4. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  5. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine) and a sleep-inducing antihistamine called doxylamine. The makers of Bendectin took it off the ... by pregnancy. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) plus the medication doxylamine is recommended for women who do not get ...

  6. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fortified. You can get the recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of the foods including: Organ meats (beef liver) Shellfish (clams) Meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy foods Some breakfast cereals and ...

  7. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that cause malabsorption (for example, celiac disease and Crohn disease ) Lack of intrinsic factor , a protein that helps the intestine absorb vitamin B12 Above normal heat production (for example, with ...

  8. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  9. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  10. Synthesis and crystal structures of α- and β-modifications of Cr 2IrB 2 containing 4-membered B 4 chain fragments, the τ-boride Cr 7.9Ir 14.1B 6 and orthorhombic Cr 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzott, Dominik; Ade, Martin; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2008-03-01

    Single crystals of two forms of Cr 2IrB 2, the τ-boride Cr 7.9Ir 14.1B 6 and orthorhombic Cr 2B were synthesised from the elements at temperatures between 1450 and 1650 °C. α-Cr 2IrB 2 was obtained at 1650 °C and crystallizes in the Mo 2IrB 2 crystal structure type ( oP20, Pnnm, Z = 4, a = 9.210(1) Å, b = 7.112(1) Å, c = 2.9833(5) Å, 493 refl., 27 param. R1( F) = 0.0220, wR2( F2) = 0.0521) containing 4-membered B 4 chain fragments with the terminating B atoms in trans position. β-Cr 2IrB 2 (1450 °C) forms a low temperature form in a new crystal structure type ( oC40, Cmcm, Z = 8, a = 3.0024(7) Å, b = 9.945(2) Å, c = 13.236(2) Å, 424 refl., 28 param., R1( F) = 0.0279, wR2( I) = 0.0532) containing B 4 chain fragments of trigonal prisms BM 6 with the terminating B atoms in cis position. These B 4 units were observed for the first time. A structure refinement with single crystal data was done for the τ-boride Cr 7.9Ir 14.1B 6 ( Fm3¯m, a = 11.2024(19) Å, 151 refl., 17 param., R1( F) = 0.0275, wR2( F2) = 0.0297). Refinement of single crystal data shows that orthorhombic Cr 2B ( oF48, Fddd, Z = 16, a = 4.275(2) Å, b = 7.452(3) Å, c = 14.795(5) Å, 214 refl., 17 param., R1( F) = 0.0251, wR2( F2) = 0.0625) belongs to the CuMg 2 type and not to the Mn 4B type with partial boron occupation. The compositions were confirmed by EDX and WDX measurements.

  11. B12 in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated.

  12. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  13. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with th

  14. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  15. Vitamine B12- en foliumzuurdeficientie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieweg, Hendrik Omgo

    1953-01-01

    Het ligt in de bedoeling in dit proefschrift een overzicht te geven van de indicaties en de resultaten van de toepassing van vitamine B12 en foliumzuur in de kliniek. Aan de hand van deze gegevens zullen enkele nieuwere inzichten in de pathogenese worden besproken en zal worden nagegaan, welke gevol

  16. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  17. B12 Deficiency with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: to rewieved the clinical and laboratory properties of seven cases with megaloblastic anemia. Clinical and laboratory findings of seven cases with megaloblastic anemia are described. İt is determined that all of the patients received little or no animal products by nutritional history. Clinically apatite, malasia, headeche, otism, and parestheia in the lower extremities and foods were present in patients. On physical examination; four patients had glossit, four had hyporeflexia, one had ataxia. Folat level was normal and B12 vitamin level was low in all patients. The MCV (mean corpuscular volume was normal in three patients. Hypersegmentation of neutrophil was observed in all patients, leukopenia in two, and trombocytopenia was observed in one patient.Conclusion: it is suggested B12 vitamin deficiency in the patients that received little or no animal products by nutritional history. However, hypersegmentation of neutrophil in peripheral blood sample is an important finding for diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia.

  18. Vitamin B-12 deficiency%Vitamin B-12deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Hudson

    2011-01-01

    @@ An 85 year old man had a preoperative assessment for a knee replacement.His full blood count was normal apart from haemoglobin 95 g/L and mean corpuscular volume 105 fl.He drank no alcohol.Further testing showed that his vitamin B-12was low:90 pmol/L(reference range 160-800 pmol/L).Folate,ferritin,thyroid stimulating hormone,and liver function tests were normal.He had no other medical or surgical history and ate a balanced diet that includes meat.

  19. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief fun

  20. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  1. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  2. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised.

  3. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  5. Organometallic chemistry of b(12) coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    When coenzyme B(12) was identified as organometallic derivative of vitamin B(12), metal-carbon bonds were revealed to be relevant in life processes. Vitamin B(12), the "antipernicious anaemia factor" required for human health, was isolated earlier as a crystallizable cyano-Co(III)-complex. B(12) cofactors and other cobalt corrinoids play important roles not only in humans, but in the metabolism of archaea and other microorganisms, in particular. Indeed, the microorganisms are the only natural sources of the B(12) derivatives. For other B(12)-requiring organisms the corrinoids are thus "vitamins". However, vitamin B(12) also needs to be converted into organometallic B(12)-forms, which are the typical coenzymes in metabolically important enzymes. One of these, methionine synthase, catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group and its corrinoid cofactor is methylcobalamin. Another one, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses a reversible radical process, and coenzyme B(12) (adenosylcobalamin) as its cofactor, to transform methylmalonyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA. In such enzymes, the bound B(12) derivatives engage (or are formed) in exceptional organometallic enzymatic reactions, which depend upon the organometallic reactivity of the B(12) cofactors. Clearly, organometallic B(12) derivatives hold an important position in life and have thus attracted particular interest from the medical sciences, biology, and chemistry. This chapter outlines the unique structures of B(12) derivatives and recapitulates their redox properties and their organometallic chemistry, relevant in the context of the metabolic transformation of B(12) derivatives into the relevant coenzyme forms and for their use in B(12)-dependent enzymes.

  6. Laboratory assessment of vitamin B12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    The detection and correction of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and potentially irreversible neuropathy and neuropsychiatric changes. B12 status is commonly estimated using the abundance of the vitamin in serum, with ∼148 pmol/L (200 ng/L) typically set as the threshold for diagnosing deficiency. Serum B12 assays measure the sum of haptocorrin-bound and transcobalamin-bound (known as holotranscobalamin) B12 It is only holotranscobalamin that is taken up by cells to meet metabolic demand. Although receiver operator characteristic curves show holotranscobalamin measurement to be a moderately more reliable marker of B12 status than serum B12, both assays have an indeterminate range. Biochemical evidence of metabolic abnormalities consistent with B12 insufficiency is frequently detected despite an apparently sufficient abundance of the vitamin. Laboratory B12 status markers that reflect cellular utilisation rather than abundance are available. Two forms of B12 act as coenzymes for two different reactions. Methionine synthase requires methylcobalamin for the remethylation of methionine from homocysteine. A homocysteine concentration >20 µmol/L may suggest B12 deficiency in folate-replete patients. In the second B12-dependent reaction, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses adenosylcobalamin to convert methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. In B12 deficiency excess methylmalonyl-CoA is hydrolysed to methylmalonic acid. A serum concentration >280 nmol/L may suggest suboptimal status in young patients with normal renal function. No single laboratory marker is suitable for the assessment of B12 status in all patients. Sequential assay selection algorithms or the combination of multiple markers into a single diagnostic indicator are both approaches that can be used to mitigate inherent limitations of each marker when used independently.

  7. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition.

  8. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice.

  9. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions.

  10. HPLC法同时测定多维元素胶囊中烟酰胺、维生素B6、维生素B1和维生素B2的含量%Determination of the contents of nicotinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine hydrochloride and riboflavin in oil-and water-soluble vitamins with minerals capsule by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛; 陈彬彬; 邹梅娟; 程刚

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立多维元素胶囊中烟酰胺、维生素B6、维生素B1和维生素B2的HPLC含量测定方法.方法 采用DiamonsiL C18柱(5μm,4.6mm×250mm),流动相为庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.6g,1000mL水溶解,加三乙胺2.8mL,用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(体积比6:1);流速:1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长:选择280nm;柱温:40℃;进样量:20μL.结果 烟酰胺在30.0~152.0μg·mL-1(r=0.9997)、维生素B6在1.0~5.0μg·mL-1(r=0.9998)、维生素B1在10.5~52.5μg·mL-1(r=0.9998)、维生素B2在10.5~52.0μg·mL-1(r=0.9997)范围内均呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率分别为99.95%(RSD=0.43%)、100.50%(RSD=1.33%)、100.30%(RSD=0.88%)和100.50%(RSD=0.90%).结论 建立的方法灵敏度高、准确度和重现性好,可作为多维元素胶囊的质量控制方法之一.

  11. Application of Vitamin B12 to Oral Ulcer%维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓田; 杨为民; 胡伊乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的实际效果。方法将口腔溃疡患者随机分成4组,分别外敷维生素B12、维生素B2、冰硼散、氯已定含片,对比各组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面差别。结果外敷维生素 B12组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面明显优于其他组。结论维生素 B12在治疗口腔溃疡时不但愈合时间短于其他药物,而且能有效地抑制疼痛,可以作为一种治疗方法在临床应用。%Objective To explore the actual result of vitamin B12 in curing oral ulcer. Methods The groups in which the patients were divided in to four at random were external by applied Vitamin B12,Vitamin B2 ,Bingpeng powder,Chlorhexidine mouth lozenge differently to compare the differences of every group in healing time and pain suppression. Results The group externally applied by Vitamin B12 was better than the other groups in healing time and pain suppression. Conclusion When curing the oral ulcer,the healing time of Vitamin B12 is shorter than other drugs and Vitamin B12 and can suppress pain effectively.So the method of applying Vitamin B12 may become a new therapeutic method in clinical application in future.

  12. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  13. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  14. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeid, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) constitutes an amazing area of research with many hidden facets. Key milestones in this area have been developed over 10 decades. This long process of trials and errors, and search and discoveries has radically changed our understanding for the role of this nutrient...... in health and diseases. The impact of vitamin B12 on human health has been shifted from ‘treatment’ of a deadly condition to ‘prevention’ of diseases. The importance of B12 has now taken global dimensions on a population level given the high prevalence of subclinical B12 deficiency that affects many...... individuals in critical life phases. This book has been written by experts who documented latest developments in the field. It is written for individuals looking for in depth knowledge of the nutritional, chemistry, biochemistry, health and medical relevance of the vitamin. The book provides insights...

  15. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  16. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy...... of one-carbon and FA-metabolism in recurrent MDD patients vs. controls, which may reflect differences in handling of oxidative stress. Further research should test the consequences of these differences, particularly the premature development of CVD in MDD....

  17. Vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables among Thai construction site workers in urban Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Phonrat, B; Chanjanakitskul, S; Paksanont, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1995-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables were investigated in eighty-seven male and nineteen female construction site workers in Bangkok. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and MCHC were found to be higher in male than in female workers. Serum ferritin was slightly higher in males than in females. Serum B12 was found to be higher in male than in female workers and serum folic acid level were significantly higher in female than in male workers. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 2.3 per cent and folic acid deficiency in 6.9 per cent of the male workers. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were normal for female workers. The adequate serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid might be the result of the habit of the workers to consume tonic drinks which contain glucose, caffeine, and vitamins especially vitamins B6, and B12.

  18. Dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA segments that serve as ligand-responsive genetic control elements. They modulate the expression of certain genes in response to changing concentrations of metabolites. In this paper, we study the dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch in E. coli—perhaps the most widely studied and best known of all riboswitches—through a mathematical model of its regulatory pathway. To carry this out, we simulate dynamic experiments in which the bacterial B12 uptake capacity is measured after being depleted of this vitamin for a long time. The results of these simulations compare favourably with reported experimental data. The model also predicts that an overshoot of intracellular B12 should be observed if the replenishment experiments were to be carried out for longer times. This behaviour is discussed in terms of a possible evolutionary advantage for E. coli, together with the fact that regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels is almost equivalent dynamically.

  19. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development.

  20. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an in...

  1. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  2. Vitamin B6 related epilepsy during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huei-Shyong; Kuo, Meng-Fai

    2007-01-01

    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled without an extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes. Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrations in the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder occurs in neonates with hypophosphatasia and congenital rickets. All patients with these conditions present with early-onset epilepsy that is resistant to conventional antiepileptic medications. Patients with three of the conditions respond to any form of vitamin B6. Only those with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency respond to PLP instead of pyridoxine. Interestingly, the authors have successfully treated many patients without the above four disorders using vitamin B6, and have found that the treatment was more effective with PLP than with pyridoxine, though the mechanism is not known. Since PLP is as inexpensive as pyridoxine, we suggest replacing PLP for pyridoxine when treating children with epilepsy.

  3. Nutritional vitamin-B12 deficiency. Possible contributory role of subtle vitamin-B12 malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, R

    1978-05-01

    Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-12 has been reported, yet most people ingesting vitamin-B12-deficient diets even for many years appear to achieve a balance that does not lead to overt signs and symptoms of deficiency. I present the case of a vegan of 25 years' duration who developed severe neurologic abnormalities due to vitamin-B12 deficiency. His diet provided 1.2 microgram of vitamin B12 daily at most. Despite normal Schilling test findings, he absorbed subnormal amounts of vitamin B12 given with ovalbumin. This poor absorption appeared to be related to his gastritis, achlorhydria, and subnormal intrinsic-factor secretion. Probably, vitamin-B12 deficiency in this patient resulted from both dietary restriction and the subtle malabsorption, neither of which would have sufficed alone to produce the clinical problem. Possibly such malabsorption may also be present in many of those vegans developing overt vitamin-B12 deficiency in whom Schilling test findings have been normal.

  4. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J

    2008-01-01

    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  5. Proteomics of vitamin B12 processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; DiBello, Patricia M; Jacobsen, Donald W

    2013-03-01

    The causes of cobalamin (B12, Cbl) deficiency are multifactorial. Whether nutritional due to poor dietary intake, or functional due to impairments in absorption or intracellular processing and trafficking events, the major symptoms of Cbl deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, neurological deterioration and in extreme cases, failure to thrive and death. The common biomarkers of Cbl deficiency (hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic acidemia) are extremely valuable diagnostic indicators of the condition, but little is known about the changes that occur at the protein level. A mechanistic explanation bridging the physiological changes associated with functional B12 deficiency with its intracellular processers and carriers is lacking. In this article, we will cover the effects of B12 deficiency in a cblC-disrupted background (also referred to as MMACHC) as a model of functional Cbl deficiency. As will be shown, major protein changes involve the cytoskeleton, the neurological system as well as signaling and detoxification pathways. Supplementation of cultured MMACHC-mutant cells with hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) failed to restore these variants to the normal phenotype, suggesting that a defective Cbl processing pathway produces irreversible changes at the protein level.

  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of b12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Valizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  8. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  9. Hypervitaminosis B12 in maintenance hemodialysis patients receiving massive supplementation of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, G; Canavese, C; Salomone, M; Thea, A; Pacitti, A; Gaido, M; Calitri, V; Pelizza, D; Canavero, W; Vercellone, A

    1986-11-01

    We have administered routinely a multivitamin preparation containing a megadose of B12 to 106 hemodialysis patients after dialysis treatments. We found that these patients had very high levels of serum vitamin B12 which returned to original values only after a period of three years after stopping the vitamin. Discontinuing therapy had no effect on hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte corpuscular volume, or motor nerve conduction velocity. It is not known whether maintaining a prolonged high level of vitamin B12 is harmful. However, animal and epidemiologic studies have suggested that both cobalamin and cobalt may be potentially toxic. In view of the absence of demonstrable benefit and the possible risk of toxicity, we believe that the use of such megadose vitamin compounds in dialysis patients should be re-evaluated.

  10. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    OpenAIRE

    Fumio Watanabe; Yukinori Yabuta; Tomohiro Bito; Fei Teng

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently av...

  11. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  12. Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  13. 你缺少维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺佩祥

    2007-01-01

    @@ 身体如何获得维生素B12 机体需要靠以下几个环节来获得足够的维生素B12: 1.食物在胃酸的作用下释放出维生素B12 2.维生素B12与一种称为"内因子"的物质结合

  14. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate: synthesis, structure analysis, and studies of binding to human B12-transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander; Enders, Barbara; Nexo, Ebba; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2014-10-06

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in humans and animals, through the endogenous B12 transport systems. Binding of the organometallic B12 octadecanucleotide to the three important human proteins of B12 transport was studied, to examine its structural suitability for the task of eventual in vivo oligonucleotide delivery. Binding was efficient with transcobalamin (TC), but not so efficient with the homologous glycoproteins intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. Binding of the B12 octadecanucleotide to TC suggests the capacity of the B12 moiety to serve as a natural vector for specific transport of single stranded, organometallic oligonucleotide loads from the blood stream into cells.

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  18. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment.

  19. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabia, Séverine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: Adequate folate intake may be important for breast cancer prevention. Its protective effect may be influenced by factors associated with folate metabolism. We sought to evaluate folate intake in relation to breast cancer risk and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B(2) and B(12). METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis of folate intake was conducted among 62,739 postmenopausal women in the French E3N cohort who had compl...

  20. Progress on the studies of vitamin B12%维生素B12的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕颖坚; 黄俊明

    2012-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的吸收与代谢、缺乏原因及疾病、营养水平鉴定、人群维生素B12营养状况、食物强化的研究进展进行了综述,以期提高对维生素B12的认识和重视、为解决维生素B12缺乏人群的健康问题提供参考.%In order to improve the awareness and attention on the importance of vitamin Bl2and to provide reference for solving problems of vitamin B12 deficiency, this review concentrates on five aspects of studies on vitamin B12: absorption and metabolism of vitamin BI2; cause/outcome of deficiency; biomarkers and their application; vitamin B12 status; and supplementation and fortification.

  1. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  2. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, M.; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, FC; van Hasselt, PM; De Sain-van Der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, NM

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6

  3. PHONON SOFTENING IN INTERMEDIATE VALENT SmB6

    OpenAIRE

    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  4. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  5. Vitamin B12 and ketorolac on pain in Long Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effects of vitamin B12 on pain have been demonstrated in different animal and humanstudies. But comparison of these effects with similar effects of ketorolac tromethamine (KT and theircombination have not been established. Objective: To assess the effects of vitamin B12 on pain andalso to compare them with those of the combinations of vitamin B12 with KT in rat models. Methods:This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh MujibMedical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, from March 2015 to February 2016. For this, 20 (twentyLong Evans rats (215±35 gm of both sexes were divided into control (A, with 5 ml/kg normal salineand experimental (B1, with 15 mg/kg B12; B2, with 10 mg/kg KT; B3, with B12+KT groups with 5rats in each group. All the drugs and vitamin were administered intraperitoneally in a single dose justone hour before formalin test. To evaluate the treatments’ effect on nociceptive pain, early phase (1st-5th minutes; on central analgesic system, interphase (6th-15th minutes; and on inflammatory pain,late phase (16th-60th minutes of the formalin test, were observed. In all phases, total frequency ofjerking and total duration of flexing and licking of the right hind paw were counted after administrationof subcutaneous formalin (50 μl, 2.5% injection. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA, followedby Bonferroni post hoc test. In the interpretation of results, p≤0.05 was considered as significant.Results: B12 lowered only the jerking frequency and KT lowered both jerking frequency and flexinglicking duration significantly (p≤0.001 in the late phase of formalin test. On the other hand, combinationof B12 and KT significantly (p≤0.001 lowered both the study variables in all 3 phases of formalintest. Conclusion: From this study it may be concluded that, vitamin B12 possess analgesic effects andcombination of B12 with KT is more effective than those of their individual administration.

  6. Spinal myoclonus associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ebru Apaydin; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-11-01

    We report a 85-year-old female patient with involuntary and regular movements restricted to abdominal muscles, resembling belly dance, with additional clinical features; ataxia, impaired cognition, neuropathy and glossitis. We initially excluded the possible cortical and spinal structural abnormalities with magnetic resonance imagings and performed routine blood analysis which revealed that serum vitamin B12 (vB12) level was under normal ranges. The relation of low serum vB12 level and myoclonus is speculative and very few studies have demonstrated such patients. In this case report, serum vB12 deficiency is discussed in the context of its probable role in the generation of spinal myoclonus.

  7. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  8. Crystallography, semiconductivity, thermoelectricity, and other properties of boron and its compounds, especially B6O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, G. A.; Morgan, K. E.

    2015-09-01

    Electron deficient and non-deficient boron compounds are discussed as potential thermoelectric generator materials. Particular attention is paid to carbon-doped beta-boron, high-carbon boron carbide, and the alpha-boron derivative compound boron suboxide. Stoichiometric B6O shows some promise, and may have a higher ZT than the other two compounds. Carbon saturated beta-boron appears to have a higher ZT than undoped samples. Carbon saturated boron carbide at B12C3 does exist. Its thermoelectric behavior is unknown.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency: issues in nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lori; Meiner, Sue E

    2004-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a relatively common occurrence with potentially devastating consequences. The wide range of etiologies and symptoms makes it imperative for the nurse to use a comprehensive approach to assessing and managing the patient with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  11. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account.

  12. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  13. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  14. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency.

  15. Brain damage in infancy and dietary vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighton, M C; Manson, J I; Speed, I; Robertson, E; Chapman, E

    1979-07-14

    A case of the exclusively breast-fed infant of a vegetarian mother is reported. Neurological deterioration commenced between three and six months of age, and progressed to a comatose premoribund state by the age of nine months. Investigations revealed a mild nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in the mother, and a very severe nutritional B12 deficiency in the infant, with severe megaloblastic anaemia. Treatment of the infant with vitamin B12 resulted in a rapid clinical and haematological improvement, but neurological recovery was incomplete. Evidence is presented that dietary B12 deficiency was the sole cause of the infant's deterioration, and the literature relating to the condition is reviewed. It is recommended that all strict vegetarians (vegans), especially women in the child-bearing age group, take vitamin B12 supplements.

  16. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with vitamin B12 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hisaeda, Takahiro Masuko, Erika Hanashima and Takashi Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by human serum albumin (HSA and vitamin B12 derivatives. The incorporation of hydrophobic vitamin B12 derivatives, which have ester groups in place of the peripheral amide moieties of the natural cobalamin, into HSA is primarily controlled by the hydrophobicity of the peripheral ester groups. Microenvironmental property around the hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was examined by fluorescence and fluorescence polarization measurements. The hydrophobic vitamin B12 itself in HSA is in a microenvironment equivalent in medium polarity to dichloromethane. The molecular motion of hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was markedly suppressed under such microenvironmental conditions. Carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction of an alkyl radical derived from an alkyl ligand bound to the hydrophobic vitamin B12 was markedly favored in HSA aqueous solution, relative to the reactions in methanol and benzene. The 1,2-migration of the electron-withdrawing group arises from both the suppression of molecular motion and desolvation effects on the alkylated hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA.

