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Sample records for b2 b6 b12

  1. Determination of Vitamin B1,B2,B6 and B12 in Qingda Vitamin B Capsules by HPLC%庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2B6B12的HPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉梅; 郭澄

    2008-01-01

    建立HPLC法测定庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1、B2B6B12的含量.采用C18柱,乙腈-10mmol/L磷酸二氢钾(pH 3.2)为流动相,梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm.维生素B1、B2B6B12分别在50~150、20~60、20~60和0.5~1.5μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为101.9%、98.1%、99.6%和99.4%.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Vitamin B2 ,B6, B12 and Vitamin C at Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%多壁碳纳米管修饰电极同时测定维生素B2B6B12和维生素C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向伟; 李将渊; 马曾燕

    2007-01-01

    制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰玻碳电极(MWNT/GCE),研究了维生素B2B6B12和维生素C共存时在该电极上的电化学行为.实验发现,在HAc-NaAc缓冲溶液中,该电极可同时测定以上四种维生素,线性范围分别为1.0×10-6~1.0×10-4 mol/L、5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L、5.0×10-5~7.5×10-4 mol/L和5.0×10-5~2.0×10-3 mol/L,其检出限分别为7.0×10-7 mol/L、1.0×10-5 mol/L、2.5×10-5 mol/L和5.0×10-6 mol/L.样品分析的RSD分别为1.66%、1.71%、2.26%和1.46%.方法简便快捷,可用于四种维生素同时分析测定.

  3. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

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    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  4. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  5. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  6. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation is needed among adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, A M; Nexo, E; Nielsen, J B

    2006-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of the enzyme phelnylalanine hydroxylase leading to a failure to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. To avoid irreversible neurological damage because of increased phenylalanine, treatment is instituted rapidly after birth. We examined 31 adult PKU patients living on a less protein-restricted diet. Theoretically, these PKU patients had an increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) and B(6) deficiency because of a limited intake of animal products. Besides laboratory tests (n = 31) we obtained clinical information (n = 30) and detailed information on food consumption (n = 28). Three-quarters of the patients had early biochemical signs of vitamin B(12) deficiency. In spite of a normal folate status, 9 (29%) had a plasma homocysteine above 12 micromol/L. In accord with these findings, the food questionnaires indicated that 11 (39%) patients received less than the recommended daily vitamin B(12), and 20 (71%) received less vitamin B(6) than recommended. A significant association was found between reduced vitamin B(12) intake and both reduced serum cobalamins (p = 0.04) and reduced serum transcobalamin saturation (p = 0.03). Eleven patients took a vitamin pill daily, and these patients had a significantly lower plasma homocysteine compared to the rest. The present study suggests that adult PKU patients were at increased risk of developing vitamin B(12) deficiency, and their intake of vitamin B(6) was below the recommended daily intake. In conclusion PKU patients need continuing dietary guidance throughout adult life, and considering the risks, costs and potential benefits, daily vitamin supplementation seems justified in these patients. PMID:16601867

  7. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak; KAYA, Murat; ARSLAN, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin suppleme...

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and the association with serum levels of Homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and Folate

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Markus; Hellström, Anders; Henriksson, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown hyperhomocysteinemi in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In the present study we evaluated the circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) in relation to renal function, vitamins B6, B12 and folate status in AAA patients with special regard to aneurysm size, and rupture. Hcy, Creatinine, B6, B12 and folate were measured in 119 patients with AAA and 36 controls without aneurysm matched by age, gender and smoking habit. As expected there was a weak co...

  9. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Turgut; Murat Kaya; Sermal Arslan; et al

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participan...

  10. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Particip...

  11. Determination of Ternary Mixtures of Vitamins (B1, B6, B12) by Zero-Crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜR, Mahmure Üstün; KOYUNCU, İkbal

    2002-01-01

    A new method for determining ternary mixtures of vitamin B1, B6 and B12 using second derivative spectrophotometry is described. The procedure is accurate, nondestructive and does not require any separation step or the solving of equations. Calibration graphs were linear up to 20 m gml-1 of vitamin B1 at 228.9 nm (r=0.9999), vitamin B6 at 309.6 nm (r=0.9999) and vitamin B12 at 361.7 nm (r=0.9998). The method was successfully applied for analyzing synthetic mixtures and c...

  12. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  13. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B2 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2-2H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1-2H]ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B12 showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) [1'-13C, 5-15N]riboflavin incorporated and 13C-NMR showed that 13C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio

  14. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  15. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk Nick; Watkins Carol J; Hageman Robert J J; Sijben John C W; Kamphuis Patrick G H J; Wurtman Richard J; Broersen Laus M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA...

  16. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  17. Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Scheet, Paul; Giusti, Betti; Bandinelli, Stefania; Piras, Maria Grazia; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Corsi, Anna Maria; Vestrini, Anna; Sofi, Francesco; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Guralnik, Jack; Singleton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The B vitamins are components of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) that contribute to DNA synthesis and methylation. Homocysteine, a by-product of OCM, has been associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and neurological disease. To investigate genetic factors that affect circulating vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted in the InCHIANTI (N = 1175), SardiNIA (N = 1115), and BLSA (N = 640) studies. The top loci were replicated in an in...

  18. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

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    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  19. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  20. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Heru Yuniati; Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM) in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb), two types of eggs (chicken, duck), an...

  1. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Suever, Barbara L.; Shaurya Prakash, Ruchika; Colcombe, Stanley J.; McAuley, Edward; Arthur F Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamin B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamin B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized ...

  2. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  3. Electrochemical Behavior of Vitamin B6 at Vitamin B12 Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Application%维生素B6在维生素B12修饰电极上的电化学行为及其分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 毕春燕

    2012-01-01

    采用循环伏安法研究了维生素B6在维生素B12修饰玻碳电极上的电化学行为,建立了测定痕量维生素B6的新方法.在pH 8.6的NH3-NH4Cl缓冲溶液中,维生素B6在修饰电极上产生一个灵敏的氧化峰,采用差分脉冲伏安法测定,其氧化峰电流与维生素B6的浓度在8.0×10-7~2.0×10-4 mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为2.0×10-7 mol/L.该修饰电极具有良好的选择性、灵敏度及稳定性,用于片剂中维生素B6的定量分析,结果令人满意.%A Vitamin B,2 modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. The electrochemical behavior of Vitamin B6 (VB6) was studied at the prepared electrode by cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical effect on oxidation of VB6. In NH3-NH4C1 buffer solution(pH 8.6), the anodic peak current had a linear relationship with VB6 concentration in the range of 8.0×10-7 -2.0×10-4 mol / L by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limit was 2.0×10-7mol / L. The modified electrode had good selectivity and sensitivity. The proposed method had been applied to the determination of VB6 in tablets with satisfactory results.

  4. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Samir Samman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI and between-subject (CVG for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP use was associated (P = 0.042 with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation.