  17. Different Neurologic Aspects of Nutritional B12 Deficiency in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serdaroglu, Gul; Tekgul, Hasan; Gokben, Sarenur

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate neurologic problems caused by nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Twenty-four cases between 2 and 18 months of age with neurologic symptoms and/or signs and diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency were analyzed. The most common symptoms were developmental retardation, afebrile seizures, and involuntary movements. The mean vitamin B12 levels were lower in patients with both neurologic and extraneurologic involvement when compared to those with only neurologic symptoms. All of the cases were treated with vitamin B12. In patients with severe deficiencies, involuntary movements were observed during vitamin B12 treatment using cyanocobalamin form. At the 1-year follow-up, all but 3 patients were considered neurodevelopmentally normal. The 3 patients that did not fully recover, on admission, had the lowest vitamin B12 levels. It is of great importance to prevent, diagnose, and treat vitamin B12 deficiency promptly to prevent the long-term neurologic problems.

  18. West syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Hepsen Mine; Kara, Aslıhan Oruçoğlu; Oğuz, Baran

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits including macrocyticanaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor andseizures. In this article, we report the case of a six-month-old male patient diagnosed with West syndrome associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Although the patient had no evidence of macrocytic anemia in complete blood count, we measured the level of vitamin B12 because the patient had hypotonicity and found it to be low. No other problem was found in the other investigations directed to the etiology of West syndrome. He was being exclusively breast-fed and vitamin B12 deficiency was related with nutritional inadequacy of his mother. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with different neurological findings. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered as a rare cause in West syndrome which has a heterogeneous etiology.

  19. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Vitamin B12 Compound Ointment- Ⅰ by HPLC%复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谊; 李兵; 史学慧

    2004-01-01

    建立了HPLC法测定复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的含量.采用Hypersll BDS C18柱,流动相为乙腈-0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(15:85),检测波长360nm.维生素B12在0.16~0.8μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率为98.4%,RSD为0.9%.

  20. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period.

  1. La Vitamine B12 et la Santé

    OpenAIRE

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Objectifs: Révision sur le rôle de la vitamine B12 et sur les évidences qui suggèrent que la vitamine B12 peut réduire le risque de certaines maladies chroniques. Evidences: recherche dans Medline depuis 1999 jusqu'en 2013 en utilisant le mot clé vitamin B12. Les articles les plus conséquents (150) étaient associés avec le cancer, la maladie cardiovasculaire, la santé mentale et les altérations du tube neural. Résultats: Le déficit avéré de la vitamine B12 est classiquement associé à...

  2. Vitamine B12, D, foliumzuur en leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dat vitaminen en mineralen een positieve invloed uit kunnen oefenen op specifieke lichaamsprocessen is bekend. Twee promovendi van Wageningen Universiteit richten zich op het mogelijke verband tussen vitamine B12, foliumzuur en vitamine D en verschillende leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen. De associ

  3. Analysis of the Market of Vitamin B12%维生素B12市场透析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伦

    2004-01-01

    目的:掌握维生素 B12的市场现状及发展趋势.方法:对维生素 B12国内、外生产和销售情况进行分析.结果与结论:我国维生素 B12市场潜力巨大,制药企业应密切关注市场变化,完善自身条件,以求进一步发展.

  4. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  5. Competitive immunoassay for analysis of vitamin B(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, L Sagaya; Thakur, M S

    2011-11-15

    In the current work, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for derivatized vitamin B(12) by generating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against derivatized vitamin B(12) and purified using affinity chromatography. Checkerboard assay was performed with vitamin B(12) antibody and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate followed by its conjugate characterization using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml with a linear working range of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml. The affinity constant (K(a)) of the vitamin B(12) antibody was found to be 4.23×10(8) L/mol. Cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins was found to be less than 0.01% except for analogs of vitamin B(12) that showed 12% to 35%. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were found to be in the ranges from 0.0005% to 1.2% and 0.009% to 1.03%, respectively. The assay was validated with the HPLC method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recovery of vitamin B(12) with spiked multivitamin injections, tablets, capsules, and chocolates. The HPLC method had a detection limit of 500 ng/ml with a linear working range of 1000 to 10,000 ng/ml. After extraction of vitamin B(12) using Amberlite XAD, the developed ELISA method correlated well with the established HPLC method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90.

  6. Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorophenois by Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1978), and diffusion-controlled reactions are unaffected by mixing in batch reactors ( Levenspiel , 1972). However, the two experiments which exhibited...were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experints. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed...glass ampoulem, which could maintain vitamin B12 in the fully-reduced vitamin B12, state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which

  7. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide.

  8. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12.

  9. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  10. Vitamin B12 status in metformin treated patients: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have yielded inconsistent results on the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 reduction. We therefore performed a systematic review to analyze the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 concentration. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central registry of controlled trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies exploring the association between metformin and vitamin B12 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or polycystic ovary syndrome. The main outcome measure was changes in serum vitamin B12 concentration after 6-208 weeks of treatment with metformin, as compared with placebo or other anti-hyperglycemic therapy. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in those who received placebo or rosiglitazone (mean difference [MD], -53.93 pmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -81.44 to -26.42 pmol/L, P = 0.0001. Subgroup analysis identified four trials in which patients received a lower dose of metformin (<2000 mg/d and two in which they received a higher dose (≥2000 mg/d, with MDs in vitamin B12 concentration after metformin treatment of -37.99 pmol/L (95% CI, -57.44 to -18.54 pmol/L, P = 0.0001 and -78.62 pmol/L (95% CI, -106.37 to -50.86 pmol/L, P<0.00001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of vitamin B12 may be induced by metformin in a dose dependent manner.

  11. Biogenesis of cytochrome b6 in photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Wollman, Francis-André; de Vitry, Catherine

    2009-06-29

    In chloroplasts, binding of a c'-heme to cytochrome b(6) on the stromal side of the thylakoid membranes requires a specific mechanism distinct from the one at work for c-heme binding to cytochromes f and c(6) on the lumenal side of membranes. Here, we show that the major protein components of this pathway, the CCBs, are bona fide transmembrane proteins. We demonstrate their association in a series of hetero-oligomeric complexes, some of which interact transiently with cytochrome b(6) in the process of heme delivery to the apoprotein. In addition, we provide preliminary evidence for functional assembly of cytochrome b(6)f complexes even in the absence of c'-heme binding to cytochrome b(6). Finally, we present a sequential model for apo- to holo-cytochrome b(6) maturation integrated within the assembly pathway of b(6)f complexes in the thylakoid membranes.

  12. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  13. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly vegetarian city, its population is at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. But no systematic study has been done in Ahmedabad to know whether B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels influence pregnancy. To know this answer this study was planned to know total homocysteine level and its correlation in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were measured in all the subjects using fluorescence polarized immunoassay in AxSym Immunochemistry analyzer on 60 non vitamin supplemented vegetarian women. Vitamin levels were within lower normal limit. Homocysteine level was higher among preeclampsia patient. From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that measurement of these biochemical parameter in ante natal care are useful for further management and prevention of complication of pregnancy like preeclampsia

  14. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight).

  15. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development.

  16. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism.

  17. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  18. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B-6 and B-12 in recurrent depression : Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Lok, Anja; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Visser, Ieke; Pouwer, Francois; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy c

  19. Vitamin B-12 in breast milk and diet, and riboflavin in breastmilk, are very low in Kenyan lactating women, although vitamin B-6 is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk B-vitamin concentrations can fluctuate with maternal intake. Low maternal intake of B-vitamins may result in low B-vitamin breastmilk concentrations and consequently B-vitamin deficiency in their infants because infants 0–6 months are recommended to be exclusively breastfed. T...

  20. Infantile tremor syndrome: Role of Vitamin B12 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of Vitamin B12 as an etiological factor in patients of infantile tremor syndrome (ITS. Methods: Twelve consecutive admissions of children diagnosed clinically as ITS were assessed. Assessment was done using a predefined pro forma to document patient demographic factors, general examination, systemic examination as well as relevant hematological and biochemical investigations. Results: Out of the 12 cases of ITS, 6 were males and 6 were females. Two cases had serum B12 levels below reference values, five had levels in low normal range, and remaining five had normal values. Conclusions: Role of Vitamin B12 deficiency as an etiological factor in the patients of ITS is inconclusive.

  1. Serum vitamin B12 and blood cell values in vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, A; Scott, S C

    1982-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and complete blood count values were determined for 83 volunteer subjects from an American vegetarian society conference (USA). Among subjects who did not supplement their diets with vitamin B12 or multiple vitamin tablets, 92% of the vegans (total vegetarians), 64% of the lactovegetarians, 47% of the lacto-ovovegetarians and 20% of the semivegetarians had serum vitamin B12 levels less than 200 pg/ml (normal = 200-900 pg/ml). However, their complete blood count values did not deviate greatly from those found for nonvegetarians, even though some had been vegans or lactovegetarians for over 10 years. Macrocytosis among the vegetarians was minimal; none had mean corpuscular volume greater than 103 fl.

  2. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system: a study on mice treated for four weeks with high-dose vitamin B12 or cobinamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte L Lildballe

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12 transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi (4.25 nmol/h, or B12 (1.75 nmol/h for 27 days (n = 7 in each group. B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment.

  3. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  4. Oxidative Stress Markers in Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Rahi, Sushil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report the status of oxidative stress markers in vitamin B12 deficiency and their relation to clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological findings. Fifty-one subjects with serum vitamin B12 deficiency (B12 deficiency patients groups as well as with normal controls. In the patients, GSH, MDA and TAC were correlated with demographic, clinical, hematological, biochemical, nerve conduction study (NCS), visual evoked potential (VEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) findings. In the study group, 20 (39.2 %) patients had SACD manifesting with myeloneuropathy, cognitive or behavioral abnormalities, and 31(60.8 %) patients had non-SACD neurological manifestations. The GSH (2.46 ± 0.32 vs. 2.70 ± 0.36 mg/dl; P = 0.002) and TAC (2.13 ± 0.38 vs. 2.33 ± 0.24 nmol Trolox eq/l, P = 0.005) levels were lower, and MDA levels (4.01 ± 0.69 vs. 3.00 ± 0.45 nmol/ml, P B12 deficiency group compared with controls. Similar trend was found in SACD and non-SACD vitamin B12 deficiency groups. GSH levels correlated with abnormal VEP (r = 0.54; P B12 deficiency was associated with reduction in GSH and TAC and increase in MDA levels which were more marked in SACD compared to non-SACD group.

  5. Vitamin B12 deficit and development of geriatric syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible.

  6. [Depression, contraceptive pills and pyridoxine (vitamin B6)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsjo, P

    1974-05-20

    Women who use oral contraceptives experience depression and loss of libido in about 7% of the cases in various studies. This may be due to a lack of pyridoxine (Vitamin-B6). Dosage of Vitamin-B6 from 20-50 mg given daily to women suffering from depression helped in many cases.

  7. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-6 - Excludable employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excludable employees. 1.410(b)-6 Section 1.410(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(b)-6 Excludable employees. (a) Employees—(1) In general. For purposes of applying section 410(b) with respect to employees,...

  8. 12 CFR 261b.6 - Public announcement of meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public announcement of meetings. 261b.6 Section... SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.6 Public announcement of meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided by the Act, public announcement of meetings open to public observation...

  9. Vegetarer har høj risiko for at få B12-vitaminmangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians...... are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency....

  10. Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Haye H.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B-12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause m

  11. Vitamin B-12 and Depression: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 143. Lang UE, et al. Nutritional aspects of depression. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2015;37:1029. Vitamin B12. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 18, 2016. Mikkelsen K, ... in depression. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2016;23:1. Nov. 23, ...

  12. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.

  13. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  14. The Technological Progress of Vitamin B12%维生素B12的技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽华

    2011-01-01

    维生素B12是人和动物体内重要的水溶性维生素之一.综述了维生素B12的性质、合成及生产情况.工业生产中,脱氮假单胞杆菌和费氏丙酸杆菌是主要的生产菌种,有厌氧和好氧2种生产工艺.今后应培养高产菌株,改进发酵工艺.

  15. Detection of Chlorobenzene in Vitamin B12%维生素B12中氯苯检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永源; 王媛

    2011-01-01

    随着欧美各国对药品中残留溶剂控制要求的提高,维生素B12在欧洲申请市场准入时需提交氯苯检测结果.实验参照"EP6.0版中2.4.24残留溶剂的鉴别和控制"内容而制定,专门用于维生素B12中氯苯含量的检测.

  16. Experimental model of pyridoxine (B6) deficiency-induced neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, A L; Dellon, E S; Tassler, P L; Ellefson, R D; Hendrickson, M

    2001-08-01

    A pyridoxine (B6) dietary deficiency was studied in female adult Sprague-Dawley rats by hind-limb walking-track analysis. Serum levels of pyridoxine and three metabolites were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence measurement. Morphometric analysis of the sciatic and posterior tibial nerves (from within the tarsal tunnel) was performed after 1 year on a diet deficient in vitamin B6. The B6-deficient rats developed abnormal walking-track patterns by 8 months, and these track parameters were different from age- and sex-matched normal diet control rats at the p neuropathy.

  17. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cb...

  18. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  19. Vitamin B6 deficiency and anemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, M; Suzuki, R; Sago, H; Murashima, A; Yamaguchi, K

    2010-02-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in pregnancy. Pregnant women with anemia are, in general, exclusively treated with iron supplementation. We observed that several pregnant women with anemia who were nonresponsive to iron supplementation also had vitamin B6 deficiency, and that anemia in these cases improved with the administration of vitamin B6. Our prospective study in healthy pregnant women showed that blood levels of iron, ferritin and vitamin B6, in particular, fell to the lower limit of the nonpregnant reference range by the third trimester. We conclude that it is important to take into account the deficiency of vitamin B6 besides iron in the evaluation of anemia during pregnancy.

  20. The structure, stability, and infrared spectrum of B 2N, B 2N +, B 2N -, BO, B 2O and B 2N 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. M. L.; François, J. P.; Gijbels, R.

    1992-05-01

    The structure, infrared spectrum, and heat of formation of B 2N, B 2N -, BO, and B 2O have been studied ab initio. B 2N is very stable; B 2O even more so. B 2N, B 2N -, B 2O, and probably B 2N + have symmetric linear ground-state structures; for B 2O, an asymmetric linear structure lies about 12 kcal/mol above the ground state. B 2N +, B 2N - and B 2O have intense asymmetric stretching frequencies, predicted near 870, 1590 and 1400 cm -1, respectively. Our predicted harmonic frequencies and isotopic shifts for B 2O confirm the recent experimental identification by Andrews and Burkholder. Absorptions at 1889.5 and 1998.5 cm -1 in noble-gas trapped boron nitride vapor belong the BNB and BNBN ( 3Π), respectively; a tentative assignment of 882.5 cm -1 to BNB + is proposed. Total atomization energies Σ De (Σ D0) are computed (accuracy ±2 kcal/mol) as: BO 193.1 (190.4), B 2O 292.5 (288.7), B 2N 225.0 (250.3) kcal/mol. The ionization potential and electron affinity of B 2N are predicted to be 8.62±0.1 and 3.34±0.1 eV. The MP4-level additivity approximations involved in G1 theory results in errors on the order of 1 kcal/mol in the Σ De values.

  1. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1990-06-01

    The renal toxicity of gentamicin is altered by dietary protein modifications, bicarbonate and acetazolamide administration, magnesium supplementation, polyaspartic acid, piperacillin, hypercalcemia and calcium channel blockers. Renal tissue gentamicin levels have an undetermined role. Reduction of renal pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP- by gentamicin has been shown, as has protection from nephrotoxicity by administration of vitamin B6. To explore an interaction between gentamicin and vitamin B6, gentamicin (5 mg/kg) was given to rabbits by ip injection, with either pyridoxine (10 mg) or isovolemic saline for 3 weeks. There was not a difference between gentamicin levels for animals given gentamicin and pyridoxine versus those given gentamicin and saline. Gentamicin administration led to a 47% fall (p = .0001) in plasma PLP levels. Three days after the last gentamicin administration, the animals maintained a 32% decrease from the pre-gentamicin baseline values (p = 0.02). When pyridoxine was administered concurrently with gentamicin, the PLP rise of 49% was significant (p = 0.001). The mean level after the study (6%) was not significantly lower than baseline (p = .6). We believe that gentamicin interfers with vitamin B6 metabolism, but that vitamin B6 status does not affect levels of gentamicin. A number of drugs affect B6 levels, creating the potential for hypovitaminosis B6 to be an important mechanism of drug-drug interaction in seriously ill patients, particularly in sick newborns or the elderly with lower average PLP levels.

  2. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1991-04-01

    Dopamine is a commonly used pressor agent. Frequently recognized side effects other than occasional reports of pedal gangrene respond to reduction of dose. Because a number of compounds interfere with vitamin B6 and dopamine toxicity in animals is modified by B6, we studied the dopamine-vitamin B6 interaction in rabbits. Six animals received 40 mg dopamine/kg and 10 mg pyridoxine injections; 6 received dopamine and saline. Dopamine administration led to an average fall of 20% (p = 0.04) in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels, which declined 42% by day 5. Three days later, a 25% decrease persisted (p = 0.03). Dopamine with pyridoxine caused a PLP rise of 65% (p = 0.007), but the post-study level was 28% lower than baseline (p = 0.04). We interpret our data to mean that dopamine reduced PLP levels during and 3 days after the study, and that dopamine appeared to increase the requirements for B6. We worry that dopamine given with other drugs, ie gentamicin, digoxin and theophylline which are frequently used in critical care settings, could aggravate alterations of requirements for or body stores of vitamin B6, creating B6 deficiency.

  3. The high-pressure compressibility of B12P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Mi; Wang, Haiyan; Ji, Cheng; Whiteley, C. E.; Edgar, J. H.; Liu, Haozhe; Ma, Yanzhang

    2017-03-01

    In situ high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on icosahedral boron phosphide (B12P2) to 43.2 GPa. No structural phase transition occurs over this pressure range. The bulk modulus of B12P2 is KOT = 207 ± 7 GPa with pressure derivative of K'OT = 6.6 ± 0.8 . The structure is most compressible along the chain formed by phosphorus and boron atoms in the crystal structure. It is believed that the compressibility of boron-rich compounds at close to ambient pressure is determined by the boron icosahedral structure, while the inclusive atoms (both boron and non-boron) between the icosahedra determine the high-pressure compressibility and structure stability.

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-03-26

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient.

  5. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  6. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  7. Folatos y vitamina B12 en la salud humana

    OpenAIRE

    Brito,Alex; HERTRAMPF,EVA; Olivares,Manuel; Gaitán,Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H.; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Ch...

  8. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  9. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  10. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  11. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  12. Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6: Advances on Polymorphisms, Mechanisms, and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich M Zanger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6 belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to nongenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4 to 12% and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant

  13. 高效液相色谱法测定复方维生素胶囊中维生素B12的含量%Determination of Vitamin B12 in Compound Vitamin Capsules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 苏玉永; 郑思维

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立以高效液相色谱法测定复方维生素胶囊中维生素B12含量的方法.方法:色谱柱为Hypersil ODS,流动相为甲醇-0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾缓冲液(22:78,pH=6.4),流速为1.0ml/min,检测波长为360nm,柱温为室温,进样量为20μl.结果:维生素B12进样量在10.20μg~204.00μg范围内与峰面积积分值线性关系良好(r=0.9 999),平均回收率为99.7%(RSD=1.18%).结论:本方法简便、快速、准确,不受维生素B6、叶酸等成分的干扰,可用于测定复方维生素胶囊中维生素B12的含量.

  14. Association between vitamin B12 intake and EURRECA’s prioritized biomarkers of vitamin B12 in young populations: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesia, I.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Bel-Serrat, S.; Doets, E.L.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Nissenshohn, M.; Benetou, V.; Hermoso, M.; Berti, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Moreno, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes. Design A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, until January

  15. Systematic review on daily vitamin B12 losses and bioavailability for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake with the factorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Szczecinska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the literature on daily losses and bioavailability of vitamin B12. These estimates could be used for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake for adults and elderly. Methods: We identified publications on daily vitamin B12 losses (July 2011) and publications on t

  16. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Olaussen, Ken André; Pinna, Guillaume; Eisenberg, Tobias; Goubar, Aïcha; Martins, Isabelle; Michels, Judith; Kratassiouk, Gueorgui; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Scoazec, Marie; Vacchelli, Erika; Schlemmer, Frederic; Kepp, Oliver; Shen, Shensi; Tailler, Maximilien; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Adjemian, Sandy; Jemaà, Mohamed; Chaba, Kariman; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Pietrocola, Federico; Tajeddine, Nicolas; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Araujo, Natalia; Morozova, Nadya; Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Commo, Frederic; Besse, Benjamin; Validire, Pierre; Fouret, Pierre; Robin, Angélique; Dorvault, Nicolas; Girard, Philippe; Gouy, Sébastien; Pautier, Patricia; Jägemann, Nora; Nickel, Ann-Christin; Marsili, Sabrina; Paccard, Caroline; Servant, Nicolas; Hupé, Philippe; Behrens, Carmen; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Cremer, Isabelle; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Midttun, Oivind; Ueland, Per Magne; Lazar, Vladimir; Dessen, Philippe; Zischka, Hans; Chatelut, Etienne; Castedo, Maria; Madeo, Frank; Barillot, Emmanuel; Thomale, Juergen; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Soria, Jean-Charles; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-08-30

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  17. Prognostic Impact of Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK, the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  18. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  19. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infant formula is based on cow’s milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow’s milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Methods Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-bindin...

  20. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  1. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  2. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1990-07-01

    Theophylline overdosage can cause life-threatening symptoms, that include seizures and cardiac arrhythmias, and can be fatal. Neither the onset of toxicity nor the severity of symptoms is well predicted by serum theophylline concentrations. Since depressed vitamin B6 plasma levels can occur in patients receiving theophylline, we explored a B6-theophylline interaction in a rabbit model. Administration of theophylline preparations intraperitoneally (aminophylline) or orally (sustained release anhydrous theophylline) resulted in a 47% depression of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels. The 87% increase in PLP with pyridoxine administration was only 18% when aminophylline was also given. The mechanism of the theophylline-B6 interaction is obscure. Ethylenediamine in some theophylline preparations binds directly to PLP, potentially increasing the less direct theophylline effect. Pyridoxine supplementation resulted in higher average PLP levels but did not prevent death in animals with profoundly low PLP levels. If these data apply to humans, B6 deficiency may contribute to chronic theophylline toxicity; however, pyridoxine administration in the dosage used may not prevent toxicity. Larger doses may prove beneficial after further investigation.

  3. B6-responsive disorders: a model of vitamin dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter T

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal phosphate is the cofactor for over 100 enzyme-catalysed reactions in the body, including many involved in the synthesis or catabolism of neurotransmitters. Inadequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate in the brain cause neurological dysfunction, particularly epilepsy. There are several different mechanisms that lead to an increased requirement for pyridoxine and/or pyridoxal phosphate. These include: (i) inborn errors affecting the pathways of B(6) vitamer metabolism; (ii) inborn errors that lead to accumulation of small molecules that react with pyridoxal phosphate and inactivate it; (iii) drugs that react with pyridoxal phosphate; (iv) coeliac disease, which is thought to lead to malabsorption of B(6) vitamers; (v) renal dialysis, which leads to increased losses of B(6) vitamers from the circulation; (vi) drugs that affect the metabolism of B(6) vitamers; and (vii) inborn errors affecting specific pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. The last show a very variable degree of pyridoxine responsiveness, from 90% in X-linked sideroblastic anaemia (delta-aminolevulinate synthase deficiency) through 50% in homocystinuria (cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency) to 5% in ornithinaemia with gyrate atrophy (ornithine delta-aminotransferase deficiency). The possible role of pyridoxal phosphate as a chaperone during folding of nascent enzymes is discussed. High-dose pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate may have deleterious side-effects (particularly peripheral neuropathy with pyridoxine) and this must be considered in treatment regimes. None the less, in some patients, particularly infants with intractable epilepsy, treatment with pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate can be life-saving, and in other infants with inborn errors of metabolism B(6) treatment can be extremely beneficial.

  4. Holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) and Herbert's model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency: a review and alternative hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of total vitamin B12 in serum is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific indicator for the reliable diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Victor Herbert proposed a model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) is the first indicator of deficiency. Based on this model, a commercial immunoassay has been controversially promoted as a replacement for the total vitamin B12 test. HoloTC is cobalamin (vitamin B12) attached to the transport protein transcobalamin, in the serum, for delivery to cells for metabolism. Although there have been many published reports supporting the claims for HoloTC, the results of some studies were inconsistent with the claim of HoloTC as the most sensitive marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. This review examines the evidence for and against the use of HoloTC, and concludes that the HoloTC immunoassay cannot be used to measure vitamin B12 status any more reliably than total vitamin B12, or to predict the onset of a metabolic deficiency, because it is based on an erroneous hypothesis and a flawed model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency. The author proposes an alternative model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  5. Synthesis of Al-SrB6 composite via powder metallurgy processing%粉末冶金法制备Al-SrB6复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucel BIROL

    2015-01-01

    The potential of powder metallurgy processing for the manufacture of Al−SrB6 composites was explored. Al4Sr particles fractured extensively during the ball milling of Al−15Sr/Al−4B powder mixtures. There was no interaction between the Al4Sr and AlB2 compounds across the section of the aluminium grains in the as-milled state. SrB6 formed, when the ball milled powder blends were subsequently annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. Ball milling for 1 h was sufficient for SrB6 to become the major constituent in powder blends annealed at 700 °C while it took 2 h of ball milling for powder blends annealed at 600 °C. Higher annealing temperatures and longer ball milling time encouraged the formation of the SrB6 compound while the latter made a great impact on the microstructural features of the Al−SrB6 composite. The SrB6 compound particles were much smaller and more uniformly distributed across the aluminium matrix grains in powder grains ball milled for 2 h before the annealing treatments at 600 °C and 700 °C.%采用粉末冶金法制备Al−SrB6复合材料。对Al−15Sr/Al−4B混合粉末进行球磨,在球磨过程中Al4Sr颗粒充分破碎。球磨态铝合金晶粒截面表明Al4Sr与AlB2之间不发生反应。混合球磨粉末经高温退火后形成SrB6。若在700°C进行退火,混合粉末需球磨1 h可使SrB6成为主要相,而若在600°C进行退火,混合粉末则需球磨2 h才能使SrB6成为主要相。提高退火温度和延长球磨时间都可以促进SrB6相的形成,但后者对Al−SrB6复合材料的微观组织影响更大。经600°C和700°C退火处理之前,SrB6颗粒更细小,在铝基体中分布也更均匀。

  6. Development on Fermentation Process of Vitamin B12%维生素B12发酵工艺进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑶

    2012-01-01

    综述了维生素B12(VB12)发酵工艺路线、菌种选育、工艺优化等方面的研究进展,展望了VB12发酵工艺发展前景。%To Summary the fermentation process route,process optimization and strain transformation of vitamin B12. To prospect the development of vitamin B12.

  7. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but e...

  8. Vitamin B6 metabolism influences the intracellular accumulation of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Marsili, Sabrina; Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Michels, Judith; Garcia, Pauline; Vacchelli, Erika; Chatelut, Etienne; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin B6 metabolism influences the adaptive response of non-small lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells to distinct, potentially lethal perturbations in homeostasis, encompassing nutrient deprivation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, irradiation as well as the exposure to cytotoxic chemicals, including the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin (CDDP). Thus, the siRNA-mediated downregulation of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK), the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6, protects NSCLC cells (as well as a large collection of human and murine malignant cells of distinct histological derivation) from the cytotoxic effects of CDDP. Accordingly, the administration of pyridoxine, one of the inactive precursors of vitamin B6, exacerbates cisplatin-induced cell death, in vitro and in vivo, but only when PDXK is expressed. Conversely, antioxidants such as non-oxidized glutathione (GSH) are known to protect cancer cells from CDDP toxicity. Pyridoxine increases the amount of CDDP-DNA adducts formed upon the exposure of NSCLC cells to CDDP and aggravates the consequent DNA damage response. On the contrary, in the presence of GSH, NSCLC cells exhibit near-to-undetectable levels of CDDP-DNA adducts and a small fraction of the cell population activates the DNA damage response. We therefore wondered whether vitamin B6 metabolism and GSH might interact with CDDP in a pharmacokinetic fashion. In this short communication, we demonstrate that GSH inhibits the intracellular accumulation of CDDP, while pyridoxine potentiates it in a PDXK-dependent fashion. Importantly, such pharmacokinetic effects do not involve plasma membrane transporters that mediate a prominent fraction of CDDP influx, i.e., solute carrier family 31, member 1 (SLC31A1, best known as copper transporter 1, CTR1) and efflux, i.e., ATPase, Cu ( 2+) transporting, β polypeptide (ATP7B).

  9. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W; Blom, Henk J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders.

  10. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexø, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B......12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. METHODS: Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. RESULTS: All infant...... formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows...

  11. Cognitive and psychiatric effects of vitamin B12 replacement in dementia with low serum B12 levels: a nursing home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Christopher H.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Siegal, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine whether B12 replacement would ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in elderly subjects with dementia and low serum B12 levels. Methods A test group (n=28) of nursing home residents with low serum B12 levels (B12 levels (>300 pg/mL) were evaluated by blinded raters while the test group received intramuscular (IM) B12 replacement therapy. All subjects were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks with the Dementia Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Although B12 replacement produced significant improvement in hematologic and metabolic parameters, it yielded no significant effect on cognitive or psychiatric variables. A few subjects evidenced notable individual treatment responses; however, these were not statistically more frequent than in the normal B12 group. Conclusions These results suggest that B12 replacement is unlikely to benefit cognitive or psychiatric symptoms in the vast majority of elderly dementia patients with low serum B12 levels. PMID:18925978

  12. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2016-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P genetic risk score based on eight vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P ... was associated with a 0.09 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05; 0.13) increase in BMI (P = 3 × 10(-5)), whereas a genetically induced 20% decrease in serum vitamin B12 had no effect on BMI [-0.03 (95% CI -0.22; 0.16) kg/m(2)] (P = 0.74). Nevertheless, the strongest serum vitamin B12 variant, FUT2 rs602662, which was excluded...

  13. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-01-26

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides.

  14. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  15. Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Willnow, Thomas E; Nielsen, Rikke;

    2002-01-01

    Megalin has previously been shown to bind and mediate endocytosis of transcobalamin (TC)-B(12). However, the physiological significance of this has not been established, and other TC-B(12) binding proteins have been suggested to mediate renal uptake of this vitamin complex. The present study...... demonstrates by the use of megalin-deficient mice that megalin is, in fact, essential for the normal renal reabsorption of TC-vitamin B(12) and for renal accumulation of this highly conserved vitamin. Megalin-deficient mice excrete increased amounts of TC and B(12) in the urine, revealing a defective renal...... tubular uptake of TC-B(12). The urinary B(12) excretion is increased approximately 4-fold, resulting in an approximately 28-fold higher renal B(12) clearance. This is associated with an approximately 4-fold decrease in B(12) content in megalin-deficient kidney cortex. Thus megalin is important to prevent...

  16. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Rikki M Tanner; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  17. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group than the diabetic group who did not receive oral B12 supplementation. Low serum vitamin B12 is commonly overlooked in the elderly, with or without diabetes. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect BMD in the elderly. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and BMD among diabetics.

  18. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  19. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment.

  20. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.

  1. Change level of serum homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in young patients with ischemic stroke and the effect of the intervention%青年缺血性脑卒中患者血同型半胱氨酸、叶酸和维生素B12水平变化及其干预效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 谭秀革; 赵宗敏; 张春鹏; 陈奕菲; 陈建霞; 韩涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the variations and prognostic factors of hyperhomocysteinaemia in ischemic cerebral apoplexy for the youth who administrated vitamin B6,vitamin B12 and folic acid at pretherapy and post-treatment.Methods One hundred and twenty cases of young patients with ischemic cerebral apoplexy in the Pinggu Hospital of Capital University from January 2003 to December 2013 as case group(intervention group,60 cases and 60 cases of non-intervention group),while 120 youth volunteers with the same period and age without neurological diseases as a control group.Both groups patients were detected for hyperhomocysteinaemia,folic acid and vitamin B12.The non-intervention group was administrated basic treatment,while the intervention group administrated vitamin B6,vitamin B12 and folic acid on this basis.The hyperhomocysteinaemia,folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected repetitively after four weeks.Results Compared with control group,the hyperhomocysteinaemia in ischemic cerebral apoplexy group for the youth had increased significantly ((10.2 ± 3.1) μmmol/L vs.(21.3 ± 4.5) μmmol/L,P < 0.05).The hyperhomocysteinaemia,folic acid and vitamin B12 had no significant differences between intervention group and non-intervention group (P > 0.05).After replenished vitamin B6,vitamin B12 and folic acid,the hyperhomocysteinaemia had decreased significantly ((10.5 ± 3.0) μmnol/L) in intervention group.Folic acid ((6.5±2.8)μg/L) and vitamin B12(450.2±155.6) ng/L) had increased significantly(P<0.05).Conclusion The hyperhomocysteinaemia increased in ischemic cerebral apoplexy for the youth.It is that hyperhomocysteinaemia decreased by replenished vitamin B6,vitamin B12 and folic acid which make for prognosis in ischemic cerebral apoplexy for the youth.%目的 探讨青年缺血性脑卒中患者血同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、叶酸和维生素B12水平变化及其应用维生素B6、维生素B12和叶酸治疗后的水平变化.方法 选取我院2003年1月至2013

  2. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater.

  3. Vitamin B12 Phosphate Conjugation and Its Effect on Binding to the Human B12 -Binding Proteins Intrinsic Factor and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Proinsias, Keith; Ociepa, Michał; Pluta, Katarzyna;

    2016-01-01

    The binding of vitamin B12 derivatives to human B12 transporter proteins is strongly influenced by the type and site of modification of the cobalamin original structure. We have prepared the first cobalamin derivative modified at the phosphate moiety. The reaction conditions were fully optimized...

  4. Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations within reference values do not exclude functional vitamin B-12 deficiency in PKU patients of various ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugteveen, Inge; Hoeksma, Marieke; Monsen, Anne-Lise Bjorke; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and in particular methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered reliable parameters for vitamin B-12 status in healthy individuals. Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients are at risk for functional vitamin B-12 deficiency based on their diet. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate

  5. Proton-pump inhibitor therapy and vitamin B12 status in an inpatient hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda; Donnelly-VanderLoo, Mary; Watson, Tiffany; O'Connor, Colleen; Madill, Janet

    2016-06-23

    The risk for impaired vitamin B12 status increases with age, as does the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Long-term use of PPIs is associated with several nutritional deficiencies including B12. Currently, there are no recommendations for B12 screening among patients taking PPIs. Data were abstracted on B12 concentrations, B12-containing supplement use, medications, and select hematological values from a retrospective chart review of 658 adults, 391 with serum B12 concentrations, admitted to 6 different medical units at 2 regional hospitals in Southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2012. We found no difference between PPI users and nonusers and serum B12 concentrations (404 ± 224 vs 369 ± 213 pmol/L; P = 0.0690). This may be due to use of B12 containing multivitamins in 41% of PPI users. Regression modelling found that aging increases the odds of having an impaired B12 status (B12 supplements are almost 4 times more likely to have an impaired status. Mean corpuscular volume was not related to B12 status. In this population, older PPI users are more likely to be using multivitamins, which may delay nutritional deficiencies. However, the lower B12 concentrations of PPI users taking only B12 supplements is a concern and requires further research. Finally, physicians need to be aware that mean corpuscular volume is no longer recommended as an effective biomarker for B12 screening and updated screening protocols need to be used to reduce the possibility of adverse neurological effects from impaired B12 status.

  6. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    ishak abdurrahman isik; cahit baris erdur; ufuk Bozkurt Obuz; Nur Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Together with low intake, malabsorbtion is the most important factor causing vitamin B 12 (vit B 12) deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency also has been shown to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis in some studies. Aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of HP gastritis in patients with vit B 12 deficiency. Patients and methods: 24 patients (mean age: 15.6 +/- 1.3 years ) have been included the study. Serum vit B12 level has been measured by electrochemilumi...

  7. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in long-term vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sella, P; Rakover, Y; Ratner, D

    1990-06-01

    Serum vitamin B12, serum folate and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels were examined among 36 strict vegans of 5-35 years' duration. Vitamin B12 levels among the vegans were generally lower than in a control population. Most of the vegans had vitamin B12 values less than 200 pg/ml. RBC folate levels were normal but serum folate levels among the vegans were higher than among the controls. None of the vegans had any hematologic evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency, however four of them had neurologic complaints. Long-standing vegans should be monitored for vitamin B12 levels.

  8. A preliminary study on the teratogenesis of dexamethasone and the preventive effect of vitamin B12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-jun LU; Wei HE; Bing SHI; Tian MENG; Xiao-yu LI; Yu-rong LIU

    2008-01-01

    Excessive dexamethasone (Dex) administrated into pregnant mice during critical periods of palatal development can produce a high incidence of cleft palate. Its mechanisms remain unknown. Vitamin B12 has been shown to antagonize the tera-togenic effects of Dex, which, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of Dex and vitamin B,2 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion using organ culture of murine embryonic shelves. The explanted palatal shelves on embryonic day 14 (E14) were cultured for 24,48,72 or 96 h in different concentrations of Dex and/or vitamin B12. The palatal shelves were examined histologically for the morphological alterations on the medial edge epithelium (MEE) and fusion rates among different groups. It was found that the palatal shelves were not fused at 72 h or less of culture in Dex group, while they were completely fused in the control and vitamin B12-treated groups at 72 and 96 h, respectively. The MEE still existed and proliferated. In Dex+vitamin B12 group the palatal shelves were fused at each time point in a similar rate to controls. These results may suggest that Dex causes teratogenesis of murine embryonic palatal shelves and vitamin B12 prevents the teratogenic effect of Dex on palatogenesis on murine embryos in vitro.

  9. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  10. The Parkinson's disease death rate: carbidopa and vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz,1 Alvin Stein,2 Ted Cole31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3Cole Center for Healing, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: The only indication for carbidopa and benserazide is the management of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa-induced nausea. Both drugs irreversibly bind to and permanently deactivate pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, and PLP-dependent enzymes. PLP is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and proteins. Virtually every major system in the body is impacted directly or indirectly by PLP. The administration of carbidopa and benserazide potentially induces a nutritional catastrophe. During the first 15 years of prescribing L-dopa, a decreasing Parkinson's disease death rate was observed. Then, in 1976, 1 year after US Food and Drug Administration approved the original L-dopa/carbidopa combination drug, the Parkinson's disease death rate started increasing. This trend has continued to the present, for 38 years and counting. The previous literature documents this increasing death rate, but no hypothesis has been offered concerning this trend. Carbidopa is postulated to contribute to the increasing Parkinson's disease death rate and to the classification of Parkinson's as a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It may contribute to L-dopa tachyphylaxis.Keywords: L-dopa, levodopa, vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

  11. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H;

    2013-01-01

    , and kidneys were collected and analyzed for B(12), unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity, and (57)[Co]-B(12). RESULTS: Three weeks of metformin treatment reduced plasma B(12) by 22% or 289 [47-383] pmol/L (median and [range]) (p = 0.001), while no effect was observed on unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity....... Compared with controls, the amount of B(12) in the liver was 36% (p = 0.007) higher in metformin-treated rats, while the B(12) content in the kidney was 34% (p = 0.013) lower. No difference in the total amount of absorbed (57)[Co]-B(12) present in the tissues and organs studied was found, suggesting...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B...

  12. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12 Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from B12-containing Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B12 for growth despite vitamin B12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B12-generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B12-synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  13. Coenzyme B12 can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Chun, Ah Yeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (Vitamin B12 ) is one of the most complex biomolecules and an essential cofactor required for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Pseudomonas denitrificans synthesizes coenzyme B12 in an oxygen-dependent manner using a pathway encoded by more than 25 genes that are located in six different operons. Escherichia coli, a robust and suitable host for metabolic engineering was used to produce coenzyme B12 . These genes were cloned into three compatible plasmids and expressed heterologously in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE analysis and bioassay showed that the recombinant E. coli expressed the coenzyme B12 synthetic genes and successfully produced coenzyme B12 . However, according to the quantitative determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the amount of coenzyme B12 produced by the recombinant E. coli (0.21 ± 0.02 μg/g cdw) was approximately 13-fold lower than that by P. denitrificans (2.75 ± 0.22 μg/g cdw). Optimization of the culture conditions to improve the production of coenzyme B12 by the recombinant E. coli was successful, and the highest titer (0.65 ± 0.03 μg/g cdw) of coenzyme B12 was obtained. Interestingly, although the synthesis of coenzyme B12 in P. denitrificans is strictly oxygen-dependent, the recombinant E. coli could produce coenzyme B12 under anaerobic conditions.

  14. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  15. Different Supplementation Regimes to Treat Perioperative Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Smulders, J F

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 dosage in multivitamin supplementation in the current literature is quite variable. There is no consensus about the optimal treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency. A systematic literature search on different supplementation regimes to treat perioperative vitamin B12 deficiencies in bariatric surgery was performed. The methodological quality of ten included studies was rated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale and ranged from moderate to good. The agreement between the reviewers was assessed with a Cohen's kappa (0.69). The current literature suggests that 350 μg oral vitamin B12 is the appropriate dose to correct low vitamin B12 levels in many patients. Further research must focus on a better diagnosis of a vitamin B12 deficiency, the optimal dose vitamin B12 supplementation, and clinical relevance next to biochemical data.

  16. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm.

  17. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  18. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray; Lubree, Himangi; Otiv, Suhas; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (pHomocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) micromol/L) were comparable to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of >1000 microg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), phomocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.

  19. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  20. 维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质的检测方法.方法:高效液相色谱法,乙腈-0.05mol/l磷酸二氢钾溶液(17:83),用磷酸调节PH值至3.0.检测波长361nm.结果:本方法能有效检测出维生素B12的有关物质.

  1. 根据血清维生素B12水平测定值诊断维生素B12缺乏症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod; Devalia; 颜淑敏(译)

    2006-01-01

    当患者出现血液系统、神经系统及神经精神系统异常时,血清维生素B12水平被用价是否存在维生素B12的缺乏。及早给予维生素B12补充治疗可阻止不可逆性神经系统病变和认知功能障碍的发生。

  2. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  3. Electrical transport properties of CaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Sesé, Javier; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-10-01

    We report results from a systematic electron-transport study in a broad temperature range on 12 CaB6 single crystals. None of the crystals were intentionally doped. The different carrier densities observed presumably arise from slight variations in the Ca:B stoichiometry. In these crystals, the variation of the electrical resistivity and of the Hall effect with temperature can be consistently accounted for by the model we propose, in which B-antisite defects (B atom replacing Ca atom) are "amphoteric." The magnetotransport measurements reveal that most of the samples we have studied are close to a metal-insulator transition at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance changes smoothly from negative—for weakly metallic samples—to positive values—for samples in a localized regime.

  4. Vitamin B6: deficiency diseases and methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Mirza, Tania; Qadeer, Kiran; Nazim, Urooj; Vaid, Faiyaz Hm

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is closely associated with the functions of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. It also participates in the metabolic processes of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Pyridoxine deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy and may lead to infant abnormalities. The Intravenous administration of pyridoxine to patients results in a dramatic cessation of seizures. A number of analytical methods were developed for the determination of pyridoxine in different dosage forms, food materials and biological fluids. These include UV spectrometric, spectrofluorimetric, mass spectrometric, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatographic, electrophoretic, electrochemical and enzymatic methods. Most of these methods are capable of determining pyridoxine in the presence of other vitamins and complex systems in µg quantities. The development and applications of these methods in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis mostly during the last decade have been reviewed.

  5. 同型半胱氨酸和叶酸、维生素B12联合检测在心血管疾病中的作用%Combinative Function of Hcy,FA and VitB12 in Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岩; 王蕾; 崔桂华; 郝彦平; 刘辉; 靳松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between cardiovascular disease and serum,homocysteine (Hcy),folic acid (FA) ,and the density of VitB12. Methods To determine the relativity between Hcy and the level of FA,VitB12.120 cases were selected after coronary arteriography. Enzymatic cycling assay was introduced to test the level of serum Hcy by using an apparatus,Hitachi 7170,automatic biochemical analyzer. Automated microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay ahalyzer (Beckman-Coulter ACCESS) was used to test the level of FA,VitB12. Results ① The level of Hcy in group with coronary disease was higher than those in control group(P<0. 0l). ② Patients with coronary artery disease Hcy level and serum FA and VitB12 was a negative correlation(r =- 0. 64;r =- 0. 44,P<0.01). ③Patients with coronary artery disease by taking FA,VitB12 and VitB6 after treatment serum Hcy concentration obvious(r =- 0. 64;r =- 0. 44,P<0. 0l). Conclusion The high level of Hcy is a higher risk of independent factor with coronary disease.%目的 探讨血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、叶酸(FA)、维生素B12(Vit B12)浓度与心血管病的关系.方法 选择经冠状动脉造影检查的患者共120例,血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)采用日立7170全自动生化分析仪,方法为循环酶法;叶酸(FA)、维生素B12(Vit B12)采用Beckman-Coulter ACCESS全自动微粒子化学发光免疫分析仪检测.观察Hcy与FA,VitB12水平变化的相关性.结果 ①冠心病患者血清Hcy含量显著高于对照组(P<0.01).②冠心病患者血清Hcy水平与FA,VitB12呈负相关(r=-0.64;r=-0.44,P<0.01).③冠心病患者经服用叶酸(FA)、维生素B12(VitB12)、维生素B6(VB6)治疗后,血清Hcy浓度降低明显(P<0.01).结论 高同型半胱氨酸水平是冠心病的独立危险因素.