  5. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Suever, Barbara L; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Colcombe, Stanley J; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-03-14

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamins B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamins B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and global gray and white matter volume after correcting for age, sex, body mass index, calorie intake, and education. All participants met or surpassed the recommended daily intake for these vitamins. In the VBM analysis, we found that adults with greater vitamin B6 intake had greater gray matter volume along the medial wall, anterior cingulate cortex, medial parietal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus, whereas people with greater B12 intake had greater volume in the left and right superior parietal sulcus. These effects were driven by vitamin supplementation and were negated when only examining vitamin intake from diet. Folate had no effect on brain volume. Furthermore, there was no relationship between vitamins B6, B12, or folate intake on global brain volume measures, indicating that VBM methods are more sensitive for detecting localized differences in gray matter volume than global measures. These results are discussed in relation to a growing literature on vitamin intake on age-related neurocognitive deterioration. PMID:18281020

  6. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B1, B2 and B6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  7. The effect of melatonin and/or complex vitamin B1,B6,B12 in modulating epinephrine-induced stress in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Yossef EL-Toweissy; Nema Abdel-Hameed Mohamed; Wessam Mohamed Abdel-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the modulating effects of intramuscular administration of melatonin (MT)(1mg/ kg) and/or Tri-B (B 1 , B 6 and B 12 ) (20mg/kg) on body weight and some biochemical changes in rats induced by Epinephrine (Epi) injection. The data showed that MT and/or Tri-B treatment effectively improved the changes in malondialdehyde, lipid profile, blood sugar level and insulin. MT and/or Tri-B administration following Epi improved partially the decrease in body weight a...

  8. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  9. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  10. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  11. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  12. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of vitamin B12 ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. ...

  13. Accurate prediction of hard-sphere virial coefficients B6 to B12 from a compressibility-based equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We derive an analytical equation of state for the hard-sphere fluid that is within 0.01% of computer simulations for the whole range of the stable fluid phase. In contrast, the commonly used Carnahan-Starling equation of state deviates by up to 0.3% from simulations. The derivation uses the functional form of the isothermal compressibility from the Percus-Yevick closure of the Ornstein-Zernike relation as a starting point. Two additional degrees of freedom are introduced, which are constrained by requiring the equation of state to (i) recover the exact fourth virial coefficient B4 and (ii) involve only integer coefficients on the level of the ideal gas, while providing best possible agreement with the numerical result for B5. Virial coefficients B6 to B10 obtained from the equation of state are within 0.5% of numerical computations, and coefficients B11 and B12 are within the error of numerical results. We conjecture that even higher virial coefficients are reliably predicted.

  14. The effect of melatonin and/or complex vitamin B1,B6,B12 in modulating epinephrine-induced stress in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yossef EL-Toweissy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the modulating effects of intramuscular administration of melatonin (MT(1mg/ kg and/or Tri-B (B 1 , B 6 and B 12 (20mg/kg on body weight and some biochemical changes in rats induced by Epinephrine (Epi injection. The data showed that MT and/or Tri-B treatment effectively improved the changes in malondialdehyde, lipid profile, blood sugar level and insulin. MT and/or Tri-B administration following Epi improved partially the decrease in body weight and liver glycogen levels. Tri B injection following Epi partialy improved all the tested parameters except malondialdehyde and blood sugar level that completely improved in stressed rats. It was evident that a combination of MT and vitamin B complex had protective actions and further it was better than either of them introduced alone in stressed rats. The possible interaction between MT and Tri B provided further support to MT synergistic actions with the aim of advocating MT and Tri B as a possible synergistic therapy.

  15. Dietary Intake of Folate, but not Vitamin B(2) or B (12), Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density 5 Years after the Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P;

    2008-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), and vitamin B(12 )may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data...

  16. 基于离子交换吸附的动态液滴荧光法用于维生素B2B6的快速检测%Dynamic liquid drop spectrofluorimetry for rapid detection of vitamin B2 and B6 based on ion exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽忠; 冯锋; 林洁刁; 廖雪明

    2005-01-01

    目的发展一种新型的分析方法用于维生素B2B6的联合检测.方法基于葡聚糖凝胶CM-C25对维生素B6的选择性吸附,采用液滴荧光分析方法对维生素B2B6混合溶液进行检测.结果维生素B2B6在浓度分别为10~10000μg/L和10~3 000μg/L范围内呈线性关系,检出限分别为5μg/L和6μg/L.该方法用于人工合成样品及复合维生素B药片中维生素B2B6的检测,获得满意的结果.结论该方法快速、灵敏,可用于制药工业中维生素B2B6含量的检测.

  17. Animal experiments and clinical studies on the role of the vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on erythrocytic transketolase, glutathion reductase, and aspartate-aminotransferase activities with and without addition of coenzymes were studied in 152 Wistar rats, six beagles, and 225 carcinoma patients, as a measure for vitamin B1, B2, and B6 supplies. Examinations of 108 patients with mammary carcinoma and 117 patients with cervical, corpus, and ovarian carcinomas were undertaken prior to, during, and after termination of radiotherapy. Two check-up series were run, the first without vitamin B complex therapy, and the second with three daily applications of one dragee each, beginning on the first day of irradiation. The TPP effects recorded indicated no impairment of vitamin B1 supply. FAD and PLP effects, on the other hand, were significantly increased, which suggested B2 and B6 deficits. Vitamin B2 metabolism was causally impaired by radiation, while the disordes in vitamin B6 metabolism were attributed to tumour-related causes. The results obtained revealed that both types of disorders can be avoided by prophylactic vitamin B complex treatment. (author)

  18. Properties of second harmonic generation in nonlinear optical crystals CsLiB6O10 and K2Al2B2O7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chun-rong; ZHAO Jian-jun; LIU Jin

    2006-01-01

    The phase-matching for nonlinear optical crystal,the nonlinear phase matching angle, effective nonlinear coefficient, walk-off angles, permitted angle, and permitted wavelength are obtained in type-Ⅰ and type-Ⅱ phase matching in ultraviolet (UV) nonlinear optical crystals CsLiB6O10(CLBO) and K2Al2B2O7 (KABO) by detailed theoretical simulation. Through analysis and comparison, the phase matching characteristics of the second harmonic generation in the crystals are discussed when the wavelengths of the basic frequency lights turn continually.

  19. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  20. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  1. HPLC法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、B2B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Compound Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀梅; 祖述春

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱:Wondasil C18色谱柱,流动相为醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液(pH 4.5)-甲醇(65∶35),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为270 nm.结果 维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6浓度分别在0.6 μg·mL-1~0.75 mg·mL-1、0.3 μg·mL-1~0.62 mg·mL-1、80~415 μg·mL1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好.结论 该方法简便、快速、准确可靠,可用于复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量测定.

  2. The effect of Cu addition on the microstructure and low-temperature magnetization of nanocrystalline Fe87-xZr7B6Cux and Fe81-xZr7B12Cux alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and low-temperature magnetization of nanocrystalline Fe87-xZr7B6Cux and Fe81-xZr7B12Cux alloys (x = 0,1 and 2 at.%) have been studied using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results show that the substitution of 1 at.% copper for iron in both low- and high-boron-content alloys has significant effects on the microstructure and magnetic properties, while increasing the copper content to 2 at.% does not cause any further significant change in the microstructure and magnetic properties. For the low-boron-content alloys, the addition of 1 at.% copper promotes a uniform distribution of α-Fe grains, decreases the grain size without changing the phase structure, and decreases the exchange stiffness constant from 180±6 to 122±2 meV A2. For the high-boron-content alloys with the addition of 1 at.% copper, the constitutional crystalline phase changes from a metastable phase with the cubic 'Fe12Si2ZrB' structure to the equilibrium phase α-Fe. For the nanocrystalline Fe81Zr7B12 alloy with the metastable phase after being heated to 893 K at 20 K min-1, the saturation magnetization σs(0)=115±1 emu g-1, and the exchange stiffness constant D=86±2 meV A2, confirming that the metastable phase is a weaker ferromagnetic phase

  3. PERBANDINGAN ANALISIS KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI ELUASI GRADIEN DENGAN ISOKRATIK PADA PENENTUAN VITAMIN B1, B2 DAN B6 DALAM SEDIAAN SIRUP MULTIVITAMIN SECARA SIMULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Kasih Ariani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Vitamin B terutama B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, dan B6 (Piridoksin sering terkandung dalam sirup multivitamin sehingga diperlukan analisis untuk mendeteksi secara simultan dalam campuran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan analisis vitamin B1, B2, dan B6 dalam sirup multivitamin secara simultan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi eluasi gradien dan isokratik, menggunakan kolom C18, panjang 15 cm, dan dengan pelarut campuran metanol: air : asam asetat glasial (10:90:1. Fase gerak adalah campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dalam asam asetat glasial 0,5% dengan metanol yang dicampur secara gradien. Kondisi optimum metode gradien diperoleh pada laju alir 2,0 mL/menit, panjang gelombang 280 nm dengan waktu retensi 3,441 menit untuk piridoksin; 4,985 menit untuk riboflavin dan 7,393 menit untuk tiamin dengan resolusi 2,272 antara riboflavin dan piridoksin. Hasil uji presisi riboflavin dan piridoksin menggunakan metode isokratik (campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dengan metanol dengan perbandingan 70 : 30 masing-masing dengan RSD adalah 1,377 dan 1,376 sedangkan metode gradien adalah 0,693 dan 0,825. Uji linearitas ketiga vitamin menggunakan dua metode isokratik dan gradien memenuhi persyaratan dengan R2 = 0,999. Kata kunci : Vitamin B, sirup multivitamin, kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to compare the simultaneous analytical results of B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, and B6 (Piridoxin in multivitamin syrup between gradient and isocratic methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The separation was performed on 15 cm length of C18 column and a mixture of methanol, water and glacial acetate acid with ratio of 10:90:1 was used as solvent. The eluent was a mixture of methanol and 5 mM sodium hexane sulfonate in 0.5% glacial acetate acid and gradually mixed using 2 different pumps. The optimal analytical conditions for gradient method were found to be 2,0 mL/min of flow rate and

  4. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  5. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  6. Li2Sr4B12O23: A new alkali and alkaline-earth metal mixed borate with [B10O18]6− network and isolated [B2O5]4− unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel ternary lithium strontium borate Li2Sr4B12O23 crystal with size up to 20 mm×10 mm×4 mm has been grown via the top-seeded solution growth method below 730 °C. Single-crystal XRD analyses showed that Li2Sr4B12O23 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a=6.4664(4) Å, b=8.4878(4) Å, c=15.3337(8) Å, β=102.02(3)°, Z=2. The crystal structure is composed of [B10O18]6− network and isolated [B2O5]4− unit. The IR spectrum further confirmed the presence of both BO3 and BO4 groups. TG-DSC and Transmission spectrum were reported. Band structures and density of states were calculated. - Graphical abstract: A new phase, Li2Sr4B12O23, has been discovered in the ternary M2O–M′O–B2O3 (M=alkali-metal, M′=alkalineearth metal) system. The crystal structure consists of [B10O18]6− network and isolated [B2O5]4− unit. Highlights: ► Li2Sr4B12O23 is a a novel borate discovered in the M2O–M′O–B2O3 (M=alkali-metal, M′=alkaline-earth metal) system. ► Li2Sr4B12O23 crystal structure has a three-dimensional crystal structure with [B10O18]6− network and isolated [B2O5]4− unit. ► Sr1 and Sr2 are located in two different channels constructed by 3∞[B10O18] network.

  7. HPLC 法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量%Determination of Nicotinamide, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu Capsules (15) by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟姣; 唐湘伟; 黄莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中的烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法:采用Boston Green ODS C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.941 g,加冰乙酸10 ml,加水1 000 ml溶解,用NaOH试液调节pH至3.8)-甲醇(70:30);进样量:20 μl;检测波长为280 nm;柱温:30℃;流速1.0 ml·min-1.结果:烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6分别在38.83~349.44,9.88~88.94,4.03~36.25,3.97~35.77 μg·ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999 6);平均回收率分别为98.7%(RSD=0.89%),98.7%(RSD=1.03%),99.0%(RSD=1.03%),99.8%(RSD=1.49%).结论:该方法准确,灵敏度高,重复性好,可作为多维元素胶囊(15)的质量控制方法之一.%Objective: To develop an HPLC method for the determination of nicotinamide, vitamin B, , vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ). Method: The separation was preformed on a Boston Green ODS C18 column ( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) and the mobile phase consisted of sodium heptanesulfonate solution ( containing 0. 941 g sodium heptanesulfonate and 10ml glacial acetic acid in 1000ml water, and adjusting Ph to 3. 80 with NaOH test solution )-methanol ( 70: 30 ). The detection wavelength was set at 280nm. The flow rate was 1.0 ml ? Min-1 , and the column temperature was 30℃. Result: The calibration curve was linear within the range of 38. 83 ~349.44 μg ? Ml-1 for nicotinamide, 9. 88 ~ 88. 94 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B, , 4.03 ~36. 25 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B2 and3.97 -35.77 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B6. The average recovery was 98.7%( RSD =0. 89% ), 98.7%( RSD = 1.03% ), 99.0% ( RSD = 1. 03% ) and 99. 8%( RSD = 1. 49% ), respectively. Conclusion: This method is sensitive and accurate with good reproduc-ibility, and can be used for the quality control of Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ) .

  8. Synthesis of boron suboxide (B6O) with ball milled boron oxide (B2O3) under lower pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron reacted with ball milled boron oxide under pressures between 1 and 5 GPa and at temperatures between 1300 and 1700 oC to afford boron suboxide (B6O). Icosahedral B6O grains with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 1.3 μm were prepared. The factors that affect the synthesis of B6O are investigated. The best sample with crystal size up to 1.3 μm is obtained at 2 GPa and 1400 oC for 6 h. The indentation experiment gave an average Vickers hardness of 32.3 GPa for bulk B6O sample, which is consistent with previous reports. Bulk B6O sample exhibits oxidation resistance in air up to 1000 oC and mild oxidation in the temperatures of 1000-1200 oC, which is more oxidation resistant than diamond. It is possible that B6O could be used as a substitute for diamond in industry because of its relatively mild synthesis conditions, high thermal stability and high hardness. - Graphical abstract: Icosahedral B6O grains were prepared for mixtures of boron and ball milled boron oxide at 2 GPa and 1400 oC, a milder synthesis condition in comparison with previous works.

  9. Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.; Vollset, S.E.; Hustad, S.; Midttun, O.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Jenab, M.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Agudo, A.; Sala, N.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Carneiro, F.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Arrizola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Morois, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Plebani, M.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  11. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2008-01-01

    Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, ...