  6. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R W; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O; Wright, Aaron T

    2017-02-14

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12 Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism.

  7. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure.

  8. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A.; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2017-01-01

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12. Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism. PMID:28137868

  9. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kesiktaş

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12 is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to our outpatient clinic because of chronic low back pain were examined and divided with vitamin B-12 levels over or below 400 pg/ml. 26 participant who met all inclusion criteria with vit-B12 level below 400pg/ml were assigned to case group. Among the patients that vit-B12 levels were over 400pg/ml, 20 participants were randomly selected to control group. Bone mineral density (BMD, biochemical measurements, causes of osteoporosis and vit-B12 defiencies were investigated. A computer program was used for statistic evaluation. Results: There was not statistically significant difference between BMD’s of case and control groups (p>0.05. When the vit-B12 levels were grouped with over 400 pg/ml, below 200 pg/ml and between 200-400 pg/ml, osteodensimetric examinations of femur neck BMD (p<0.05 were achieved statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this trial highlight an association of vitamin B-12 status with osteoporosis. Vit-B12 defiency is an easy and cheap treatable condition so that reason we suggest that levels of vit-B12 should be investigated. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:1-6

  10. Experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in a human subject: a longitudinal investigation of the performance of the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Based on Victor Herbert's model for sequential stages in the development of vitamin B12 deficiency, the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) immunoassay has controversially been promoted as a more specific and sensitive replacement for the total vitamin B12 test, for the diagnosis of deficiency. There have been no longitudinal studies, by means of experimental cobalamin deficiency, because ethical considerations prevent such risky studies on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the response of HoloTC, compared to total vitamin B12 and metabolites, to the development of experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 54 year old male, with a vitamin B12 deficiency possibly caused by a defect in the intracellular cobalamin metabolism, ensured an initially replete condition by means of oral doses of cyanocobalamin supplements at 1000 μg/day for 12 weeks. The subject then depleted himself of vitamin B12, by withholding treatment and using a low-cobalamin diet, until significant metabolic disturbances were observed. The responses of serum total vitamin B12 and HoloTC and the two metabolites, plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, were monitored by weekly blood tests. HoloTC was not significantly more sensitive than either total serum vitamin B12 or total homocysteine, and was much less sensitive than methylmalonic acid. HoloTC decreased from an initial concentration of >128 pmol/L to a minimum of 33 pmol/L on day 742, the only day on which it fell below the lower limit of the reference interval. Total vitamin B12 decreased from an initial concentration of 606 pmol/L to a minimum of 171 pmol/L on day 728. Total homocysteine increased from an initial concentration of 8.4 μmol/L to a maximum of 14.2 μmol/L on day 609. Methylmalonic acid unexpectedly contained four distinct peaks; initially at 0.17 μmol/L, it first exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval on day 386

  11. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  12. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik; Kräutler, Bernhard; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  13. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  14. 维生素B12的研究及其进展%Research Advance in Vitamin B12 and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎; 郝常明

    2002-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的生理特性、产生菌、生物合成途径,以及发酵生产和测定方法进行了详尽的阐述,并对目前维生素B12发酵生产面临的问题及前景作了分析和预测.

  15. 维生素B12对抑郁症的辅助治疗%Vitamin B12 as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春燕; 赵约翰; 徐广军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察抑郁症患者血清维生素B12水平,探讨抗抑郁剂合并维生素B12治疗维生素B12缺乏抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法对400名抑郁症患者进行血清维生素B12浓度测查,将筛查出的维生素B12缺乏的抑郁症患者70例,随机分为两组,各35例。对照组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,治疗8周;研究组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,同时合并使用维生素B12,治疗8周。研究组及对照组治疗前后1,2,4,8周末分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)评定;治疗后1,2,4,8周末分别评定副反应量表(TESS);治疗前及治疗后4,8周末分别查血清维生素B12浓度。结果抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平(359.7±183.2)pg/ml,维生素B12缺乏发生率为19.5%,研究组与对照组第1周末汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),治疗第2,4、8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),研究组有效率为94.3%,对照组为74.3%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.01),血清维生素B12浓度治疗后4,8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),且研究组汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分与血清维生素B12浓度负相关。两组不良反应均较轻微,TESS评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平较正常明显降低,维生素B12缺乏发生率高,维生素B12辅助抗抑郁剂治疗可明显提高疗效,且不增加不良反应。%Objective To observe serum vitamin B 12 levels in patients with depression and explore the curative effects and safety of antidepressant combined with vitamine B 12 in the treatment of depression with vitamin B 12 deficiency.Methods Serum vitamin B12 lev-els in 400 patients with major depressive disorder were determined at baseline .70 depressive patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency were randomly divided into research

  16. Prevalence of pernicious anemia in patients with macrocytic anemia and low serum B12

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current research evaluated the prevalence of pernicious anemia (PA) in patients with macrocytic anemia (high MCV) and low serum B12 in Riyadh. Methods: Blood testing was done in 77 patients (males: 45.5%, females: 54.5%) with macrocytic anemia; 84 patients; (males: 23.8%, females: 76.2%) with low serum B12 and 30 healthy subjects. Complete blood count, differential count, folic acid, vitamin B12, intrinsic factor, gastric parietal cell antibodies and holotranscobalamin II were ...

  17. 可改善维生素B12吸收的Eligen技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽珠(摘)

    2008-01-01

    Emisphere Technologies报告,采用其Eligen配方技术能改善口服维生素B12的生物利用度。Eligen B12产品(I)可使需要补充维生素B12的患者避免多次注射或口服大剂量。

  18. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Pregnant Women in Samsun Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Results: Thirty-six (58.1% women had a low serum vitamin B12 level (9.99 and micro;mol/L. All of the 20 infants examined had normal neurodevelopmental findings. Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in normalization of vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in all the cases. Conclusion: The frequency of neonatal vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to maternal deficiency may be higher than thought in Samsun province of Turkey. Large-scale screening studies may reveal its prevalence more accurately, and may help in taking preventive measurements. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 840-847

  19. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'eno, Bernadette N; Perrine, Cria G; Whitehead, Ralph D; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2017-01-17

    Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a) age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.92) or 12-17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72) compared to 18-23 months; (b) being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50) compared to not being stunted; (c) and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41) compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  20. 血清活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值%The value of the serum active vitamin B12 in vitamin B12 deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊瑚; 张文辉; 周碧碧; 陈晓东

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值.方法 采用酶免疫发光分析竞争法检测血清中维生素B12和叶酸的含量,及ELISA法检测血清活性维生素B12,通过ROC曲线分析活性维生素B12在诊断维生素B12缺乏中的特异度和敏感度;并且通过回归分析活性维生素B12水平与性别、年龄、总维生素B12及叶酸的相关性;统计分析各疾病组中活性维生素B12含量的累积百分比.结果 血清活性维生素B12判断维生素B12缺乏的ROC曲线下面积为0.983,敏感度为60.0%,特异性为99.2%;活性维生素B12与总维生素B12和叶酸存在良好的正相关,P<0.001,与年龄、性别不相关;各病例组中血液病组的活性维生素B12含量累计百分比最高,其次为神经系统疾病组.结论 血清活性维生素B12是用于临床维生素B12缺乏诊断较敏感、特异的指标,在血液病、神经系统疾病患者中,其临床应用价值更突出.

  1. Peptide B12: emerging trends at the interface of inorganic chemistry, chemical biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelder, Felix; Zhou, Kai; Sonnay, Marjorie

    2013-01-28

    The sophisticated and efficient delivery of vitamin B(12) ("B(12)") into cells offers promise for B(12)-bioconjugates in medicinal diagnosis and therapy. It is therefore surprising that rather little attention is presently paid to an alternative strategy in drug design: the development of structurally perfect, but catalytically inactive semi-artificial B(12) surrogates. Vitamin B(12) cofactors catalyse important biological transformations and are indispensible for humans and most other forms of life. This strong metabolic dependency exhibits enormous medicinal opportunities. Inhibitors of B(12) dependent enzymes are potential suppressors of fast proliferating cancer cells. This perspective article focuses on the design and study of backbone modified B(12) derivatives, particularly on peptide B(12) derivatives. Peptide B(12) is a recently introduced class of biomimetic cobalamins bearing an artificial peptide backbone with adjustable coordination and redox-properties. Pioneering biological studies demonstrated reduced catalytic activity, combined with inhibitory potential that is encouraging for future efforts in turning natural cofactors into new anti-proliferative agents.

  2. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  3. Determination of trace vitamin B12 in multivitamin formula with minerals tablets by on- line microbial turbidimetric method%在线微生物浊度法测定多维元素片中微量维生素B12的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢京光; 裴琳; 杨龙华

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for the determination of trace vitamin B,2 in multivitamin formula with minerals tablets. Methods: The test organism was Lactobacillus leichmamii. The medium without vitamin B12 was used as assay medium and measured by on -line microbial turbidimetric method. Results:Vitamin B12 curves were linear in the range of 0.02 -0.10 ng μ mL-1 (r =0.9985), and the average recovery was 101.8%. Conclusion: This rapid and simple method shows high sensitivity, which is suitable for the assay of trace vitamin B12 in multivitamin formula with minerals tablets. The results are accurate and reliable by on - line method.%目的:建立在线微生物浊度法测定多维元素片中微量维生素B12的含量.方法:以莱士曼氏乳酸杆菌为实验菌,以缺乏维生素B12的培养基为检测培养基,采用浊度法在线检测.结果:维生素B12浓度在0.02~0.10 ng·mL-1范围内呈现良好线性关系(r =0.9985),平均回收率为101.8%.结论:该方法快速、简便、灵敏,在线检测结果准确可靠,适用于多维元素片中微量维生素B12的含量测定.

  4. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  6. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  7. A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Shengbai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-14

    Based on first-principles calculations, we designed for the first time a boron-kagome-based two-dimensional MgB6 crystal, in which two boron kagome layers sandwich a triangular magnesium layer. The two-dimensional lattice is metallic with several bands across the Fermi level, and among them a Dirac point appears at the K point of the first Brillouin zone. This metal-stabilized boron kagome system displays electron-phonon coupling, with a superconductivity critical transition temperature of 4.7 K, and thus it is another possible superconducting Mg-B compound besides MgB2. Furthermore, the proposed 2D MgB6 can also be used for hydrogen storage after decoration with Ca. Up to five H2 molecules can be attracted by one Ca with an average binding energy of 0.225 eV. The unique properties of 2D MgB6 will spur broad interest in nanoscience and technology.

  8. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with cardiovas

  9. Relationship between vitamin B12 and sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leishear, K.; Boudreau, R.M.; Studenski, S.A.; Ferrucci, L.; Rosano, C.; Rekeneire, N. de; Houston, D.K.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Schwartz, A.V.; Vinik, A.I.; Hogervorst, E.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, T.B.; Newman, A.B.; Strotmeyer, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand two hundred and eighty-seven adult

  10. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W J; de Rooij, S E J A; Huijmans, J G M; Fischer, C; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum vit

  11. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  12. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  13. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  14. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  15. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  16. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency rel

  17. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed white... as to be clearly distinguishable as such on photocopies. (c) The body of all printed statements...

  18. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good.... (d) The body of all printed registration statements and reports and all notes to financial...

  19. Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Nexø, Ebba; Greibe, Eva

    2015-01-01

    metformin. Methods: Male Wistar rats aged 16 weeks at sacrifice was treated for 6 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (n = 10) or metformin (n = 10). We collected plasma and organs for analyses of B12, and we explored the fraction of protein-bound B12 in selected organs. In addition we...... examined the effect of four weeks administration of metformin (n = 10= or sline (n = 10) by intra-peritoneal osmotic pumps on levels of B12 in plasma, liver, and kidneys of rats aged 14 weeks at sacrifice. Results: Median concentration of B12 in the 16 weeks old control rats was highest in the kidney (1350......Aim: Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering...

  20. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency...

  1. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ishak abdurrahman isik

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although vitamin B 12 levels of HP positive patients were lower than that of HP negative patients this differance was not statistically significant. Hereafter new studies with high number of patients will be helpful to investigate relation between HP infection and vitamin B 12 deficiency. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 221-225

  2. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos F.; Teusink, B.; Molenaar, D.; Heck, van M.; Wels, M.W.W.; Sieuwerts, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by medium optimization. Here we show that a series of systematic single amino acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B12 from nearly undetec

  3. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  4. Oral vitamin B12 replacement for the treatment of pernicious anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Qiu Hua Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with pernicious anaemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anaemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anaemia, the recommended dosage and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from 1 January 1980 to 31 March 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomised controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000mcg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anaemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 intramuscular injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  5. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd A Al-Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml, 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml, and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml. Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 (P < 0.005. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.

  6. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  7. 60岁后要补维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    据统计,美国60岁以上的老年人当中,1/5缺乏维生素B12。因此,医学家建议:素食者和老年人尤其要注意多吃富含维生素B12的食物,以弥补膳食中维生素B12不足的缺陷。维生素B12对于维持缝康的神经经胞和红细胞非常关键。缺乏维生素B12轻则导致疲劳、眩晕.重则会引起神经损伤、贫血和痴呆。

  8. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests.

  9. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-10-16

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed.

  11. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12.

  12. Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H

    1995-12-01

    A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

  13. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  14. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  15. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  16. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for furthe

  17. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik; Grarup, Niels; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-12-19

    Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P B12 was associated with a 0.09 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05; 0.13) increase in BMI (P = 3 × 10(-5)), whereas a genetically induced 20% decrease in serum vitamin B12 had no effect on BMI [-0.03 (95% CI -0.22; 0.16) kg/m(2)] (P = 0.74). Nevertheless, the strongest serum vitamin B12 variant, FUT2 rs602662, which was excluded from the B12 genetic risk score due to potential pleiotropic effects, showed a per allele effect of 0.15 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.01; 0.32) on BMI (P = 0.03). This association was accentuated including two German cohorts (ntotal = 5050), with a combined effect of 0.19 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.08; 0.30) (P = 4 × 10(-4)). We found no support for a causal role of decreased serum vitamin B12 levels in obesity. However, our study suggests that FUT2, through its regulation of the cross-talk between gut microbes and the human host, might explain a part of the observational association between serum vitamin B12 and BMI.

  18. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements.

  19. Neuropathy caused by B12 deficiency in a patient with ileal tuberculosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toosi Taraneh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in macrocytic anemia. Neurologic abnormalities of B12 deficiency include sensory deficits, loss of deep tendon reflexes, movement disorders, neuropsychiatric changes and seizures. Segmental involvement of the distal ileum, such as in tuberculosis, can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. To our knowledge, macrocytic anemia with unusual manifestations such as brain atrophy and seizures due to intestinal tuberculosis has not been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 14-year-old girl presented with complaints of paraplegia, ataxia, fever and fatigue that had started a few months earlier and which had been getting worse in the last three weeks. Her laboratory results were indicative of macrocytic anemia with a serum B12 level Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in patients with neurologic features such as paresthesia, sensory deficits, urinary incontinence, dysarthria, and ataxia. The underlying cause of B12 deficiency should be determined and treated to obviate the patients' need for long term vitamin B12 therapy.

  20. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  1. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in adults with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Tekin; Alisik, Murat; Alkan, Afra; Basturk, Abdulkadir; Akinci, Sema; Hacibekiroglu, Tuba; Dilek, Imdat; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-09-12

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) enzyme activity in adults with vitamin B12 deficiency, and specific changes in the activities of these enzymes following vitamin B12 treatment. Methods A total of 46 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (aged 18-82 years) and 45 healthy volunteer controls (aged 19-64 years) participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected, and serum vitamin B12, homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid, PON1, and ARES levels were measured. Results Paired comparison showed that pre- and post-treatment values for PON and ARES were similar between patients and controls (both P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between patients' pre-/post-treatment PON or HCY levels and serum vitamin B12 levels, compared with those of the control group (P > 0.05). Discussion The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that the antioxidant enzymes PON and ARES have an underlying role in vitamin B12 deficiency and related hyperhomocysteinemia. Our findings suggest that PON and ARES do not play a role in the systemic effects of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  2. Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple "stylized model" that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows-somewhat counter-intuitively-that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12-GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this "cysteine-block" is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  4. Vitamin B(12) deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis via increased homocysteine and methylmalonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Bart L T; Lute, Carolien; Blom, Henk J; Bravenboer, Nathalie; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A; Müller, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2009-05-01

    The risk of nutrient deficiencies increases with age in our modern Western society, and vitamin B(12) deficiency is especially prevalent in the elderly and causes increased homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. These three factors have been recognized as risk factors for reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, though mechanistic evidence is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the influence of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on differentiation and activity of bone cells. B(12) deficiency did not affect the onset of osteoblast differentiation, maturation, matrix mineralization, or adipocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). B(12) deficiency caused an increase in the secretion of Hcy and MMA into the culture medium by osteoblasts, but Hcy and MMA appeared to have no effect on hMSC osteoblast differentiation. We further studied the effect of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow. We observed that B(12) did not show an effect on osteoclastogenesis. However, Hcy as well as MMA were found to induce osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of these results, we conclude that B(12) deficiency may lead to decreased bone mass by increased osteoclast formation due to increased MMA and Hcy levels.

  5. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities.

  6. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, F; Suleymanoglu, S; Ersen, A; Aydinoz, S; Gultepe, M; Meral, C; Ozkaya, H; Gocmen, I

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folate, and their functional markers, plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonate (uMMA) were measured in 204 healthy, term infants at birth, and at 2 and 6 months. Compared with infants receiving formula food, those fed mother's milk had lower vitamin B12 and folate at 2 and 6 months. In infants receiving mother's milk, vitamin B12 levels were similar at birth (238 pg/ml) and 2 months (243 pg/ml), whereas with formula milk the level was significantly higher at 2 months (558 pg/ml) than at birth (257 pg/ml). Vitamin B12 was negatively correlated with homocysteine at birth and 6 months. The level of uMMA (mmol/mol creatinine) was higher at 2 (mother's milk, 25.5; formula, 23.97) and 6 months (19.77; 15) than at birth (11.97; 10.88), and was not correlated with vitamin B12 levels. Homocysteine may be a reliable marker of vitamin B12 status in neonates and infants; however, uMMA is not suitable as a marker of vitamin B12 status.

  7. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  8. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  9. Child's homocysteine concentration at 2 years is influenced by pregnancy vitamin B12 and folate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubree, H G; Katre, P A; Joshi, S M; Bhat, D S; Deshmukh, U S; Memane, N S; Otiv, S R; Rush, E C; Yajnik, C S

    2012-02-01

    Longitudinal studies investigating vitamin B12 and folate status of mothers and their offspring will provide a better understanding of intergenerational nutrition. During pregnancy and 2 years (2y) after delivery, we measured plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in 118 women [aged (mean ± s.d.) 22.9 ± 3.9y] who attended a rural (n = 68) or an urban (n = 50) antenatal clinic in Pune, India. Cord blood vitamin B12 and folate were measured, and when the child was 2y total homocysteine (tHcy) was also measured. Demographic and diet measurements were recorded using standard methods. Pregnancy plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 34 weeks was low [median (25th, 75th), 115 (95, 147) pm]; 75% had low status (vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were higher than and positively associated with maternal concentrations. In stepwise regression, higher child vitamin B12 at 2y was predicted (total R 2 15.7%) by pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β 0.201, R 2 7.7%), current consumption of cow's milk (std β 0.194, R 2 3.3%) and whether breast feeding was stopped before 2y (std β -0.234 R 2 7.2%). Child's 2y tHcy concentration was high (11.4 ± 3.6 μm) and predicted by lower pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β -0.206, R 2 4.1%), lack of vitamin supplementation (std β -0.256, R 2 5.6%) in pregnancy and whether currently breastfed (std β 0.268, R 2 8.4%). Low maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and prolonged breast-feeding results in disturbed one-carbon metabolism in offspring at 2y. Supplementation of women of child-bearing age, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, may improve the homocysteine status of these children.

  10. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  11. Lattice dynamical and thermodynamical properties of ReB2, RuB2, and OsB2 compounds in the ReB2 structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Deligoz; K. Colakoglu; Y. O. Ciftci

    2012-01-01

    Structural and lattice dynamical properties of ReB2,RuB2,and OsB2 in the ReB2 structure are studied in the framework of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation.The present results show that these compounds are dynamically stable for the considered structure.The temperature-dependent behaviors of thermodynamical properties such as internal energy,free energy,entropy,and heat capacity are also preented. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  12. Pernicious anemia presenting as catatonia: correlating vitamin B12 levels and catatonic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Damien; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Durand, Jean-Paul; Lefevre, Guillaume; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Pernicious anemia has been associated with various psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, mania and psychosis. Psychiatric symptoms can sometimes occur without hematological and neurological abnormalities and can be prodromal of vitamin B12 deficiency. We report a case of autoimmune B12 deficiency presenting as catatonia without signs of anemia or macrocytosis, in which a correlation was found between the patient's B12 blood levels and catatonic symptoms over time. This catatonic episode was successfully treated with only lorazepam and adequate doses of cyanocobalamin.

  13. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H;

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...... in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations....

  14. High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study on Icosahedral Boron Arsenide (B12As2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Wu; H Zhu; D Hou; C Ji; C Whiteley; J Edgar; Y Ma

    2011-12-31

    The high pressure properties of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2) were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements at pressures up to 25.5 GPa at room temperature. B12As2 retains its rhombohedral structure; no phase transition was observed in the pressure range. The bulk modulus was determined to be 216 GPa with the pressure derivative 2.2. Anisotropy was observed in the compressibility of B12As2-c-axis was 16.2% more compressible than a-axis. The boron icosahedron plays a dominant role in the compressibility of boron-rich compounds.

  15. 食品中维生素B12的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑云; 徐兰

    2004-01-01

    维生素B12——氰钴胺,是人体必需的微量营养成分之一,可助人体对铁的代谢及对血红蛋白的合成具有重要的生理功能和临床意义。还有些专业人士认为维生素B12可以防止心血管疾病和白癜风疾病的发生。研究维生素B12检测方法,可用于检

  16. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing a mo...