  12. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  13. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  14. Ternary Borides Cr2AlB2, Cr3AlB4, and Cr4AlB6: The First Members of the Series (CrB2)nCrAl with n = 1, 2, 3 and a Unifying Concept for Ternary Borides as MAB-Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Martin; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of the ternary borides Cr2AlB2, Cr3AlB4, Cr4AlB6, MoAlB, WAlB, Mn2AlB2, and Fe2AlB2 were grown from the elements with an excess of Al. Structures were refined by X-ray methods on the basis of single crystal data. All compounds crystallize in orthorhombic space groups. In each case boron atoms show the typical trigonal prisms BM6. The BM6-units are linked by common rectangular faces forming B-B-bonds. Thus, zigzag chains of boron atoms are obtained for MoAlB, WAlB, and M2AlB2 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe); chains of hexagons for Cr3AlB4; and double chains of hexagons for Cr4AlB6. The same subunits are known for the binary borides CrB, Cr3B4, Cr2B3, and β-WB, too. The boride partial structures are separated by single layers of Al-atoms in the case of the chromium compounds and double layers for WAlB, i.e., W2Al2B2. All crystal structures can be described using a unified building set principle with quadratic 4(4)-nets of metal atoms. The different compositions and crystal structures are obtained by different numbers of metal layers in the corresponding parts according to the formula (MB)2Aly(MB2)x. This principle is an extension of a scheme which was developed for the boridecarbides of niobium. Furthermore, there is a close similarity to the group of ternary carbides MAl(MC)n, so-called MAX-phases. Therefore, they might be named as "MAB-phases". The pronounced two-dimensionality and the mixture of strong covalent and metallic interactions make MAB-phases to promising candidates for interesting material properties. All compositions were confirmed by EDX measurements. Additionally, microhardness measurements were performed. PMID:26069993

  15. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. ...

  16. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  17. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... ODS: ods.od.nih.gov/contact What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  18. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprue Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Cirrhosis Delirium Dementia Dementia due to metabolic causes Hepatitis Hyperthyroidism Malabsorption Pernicious anemia Polycythemia vera Reticulocyte count Vitamin B12 Update Date 2/24/2014 Updated by: ...

  19. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent or treat dementia. Energy and athletic performance Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way ... 24, 2011 Share This Page: E-mail Twitter Facebook Google+ Pinterest Contact Us | Accessibility | Site Policies | Disclaimer | ...

  20. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita,Kiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA or a hyperventilation attack (HVA are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs. Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6 and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences.

  1. Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences. PMID:23603926

  2. Anemia - B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tongue or bleeding gums If you have low vitamin B12 level for a long time, you can have nerve damage. Symptoms of nerve damage include: Confusion or change in mental status ( dementia ) in severe cases Depression Loss of balance Numbness ...

  3. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember a prescription medication called ... Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate ... Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5- ...

  4. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  5. Vitamin B12 for cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Malouf, RM; Areosa Sastre, A

    2003-01-01

    Background An association between neuropsychiatric disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency has been recognized since 1849 when pernicious anaemia was first described. It has been suggested that deficiency of vitamin B12 might contribute to age-associated cognitive impairment. Low serum vitamin B12 concentrations are found in more than 10% of older people. A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 levels, and other indicators of vitamin B12 deficiency have been reported among people with Alzh...

  6. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  7. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    humans and animals, through the endogenous B12 transport systems. Binding of the organometallic B12 octadecanucleotide to the three important human proteins of B12 transport was studied, to examine its structural suitability for the task of eventual in vivo oligonucleotide delivery. Binding was efficient......Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in...... with transcobalamin (TC), but not so efficient with the homologous glycoproteins intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. Binding of the B12 octadecanucleotide to TC suggests the capacity of the B12 moiety to serve as a natural vector for specific transport of single stranded, organometallic oligonucleotide...

  8. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Rahime Tüten; Birol Baytan; Selin Yakarışık; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  9. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  10. B12 in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated. PMID:21664980

  11. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  12. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  13. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  14. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  15. : Vitamine B6 et cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sujol, Guillaume; Docquier, Aurélie; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Castet-Nicolas, Audrey; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    International audience Vitamin B6 is well-known for its role as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and recently, several epidemiological studies have highlighted the importance of this vitamin as a protective agent against various cancers: elevated vitamin B6 plasma levels were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer development, for example. In vivo studies have shown that vitamin B6 decreased cell proliferation and enhanced the immune response. At the cellular level, antiox...

  16. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    OpenAIRE

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol), pyridoxal (an aldehyde), and pyridoxamine (a primary amine). Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other s...

  17. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel Milanlıoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse.We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy.Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neuropsychiatric ...

  20. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  1. Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  4. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12 status.

    Vitami

  5. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  6. New structure type of Lu5Ni19B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The powder method was used to investigate Lu5-Ni19B6 structure belonging to a new type: sp. g. P6/mmm, a=0.4943(1), c=1.7161(9) nm, N=30 (R=0.120). The L45Ni19B6 structure is a new representative of the homologous series based on CaCu5 and CeCo3B2 types; its elementary cell contains two layers of CaCu5 type structure and three layers of CeCo3B2 type structure. Structure of the new L45Ni19B6 type belongs to the class of structures with trigonal-prismatic coordination of smallest atoms

  7. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  8. Vitamin B6 Related Epilepsy during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Fai Kuo; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2007-01-01

    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled withoutan extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), theactive form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes.Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrationsin the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxinephosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder oc...

  9. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  10. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  11. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  12. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona O’Leary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.

  13. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N; Anaissie, E J; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of P...

  14. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions. PMID:22217304

  15. Application of Vitamin B12 to Oral Ulcer%维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓田; 杨为民; 胡伊乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的实际效果。方法将口腔溃疡患者随机分成4组,分别外敷维生素B12、维生素B2、冰硼散、氯已定含片,对比各组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面差别。结果外敷维生素 B12组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面明显优于其他组。结论维生素 B12在治疗口腔溃疡时不但愈合时间短于其他药物,而且能有效地抑制疼痛,可以作为一种治疗方法在临床应用。%Objective To explore the actual result of vitamin B12 in curing oral ulcer. Methods The groups in which the patients were divided in to four at random were external by applied Vitamin B12,Vitamin B2 ,Bingpeng powder,Chlorhexidine mouth lozenge differently to compare the differences of every group in healing time and pain suppression. Results The group externally applied by Vitamin B12 was better than the other groups in healing time and pain suppression. Conclusion When curing the oral ulcer,the healing time of Vitamin B12 is shorter than other drugs and Vitamin B12 and can suppress pain effectively.So the method of applying Vitamin B12 may become a new therapeutic method in clinical application in future.

  16. Radiometric microbiological estimation of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of vitamin B12 in blood is very important to determine in deficiency and diagnosis of anemic patients. Vitamin B12 in blood can be estimated by spectrochemical, enzymatic, radioisotopic and microbiological methods. In the present study vitamin B12 was determined in 48 normal subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad by radiometric microbiological assay (RMA) technique using a very rapid, sensitive and automated instrument Bactec 460. In this procedure 14C-glucose media and microorganisms Lactobacillus leichmannii were used. The sensitivity of the method for vitamin B12 is 1 pg/ml and the vitamin B12 found in normal subjects was in the range of 105-535 pg/ml with a median value of 246±6 pg/ml. (author) 26 refs.; 1 fig

  17. Bound vitamin B12 absorption in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A; Furlong, D; Burrows, B A; Slingerland, D W

    1992-07-01

    In many patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12, the absorption of the free vitamin has been normal. The present study, using a total body counter 57CoB12 absorption method that clearly separated those with intrinsic factor deficiency from controls, found that of 94 patients with low B12 levels and intact stomachs in whom the absorption of free and bound B12 was determined, 44 (47%) had normal absorption of both. However, 20 of the 94 (21%) with normal absorption of free B12 had low absorption of bound B12. The remainder (32%) had low absorption of both free and bound B12. All patients with high serum gastrin levels had low bound B12 absorption, but so did 21% of those patients with normal serum gastrin levels. PMID:1609768

  18. Association of plasma vitamin B6 with risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Wang, Hansong; Selhub, Jacob; Vogt, Thomas M.; Yokochi, Lance; Decker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Circulating level of vitamin B6 has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but, unlike for folate, few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B6 to colorectal adenoma, the precursor lesion to most CRCs. We measured plasma levels of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in 241 patients with pathologically confirmed first occurrence of colorectal adenoma and 280 controls among Caucasians, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy sc...

  19. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Suplemen Vitamin B12 Terhadap Serum Vitamin B12 dan Hemoglobin Anak Prasekolah

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulhaida; . Hardinsyah; Syarief, Hidayat; Jalal, Fasli; Muhilal

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia, and effects of vitamin B12 suplement on vitamin B12 serum and hemoglobin of preschool children. A randomized controlled trial of 32 preschool children (4-6 year) for 6 months was appliad. Subjects divided in to 2 groups, treatment group (received 10 μg vitamin B12 syrup daily) and control group (placebo). Consentration of vitamin B12 serum and hemoglobin of children was measured before and after their intervent...

  1. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D. W.; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  2. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6. Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2. Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8 and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.

  3. B12Hn and B12Fn: Planar vs Icosahedral Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Szwacki, Nevill; Tymczak, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Using density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we show that B12H n and B12F n (n = 0 to 4) quasi-planar structures are energetically more favorable than the corresponding icosahedral clusters. Moreover, we show that the fully planar B12F6 cluster is more stable than the three-dimensional counterpart. These results open up the possibility of designing larger boron-based nanostructures starting from quasi-planar or fully planar building blocks.

  4. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  5. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  6. Production of vitamin B12 and labeled vitamin B12 by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the production of labeled vitamin B12 with one strain of actinomycet in a novel synthetic medium by batch fermentation method was investigated. After releasing vitamin B12 from microbial cells, the solution containing cobalamin analogues was fixed on amberlite XAD-4 exchanger and eluted by various solutions. Vitamin B12 in the collected fractions were measured by HPLC method and also in order to confirm the existence of cobalamin compounds in the samples, TLC technique was used. In the optimal conditions, production of vitamin B12 by this microorganism was 1456μg/1. The best recoveries of vitamin B12 from the column were obtained when the column was eluted by ethanol followed by acetone. The Rf, values for cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, produced by this microorganism were the same as the standard values of Rf. The desorption of labeled vitamine B12 was carried out by different eluants, including acetone, ethanol (absolute), ethanol 25% and deionized water. The activity of labeled vitamin B12 was 8.55, 6.90, 0.79, 5.75 Bq/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total specific activity of 21.99 Bq/ml was obtained for labeled vitamin B12 .

  7. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE MARIE; SCOTT, JOHN MARTIN

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Impaired vitamin B12 function and decreased vitamin B12 status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B12 concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B12. Methods: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B12 for detection ...

  8. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome and vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION A 42-year-old woman with carpal tunnel syndrome tells you she has started taking a vitamin B6 supplement to relieve her symptoms. Her work in an automotive parts department involves both lifting moderately heavy packages and typing at a computer terminal. What does the research indicate about vitamin B6 as a treatment option, and what health issues should you discuss with this patient?

  10. Phenelzine reduces plasma vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, D E; Yu, P H; Bowen, R.C.; O'Donovan, C.; Hawkes, J; Hussein, M

    1994-01-01

    Plasma levels of the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) in 19 patients taking phenelzine were found to be reduced on the average to approximately 54% of the value in a control group. There was no correlation of pyridoxal phosphate level with phenelzine daily dosage over the range of 30 mg to 90 mg. No symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency peripheral neuropathy were found.

  11. Antiepileptic drugs and vitamin B6 plasma levels in adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Linnebank, M.; Moskau, S; Semmler, A; Widman, G; Weller, M.; Kallweit, U; Elger, C E

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with several antiepileptic drugs (AED) is associated with lower serum concentrations of folate or vitamin B12. This prospective monocenter study analyzed vitamin B6 blood levels in 400 serial patients with epilepsy, AED-treated (n=385), untreated (n=15) and healthy controls (n=233). The mean plasma vitamin B6 levels of the AED-treated (12.1±10.1; p=0.093) and the untreated patients (15.6±12.4; p=0.664) were not significantly different from the controls (13.9±15.2). These observation...

  12. Vitamin B12 and eicosanoids in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B12. The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B12 in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of [3H] 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from [3H] 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating

  13. Vitamin B-12 radioassay in the diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It became apparent in 1978 that some radioassays for Vitamin B-12 were falsely normal. This investigation was performed to assure the accuracy of our assay. False normal B-12 levels may result in permanent damage or delay in relieving distressful symptoms. False low levels result in no permanent sequalae. ''Normal'' values should be set with these consequences in mind. The authors reviewed clinical charts on patients with <300 pg/m1 serum B-12 in 1000 consecutive determinations and all patients newly diagnosed B-12 deficient 1/1/83 to 10/14/83. Simu1TRAC Radioassay, Becton Dickinson Co., modified by correction for serum nonspecific binding is used. ''Normal'' values (234-1000 pg/m1) are based on 47 outpatients. 176 of the 1000 assays resulted in levels <300 pg/m1. 87 were from other location with no clinical information. 89 assays on Marshfield Clinic patients included 2 duplicates. 45 patients were newly diagnosed B-12 deficient 1/1/83 to 10/14/83. 12 were diagnosed elsewhere and on therapy. 32 had assays <234 pg/m1. 1 with normal B-12 is ''possibly deficient'', a Schilling test is scheduled. The authors conclude that their B-12 assay has correctly identified 32 clinically accepted B-12 deficient patients. 1 possibly deficient patient was normal. 25 of 42 patients with levels below normal are deficient. The false positive rate is felt acceptable in view of the false negative rate and the consequences of the respective errors

  14. Preparation of vitamin B-12-free serum for the use in vitamin B-12 radioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioassays for serum vitamin B-12, the separation of free and bound vitamin is usually made with charcoal absorption. The specificity of this separation depends on the amount of charcoal and the protein content and constitution of the medium. The large difference in protein concentration between the samples for the dilution curve and the serum samples introduces an uncontrolled variable in the test. In order to equalize the experimental circumstances, the standard dilutions were made in serum freed from vitimin B-12 after boiling the serum for 20 min in a 4-fold dilution with glutamic acid buffer at pH 3.3 and subsequent passage over a CH-Sepharose 4-B column complexed with hog intrinsic factor (IF). The vitamin B-12-binding capacity of such an affinity column prepared from 1 g CH-Sepharose and 20 mg IF, suffices for the absorption of vitamin B-12 in 3000 ml serum from which 300 series of vitamin B-12 standard solutions can be made. The first results with this method confirm that the charcoal absorption radioassay has become more accurate by the use of vitamin B-12-free serum in the standard dilutions. (Auth.)