  17. Intrinsic factor van castle en resorptie van vitamine B12 : een klinisch en experimenteel onderzoek met behulp van radioaktieve vitamine B12.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, Johannes

    1959-01-01

    Hoofdstuk I bevat enkele opmerkingen over de werking van vit.B12 met radioactieve kobalt isolopen. Bij toediening aan de mens geven wij voorkeur aan Co56 en Co58 op grond van hun relatief korte haveringstijden t.o.v. Co60. De vier gangbare metoden voor het meten van de resorptie van radioaktieve vit

  18. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  19. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  20. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  1. New derivatives of vitamin B12 show preferential targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Robert; Treichler, Hansjörg; Schaefer, Niklaus G; van Staveren, Dave R; Mundwiler, Stefan; Kunze, Susanne; Küenzi, Martin; Alberto, Roger; Nüesch, Jakob; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger; Schibli, Roger; Schubiger, Pius August

    2008-04-15

    Rapidly growing cells show an increased demand for nutrients and vitamins. The objective of our work is to exploit the supply route of vitamin B12 to deliver new derivatives of this vital vitamin to hyperproliferative cells. To date, radiolabeled ((57)Co and (111)In) vitamin B12 derivatives showed labeling of tumor tissue but also undesired high accumulation of radioactivity in normal tissue. By abolishing the interaction of a tailored vitamin B12 derivative to its transport protein transcobalamin II and therefore interrupting transcobalamin II receptor and megalin mediated uptake in normal tissue, preferential accumulation of a radiolabeled vitamin in cancer tissue could be accomplished. We identified transcobalamin I on tumors as a possible new receptor for this preferential accumulation of vitamin-mediated targeting. The low systemic distribution of radioactivity and the high tumor to blood ratio opens the possibility of a more successful clinical application of vitamin B12 for imaging or therapy.

  2. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  3. 维生素B12的保健作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    一、维生素B12的生理功能1提高叶酸利用率维生素B12与叶酸一起合成甲硫氨酸(由高半胱氨酸合成)和胆碱,在产生嘌呤和嘧啶的过程中合成甲基钴胺和辅酶B12,参与许多重要化合物的甲基化过程.维生素B12缺乏时,使叶酸变成不能利用的形式,导致叶酸缺乏症.

  4. 辅酶B12及其模型化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧兰

    1989-01-01

    辅酶B12,即5’-脱氧腺苷钴胺素,是一个天然存在的有机金属化合物。它与维生素B12,即氰钴胺素组成和结构相似,但生理功能不同,维生素B12是一种抗恶性贫血的药物,而辅酶B12在生物体内多种代谢过程中起着重要作用,其中研究得最多的是与分子内重排有关的酶反

  5. 维生素B12与老年痴呆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严段梅(译)

    2006-01-01

    美国营养学掌调查了马萨诸塞州一家族的后裔,从26岁到83岁的男女共5000人的难生素B12血浆冰平。结果表明,39%的人体内B12水平居于正常偏低,近25%的人维生素B12水平处于不足状态。研究者认为,在一般人中还有很多维生素B12缺乏的患者未被发现。

  6. 维生素B12与二甲双胍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪经平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 二甲双胍是治疗2型糖尿病最常用的一线药物.根据新英格兰杂志的最新研究:2型糖尿病患者长期使用二甲双胍会增加维生素B12缺乏的风险,换句话说,维生素B12随着用药时间较长而流失.众所周知,二甲双胍能引起维生素B12缺乏,这与叶酸浓度降低有关,最终导致同型半胱氨酸的水平升高,这是维生素B12和叶酸缺乏的标记.

  7. 素食者及老人应补充维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马因

    2005-01-01

    维生素B12对维持健康的神经细胞和血红细胞至关重要,缺乏维生素B12会导致很多疾病,轻者出现疲劳和轻微头晕,重则神经受损、贫血和痴呆。目前维生素B12缺乏现象比医生认为的更普遍,而那些最容易缺乏维生素B12的人群是素食者及老人们。

  8. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    Het Ministerie van VWS overweegt om bepaalde voedselbestanddelen te verrijken met foliumzuur. Foliumzuurverrijking houdt echter een gezondheidsrisico in, omdat het vitamine B12 deficientie maskeert, waardoor het de incidentie van megaloblastische anemie en perifere neuropathie kan verhogen. Dit ra

  9. A new role for glutathione: protection of vitamin B12 from depletion by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William P; Munter, Tony; Golding, Bernard T

    2004-12-01

    NADPH in microsomes reduces the hydroxocob(III)alamin form of vitamin B12 to cob(II)alamin and the supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin, which are both highly reactive toward xenobiotic epoxides formed by mammalian metabolism of dienes such as the industrially important chemicals chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene. With styrene, the metabolically formed styrene oxide is reactive toward cob(I)alamin but not cob(II)alamin. Such reactions in humans could lead to vitamin B12 deficiency, which is implicated in pernicious anemia, cancer, and degenerative diseases. However, glutathione inhibits the reduction of hydroxocob(III)alamin by formation of the 1:1 complex glutathionylcobalamin. This blocks reactions of the cobalamins with metabolically formed epoxides. The interaction between glutathione and vitamin B12 could protect against diseases related to vitamin B12 depletion.

  10. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status.

  11. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyan......Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy...... with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  12. [Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with high doses od metformin in older people diabetic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hugo; Masferrer, Dominique; Lera, Lydia; Arancibia, Estrella; Angel, Barbara; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del estudio es estimar si el déficit de B12 se asocia con el uso de la metformina en adultos mayores (AM) diabéticos. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en AM diabéticos. Los casos (n = 137) se definieron como AM con B12 221 pmol/L. Se definieron 4 categorías de uso de metformina: no usuarios, ≤850 mg/día; > 850 y adultos mayores que consumían altas dosis de metformina presentaban 1,9 veces más riesgo de déficit de B12 (OR:1,9; 95%IC: 1,08-3,30). Conclusión: Estos resultados muestran una fuerte asociación entre altas dosis de metformina y niveles bajos de vitamina B12. Este proyecto fue financiado por FONIS SA11I2092.

  13. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... such. (c) Gift means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by,...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  15. Investigation of Ni-B Alloys for Joining of TiB2 Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, L.; Kaban, I.; Nowak, R.; Bruzda, G.; Sobczak, N.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2016-08-01

    Melting and wetting behavior of Ni83B17 and Ni50B50 alloys on TiB2 ceramic are investigated upon heating to 1105 and 1050 °C, respectively, using the sessile drop technique. Both alloys show a very good wetting on the TiB2 substrates immediately after incipient melting. Liquid Ni50B50 alloy is revealed not to dissolve TiB2, but penetrates along the grain boundaries into the ceramic. Upon heating and melting of the Ni83B17 alloy on TiB2, a small amount of ceramic is dissolved and the ternary Ni21Ti2B6 phase is formed. Whereas multiple microcracks are observed at the Ni83B17/TiB2 interface, the Ni50B50/TiB2 couple is well bonded and free of interfacial microcracks.

  16. Charles Bonnet syndrome and vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Valérie; Desbordes, Marie; Follet, Mathieu; Haouzir, Sadeq; Guillin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a condition associated with complex visual hallucinations occurring in the elderly in patients with visual impairment and normal mental health. Here, we report the case of a 78-year-old woman who has a limited visual acuity with a CBS that we postulated to be in relationship to a vitamin B12 deficiency. This case is the first report of vitamin B12 deficiency-associated CBS.

  17. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development.

  18. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Regland; Sara Forsmark; Lena Halaouate; Michael Matousek; Birgitta Peilot; Olof Zachrisson; Carl-Gerhard Gottfries

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six m...

  19. Incidence of vitamin B12 / D3 deficiency among company executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulvady Chaitanya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional and interventional study was carried out to assess the incidence of vitamin B12 / vitamin D deficiency in male office executives in the tropical city of Mumbai, India. A total of 75 senior executives were surveyed and subjected to analysis of blood levels of vitamin D (25 Hydroxy Cholecalciferol by RIA method and vitamin B12 by CLIA method. The same was performed in a reputed analytical laboratory with NABL accreditation. History of smoking, exposure to sunlight, exercise, dietary habits, consumption of vitamin supplements, medication etc. was obtained. The results revealed 65% executives with vitamin B12 deficiency (less than 193 pg/ml and 28% executives with vitamin D deficiency (less than 7.6 ng/ml. The prevalence of low levels of vitamin B12 is lower (58% in those who give history of regular exercise than others. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is lower (25% in those who give history of regular exercise than in others (46.2%. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher (47% in those whose workday day started earlier than in those whose workday started later (12%. In the second phase of the survey, 58 executives with low B12/ D3 values, were given vitamin B12/D3 oral supplements for a period of three months along with counseling for lifestyle modification. A modified questionnaire was then circulated and the subjects analyzed for B12/D3 values. Significant improvements in serum B12 and D3 values were seen after the oral therapy, sun exposure and dietary modifications.

  20. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  1. Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and its Impacts on Student's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Mohammed Mustafa; Abdulrahman A. Al Atram; Mahmoud M. Mousleh

    2014-01-01

    This study carried out to determine the impact of vitamin B12 deficiency signs and symptoms , on the academic achievement of student’s in Majmah University. well designed questionnaire by Dr Lisa Watson (Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine) vitamin B12 deficiency signs and symptoms was used and filled out for each student, which included information on demographical factors as: sex, age, work. A convenient sample consisted of (298) students (238, 60) male and female respectively, from (11) fac...

  2. The level of Vitamin B12 and hemoglobin in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Although many factors have been suggested as possible causes of RAS, its precise etiology is controversial. Vitamin B12 (vit B12 and iron deficiencies may cause RAS. Aims: We investigated the level of serum hemoglobin (Hb and vit B12 in patients with RAS and to compare them with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients who had had at least one episode of oral ulcerations per month since childhood were diagnosed as having RAS. Blood samples were drawn from the RAS group and control group for measuring blood Hb and vit B12 concentrations. Results: Exactly 195 patients (62 men and 133 women with RAS and 217 healthy controls (62 men and 155 women were enrolled in the study. The RAS group had significantly lower mean Hb levels than the control group (P < 0.001. No significant difference in the mean vit B12 level was demonstrated between the study group and controls. Around 58 (29.7% patients were diagnosed as Hb deficient in the RAS group and 21 (9.7% patients in controls. Vit B12 deficiency was diagnosed in 63 (32.3% individuals in the RAS group and 32 (14.7% individuals among controls. Conclusions: In our study, vit B12 and Hb deficiency were found higher in patients with RAS compared to the control group. Therefore, we suggested the investigation of the level of vit B12 and Hb in patients with RAS.

  3. Effects of Vitamin B6 Deficiency on the Composition and Functional Potential of T Cell Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bingjun; Shen, Shanqi; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF-γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN-γ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.

  4. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  5. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  6. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception.

  7. Microbial production of vitamin B12: a review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huan; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Dawei

    2017-01-30

    Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin that is widely used in medical and food industries. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis is confined to few bacteria and archaea, and as such its production relies on microbial fermentation. Rational strain engineering is dependent on efficient genetic tools and a detailed knowledge of metabolic pathways, regulation of which can be applied to improve product yield. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have been used to efficiently construct many microbial chemical factories. Many published reviews have probed the vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway. To maximize the potential of microbes for vitamin B12 production, new strategies and tools are required. In this review, we provide a comprehensive understanding of advances in the microbial production of vitamin B12, with a particular focus on establishing a heterologous host for the vitamin B12 production, as well as on strategies and tools that have been applied to increase microbial cobalamin production. Several worthy strategies employed for other products are also included.

  8. B12 Vitamin and Folat Prevelance of Children and Adolescents in Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Öncel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood are vitamin B12 and folat deficiency. Folat and vitamin B12 play a role in DNA synthessis in gastrointestinal, urogenital,nerves and hemotopoetic cells. The diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia is easy and the treatment cost is low.In this study, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folat deficiencies in 889 students were determined. Vitamin B12 and folat levels in blood samples were measured via RİAThe average age were betwen 12 and 22 years. Of this students 294(%33,1 were female and 595 (%66,9 were male. The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be 2.2%, while folat deficiency was 21.8%. The mean vitamin B12 level was 331,51±144,05 pg/mL (325,60±138,91 in pg/mL male, 343,48±153,48 pg/mL in female, the mean folat level was 5,42±2,12 ng/ml (5,23±2,11 ng/ml in male, 5,80±2,10 ng/ml in female.The prevelance of folat deficiency in our region was higher than other countries, possibly due to low socioeconomical status, improper or inadequate food intake and low educational status.

  9. [Vitamin B12 supplementation and milk production on farms with 'chronic wasting' cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; Holzhauer, M; Bartels, C J; van Wuijckhuise, L; Vellema, P

    2001-03-15

    From early 1999 onwards, cattle health problems accompanied by chronic wasting of unknown aetiology were reported on a number of dairy farms. An association between these health problems and the compulsory use of gE-negative marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 was presumed by farmers. On one dairy farm an increased milk production of 50% was reported within a few days after parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment on the milk production of dairy herds with wasting cattle. A randomized blind trial was performed in five problem herds and two control herds. On each farm five lactating cows were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg vitamin B12 and paired with five untreated lactating cows. The milk production of treated and untreated animals was measured for 19 days following treatment and compared to pre-treatment production. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on milk production was established on either problem farms or control farms. Neither was a difference detected in the response to vitamin B12 treatment between problem herds and control herds. In a second experiment, parenteral vitamin B12 treatment was applied in three problem herds by local veterinary practitioners. The results of this experiment were in line with the results of the first experiment.

  10. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Domek, Joseph M; Siddiqua, Towfida; Raqib, Rubhana; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-06-15

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for serum/plasma (IMMULITE and SimulTRAC-SNB) for B12 analysis in human milk. B12-recovery rates (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007) were determined to be 78.9 ± 9.1% with IMMULITE and 225 ± 108% (range 116-553%) using SimulTRAC-SNB, most likely due to the presence of excess HC. HC-interferences were not observed with the IMMULITE assay, rendering previously reported mandatory HC-removal (Lildballe et al., 2009) unnecessary. Linearity continued at low B12-concentrations (24-193 pM; r(2)>0.985). Milk B12 concentrations from Bangladeshi women (72-959 pM) were significantly lower than those from California (154-933 pM; pmilk matrix and its ability to measure low milk B12 concentrations.

  11. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  12. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  13. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  14. Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption.

  15. The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Schorr, Heike; Geisel, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    Serum concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) become increased in B12-deficient subjects and are therefore, considered specific markers of B12 deficiency. Serum level of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) becomes decreased before the development of the metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the usefulness of holoTC in diagnosing B12 deficiency in some clinical settings. We measured serum concentrations of holoTC, MMA, Hcy and total B12 in omnivores, vegetarians, elderly people and haemodialysis patients. Our results indicated that the incidence of holoTC vegans (76%). Low holoTC and elevated MMA were detected in 64% of the vegans and 43% of the lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians. An elevated MMA and a low holoTC were found in subjects with total serum B12 as high as 300 pmol/L. The distribution of holoTC in elderly people was similar to that in younger adults (median holoTC 55 pmol/L in both groups). A low holoTC and an elevated MMA were found in 16% of the elderly group. An elevated MMA and a normal holoTC were found in 20% of the elderly group who had a relatively high median serum concentration of creatinine (106.1 micromol/L). Serum concentrations of holoTC in dialysis patients were considerably higher than all other groups (median 100 pmol/L). This was also associated with severely increased serum levels of MMA (median 987 nmol/L). From these results it can be concluded that serum concentration of holoTC is a much better predictor of B12 status than total B12. This was particularly evident in case of dietary B12 deficiency. Serum concentrations of holoTC as well as MMA can be affected by renal dysfunction. Elevated MMA and normal holoTC in patients with renal insufficiency may not exclude vitamin B12 deficiency. HoloTC seems not to be a promising marker in predicting B12 status in renal patients.

  16. Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2B6 in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce-Artun, Nazan; Kose, Gulcin; Suzen, H Sinan

    2014-06-01

    Increasing interest in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) genetic polymorphism was stimulated by revelations of a specific CYP2B6 genotype significantly affecting the metabolism of various drugs in common clinical use in terms of increasing drug efficacy and avoiding adverse drug reactions. The present study aimed to determine the frequencies of CYP2B6*4 CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*7 and CYP2B6*9 alleles in healthy Turkish individuals (n = 172). Frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms were 516G>T (28%), 785A>G (33%), and 1459C>T (12%). The frequencies of CYP2B6*1, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were 54.3 (95% CI 49.04-59.56), 6.4% (95% CI 3.81-8.99), 11% (95% CI 7.69-14.31), 25.3% (95% CI 20.71-29.89), 0.87% (95% CI -0.11-1.85) and 2.0% (95% CI 0.52-3.48), respectively. Allele *6 was more frequent (25.3%) than the other variant alleles in Turkish subjects. The frequencies of CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 alleles were similar to European populations but significantly different from that reported for Asian populations. This is the first study to document the frequencies of the CYP2B6*4, *5, *6, *7, *9 alleles in the healthy Turkish individuals and our results could provide clinically useful information on drug metabolism by CYP2B6 in Turkish population.

  17. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  18. Insights into CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Hedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters. CYP2B6 has been demonstrated to play a role in the metabolism of 2%–10% of clinically used drugs including widely used antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, anesthetics propofol and ketamine, synthetic opioids pethidine and methadone, and the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, among others. Significant inter-individual variability in the expression and function of the human CYP2B6 gene exists and can result in altered clinical outcomes in patients receiving treatment with CYP2B6-substrate drugs. These variances arise from a number of sources including genetic polymorphism, and xenobiotic intervention. In this review, we will provide an overview of the key players in CYP2B6 expression and function and highlight recent advances made in assessing clinical ramifications of important CYP2B6-mediated drug–drug interactions.

  19. Vitamin B12, Folic Acit and Ferritin Levels in Behcet%u2019s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Etem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behçet disease (BD is a systemic disease presented with attacks and long-term course, involving many different organs and basic pathology of vasculitis. Many hypothesis was proposed the etiology of thrombosis and vasculitis in BD. One of those hypothesis its respect to originate from hyperhomocysteinemia. We aimed in this study to compare the level of vitamin B12, folic acit and ferritin in BD patients and healthy control groups. Material and Method: Seventy-three patients of BD diagnosed with criteria by the International Study Group and seventy-three healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Subjects with above the upper reference limit vitamin B 12 concerned taking vitamin B 12 treatment were excluded. Levels of serum vitamin B12, folic acit and ferritin measured by competitive immunoassay and sandwich immunoassay respectively using direct chemiluminescent method on Advia Centaur XP (Siemens, USA autoanalyzer with its commercial kits in both groups. Statistical analyze were performed with SPSS 11.5 programme. Results: The mean levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin were not significantly different in patients with Behçet’s disease when compared with the healthy controls (p=0.700, p=0.164, p=0.618, respectively. When the studied patients and controls were subdivided into subgroups according to sex vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin levels were not significantly different (female BD and control subgroups p=0,136, p=0,564, p=0,942 and male BD and control subgroups p=0,263, p=0,140, p=0,510respectively. Discussion: Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin levels was not different between BD and healthy groups in our study. We are thinking that the subject sould be lighten with clinic studies -prospective, inquisitively elaborate and follow-up vitamin and other therapies- because of controversial reports in literature.

  20. Gastrointestinal Transcriptomic Response of Metabolic Vitamin B12 Pathways in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Priscila; Belarmino, Giliane; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Machado, Natasha M; Fonseca, Danielle C; Ravacci, Graziela R; Ishida, Robson K; Guarda, Ismael F M S; de Moura, Eduardo G; Sakai, Paulo; Santo, Marco A; da Silva, Ismael D C G; Pereira, Claudia C A; Logullo, Angela F; Heymsfield, Steven; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency. Methods: During double-balloon enteroscopy, serial GI biopsies were collected from 20 obese women (age, 46.9±6.2 years; body mass index, 46.5±5.3 kg/m2) with adult-onset type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl; hemoglobin A1c≥6.5%) before and, at the same site, 3 months after RYGB. Gene expression levels were assessed by the Affymetrix Human GeneChip 1.0 ST microarray. Findings were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT–qPCR). Results: Gene expression levels with significant changes (P≤0.05) included: transcobalamin I (TCN1) in remnant (−1.914-fold) and excluded (−1.985-fold) gastric regions; gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) in duodenum (−0.725-fold); and cubilin (CUBN) in duodenum (+0.982-fold), jejunum (+1.311-fold), and ileum (+0.685-fold). Validation by RT–qPCR confirmed (P≤0.05) observed changes for TCN1 in the remnant gastric region (−0.132-fold) and CUBN in jejunum (+2.833-fold). Conclusions: RYGB affects multiple pathway-encoding genes that may be associated with postoperative B12 deficiency. Decreased TCN1 levels seem to be the main contributing factor. Increased CUBN levels suggest an adaptive genetic reprogramming of intestinal tissue aiming to compensate for impaired intestinal B12 delivery. PMID:28055029

  1. Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcic, M; de Batlle, J; Ricci, C; Biessy, C; Perrier, F; Huybrechts, I; Weiderpass, E; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cadeau, C; His, M; Cox, D G; Boeing, H; Fortner, R T; Kaaks, R; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Sieri, S; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, G; Amiano, P; Sánchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Buckland, G; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H; Key, T J; Riboli, E; Gylling, B; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I; Chajès, V

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), alcohol intake and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C > T and 1298A > C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend  = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend  = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation.

  2. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  3. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gräsbeck Ralph

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS or selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency commonly resulting in megaloblastic anemia, which is responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy and appears in childhood. Other manifestations include failure to thrive and grow, infections and neurological damage. Mild proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease is present in about half of the patients. Anatomical anomalies in the urinary tract were observed in some Norwegian patients. Vitamin B12 absorption tests show low absorption, not corrected by administration of intrinsic factor. The symptoms appear from 4 months (not immediately after birth as in transcobalamin deficiency up to several years after birth. The syndrome was first described in Finland and Norway where the prevalence is about 1:200,000. The cause is a defect in the receptor of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex of the ileal enterocyte. In most cases, the molecular basis of the selective malabsorption and proteinuria involves a mutation in one of two genes, cubilin (CUBN on chromosome 10 or amnionless (AMN on chromosome 14. Both proteins are components of the intestinal receptor for the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex and the receptor mediating the tubular reabsorption of protein from the primary urine. Management includes life-long vitamin B12 injections, and with this regimen, the patients stay healthy for decades. However, the proteinuria persists. In diagnosing this disease, it is important to be aware that cobalamin deficiency affects enterocyte function; therefore, all tests suggesting general and cobalamin malabsorption should be repeated after abolishment of the deficiency.

  4. Status of serum vitamin B12 and folate in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaozhong; Ma, Jiayi; Zhu, Mingming

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily involves the intestinal tract and can affect vitamin absorption. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in patients with IBD, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 195 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 62 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and selected 118 healthy subjects for the control group. Results There were more CD patients with vitamin B12 deficiency than UC patients (14.9% vs. 3.2%, P=0.014) and controls (14.9% vs. 4.2%, P=0.003). The prevalence of folate deficiency was higher in CD patients than in controls (13.3% vs. 3.4%, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the serum vitamin B12 and folate statuses of the UC and control groups. Patients with prior ileal or ileocolic resection showed a higher prevalence of abnormal vitamin B12 levels than those without prior resection (n=6/16, n=23/179; P=0.018). A disease duration within 5 years was a risk factor of abnormal folate levels in CD patients. Conclusions This study showed that vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies were more common in patients with CD than in UC patients and controls. Prior ileal or ileocolonic resection was a risk factor of serum vitamin B12 abnormalities, and a disease duration within 5 years was a risk factor of low serum folate levels in CD patients. PMID:28239320

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in elderly: cross-sectional study in Eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients and it has recently been connected with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients from Eastern Croatia and to evaluate whether there is a connection between this deficiency and the occurrence of depressive symptoms among them.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013, among 140 elderly patients from Vukovar-Srijem County (47.9%, 67/140 males and 52.1%, 73/140 females; mean age 71.0±6.7 years. The anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, data regarding socio-economic status and personal history of diseases of study participants as well as data pertaining to the existence of depressive symptoms among them. The competitive immunoassay vitamin B12 kit was used to determine serum levels of vitamin B12.Results: Among all study participants there were 7.1% (10/140 of them with B12 deficiency and 70.0% (98/140 of them with the symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms occurred in 100.0% (10/10 patients with the vitamin B12 deficiency and 67.7% (88/130 of patients without it.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the existence of depressive symptoms and vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients. This finding points to the need for frequent vitamin status evaluation in this age group and its consequent correction that could improve overall health of this population subgroup.

  6. Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, Jérôme; Chiche, Laurent; Mathis, Stéphane

    2017-03-15

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa.

  7. Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Franques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa.

  8. Oxidation Resistance, Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, and Spectral Emittance of Fully Dense HfB2 and ZrB2 with SiC, TaSi2, and LaB6 Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    Microsoft Visual Basic 4.0) through RS232 communications. A brass tripod with set-screw feet (for orientation adjustment) was fabricated and placed on the...digital output read by a personal computer via RS232 protocol. A PID algorithm in the computer generated a 4-20 mA signal (via a 12 bit D/A converter) to

  9. The causal roles of vitamin B12 and transcobalamin in prostate cancer: can Mendelian randomization analysis provide definitive answers?

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon M.; Metcalfe, Chris; Palmer, Tom M; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Smith, A. David

    2011-01-01

    Circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin/B12) and total transcobalamin (tTC) have been associated with increased and reduced risk, respectively, of prostate cancer. Mendelian randomization has the potential to determine whether these are causal associations. We estimated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in B12-related genes (MTR, MTRR, FUT2, TCN2, TCN1, CUBN, and MUT) with plasma concentrations of B12, tTC, holo-transcobalamin, holo-haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine and with pros...

  10. Main: B2GMAUX28 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B2GMAUX28 S000325 7-Sep-2000 (last modified) seki B2; DNase I protected sequence fo...und in the soybean (G.m.) auxin responsive gene, Aux28, promoter; Located between -310 and -301; Contains a ...TGACGACA sequence which is similar to TGACGT/C sequence found in Ocs, CaMV35S and histone H3 promoter; Contains as-1 motif; auxin; Aux28; as-1; soybean (Glycine max) CTTGTCGTCA ...

  11. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  12. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-06-30

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  13. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  2. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  3. Relation between blood vitamin B12 levels with premature ejaculation: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadihasanoglu, M; Kilciler, M; Kilciler, G; Yucetas, U; Erkan, E; Karabay, E; Toktas, M G; Kendirci, M

    2016-09-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin B12 levels are associated with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 109 subjects (56 PE and 53 controls) were included in this study. PE was defined as self-reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and those who had had an IELT of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The vitamin 12 levels were measured in all subjects. The mean age between the PE and controls was comparable (p = .084). Mean IIEF and BDI scores between the two groups did not statistically differ. The mean IELT values in the PE group were significantly lower than in the control group (p < .0001). PE patients reported significantly lower vitamin B12 levels compared with the controls (213.14 vs. 265.89 ng ml(-1) ; p < .001). The ROC analysis showed a significant correlation between the diagnosis of PE and lower vitamin B12 levels. This study has demonstrated that lower vitamin B12 levels are associated with the presence of PE. This work also shows a strong correlation between vitamin B12 levels and the PEDT scores as well as the IELT values.

  4. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-03

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians.

  5. 营养元素大盘点维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    永军

    2014-01-01

    维生素B12存在于肉食中,通常在蔬菜中难以找到它的踪迹,因此以素食为主的人往往缺乏维生素B12。维生素B12是一种水溶性维生素,它对于神经细胞的正常活动、DNA的复制以及某些具有调节睛绪作用的化学物质的分泌是必不可少的。正因如此,癌症、抑郁症的发生都与维生素B12缺乏有着密切关系。此外,维生素B12对于维护神经系统健康,促进儿童生长发育以及红细胞的生成具有重要的作用。

  6. 叶酸、Vitamin B12与血管性痴呆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树华; 单培彦

    2005-01-01

    自从十九世纪五十年代Addison(英国)第一次描述恶性贫血伴有的神经精神症状,经用Vit B12、叶酸(folicacid)可逆转之后人们逐渐认识到叶酸、Vit B12缺乏可造成神经系统的损伤。近年来的研究发现叶酸、Vit B12与脑功能障碍尤其与老年人认知障碍有关。从近十几年发表的有关血管性痴呆(Vascular dementia,VD)文献来看,叶酸、Vit B12水平下降或缺乏与VD及认知障碍有关,并研究探讨了其作用机制和叶酸、Vit B12对VD及认知功能的改善效果。

  7. Study of Methionine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Status in Coronary Atherosclerotic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Djalali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased level of serum homocysteine is one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Its production related in some sulfur amino acids such as methionine. Some important cofactors that are involved in metabolic pathways of this amino acid are folate and vitamin B12. We have assessed the status of methionine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in some coronary atherosclerotic male patients.Methods: In this case-control study, 46 cases of coronary atherosclerosis were selected from male patients aged 37 to 66 years undergoing coronary angiography. Of these, 21 had history of acute myocardial infarction (MI in previous 3 to 36 months and 25 had angina pectoris. The controls were selected from male healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria for all study participants required that they had no history of diabetes, hypertension, renal, hepatic, or gastrointestinal dis­ease, endocrinal disorders, or psychiatric illness. Nutritional status was assessed using biochemistry methods and estima­tion of nutrient intake. Serum methionine was determined by HPLC methods.Results: Mean serum levels of vitamin B12, and folate, also erythrocyte folate concentration are significantly lower in these patients than in control subjects, but not for methionine. The ratios of serum methionine to vitamin B12 and folate were higher in patients than controls. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, both, were higher in patients than controls.Conclusion: In summary, it is concluded that, despite normal level of serum methionine, coenzymes deficiencies may be one of the factors accounting for atherosclerosis.

  8. Doping-induced superconductivity of ZrB2 and HfB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, N.; Shiroka, T.; Delley, B.; Grant, T.; Machado, A. Â. J. Â. S.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.-R.; Mesot, J.

    2017-03-01

    Unlike the widely studied s -type two-gap superconductor MgB2, the chemically similar compounds ZrB2 and HfB2 do not superconduct above 1 K. Yet it has been shown that small amounts of self or extrinsic doping (in particular with vanadium), can induce superconductivity in these materials. Based on results of different macroscopic and microscopic measurements, including magnetometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), resistivity, and muon-spin rotation (μ+SR ), we present a comparative study of Zr0.96V0.04B2 and Hf0.97V0.03B2 . Their key magnetic and superconducting features are determined and the results are considered within the theoretical framework of multiband superconductivity proposed for MgB2. Detailed Fermi surface (FS) and electronic structure calculations reveal the difference between MgB2 and transition-metal diborides.

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BEDA-2B6MA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Mechanical properties of SiB6 addition of carbon sintered body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Samon; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Jun-ichi; Akatsu, T.; Niihara, K.; Yasuda, E.

    2001-04-01

    Boride material is said as the useful material, which has high melting point and high strength. B4C in carbide is very hard at the next of the diamond and cubic-BN in the Mohs hardness and B4C has excellent chemical stability and high strength. B4C is being used as the polishing material from the hardness. However, it is difficult to make sintered body from high melting point (2623 K). Several silicon boride phases such as SiB4, SiB6, SiB6-x, SiB6+x, and Si11B31, were previously reported. Silicon hexaboride (SiB6) has proved to be a potentially useful material because of its high degree of hardness, moderate melting point (2123 K), and low specific gravity. We studied the preparation of SiB6-B4C-SiC sintered body in this report. We knew experientially that SiB6 reacts with carbon at the high temperature, and forms B4C or SiC. Carbon addition SiB6 sintered body produced by hot pressing and reaction sintering that sintering condition was 1973 K for 3.6 ks in vacuum under a pressure of 25 MPa. The relative density of sintered bodies (SiB6-0,5,10,15 wt%C) was approximately 100%. Characterization of mechanical properties was used indentation, Vickers hardness and thermal

  11. 12 CFR 264b.6 - Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for gifts of more than minimal value. 264b.6 Section 264b.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF... gifts of more than minimal value. (a) Tangible gifts. Board employees must deposit tangible gifts...

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  13. Electrooptic Effect in Non-Centrosymmetric CsLiB6O10 Borate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mys, O; Martunyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R

    2004-01-01

    Electrooptic coefficient of CsLiB6O10 crystals has been experimentally determined as r63=3.3*10-12m/V. The half-wave voltage for CsLiB6O10 (Ul/2=26 kV) is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the known KDP crystals.

  14. The effect of dietary intake of vitamin B6 on sleep quality and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is increased notion that daily diet has an important impact on health and disease. In this context, the relationship between nutrition and sleep is gaining increased research interest, particularly focusing on tryptophan, niacin and Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 has an important role in the

  15. Properties of adsorption of vitamin B12 on nanoclay as a versatile carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Alavijeh, Mozhgan; Sarvi, Mehdi Nasiri; Ramazani Afarani, Zahra

    2017-03-15

    In this study properties of adsorption of vitamin B12 onto nanoclay were investigated. Results of kinetics of adsorption were used to investigate the structural formation and nature of interaction of vitamin B12 onto montmorillonite as a carrier. The results showed that at the early stages of adsorption with migration of interlayer cations of montmorillonite (Ca(2+)and Na(+)) to the edges a cationic bridge was formed and the vitamin biomolecules were adsorbed at the edges of montmorillonite. By increasing the adsorption duration, vitamin B12 molecules gradually diffused in between montmorillonite layers. Such diffusion was facilitated when enough interaction existed between montmorillonite surface charges and vitamin biomolecules. The results of this study provided information about controlling the adsorption properties of biomolecules to the montmorillonite for preparation of nano-engineered nano/biomaterials for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia R S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID. Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes and those on vitamin supplements were excluded. cases were divided into vegetarian (including those taking milk and / Or eggs, those who took non-vegetarian 4 or less times a month, and frequent non-vegetarians taking 5 or more times a month. Serum total homocysteine, serum B12 and folate levels were studied along with all other routine parameters. For comparison we examined 101 controls without HID, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, rental failure or recent vitamin intake. With the international norm for homocysteine given as 5-15 umol/litre (1we called serum homocysteine 16 umol/litre or more as raised. There were 147 cases of ischcmic stroke :119 arterial and 28 venous infarcts. In the arterial strokes 99 of 119 cases (83.19% had raised serum Homocysteine including 25 of 27 (92.5% of those with arterial stroke before age 45. Of 28 cases with venous infarct 21 (75% had raised homocysteine (HCY. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest risk factor for stroke in our populations. Out of the total 147 cases the exact dietary intake was not known for ten cases., 58 were vegetarians, 54 were occasional non vegetarians (NV and 25 were frequent NV. In the 58 vegetarians, 55 had serum HCY> 16 umol/1 (94.8% and of those vegetarians with HCY> 16, serum B12 <200pg/ml was seen in 44 (75.8% and between 200-300 pg/ml in five (8.6%. Of the 54 occasional NV, 46 had HCY>16umo/1 (85.2% Of those with HCY >16, serum B12 level of <200 pg/ ml was seen in 28 (51.85% occ. NV and

  17. Correlation between secondary thrombosis in epileptic patients and serum levels of folate and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hong-Li; Wang, Nuan; Pang, Xiao-Hu

    2016-10-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic brain dysfunction syndrome and nervous system disease whose pathogenesis remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to analyze the correlation between secondary thrombosis and the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in epileptic patients, as well as to determine whether the supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 was associated with a decreased incidence of thrombosis, and provide the basis for novel clinical treatment. A total of 37 patients, diagnosed as epileptic with secondary thrombosis between April 2012 and April 2014, were included in the treatment group. A total of 37 epileptic patients without secondary thrombosis were included in the control group. The serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in the two groups and in the epileptic patients with intracranial thrombosis or peripheral thrombosis were compared. According to the Guidance of Epilepsy, the patients in the two groups were administered antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with the supplementation of folate tablet (0.4 mg/day) and vitamin B12 tablet (100 µg/day). These indicators and the incidence of thrombosis in the two groups were compared after 1 year. The serum levels of homocysteine in the two groups were higher than normal, and the levels in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group and the difference was statistically significant (PB12 were not associated with the serum level of homocysteine (P>0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were independent risk factors for epilepsy with secondary thrombosis [folate: odds ratio (OR)=0.635, P=0.038; vitamin B12: OR=0.418, P=0.042]. The differences in the serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in the epileptic patients with intracranial thrombosis or peripheral thrombosis

  18. New insights into erythropoiesis: the roles of folate, vitamin B12, and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koury, Mark J; Ponka, Prem

    2004-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is the process in which new erythrocytes are produced. These new erythrocytes replace the oldest erythrocytes (normally about one percent) that are phagocytosed and destroyed each day. Folate, vitamin B12, and iron have crucial roles in erythropoiesis. Erythroblasts require folate and vitamin B12 for proliferation during their differentiation. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 inhibits purine and thymidylate syntheses, impairs DNA synthesis, and causes erythroblast apoptosis, resulting in anemia from ineffective erythropoiesis. Erythroblasts require large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis. Large amounts of iron are recycled daily with hemoglobin breakdown from destroyed old erythrocytes. Many recently identified proteins are involved in absorption, storage, and cellular export of nonheme iron and in erythroblast uptake and utilization of iron. Erythroblast heme levels regulate uptake of iron and globin synthesis such that iron deficiency causes anemia by retarded production rates with smaller, less hemoglobinized erythrocytes.

  19. Vitamin B12 levels in human milk during the first nine months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Rendle, M; Tracy, M; Richardson, V; Ford, H

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin B12 concentration was measured by competitive binding radioassay in 48 samples of human milk from healthy mothers eating unrestricted diets. Specimens were collected 1-35 weeks after full-term delivery and were subjected to proteolytic digestion before radioassay in order to destroy binding proteins. The distribution of the results was skewed, but the distribution of the logged values was not significantly different from normal. The geometric mean vitamin B12 level remained almost unchanged during the first 12 weeks postpartum (261-297 pmol/l) and then declined to a low of 139 pmol/l at 27-35 weeks. A significant (P = 0.033) decline in vitamin B12 concentration between 6-12 weeks and 19-25 weeks postpartum was observed.

  20. Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Anne-Kathrin; Obeid, Rima; Weder, Stine; Awwad, Hussain M; Sputtek, Andreas; Geisel, Juergen; Keller, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier.Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status.Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo (n = 34) or vitamin B-12 (n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects (n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention.Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P B-12 group than in the placebo group. Changes in vitamin B-12 markers were more prominent in vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements.Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02679833.

  1. The B6 database: a tool for the description and classification of vitamin B6-dependent enzymatic activities and of the corresponding protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peracchi Alessio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Enzymes that depend on vitamin B6 (and in particular on its metabolically active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, PLP are of great relevance to biology and medicine, as they catalyze a wide variety of biochemical reactions mainly involving amino acid substrates. Although PLP-dependent enzymes belong to a small number of independent evolutionary lineages, they encompass more than 160 distinct catalytic functions, thus representing a striking example of divergent evolution. The importance and remarkable versatility of these enzymes, as well as the difficulties in their functional classification, create a need for an integrated source of information about them. Description - The B6 database http://bioinformatics.unipr.it/B6db contains documented B6-dependent activities and the relevant protein families, defined as monophyletic groups of sequences possessing the same enzymatic function. One or more families were associated to each of 121 PLP-dependent activities with known sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMMs were built from family alignments and incorporated in the database. These HMMs can be used for the functional classification of PLP-dependent enzymes in genomic sets of predicted protein sequences. An example of such analyses (a census of human genes coding for PLP-dependent enzymes is provided here, whereas many more are accessible through the database itself. Conclusion - The B6 database is a curated repository of biochemical and molecular information about an important group of enzymes. This information is logically organized and available for computational analyses, providing a key resource for the identification, classification and comparative analysis of B6-dependent enzymes.

  2. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-05-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures.

  3. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  4. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations.

  5. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grarup

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12 (B12 and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC or folate levels (FOLR3 and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR. Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations.

  6. Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Rosaria; Biagioni, Francesca; Carrizzo, Albino; Lorusso, Massimo; Spadaro, Angelo; Micelli Ferrari, Tommaso; Vecchione, Carmine; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mascio, Giada; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Madonna, Michele; Fornai, Francesco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Lograno, Marcello Diego

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury.

  7. HPLC determination of vitamin B12 and inositol in Lysine,Inositol and Vitamin B12 Oral Solution%高效液相色谱法测定赖氨肌醇维B12口服溶液中维生素B12及肌醇的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 吴琼珠

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立赖氨肌醇维B12口服溶液中维生素B12和肌醇的含量测定方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,紫外及示差折光检测器,ODS柱和氨基柱分别测定维生素B12和肌醇含量.流动相分别为乙腈-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液(13∶87)用磷酸调节pH至3.0,乙腈-水(70∶30);检测波长分别为 361 nm 和 210 nm;流量:1.0 mL·min-1;进样体积:20 μL.结果:维生素B12和肌醇浓度分别在1.52~6.08 μg·mL-1和5.02~20.06 mg·mL-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率(n=9)分别为99.5%(RSD=0.76%)和99.4%(RSD=1.39%).结论:本法专属性强,结果准确,重现性好,适用于赖氨肌醇维B12口服溶液中维生素B12和肌醇的含量测定.

  8. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  9. Folate and Vitamin B12-Related Biomarkers in Relation to Brain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; van de Rest, Ondine; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; In ’t Veld, Paulette H.; Kourie, Daniella I.; Swart, Karin M. A.; Enneman, Anke W.; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Smeets, Paul A. M.; Kok, Frans J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated cross-sectional associations between circulating homocysteine, folate, biomarkers of vitamin B12 status and brain volumes. We furthermore compared brain volumes of participants who received daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation with participants who did not. Methods: Participants of the B-PROOF study (n = 2919) were assigned to 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12, or a placebo. After two years of intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were made in a random subsample (n = 218) to obtain grey and white matter volume, and total brain volume (TBV). Plasma homocysteine, serum folate, vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, and methylmalonic acid concentrations were measured. Results: Multiple linear regression analyses showed inverse associations between plasma homocysteine with TBV (β = −0.91, 95% CI −1.85–0.03; p = 0.06) and between serum folate and TBV (β = −0.20, 95% CI −0.38, −0.02; p = 0.03). No significant associations were observed for serum vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin. Fully adjusted ANCOVA models showed that the group that received B-vitamins had a lower TBV (adjusted mean 1064, 95% CI 1058–1069 mL) than the non-supplemented group (1072, 95% CI 1067–1078 mL, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Results were contradictory, with higher Hcy levels associated with lower TBV, but also with higher folate levels associated with lower TBV. In addition, the lack of a baseline measurement withholds us from giving recommendations on whether folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation will be beneficial above and beyond normal dietary intake for brain health. PMID:28029114

  10. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-03-08

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings.Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk.Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status.Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation.

  11. Serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Abdulkadir; Ince, Nurhan; Canbulat, Cuneyt E; Sargin, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral stroke. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important determinants of homocysteine metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the relationship, if present, between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and acute cerebral stroke in this study. Blood aliquots drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=66) with the diagnosis of acute ischemic cerebrovascular episode and also blood samples from 38 healthy controls without any vascular risk factor were analyzed. With a competitive, chemoluminescence assay, serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours after the stroke. The differences and correlations were tested using frequency test, student-t test and multivariate analysis. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 245.40 (S.D.: 72.9) and 343.2 (S.D.: 113.0) pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. Likewise, mean serum folic acid levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 4.62 (S.D.: 1.94) and 5.97 (S.D.: 1.19) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.003). Mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate at the convalescence phase were 253.05 (S.D.: 68.78) pg/ml and 4.48 (S.D.: 2.08) ng/ml, respectively; the values obtained at the acute phase were not significantly different from the values obtained at the convalescence phase. We conclude that low vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations are associated with an increased risk of stroke, and the relationship for vitamin B12 is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors. For understanding the effects of B12 and folate in stroke patients, more detailed follow-up studies with long period are needed.

  12. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H;

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...... of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity...