  15. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  16. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of b12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Valizadeh; Nasim Valizadeh

    2011-01-01

    B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

  17. New method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12 in a sample solution of serum in which a radioactive tracer of vitamin B12 and the vitamin B12 of the serum compete with respect to an intrinsic factor of limited linking capacity. The free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free vitamin B12 of the serum are separated from the intrinsic factor and from the radioactive vitamin B12 and from the serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, before the radioactivity is measured against standard values. The method consists in separating the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 of the intrinsic factor and portions of radioactive and serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, by adding an adequate quantity of bentonite to adsorb the free radioactive vitamin B12 and free serum vitamin B12 so that the intrinsic factor surface floating solution in association with the linked radioactive vitamin B12 and the linked serum vitamin B12 may be physically isolated from the solid bentonite that has adsorbed the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12

  18. Pressure induced variation of second harmonic efficiency of K3B6O10Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Lv, Zhenlong; Li, Tongwei; Ju, Wei Wei; You, Jinghan; Bai, Ying

    2013-09-01

    K3B6O10Cl is a perovskite-like nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, which exhibits large second harmonic generation (SHG) response. Based on density-functional theory, we investigate the influence of pressure on SHG tensor of K3B6O10Cl. At zero pressure, the non-centrosymmetric distortion of K3B6O10Cl from BO4 tetrahedron results in the similar SHG tensor to β-BaB2O4 (BBO). At 50 GPa, the ClK6 octahedron distortion of K3B6O10Cl becomes the main source of SHG and give similar SHG tensor to LiNbO3. Therefore, pressure induces K3B6O10Cl from a BBO-like NLO material to a LiNbO3-like NLO material.

  19. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Heather E.; Gustashaw, Kristin A. R.; Tangney, Christy C; Breanna S. Oberlin

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol...

  20. Plasma content of B6 vitamers and its relationship to hepatic vitamin B6 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Lumeng, L.; Lui, A; Li, T K

    1980-01-01

    The plasma content of B6 vitamers is governed by, among other factors, dietary supply and metabolic interconversion. This study examines the effect of pyridoxine supplementation on the plasma content of B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in man, and the metabolic conversion and release of B6 compounds in isolated rat hepatocytes. Six healthy human subjects were given 100 mg pyridoxine-HCl/d orally for 1--3 wk. Before pyridoxine supplementation, the mean total plasma level of B6 vitamers was 114 +...

  1. Electronic Structure of B12 coenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.; Randaccio, Lucio

    2001-06-01

    We have carried out an ab-initio local density functional calculations of the two most important B12 coenzymes, adoensyl-cobalamin (Ado-Cbl) and methyl-cobalamin (Me-Cbl). The crystal structures were determined by accurate X-ray synchrotron radiation measurements. Both crystals have space group P2121 with four molecules, or about 800 atoms, per unit cell. Our electronic structure calculation is based on one full molecule including the side chains. Results are analyzed in terms of atom and orbital resolved partial density of states (PDOS), Mulliken effective charges and bond orders. The PDOS analysis shows that the Co complexes of both B12 coenzymes had a HOMO/LUMO gap of about 1.5 eV. The Co-C bond order in Me-Cbl is smaller than that in Ado-Cbl. This appears to be in contradiction with the measured bond dissociated energies. However, this could also indicate the importance of the effects of solvents, which were not included in the calculation. We are investigating whether the effect of the solvents could dramatically modify the electronic structures of Ado-Cbl and Me-Cbl.

  2. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...... abnormal (AUC: 0.85 vs 0.74; P = 0.002) renal function. Similar findings were observed for detection of moderate vitamin B(12) deficiency. Whereas the positive predictive value for both holoTC and vitamin B(12) was greater for detection of probable than definite vitamin B(12) deficiency, both tests were...

  3. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  4. Differences between LaB6 and CeB6 by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, P.A.M. van der; Cate, H.W. ten; Dam, L.M. ten; Groot, R.A. de; Vroomen, A.R. de

    1986-01-01

    The optical properties of LaB6 and CeB6 have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results were compared with band-structure calculations. The main features of the spectra of both materials originate from optical transitions starting at boron-derived levels of similar character. A

  5. Association of Biochemical B12 Deficiency With Metformin Therapy and Vitamin B12 Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstatler, Lael; Qi, Yan Ping; Williamson, Rebecca S.; Garn, Joshua V.; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of biochemical B12 deficiency in adults with type 2 diabetes taking metformin compared with those not taking metformin and those without diabetes, and explore whether this relationship is modified by vitamin B12 supplements. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analysis of data on U.S. adults ≥50 years of age with (n = 1,621) or without type 2 diabetes (n = 6,867) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2006. Type 2 diabetes was def...

  6. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  7. Ferrocene analogues of sandwich B12.Cr.B12: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Longjiu

    2013-01-01

    The bowl B12 cluster was previously reported to be analogous to benzene and predicted to be one of the best candidates to be new inorganic ligands. The structural stability and electronic properties of a new sandwich compound Cr(B12)2 (D3d) have been investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the sandwich Cr(B12)2 (D3d) is a stable complex with large binding energy (-5.93 eV) and HOMO-LUMO gap (2.37 eV), as well as Fe(C5H5)2 and Cr(C6H6)2, following the 18-electron principle. The detailed molecular orbitals and aromaticity analyses indicate that the sandwich compound Cr(B12)2 (D3d) is electronically very stable. The natural bond orbital analysis suggests that spd-π interaction plays an important role in the sandwich compounds.

  8. ENDF/B-6 Standards Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENDF/B-6 Standards Library includes evaluated data for seven neutron reactions that are internationally recommended as reference standards for nuclear measurements. The reactions are H-1,(n,n), He-3(n,p), Li-6(n,t), B-10(n,α), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), U-235(n,f). The data are available on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge. (author)

  9. Single crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of LaB6 were prepared by float zone refining of hot pressed blocks of LaB6. The orientations studied were (001), (110), and a high index plane. The resulting crystals and the as-received material were chemically analyzed by vacuum fusion, combustion analysis, self-arc mass spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis. The first two provided accurate analysis for O, N, H, and C. The remaining elements except for La and B were determined by mass spectroscopy. The wet chemical analyses determined the B/La ratio. Two batches of as-received material had B/La ratios of 6.0 and 5.8, respectively. Slightly lower B/La ratios were obtained in the single crystals grown by the float zone technique from these materials. The single crystals were further characterized by measurements of lattice parameter and density. Work function values were determined by the FERP method and the thermionic method. Work function measurements in conjunction with Auger analysis of the crystals provided insight into the electron emission character of LaB6. Results indicate that for maximum emission from a crystal plane a proper heat treatment is necessary. Brightness of the crystals was measured in a Cambridge S-4 scanning electron microscope using a Broers type gun. Results show that a brightness of 106 amp/cm2 steradian (20kV) may be achieved with a single crystal LaB6 cathode operating at a temperature of 19000K which corresponds to a lifetime greater than 500 hrs for 1 mm cathodes

  10. Nanoporous crystalline material CsLiB6O10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of the CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystal characteristics deterioration by storage identified. The CLBO monocrystals up to 60 x 40 x 20 mm in size were grown through seeding from the solution in the melt in the LiO2-Cs2O-B2O3-MoO3 system. The thermal analysis results are presented. It is shown, that crystallization process by the melt cooling does not occur. Practically there take place the processes of water penetration into the porous structure and washing out the Cs ions therefrom, i.e. the hydration and hydrolysis processes. To prevent water absorption it is necessary to keep the CLBO crystal in dry atmosphere

  11. Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  13. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparieta...