  13. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

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    Hani Almoallim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

  14. 维生素B12(钻胺素)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    了解维生素B12维生素B12被认为是“红色维生素”,它本身不能通过胃肠很好地分解吸收,需要与钙结合才能吸收;可能会受到酸性或碱性物质、水、阳光、酒精和某些药物的破坏。

  15. 维生素总动员之七——维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雨

    2010-01-01

    食物来源维生素B12基本不存在于植物中,但鱼、蛋、肉、肝中含量丰富,肠道细菌可以合成,故一般情况下人体不缺乏、但维生素B12是素食者容易缺乏的维生素,也是红细胞生成不可缺少的重要元素。

  16. 维生素B12的临床应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梦洁

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解维生素B12的临床应用现状。方法复习、分析和整理国内相关文献。结果维生素B12在一些领域有了不少的临床应用进展。结论这些临床应用有推广和继续深入研究的价值。

  17. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    Türksoy N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation, which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  18. Long-term outcome in children with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently observed in developing countries. Herein we report the long-term clinical and laboratory outcomes in 45 children presented with various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.Materials and Methods: Symptoms and physical findings, and percentiles for weight, height, and head circumference at presentation were recorded. The educational level of the patients’ mothers, vitamin B12 deficiency-related diseases and family income data were collected. Complete blood count, serum vitamin B12, folate, iron, iron binding capacity and ferritin, and plasma homocysteine levels were recorded measured at presentation. The patients were treated with vitamin B12, as follows: 1 mg/d IM for 1 week, followed by 1 mg IM QWK for 2 weeks, and then monthly 1mg injections. Patients were neurologically and hematologically re-evaluated after treatment. The visual evoked potential (VEP test was used to examine the integrity and function of the visual pathway. Brainstem evoked potential (BAEP responses were used to analyze auditory function. Neuromotor development was assessed using Denver II Development Screening Test. Results: The mean age of 20 male and 25 female patients was 5.6±5.9 years (range: 1.4 months-17 years. The most common symptoms at presentation were weakness, failure to thrive, and hematologic manifestations (pallor, petechiae, ecchymosis. Abnormal neurologic findings at presentation were observed in 20% of the patients, and were more commonly observed in those <2 years. VEP, BAEP, and Denver II Development tests were performed in 66% of the patients one year after vitamin B12 replacement was started. VEP and BAEP interval prolongation was observed in 37% and 17% of the cases, respectively. Denver II Development Test results showed developmental delay in 20% of the patients tested.Conclusion: All the patients achieved full hematologic recovery within 1 month of treatment onset. Neurological symptoms resolved

  19. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study

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    Edyta Mądry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12 status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be “unnatural” products. The use of B-12 fortifi ed food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the infl uence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortifi ed food. Material and methods. A fi ve year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortifi ed in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. Results. A signifi cant decrease (p < 0.0002 of serum B-12 concentrations in the whole studied group was noted after 60 months of vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p < 0.0001. Conclusions. Transition from omnivore to vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 defi ciency. B-12 fortifi ed products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  20. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

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    A. Spinneker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present in some subjects, particularly in the elderly.Objective: This review gives a complete overview over the metabolism and interactions of vitamin B6. Further, we show which complications and deficiency symptoms can occur due to a lack of vitamin B6 and possibilities for public health and supplemental interventions. Methods: The database Medline (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov was searched for terms like "vitamin B6", "pyridoxal", "cancer", "homocysteine", etc. For a complete understanding, we included studies with early findings from the forties as well as recent results from 2006. These studies were summarised and compared in different chapters. Result and conclusion: In fact, it has been proposed that suboptimal vitamin B6 status is associated with certain diseases that particularly afflict the elderly population: impaired cognitive function, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Some of these problems may be related to the elevated homocysteine concentrations associated to vitamin B6 deficiency, but there is also evidence for other mechanisms independent of homocysteine by which a suboptimal vitamin B6 status could increase the risk for these chronic diseases.Antecedentes: se piensa que la vitamina B6 es la coenzima más versátil que participa en más de 100 reacciones bioquímicas. Está implicada en el metabolismo de los aminoácidos y de la homocisteína, el metabolismo de la glucosa y los lípidos, en la producción de

  1. Thermal Decomposition of Anhydrous Alkali Metal Dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K

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    Liqing He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal dodecaborates M2/nB12H12 are regarded as the dehydrogenation intermediates of metal borohydrides M(BH4n that are expected to be high density hydrogen storage materials. In this work, thermal decomposition processes of anhydrous alkali metal dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K synthesized by sintering of MBH4 (M = Li, Na, K and B10H14 have been systematically investigated in order to understand its role in the dehydrogenation of M(BH4n. Thermal decomposition of M2B12H12 indicates multistep pathways accompanying the formation of H-deficient monomers M2B12H12−x containing the icosahedral B12 skeletons and is followed by the formation of (M2B12Hzn polymers. The decomposition behaviors are different with the in situ formed M2B12H12 during the dehydrogenation of metal borohydrides.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency: An important reversible co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric manifestations

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    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L, 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe, 150-200 (moderate, and 201-220 pmol/L (mild in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson′s disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS, 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%, memory loss in 20 (33.9%, and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%, and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67% and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043 which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2% patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%, 10 (16.7%, and 13 (21.7% patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019 and was

  3. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

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    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  4. Superconductivity in MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In January of 2001 the superconductivity of the compound MgB2 with a critical temperature Tc of up to 39 K was discovered. This Tc is the highest in all intermetallic compound and alloy superconductors. MgB2 has a simple structure and its manufacturing capital cost is lower, therefore it could become a practical superconductor in the future. The recent progress is reviewed here which covers the progress in electronic structure, high Tc mechanism, superconducting parameters (Debye temperature, specific heat coefficient of electron, critical fields, coherent length, penetration depth, energy gap, critical current and relaxation rate of flux). Moreover the issue on power transmission is discussed.

  5. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  6. Choline and betaine ameliorate liver lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Fujishita, Mayuko; Ota, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels. These treatments restored the disruptions in Met metabolism and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio induced by B6 deficiency in liver microsomes. These results suggest that choline and betaine ameliorated liver lipid accumulation induced by B6 deficiency via recovery of Met metabolism and very low-density lipoprotein secretion by restoring the supply of PC derived from PE.

  7. The genome of Streptococcus mitis B6--what is a commensal?

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    Dalia Denapaite

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mitis is the closest relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The 2,15 Mb sequence of the Streptococcus mitis B6 chromosome, an unusually high-level beta-lactam resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant strain, has now been determined to encode 2100 genes. The accessory genome is estimated to represent over 40%, including 75 mostly novel transposases and IS, the prophage phiB6 and another seven phage related regions. Tetracycline resistance mediated by Tn5801, and an unusual and large gene cluster containing three aminoglycoside resistance determinants have not been described in other Streptococcus spp. Comparative genomic analyses including hybridization experiments on a S. mitis B6 specific microarray reveal that individual S. mitis strains are almost as distantly related to the B6 strain as S. pneumoniae. Both species share a core of over 900 genes. Most proteins described as pneumococcal virulence factors are present in S. mitis B6, but the three choline binding proteins PcpA, PspA and PspC, and three gene clusters containing the hyaluronidase gene, ply and lytA, and the capsular genes are absent in S. mitis B6 and other S. mitis as well and confirm their importance for the pathogenetic potential of S. pneumoniae. Despite the close relatedness between the two species, the S. mitis B6 genome reveals a striking X-alignment when compared with S. pneumoniae.

  8. Evaluation for magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation among Polish elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Jakub; Lebiedzińska, Anna; Marszałł, Marcin; Szefer, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary sport requires a lot of effort from sportsmen, frequently exceeding their maximum physical and mental efficiency. Athletes often report poor dietary habits and reach for magnesium and vitamin B supplements to avoid dietary deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine magnesium and vitamin B6 content in daily food rations of Polish athletes and to verify the justification of diet supplementation. Magnesium and vitamin B6 concentrations were determined in 62 collected and 12 reconstructed daily food rations of elite Polish runners. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry and HPLC methods were used for quantification of magnesium and vitamin B6, respectively. The analyzed female diets provided daily 256 +/- 111 mg of magnesium and 2.04 +/- 0.63 mg of vitamin B6 whereas male diets provided 284 +/- 58 mg of magnesium and 2.12 +/- 0.68 mg of vitamin B6. Computer analysis calculated 159-181% higher content o magnesium and vitamin B6 comparing to determined laboratory values. The results of this study indicate that in the analyzed daily food rations of athletes low magnesium intake was observed, thus diet supplementation with this mineral may be justified. Daily food rations fulfilled RDA for vitamin B6, thus supplementation with this vitamin was not justified.

  9. EphB6 overexpression and Apc mutation together promote colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Yuan, Liang; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Fubin; Gu, Xin Yue; Zhang, Dongwei; Yang, Youlin; Cui, Binbin; Tong, Jinxue; Zhou, Jin; Yu, Zhiwei

    2016-05-24

    The erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte (Eph) family tyrosine kinases play important roles in tumorigenesis and cancer aggression. In this study, we investigated the role of EphB6 in oncogenic transformation of colorectal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. EphB6 is upregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues as compared to normal tissues, and its overexpression promotes proliferation, migration and invasion by IMCE colorectal adenoma cells, in which one Apc allele is mutated. EphB6 overexpression together with Apc mutation leads to the development of colorectal tumors in vivo. Expression microarrays using mRNAs and lncRNAs isolated from EphB6-overexpresssing IMCE and control cells revealed a large number of dysregulated genes involved in cancer-related functions and pathways. The present study is the first to demonstrate that EphB6 overexpression together with Apc gene mutations may enhance proliferation, invasion and metastasis by colorectal epithelial cells. Microarray data and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes provided insight into possible EphB6-regulated mechanisms promoting tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EphB6 overexpression may represent a novel, effective biomarker predictive of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis patterns in CRC tumors.

  10. Homocisteína, folato e vitamina B12 em pacientes colombianos portadores de coronariopatia Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in colombian patients with coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Garcia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a existência de associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína, folato ou vitamina B12 e síndrome coronariana aguda em pacientes colombianos. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle: foram 50 pacientes portadores de síndrome coronariana aguda e 50 pacientes ambulatoriais sem síndrome coronariana. Foram medidos os níveis de homocisteína, folato e vitamina B12 por meio de imunoensaio por quimioluminescência. Foram também medidos os níveis de colesterol e frações, triglicérides, uréia, creatinina, hemoglobina e hematócrito. RESULTADOS: As concentrações plasmáticas médias de homocisteína foram significativamente diferentes entre os casos (12,4 µmol/l ± 6,0 e os controles (9,7 µmol/l ± 2,4, p=0,01. Os níveis de ácido fólico dos casos foram menores que os dos controles (respectivamente 10,5 ng/ml ± 3,5 x 12,6 ng/ml ± 3,6; p=0,01. Foi observada relação inversa entre os níveis de folato e os de homocisteína. Não houve relação entre os níveis de vitamina B12 e os de homocisteína. Houve diferença significativa nos níveis de triglicérides entre os grupos caso e controle (respectivamente 136,91 ± 67,27 x 174,3 ± 77,6; p=0,01. A razão das chances para hiper-homocisteinemia na síndrome coronariana aguda foi de 4,45 (intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,5 - 13,3. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou associação significativa entre os níveis de homocisteína e síndrome coronariana aguda em pacientes colombianos semelhante à encontrada em populações européias e norte-americanas. Houve correlação negativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína e os de folato. Não houve associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína e os de vitamina B12.OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of association between homocysteine, folate, or vitamin B12 plasma levels and acute coronary syndrome in Colombian patients. METHODS: Case control study: cases were 50 patients with acute

  11. Enhanced hydrogen adsorption on Li-coated B12C6N6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xueling; Qi, Pengtang; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jinyun; Chen, Hongshan

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen storage property of Li-coated B12C6N6 is investigated by density functional theory calculations. B12C6N6 is an electron deficient fullerene. Li atoms can be strongly bound to this cage by donating their valance electrons to the virtual 2p orbitals of carbon in the cluster. The binding energy (-2.90 eV) is much larger than the cohesive energy (1.63 eV) of bulk Li, and it prevents the Li atoms from aggregation. The coated Li atoms have large positive charges and the adsorbed hydrogen molecules can be moderately polarized by the Li+ ions. The computation shows that each Li atom coated on B12C6N6 can hold 2-3 H2 molecules with adsorption energies in the range of 0.21-0.24 eV/H2. The B12C6N6Li8 can adsorb 16 H2 and achieve a gravimetric hydrogen density of 8.63 wt. %. The present results indicate that alkali-metal atoms coated on electron deficient fullerenes can serve as hydrogen storage materials that can operate at ambient temperatures with high recycling storage capacity.

  12. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency: the long-term effects in cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vlemmix, F.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Paloheimo, L.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated plasma homocysteine level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in homocysteine metabolism and could be the main factor in causing cardiovascular disease as well. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether vitamin

  13. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  14. Transport properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabáni, S.; Bat'ko, I.; Bat'ková, M.; Flachbart, K.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Bogach, A. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Our studies of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions have shown that the temperature of antiferromagnetic (AF) order in geometrically frustrated system of HoB12 ( T N = 7.4 K) is linearly suppressed to zero temperature, i.e. T N → 0, as lutetium concentration increases to x→ x c ≈ 0.9. In this contribution, we present original results of electrical resistivity measurements on Ho1- x Lu x B12 single crystalline samples with x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 in the temperature range 0.06-300 K and in magnetic fields ( B) up to 8 T. Complex B vs T N phase diagrams were received from precise temperature ρ( T) and field ρ( B) dependences of resistivity with several AF phases for x ≤ 0.5 pointing to a possibility of quantum critical point at x c ≈ 0.9. The scattering of conduction electrons in the AF phase and in the paramagnetic phase as well as Hall effect results are analyzed and discussed for various concentrations x, when magnetic dilution increases with the increasing content of nonmagnetic Lu ions in the Ho1- x Lu x B12 system.

  15. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  16. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  17. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  18. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  19. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina;

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...

  20. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...

  1. Clinical implications and biochemical understanding of high plasma vitamin B12 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen

    2016-01-01

    Måling af plasma cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) anvendes i klinisk praksis til at diagnosticere eller udelukke Cbl-mangel. Denne mangeltilstand kan give blodmangel og symptomer fra mave- tarmkanalen og nervesystemet. Veganere, ældre og patienter med sygdomme eller tidligere operationer på mave...

  2. The Levels of Serum B12, Folic Acid and Homocysteine in the Thromboembolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziban Ucar Karabulut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum B12, folic acid, and homocysteine at admission in the cases established at the emergency department with thrombo-embolic diseases and to compare them with healthy subjects and also compare the diagnosis groups with each other.Material and Method: This study included 100 subjects diagnosed at the emergency department between March 2009-May 2009 with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, acute mesenteric embolism, peripheral artery embolism and 110 healthy voluntary subjects were included in the control group. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine levels were examined in blood samples obtained at admission. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the patient and control group. Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to compare the patient group, according to diagnosis. p%u2264 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean serum homocysteine and plasma vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher in the patient group than control group (p=0.002, 0.000 respectively. Mean serum B12 values of acute myocardial infarction and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease groups in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p

  3. NMR and DFT Study of Co-C Bond Activation Mechanism in Vitamin B12 Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ This report focuses on a theoretical study of the cobalt-cabon bond activation mechanism in Vitamin B12, its coenzyme complexes, and model compounds such as cobalamins (Cbl), cobaloximes and cobalt porphyrins. In particular, emphasis is placed on the nucleotide loop and its role in the baseon and baseoff mechanism.

  4. Requirements of Cultured Mammalian Cells for Vitamin B12 and Biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    power M vitamin B12 for optimal growth in a chemically defined medium. Requirement of HeLa cells for biotin was demonstrated initially with avidin, a...biotin inactivator. The inhibitory activity of avidin on growth of HeLa cells was reversible by addition of biotin. Serial passage of both HeLa and L

  5. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-02-25

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh.

  6. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  7. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idiris Altun; Ergl Belge Kuruta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury;n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was per-formed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were signiifcantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were signiifcantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was signiifcantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  8. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Stimulates Osteoclastogenesis via Increased Homocysteine and Methylmalonic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, B.L.T.; Lute, C.; Blom, H.J.; Bravenboer, N.; Vries, de T.J.; Everts, V.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Müller, M.R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of nutrient deficiencies increases with age in our modern Western society, and vitamin B12 deficiency is especially prevalent in the elderly and causes increased homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. These three factors have been recognized as risk factors for reduced bone

  9. Effects of induced optical tunable and ferromagnetic behaviors of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lihong; Qi, Xiaoping; Tana; Chao, Lumen; Tegus, O

    2016-07-28

    Multiple nanocrystalline rare-earth hexaborides La1-xBaxB6 have been synthesized via a single step solid-state reaction. The Ba doping effects on crystal structure, grain morphology, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. The results show that all the Ba-doped hexaborides crystallize in the CsCl-type single phase, indicating the Ba atoms occupied the lattice sites of LaB6. The optical absorption results indicate that the absorption valleys of LaB6 are red-shifted from 622 nm to 780 nm when the Ba doping content increases to x = 0.8. The first-principle calculation results reveal that Ba doping reduces the total kinetic energy of the electrons of LaB6, which lead to the absorption valleys moving toward a higher wavelength. Meanwhile, the band gap of BaB6 obtained from optical absorption is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation results. The magnetic measurements results showed that Ba doping lead to room-temperature ferromagnetism of LaB6 due to the different ionic radii of La(3+) and Ba(2+) causing intrinsic crystal defects, which is directly observed experimentally by HRTEM. This is the first time that we have found the tunable optical and ferromagnetic behavior of Ba doped nanocrystalline LaB6. Thus, nanocrystalline La1-xBaxB6, as multi-functional materials, should open up a new route to extend the optical and magnetic applications of LaB6 nanopowder.

  10. Metabolomic analysis reveals extended metabolic consequences of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency in healthy human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse F Gregory

    Full Text Available Marginal deficiency of vitamin B-6 is common among segments of the population worldwide. Because pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP serves as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many effects. Healthy men and women (age: 20-40 y; n = 23 were fed a 2-day controlled, nutritionally adequate diet followed by a 28-day low-vitamin B-6 diet (<0.5 mg/d to induce marginal deficiency, as reflected by a decline of plasma PLP from 52.6±14.1 (mean ± SD to 21.5±4.6 nmol/L (P<0.0001 and increased cystathionine from 131±65 to 199±56 nmol/L (P<0.001. Fasting plasma samples obtained before and after vitamin B6 restriction were analyzed by (1H-NMR with and without filtration and by targeted quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. Multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis and S-plots of NMR spectra showed that NMR is effective in classifying samples according to vitamin B-6 status and identified discriminating features. NMR spectral features of selected metabolites indicated that vitamin B-6 restriction significantly increased the ratios of glutamine/glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate (P<0.001 and tended to increase concentrations of acetate, pyruvate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (adjusted P<0.05. Tandem MS showed significantly greater plasma proline after vitamin B-6 restriction (adjusted P<0.05, but there were no effects on the profile of 14 other amino acids and 45 acylcarnitines. These findings demonstrate that marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency has widespread metabolic perturbations and illustrate the utility of metabolomics in evaluating complex effects of altered vitamin B-6 intake.

  11. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  12. Algorithm for the early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Sola, Ricardo; Barrios, Laura; Pietrzik, Klaus; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los mayores son una población que presenta un riesgo importante de desarrollar una deficiencia de vitamina B12, pero las concentraciones de cobalamina en suero no reflejan necesariamente un estado abnormal en el estado de B12 . Existen biomarcadores asociados a la vitamina B12: el ácido metilmalónico no está disponible en todos los laboratorios, la holotranscobalamina es poco sensible y la homocisteína presenta una baja especificidad. El objetivo del presente estudio es establecer un algoritmo de diagnóstico mediante el uso de una combinación de estos biomarcadores en lugar de la medición de uno sólo de ellos. Métodos: Se comparó la eficacia diagnóstica de estos marcadores para la detección de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en una población (n = 218) de ancianos institucionalizados (edad media 80 años). Los parámetros bioquímicos, hematológicos y morfológicos fueron utilizados para clasificar a los sujetos con o sin deficiencia de vitamina B12. Resultados: Se establecieron las curvas ROC (Receiver Operating Curves) para determinar la eficacia diagnóstica de cada parámetro, tomado individualmente. El folato sérico tenía la mayor área bajo la curva (0,87) y la homocisteína la más baja (0,67). Se observó que la mejor especificidad la presentaba el folato eritrocitario y el ácido metilmalónico (100% para ambos), pero sus sensibilidades eran muy bajas (17% y 53%, respectivamente). Y se observó que la sensibilidad más alta la presentaba la homocisteína (81%) y el folato sérico (74%), pero en contrapartida una especificidad baja. Cuando se combinaron estos marcadores, iniciando las determinaciones con el folato sérco y eritrocitario, seguido por holotranscobalamina y terminando por las mediciones de ácido metilmalónico, la sensibilidad y especificidad global del algoritmo fueron 100% y 90%, respectivamente. Conclusión: El algoritmo propuesto, que combina la determinación de folato sérico y eritrocitario

  13. [Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)--excessive dosage in food supplements and OTC medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Huminer, David; Stahl, Bracha

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is sold in Israel as a supplement and is available over-the-counter (OTC) without regulation. High intake of this vitamin is found in patients with premenstrual syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, pregnancy associated nausea and vomiting, decreasing homocysteine levels and improving cognitive function. Mega-doses of this vitamin may result in intoxication. In this review we will outline vitamin B6 function, daily recommended intake, deficiency signs and patients in deficiency risk, and the clinical spectrum of vitamin B6 intoxication.

  14. Pharmacorefractory status epilepticus due to low vitamin B6 levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Kurthen, Martin; Walger, Peter; Elger, Christian E

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with pyridoxine-dependent epileptic seizures during early childhood. She had been completely seizure free for 23 years until she became pregnant. During the week 14 of her pregnancy, status epilepticus developed and was refractory to antiepileptic drugs but responded to intravenous administration of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 levels were found to be decreased during pregnancy, although the patient reported continued and regular oral supplementation. Possible reasons for decreased vitamin B6 levels leading to status epilepticus are discussed.

  15. Modulation Schemes for Single-Phase B6 Converters With Two Asymmetrical Terminal Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    B6 converter uses six switches divided equally among three phase-legs. It has commonly been used as a three-phase rectifier or inverter, mostly under balanced conditions. Three-phase conversion is however not the only area, where B6 converter has been used. The same topology has been tried...... asymmetrical. How these asymmetrical references should be formulated to meet various performance specifications of a single-phase B6 converter is the theme of this paper. Simulation and experimental results have been obtained for verifying the modulation schemes proposed....

  16. Vitamin B1 and B12 uptake and cycling by plankton communities in coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eKoch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM, vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 µm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms, picoplankton (< 2 µm were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

  17. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  18. Response to vitamin B12 and folic acid in myalgic encephalomyelitis and fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Regland

    Full Text Available Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders.To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years.38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer's rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15 and Mild (n = 23 responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects.Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03 and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03 for a longer time (p<0.0005, higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003 in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02, and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005 used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09. Good responders rated themselves as "very much" or "much" improved, while Mild responders rated "much" or "minimally" improved.Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It's important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed.

  19. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on the serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nuan; Yu, Chun-Yu

    2016-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity. Clinical treatment of epilepsy includes symptomatic treatment, etiological treatment, surgery and prevention. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients, and to examine the correlation between these effects and secondary cerebrovascular events. A total of 68 epileptic patients, diagnosed between May 2012 and May 2014, were included in the present study. The study included 8 cases of autonomic seizures, 10 cases of absence seizures, 13 cases of complex partial seizures, 28 cases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and 9 cases of simple partial seizures. The patients received appropriate AED treatment according to the characteristics of epileptic seizure and the treatment guidance. The differences in the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in these patients, and the differences in the secondary cerebrovascular events in these patients after 1 year follow-up were analyzed. The difference in the AEDs used by various epileptic patients was statistically significant (PB12 in these patients following treatment were significantly lower than those prior to treatment (PB12 in these groups following treatment were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The difference in the incidence of cerebrovascular events in these groups at follow up was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The multifactorial logistic regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were the independent risk factors for epilepsy with secondary cerebrovascular events [folate: odds ratio (OR)=0.536, P=0.039; vitamin: OR=0.382, P=0.041]. In conclusion, various AEDs may decrease the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 and affect the secondary cerebrovascular events in various epileptic patients. Thus, regular supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 may be an option.

  20. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. Results We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i transport systems, and (ii metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Conclusion Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three

  1. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit alibaba.com

  2. Intakes of Folate and Vitamin B12 and Biomarkers of Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Mathers, John C.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Seal, Chris J.; Jagger, Carol; Hill, Tom R.

    2016-01-01

    Very old adults are at increased risk of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies due to reduced food intake and gastrointestinal absorption. The main aim was to determine the association between folate and vitamin B12 intake from total diets and food groups, and status. Folate or vitamin B12 intakes (2 × 24 h multiple pass recalls) and red blood cell (RBC) folate or plasma vitamin B12 (chemiluminescence immunoassays) concentrations were available at baseline for 731 participants aged 85 from the Newcastle 85+ Study (North-East England). Generalized additive and binary logistic models estimated the associations between folate and vitamin B12 intakes from total diets and food groups, and RBC folate and plasma B12. Folate intake from total diets and cereal and cereal products was strongly associated with RBC folate (p < 0.001). Total vitamin B12 intake was weakly associated with plasma vitamin B12 (p = 0.054) but those with higher intakes from total diets or meat and meat products were less likely to have deficient status. Women homozygous for the FUT2 G allele had higher concentrations of plasma vitamin B12. Cereals and cereal products are a very important source of folate in the very old. Higher intakes of folate and vitamin B12 lower the risk of “inadequate” status. PMID:27690091

  3. Intakes of Folate and Vitamin B12 and Biomarkers of Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Mathers, John C; Adamson, Ashley J; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Seal, Chris J; Jagger, Carol; Hill, Tom R

    2016-09-28

    Very old adults are at increased risk of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies due to reduced food intake and gastrointestinal absorption. The main aim was to determine the association between folate and vitamin B12 intake from total diets and food groups, and status. Folate or vitamin B12 intakes (2 × 24 h multiple pass recalls) and red blood cell (RBC) folate or plasma vitamin B12 (chemiluminescence immunoassays) concentrations were available at baseline for 731 participants aged 85 from the Newcastle 85+ Study (North-East England). Generalized additive and binary logistic models estimated the associations between folate and vitamin B12 intakes from total diets and food groups, and RBC folate and plasma B12. Folate intake from total diets and cereal and cereal products was strongly associated with RBC folate (p B12 intake was weakly associated with plasma vitamin B12 (p = 0.054) but those with higher intakes from total diets or meat and meat products were less likely to have deficient status. Women homozygous for the FUT2 G allele had higher concentrations of plasma vitamin B12. Cereals and cereal products are a very important source of folate in the very old. Higher intakes of folate and vitamin B12 lower the risk of "inadequate" status.

  4. Vitamin B12 screening in metformin-treated diabetics in primary care: were elderly patients less likely to be tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kitai, Eliezer; Blumberg, Gari; Golan-Cohen, Avivit; Rapoport, Micha; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-02-22

    Low serum B12 level is a common occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with metformin. There is lack of evidence concerning blood testing of vitamin B12 and current clinical guidelines make no recommendations on the detection or prevention of vitamin B-12 deficiency during metformin treatment. Our objective was to examine the current practice and clinical determinants of vitamin B12 testing in metformin treated T2DM patients. Data were collected from health maintenance organization patients, and consisted of T2DM patients who were newly prescribed metformin from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomly divided into two subgroups: referred for a vitamin B12 blood test, and did not receive a referral. The demographic data and medical characteristics were analyzed. 5131 patients began taking metformin during the study period. Of these 2332 (44.5 %) had vitamin B12 tested. Significant differences were found between the groups in regard to glycosylated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, chronic renal failure, and disease duration. A significant positive association (p B12 testing and insulin treatment, retinopathy, neuropathy and hypertension. Vitamin B12 in elderly (>75 years) patients was significantly lower (p B12 testing. T2DM patients 75 years and above were less likely to be tested for B12 deficiency.

  5. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  6. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Dindore, V.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, previous epidemiological studies investigating associations between dietary intakes of these nutrients and CRC have been inconsistent.

  7. Study on Band Structure of YbB6 and Analysis of Its Optical Conductivity Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure of YbB6 crystal was studied by means of density functional (GGA+U) method.The calculations were performed by FLAPW method.The high accurate band structure was achieved.The correlation between the feature of the band structure and the Yb-B6 bonding in YbB6 was analyzed.On this basis, some optical constants of YbB6 such as reflectivity, dielectric function, optical conductivity, and energy-loss function were calculated.The results are in good agreement with the experiments.The real part of the optical conductivity spectrum and the energy-loss function spectrum were analyzed in detail.The assignments of the spectra were carried out to correlate the spectral peaks with the interband electronic transitions, which justify the reasonable part of previous empirical assignments and renew the missed or incorrect ones.

  8. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adu...

  9. 维生素B12与腔隙性脑梗塞后抑郁的关联研究%Association of Vitamin B12 with Depression after Lacunar Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 呙登俊; 江霞

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the association of serum vitamin B12 with depression after lacunar stroke.METHODS Between June 2009 and June 2012,829 patients with lacunar stroke,according to Hamilton depression scale score,were divided into two groups:group with depression and group without depression.The concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and the ratio of vitamin B12 deficiency were compared.The relationship between Hamilton depression scale score and the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 in the group with depression was analyzed by the curve-fitting method.RESULTS The group without depression contained 750 cases and the mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 of this group was (172.5±20.4)pmol·L-1.There were 212 cases in the group without depression which were considered as vitamin B 12 deficiency.The group with depression contained 79 cases and the mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 of this group was (139.1±18.2)pmol·L-1.There were 53 cases in the group with depression which were considered as vitamin B12 deficiency.There were significant differences in the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and the ratio of vitamin B 12 deficiency(P<0.000 1).Inverse curve reflected the relationship between Hamilton depression scale score and the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 in the group with depression.CONCLUSION Depression after lacunar stroke is related to vitamin B12 deficiency.%目的 探讨血清维生素B12与腔隙性脑梗塞后抑郁之间关系.方法 2009年6月—2012年6月腔隙性脑梗塞患者共829例,使用汉密尔顿抑郁量表将患者分为两组:无抑郁组和抑郁组,比较两组间血清维生素B12浓度和维生素B12缺乏者的比例.在抑郁组内对汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分和血清维生素B12浓度进行曲线拟合.结果 无抑郁组患者750例,血清维生素B12平均浓度为(172.5±20.4)pmol·L-1,其中维生素B12缺乏者212例.抑郁组79例,血清维生素B12平均浓度为(139.1± 18.2)pmol·L-1,其中维生素B

  10. DAC is involved in the accumulation of the cytochrome b6/f complex in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Li, Jing; Ouyang, Min; Yun, Tao; He, Baoye; Ji, Daili; Ma, Jinfang; Chi, Wei; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-12-01

    The biogenesis and assembly of photosynthetic multisubunit protein complexes is assisted by a series of nucleus-encoded auxiliary protein factors. In this study, we characterize the dac mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which shows a severe defect in the accumulation of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, and provide evidence suggesting that the efficiency of cytochrome b(6)/f complex assembly is affected in the mutant. DAC is a thylakoid membrane protein with two predicted transmembrane domains that is conserved from cyanobacteria to vascular plants. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed a specific interaction between DAC and PetD, a subunit of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex. However, DAC was found not to be an intrinsic component of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex. In vivo chloroplast protein labeling experiments showed that the labeling rates of the PetD and cytochrome f proteins were greatly reduced, whereas that of the cytochrome b(6) protein remained normal in the dac mutant. DAC appears to be a novel factor involved in the assembly/stabilization of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, possibly through interaction with the PetD protein.

  11. Involvement of CYP2B6 in the biotransformation of propofol by human liver microsomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bing; WANG Jun-ke; FENG Wan-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes. Methods The change of propofol concentration in an incubation mixture with human liver microsomes was monitored by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in order to calculate the rate constants of metabolism of propofol. The correlation between the rate constants and the rate of metabolism of CYP2B6 selective substrate bupropion, and the effect of two different CYP2B6 specific inhibitors on the propofol metabolism were examined. Results The mean rate constant of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes obtained from twelve individuals was 3.9 (95 % confidence intervals 3.3, 4.5) nmol·min-1·mg-1 protein. The rate constants of propofol metabolism by liver microsomes were significantly correlated with bupropion hydroxylation (r=0.888, P<0.001). Both selective chemical inhibitors of CYP2B6, orphenadrine and N, N′, N″-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA), reduced the rate constants of propofol metabolism by 37.596 (P<0.001) and 42.796 (P<0.001)in liver microsomes, respectively. Conclusions CYP2B6 is predominantly involved in the oxidation of propofol by human liver microsomes.

  12. [Peripheral sensory neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, A; Ishibashi, H; Ohtani, K; Matsunaga, K; Yamamoto, T

    1985-06-01

    Clinical cases of sensory neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6 have been reported in English literatures. We investigated the ordinary daily dosage and maximal dose of vitamin B6 widely adopted in Japan, and the amount of vitamin B6 per unit (per tablet, capsule or ampule) available in our medical practice. We concluded that in Japan it is very rare to administer such a large dose of vitamin B6 that produced sensory neuropathy described in the literatures. In our experimental study, Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally given a total amount of 14,000 mg/kg of body weight of pyridoxine hydrochloride in ten separate doses. They developed an ataxic gait. The occurrence of the degeneration of nerve cell bodies and peripheral axons of lumbar primary sensory neurons were histologically demonstrated. Although in Japan no clinical cases of neuropathy produced by a megadose of vitamin B6 have been reported to our knowledge, it is necessary to be aware of the possible occurrence of such neuropathy among patients with polyneuropathy of unknown etiology or who have been receiving vitamin B6 for a long time.

  13. Experimental evidence of orbital order in α-B12 and γ-B28 polymorphs of elemental boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Swastik; van Smaalen, Sander; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; Prathapa, Siriyara Jagannatha; Noohinejad, Leila; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2013-07-01

    The electron density of the α form of boron has been obtained by multipole refinement against high-resolution, single-crystal x-ray diffraction data measured on a high-quality single crystal at a temperature of 100 K. Topological properties of this density have been used to show that all chemical bonds between B12 clusters in α-B12 are formed due to one orbital on each boron atom that is oriented perpendicular to the surface of the cluster. It is shown that the same orbital order on B12 clusters persists in both α-B12 and γ-B28 polymorphs and in several dodecaboranes, despite the fact that in every case the B12 clusters participate in entirely different kinds of exocluster bonds. It is likely that the same orbital order of B12 clusters can explain bonding in other boron polymorphs and boron-rich solids.

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications.

  15. UNDERNUTRITION, SERUM VITAMIN B12, FOLIC ACID AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN OLDER ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Noronha, Mafalda; Almeida Cunha, Nathalie; Agra Araújo, Daniela; Flamínio Abrunhosa, Sofia; Nunes Rocha, Ada; Freitas Amaral, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Antecedentes: la cuestión del posible vínculo entre la desnutrición y los síntomas depresivos, considerando el efecto de las deficiencias de vitamina B12 y de folato, es de importancia práctica porque estas son potencialmente prevenibles y tratables. Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar si la desnutrición está relacionada con los síntomas depresivos, teniendo en cuenta el efecto de los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina B12 y de folato. Método: un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en una muestra de 84 adultos mayores que viven en hogares de cuidado. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el estado nutricional utilizando Mini-Nutritional Assessment, los niveles séricos de ácido fólico y vitamina B12, la capacidad cognitiva, la dependencia funcional, y/o los síntomas de comportamiento depresivo. Los síntomas de depresión se midieron utilizando la versión de 20 ítems de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos. Resultados: cincuenta y tres adultos mayores estaban en riesgo de depresión (63,1%). De ellos, el 34% estaban en riesgo de desnutrición. Aunque se encontró una alta frecuencia de adultos mayores con bajos niveles plasmáticos de vitamina B12 (42,9%) y niveles más bajos de ácido fólico (5,9%), no se encontraron diferencias significativas en relación con la existencia de síntomas depresivos. En el análisis multivariable se observó un aumento en el riesgo de depresión entre los participantes con riesgo nutricional OR = 3,47 (1,05 a 11,46), mientras tener bajos niveles de ácido fólico y vitamina B12 no se asociaron con el riesgo de depresión. Conclusión: entre los adultos mayores desnutridos se observó un aumento en el riesgo de depresión, independientemente del ácido fólico y del estado de la vitamina B12. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar estrategias preventivas, especialmente dirigidas a los adultos mayores que viven en hogares de cuidado.

  16. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a Chinese family with distinct skin lesions refractory to vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S. H.; Sourial, N A; Lu, K. C.; Hsueh, E J

    1994-01-01

    Two brothers in a Chinese family with selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 associated with proteinuria (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome) presented with widespread mottled skin pigmentation, termed poikiloderma. In contrast to anaemia, this pigmentary disturbance remained unresponsive to vitamin B12 replacement. This is different from the reported hyperpigmentation sometimes seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is reversible following treatment. As far as is known, an irreversible and persistent...

  17. Techno-functional differentiation of two vitamin B12 producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains: an elucidation for diverse future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Tomar, S K; Chauhan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3.4-, 4.4-, and 3.86-folds, respectively. Three important B12 structural genes were detected in L. plantarum species (strains BHM10 and BCF20) by PCR for the first time. The gene sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank and found phylogenetically closer to respective sequences in B12 producing Lactobacillus reuteri strains. During comparative probiotic testing, BCF20 showed significantly higher (p B12 bio-fortification abilities during technological testing. Two B12 quantification techniques, UFLC and competitive immunoassay, confirmed the in vitro and in situ bio-production of bio-available form of B12 after BHM10 fermentation. Conclusively, techno-functional differentiation of two B12 producing strains elucidates their diverse future use; BCF20 either for B12 over-production (in vitro) or as a probiotic candidate, while BHM10 for cobalamin bio-fortification (in situ) in soy milk.

  18. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal; S K Sikka

    2002-05-01

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated (F) and the experimental specific heat data. The c is found to be 24.7 K.

  19. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  20. Oral vitamin B12 for patients suspected of subtle cobalamin deficiency: a multicentre pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Giuseppa; Burnand Bernard; Herzig Lilli; Vaucher Paul; Favrat Bernard; Boulat Olivier; Bischoff Thomas; Verdon François

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence regarding the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 in patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l is lacking. We compared the effectiveness of one-month oral vitamin B12 supplementation in patients with a subtle vitamin B12 deficiency to that of a placebo. Methods This multicentre (13 general practices, two nursing homes, and one primary care center in western Switzerland), parallel, randomised, controlled, closed-label, observer-blind trial included ...

  1. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Silvia; Cereda, Emanuele; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Cameletti, Barbara; Albertini, Riccardo; Magno, Daniela; Caraccia, Marilisa; Turri, Annalisa; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2016-12-23

    Background: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed. Methods: In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL) are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%). The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56-3.08; p B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS) than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15-41) versus 23 days (IQR 14-36); p = 0.014), and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (p = 0.027). Conclusions: An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation.

  2. A newly isolated and identified vitamin B12 producing strain: Sinorhizobium meliloti 320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Li, Sha; Fang, Huan; Xia, Miaomiao; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Jibin

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, VB12) has several physiological functions and is widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. A new unicellular species was extracted from China farmland, and the strain could produce VB12 which was identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS. 16S rDNA analysis reveals this strain belongs to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti and we named it S. meliloti 320. Its whole genome information indicates that this strain has a complete VB12 synthetic pathway, which paves the way for further metabolic engineering studies. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources are sucrose and corn steep liquor (CSL) plus peptone. The optimal combination of sucrose and CSL was obtained by response surface methodology as they are the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. This strain could produce 140 ± 4.2 mg L(-1) vitamin B12 after incubating for 7 days in the optimal medium.

  3. Diffusion of Vitamin B12 Across a Mesoporous Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Valencia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the rate of uptake and the rate of release of a Vitamin B12 solution (dissolved in water at 2 different temperatures (room temperature and 37°C by the mesoporous metal organic framework TbMOF-100 at 1-hour intervals using a spectrophotometer. Using the Beer-Lambert law, we calculate the concentration of the stock solution based on the absorbance values obtained with the spectrophotometer. These values allow for the quantification of the initial rate of uptake and the rate of uptake at a random incubation time of the Vitamin B12 by the TbMOF-100. We also calculate the value of the coefficient of diffusion for this 2-phase system using Fick’s laws of diffusion.

  4. Danggui Injection plus Vitamin B12 Injection at Acupoints for Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hui

    2005-01-01

    Danggui Injection and Vitamin B12 Injection were injected into acupoints Geshu (BL17), Pishu (BL 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Fenglong (ST 40) and Neiguan (PC 6) to treated 56 cases of hyperlipidemia. Meanwhile, Fenofibrate was adopted to treat another 45 cases as control. After2-month treatment, result showed similar effects in the two groups.%取膈俞、脾俞、足三里、丰隆和内关穴为主,注射当归注射液和维生素B12,治疗56例高血脂症患者,并与非诺贝特治疗45例相对照.治疗2个月后,两组疗效相近.

  5. [Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Gazzola, S

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc.

  6. Deficiência de vitamina B12 e transtorno depressivo refratário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cópio Fábregas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A vitamina B12, ou cianocobalamina, desempenha importantes funções metabólicas e neurotróficas. Sua deficiência está associada a distúrbios hematológicos, neurológicos e psiquiátricos. É relatado o caso de uma paciente com depressão refratária ao tratamento com antidepressivos que melhorou somente após a detecção e o tratamento da deficiência de vitamina B12. Esse relato ilustra a importância de o psiquiatra considerar causas secundárias de depressão em casos refratários.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B. Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention.

  8. Probing reversible chemistry in coenzyme B12 -dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase with kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex R; Rentergent, Julius; Scrutton, Nigel S; Hay, Sam

    2015-06-08

    Coenzyme B12 -dependent enzymes such as ethanolamine ammonia lyase have remarkable catalytic power and some unique properties that enable detailed analysis of the reaction chemistry and associated dynamics. By selectively deuterating the substrate (ethanolamine) and/or the β-carbon of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl moiety of the intrinsic coenzyme B12 , it was possible to experimentally probe both the forward and reverse hydrogen atom transfers between the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical and substrate during single-turnover stopped-flow measurements. These data are interpreted within the context of a kinetic model where the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate may be quasi-stable and rearrangement of the substrate radical is essentially irreversible. Global fitting of these data allows estimation of the intrinsic rate constants associated with CoC homolysis and initial H-abstraction steps. In contrast to previous stopped-flow studies, the apparent kinetic isotope effects are found to be relatively small.

  9. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkaa Al Shamkani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI. Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors.

  10. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors.

  11. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age, primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY. Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Vladimir A; Vrel, Dominique; Sokolov, Petr S; Le Godec, Yann; Solozhenko, Vladimir L

    2016-06-21

    Here we propose a new approach to the synthesis of single-phase boron phosphides (BP and B12P2) by mechanochemical reactions between boron phosphate and magnesium/magnesium diboride in the presence of an inert diluent (sodium chloride). The proposed method is characterized by the simplicity of implementation, high efficiency, low cost of the product, and good perspectives for large-scale production.

  13. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Vitamin B12, Folate and Immunoglobulins in Individuals with Giardiasis

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    M Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most important intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IgA, IgE, zinc, copper, vitamin B12 and folate in individuals with giardiasis in comparison to normal subjects.Methods: The study was carried out among 49 Giardia positive and 39 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Examination of stool samples was done by direct wet smear and formol-ether concentration method. Serum samples were obtained for further laboratory examination. IgA levels were measured by Single Radial Immune Diffusion (SRID. IgE levels were measured by ELISA kit. Zinc and copper levels was measured by Ziestchem Diagnostics Kit and colorimetric endpoint-method respectively. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured by DRG Diagnostics Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay method respectively. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in IgA, IgE, copper and zinc levels between positive and negative groups (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between vitamin B12 and folate levels between the two groups. Mean values of Giardia positive and negative groups for IgA were 309.26 and 216.89 mg/dl, IgE 167.34 and 35.49 IU/ml, copper 309.74 and 253.61 µg/dl and zinc 69.41 and 144.75 µg/dl respectively.Conclusion: The results showed levels of IgA may correlate more closely with giardiasis than IgE. Regarding trace elements, giardiasis elevated serum copper levels, while it decreased serum zinc. Finally, there was no significant difference in serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid between the two groups.

  15. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J. L.; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes has been a major puzzle despite our previous finding that this effect is due to electrostatic stabilization of the leaving group. Recent findings of very large entropic contributions to catalysis were presented as an alternative to the electrostatic idea. Here, we use our ability to evaluate entropic contributions by the restraint release (RR) approach to reexamine the nature of the catalytic effect. The RR approach reproduces the observed entr...

  16. [Acute neurological disclosure of B12 avitaminosis induced by folic acid administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, N; Martinez Almoyna, L; Husson, H; De Broucker, T

    2005-04-01

    A paradigmatic case of acute combined spinal cord degeneration and delirium due to inappropriate administration of folic acid in the context of chronic cobalamin deficiency is described. Rapid improvement was obtained with immediate cessation of folate administration and parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Folic acid and cobalamin prescription rules are recalled. Pathophysiological hypotheses tentatively explaining the neurotoxicity of folic acid in case of vitamin B12 deficiency are summarized.

  17. Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

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    Kühne, T; Bubl, R; Baumgartner, R

    1991-01-01

    We present a 9-month-old exclusively breast-fed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 in both patient and mother.

  18. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

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    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  19. Geographical gradients of dissolved Vitamin B12 in the Mediterranean Sea

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    Sophie eBonnet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotic phytoplankton require vitamin B12 to grow. However, the cycling of this organic growth factor has received substantially less attention than other bioactive substances such as trace metals in the marine environment. This is especially true in the Mediterranean Sea, where direct measurements of dissolved vitamins have never been reported. We report here the first direct measurements of dissolved vitamin B12 across longitudinal gradients in Mediterranean waters. The range of vitamin B12 concentrations measured over the whole transect was 0.5 to 6.2 pM, which is slightly higher than the range (undetectable – 4 pM of ambient concentrations measured in other open ocean basins in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The concentrations measured in the western basin were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those of the eastern basin. They were positively correlated with chlorophyll concentrations in the most western part of the basin, and did not show any significant correlation with any other biological variables in other regions of the sampling transect.

  20. A riboswitch sensor to determine vitamin B12 in fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gu, Qing

    2015-05-15

    We describe a sensitive and selective method for determination of vitamin B12 content in fermented foods using riboswitch sensor. A riboswitch amplicon from Propionibacterium freudenreichii was cloned in p519NGFP vector in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of green fluorescence protein was revers correlated to the concentrations of adenosylcobalamin. Adenosylcobalamin directly binds to riboswitch region leading to conformational changes in the secondary structure of mRNA, thus inhibiting expression. After various examinations, a standard curve was obtained from 10 to 1000 ng/mL of cyanocobalamin. The limit of determination is 10 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.5% for the range of 10-1000 ng/mL. The recovery of this method was 92.3%. This method has no or less responses to nucleic acid, pseudovitamin B12, vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. The riboswitch sensor results were similar with HPLC, but they were Ca. 24% lower than the microbiological assay results.