  14. Effects of Vitamin B12 in Neonates and Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential coenzyme for nucleic acid synthesis. Animal protein is the major dietary source of vitamin B12. Deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to megaloblastic anemia, degeneration of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and abnormalities of epithelial tissues. Two factors are necessary for the cure of megaloblastic anemia: one in food (extrinsic factor) and one in gastric juice (intrinsic factor). The extrinsic factor is vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor (a glycopr...

  15. Orthostatic Hypotension as a Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ganjehei, Leila; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi; James M Wilson

    2012-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman with orthostatic hypotension and near-syncope was found to have a low-normal level of vitamin B12 and no other medical findings that could explain her orthostasis. Her symptoms responded to vitamin B12 replacement therapy. This case shows that vitamin B12 deficiency can induce orthostatic hypotension and syncope that are correctable by vitamin B12 replacement.

  16. Involuntary movement in infants during vitamin B12 treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Tosun; Yusuf Ziya Aral; Emre Çeçen; Ayvaz Aydoğdu; Bilin Çetinkaya Çakmak

    2011-01-01

    Megaloblastic anemia is rare in infants and is generally due to vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in the mother. Neurologic symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include irritability, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental regression/delay. Herein we present 2 infants with vitamin B12 that developed movement disorder 5 d after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment. Symptoms included tremor and myoclonus, involving in particular the face, tongue, and hands. Clinical findings in infants as...

  17. 你缺少维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺佩祥

    2007-01-01

    @@ 身体如何获得维生素B12 机体需要靠以下几个环节来获得足够的维生素B12: 1.食物在胃酸的作用下释放出维生素B12 2.维生素B12与一种称为"内因子"的物质结合

  18. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B12 in biological specimens is described. A sample containing folate and vitamin B12 is contacted with 125I-folate and 57Co-vitamin B12 and their respective specific binders. After separation of the bound and free portions, the radioactivity in the portions is counted and the amounts of folate and vitamin B12 then determined from standard curves. (U.K.)

  19. Effects of Vitamin B12 in Neonates and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin is an essential coenzyme for nucleic acid synthesis. Animal protein is the major dietary source of vitamin B12. Deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to megaloblastic anemia, degeneration of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and abnormalities of epithelial tissues. Two factors are necessary for the cure of megaloblastic anemia: one in food (extrinsic factor and one in gastric juice (intrinsic factor. The extrinsic factor is vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor (a glycoprotein secreted by gastric parietal cells ensures cobalamin absorption by receptors in the terminal ileum. Vitamin B12 is actively transported across the placenta. Neonates have high serum levels and significant liver stores of vitamin B12. The neonates born to mothers with deficiency of vitamin B12 have deficiency of this vitamin. Pregnant women in resource-poor areas have low vitamin B12 status which is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. Supplementation of vitamin B12 had significantly higher plasma of vitamin B12 in mothers and neonates. A single intramuscularly injection of vitamin B12 of between 250 µg and 1mg and a dietary intake of 1 µg/kg per day vitamin B12 is sufficient to combat vitamin B12 deficiency. Mean DNA damage scores in infants with vitamin B12 deficiency and their mothers were significantly higher before than after supplementation with vitamin B12. There were correlations between the infants' and their mothers' DNA damage scores. The aim of this study is the review of the effects of vitamin B12 in neonates and young infants.

  20. Oral vitamin B12 can change our practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nyholm, E.; Turpin, P; Swain, D; Cunningham, B.; Daly, S; P. Nightingale; Fegan, C

    2003-01-01

    Oral vitamin B12 can provide an effective alternative to intramuscular injections, so giving patients a choice and reducing costs in primary care. This study investigated the effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of oral vitamin B12 as replacement therapy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency in a city general practice population. Forty patients previously maintained on vitamin B12 injections were given 1000 µg of oral cyanocobalamin daily for up to 18 months. All the patients maintained...

  1. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: a comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzelcan Yener

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherlands. Aim To examine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Turkish descent and compare it to the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Dutch descent. Methods The present study is a comparative cross-sectional study of 47 patients of Turkish descent and 28 of Dutch descent. The depressive disorder diagnosis and differential diagnosis were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition text revision (SCID. The severity of the depressive symptoms was determined using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21. Serum baseline vitamin B6 and B12, folic acid and total serum homocysteine (tHcy levels were measured. Results The average ages of the patients of Turkish and Dutch descent were 40.57 and 44.75 years, respectively. There were no demonstrable differences between the serum vitamin B6, folic acid and tHcy levels in the two groups. The serum vitamin B12 levels were however clearly lower in the patients of Turkish descent than in those of Dutch descent. Vitamin B12 deficiency was however observed in 14 patients of Turkish descent and 1 of Dutch descent. This difference was significant. On the BDI, the patients of Turkish descent scored significantly higher than those of Dutch descent. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and those with hyperhomocysteinaemia had a significantly higher BDI score than patients with normal vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels. No relationship was observed with vitamin B12 and tHcy. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs more frequently in depressive

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy of aromatic compound clusters of the B12 all-boron benzene: B12Au- and B12(BO)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hui; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-28

    We report a photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory study of the B12Au(-) and B13O(-) clusters and their neutrals, which are shown to be six π electron aromatic compounds between the quasi-planar all-boron B12 benzene-analogue and a monovalent Au or BO ligand. Electron affinities of B12Au and B13O are measured to be 3.48 ± 0.04 and 3.90 ± 0.04 eV, respectively. Structural searches are performed for B12Au(-) and B13O(-), which are compared with the isovalent B12H(-) cluster. The global minima of B12Au(-) and B13O(-) both feature an almost intact B12 cluster with the Au and BO ligands bonded to its periphery, respectively. For B12Au(-), a low-lying isomer is also identified, which is only 0.4 kcal mol(-1) above the global minimum, in agreement with the experimental observation of a weakly populated isomer in the cluster beam of B12Au(-). These aromatic compound clusters provide new examples for the Au/H isolobal analogy and the boronyl (BO) chemistry. PMID:23666408

  3. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. Investigation on the determination of serum vitamin B12 values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems in the determination of serum vitamin B12 values using Phadebas B12 test kit were studied. Various causes considered to influence the results were investigated. There was no release of bound 57Co-B12 from Sephadex-intrinsic factor complex. Standard curves which were expressed by percentages of each sample versus zero sample, were slightly different from each other in their forms and inclines. Variations of the percentage from the zero samples showed a standard deviation of +-9.2% of the mean value. Percentage of B/T in various concentration of B12 also showed one standard deviation of 8-9%. Presence of serum in the sample caused no inhibition of the binding ability of B12 to the Sephadex-intrinsic factor complex. It was more suitable to use 0.5 ml of extracted dilution of serum because it did not change the measured B12 values, and because the standard curve was more accurate in lower B12 concentrations than in higher. The reproducibility and the recovery of serum B12 values showed quite excellent results by this method. The Phadebas B12 test kit gave accurate serum B12 values in general without difficult techniques. It was concluded that the Phadebas B12 test kit was one of the most suitable methods for the determination of serum B12 values in clinical samples. (auth.)

  5. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an...... inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both...... Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript...

  6. Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on Ca-decorated C48B12 clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen adsorption on Ca-decorated C48B12 clusters is studied using density functional theory. The favorable binding site for Ca atom is the hexagonal C4B2 rings. The strong interaction between Ca atoms and C48B12 cluster hinders the aggregation of Ca atoms on the cluster surface. C48B12 is an electron deficient system with a large electron affinity of 2.952 eV. The decorated Ca atoms transfer their electrons to the cluster easily. The net charges on the Ca atoms are in the range of 1.101 to 1.563 e. When H2 molecules approach the Ca atoms, they are moderately polarized and adsorbed around the Ca atoms in molecular form. The adsorption strength can reach up to 0.133 eV/H2. Each Ca atom in the Ca-decorated C48B12 complexes can adsorb three H2 molecules. The fully decorated C48B12Ca6 can hold up to 18 H2 molecules

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  8. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1x10-5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1x10-3. A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%. (author)

  9. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  10. Cobalamin's (Vitamin B12) Surprising Function as a Photoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Yamamoto, Haruki; Bauer, Carl E

    2016-08-01

    Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an adenosyl- or methyl-donating cofactor for many enzymes, yet many proteins with unknown or nonenzymatic function also contain B12-binding domains. Recent studies show that light excitation energy can promote covalent linkage of B12 to transcription factors with this linkage, affecting gene expression. Thus, B12 now has a newly described regulatory function. Here, our bioinformatics analysis reveals other transcription factors, photoreceptors, kinases, and oxygen sensors that harbor a B12-binding domain that could also regulate activity in response to light absorption. PMID:27217104

  11. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, M.; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, FC; van Hasselt, PM; De Sain-van Der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, NM

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6

  12. Progress on the studies of vitamin B12%维生素B12的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕颖坚; 黄俊明

    2012-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的吸收与代谢、缺乏原因及疾病、营养水平鉴定、人群维生素B12营养状况、食物强化的研究进展进行了综述,以期提高对维生素B12的认识和重视、为解决维生素B12缺乏人群的健康问题提供参考.%In order to improve the awareness and attention on the importance of vitamin Bl2and to provide reference for solving problems of vitamin B12 deficiency, this review concentrates on five aspects of studies on vitamin B12: absorption and metabolism of vitamin BI2; cause/outcome of deficiency; biomarkers and their application; vitamin B12 status; and supplementation and fortification.

  13. Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, N L; Roberts, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

  14. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  15. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of CaB6 and EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivities of stoichiometric CaB6, vacancy-doped Ca1-δB6, and EuB6 have been measured between 6 and 300 K. All our data may be rather well described across the entire temperature regime covered on the basis of a Debye-type relaxation-time approximation and by assuming the concurring influence of various scattering channels on the mean free path of the phonons. An unusual and strong resonance in the scattering rate of the phonons of all investigated materials is attributed to a strong interaction between acoustic itinerant and localized modes, the latter arising from oscillations of the metal cations around their equilibrium position

  16. Refined crystal structure of cubic skeletov zinc borate Zn4O[B6O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic crystals of the Zn4O[B6O12] composition obtained from the ZnO-B2O3-Li2O(Na2O,K2O)-H2O system with the NnO addition are studied in the temperature range of 250-450 deg C and at the pressure of 1000 atm. It is established that stable crystallization zones are characteristic for the above compound. The crystals are colourless and possess luminescent properties. Interplane distances, cubic lattice parameters and interatomic distances in the Zn4O[B6O12] structure are determined

  17. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  18. Vitamin B12 assays compared by use of patients sera with low vitamin B12 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compared four radioisotope dilution (RD) methods and a microbiological assay for measuring concentrations of vitamin B12 in a selected panel of serum samples from patients known to be deficient in the vitamin. Low (less than 100 ng/L) and borderline (100-180 ng/L) results were similar between methods, but use of the manufacturers recommended ranges for borderline results would have changed the diagnostic classifications for 22 of 38 samples. Results of all the RD methods inter-correlated well, but less so with the microbiological assay. Borderline, nondiagnostic results were common to all methods, and no apparent advantage was gained from using the microbiological assay

  19. Regiospecificity of Chlorophenol Reductive Dechlorination by Vitamin B12s

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mark H.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Vitamin B12, reduced by titanium (III) citrate to vitamin B12s, catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols. Reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol and of all tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol isomers was observed. Reaction of various chlorophenols with vitamin B12 favored reductive dechlorination at positions adjacent to another chlorinated carbon, but chlorines ortho to the hydroxyl group of a phenol were particularly resistant to reductive dechlorination, even if the...

  20. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Gröber; Klaus Kisters; Joachim Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency ...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear

  2. Vitamin B12 Deficiency due to Chlorofluorocarbon: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hemlata Bhaskar; Rekha Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vitamin B12 is vital for optimal functioning of various organ systems but more importantly the central nervous system and the hematological system. Deficiency of vitamin B12 clinically manifests as excessive daytime fatigue, memory difficulties, encephalopathy, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy. In occupational medicine, vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported with exposure to nitrous oxide in health care workers. However, not much is known about exposure to...

  3. Racial difference in serum Vitamin B12 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the serum Vitamin B12 concentrations of 49 black and 49 white healthy adults demonstrate a significantly higher mean serum Vitamin B12 level in blacks when compared to whites. The reason for this difference appears to be genetic, although environmental factors may also be involved. It is suggested that clinical laboratories should establish their own separate reference values of serum Vitamin B12 for blacks and whites in order to prevent misinterpretation of test results

  4. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Epilepsy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    İNCECİK, Faruk; HERGÜNER, Mihriban Özlem; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The abstract presents 7 striking cases who presented with the complaint of seizures showing concomitance of B12 vitamin deficiency. Material and Methods: Participant patients were those who presented at our hospital with seizures caused by B12 vitamin deficiency. Evaluation was based on clinical, physical and neurological signs of the patients. Complete hemogram, peripheral blood view, vitamin B12 level and folic acid level measurements were performed. Cerebral magnetic r...

  5. Vitamin B12 absorption after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, D W; Quick, A; Barnard, D L

    1987-01-01

    The B12 absorption test (Schilling test) with intrinsic factor was used to examine ileal B12 absorption in 26 patients after allogeneic transplantation. The test was well tolerated and showed a profound fall in B12 absorption, which was maximal at two weeks after transplantation and recovered by eight weeks. The predominant influence on absorption at this stage was probably the conditioning schedule, and the presence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) was not associated with a further ...

  6. A vitamin B12 transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Venclovas, Česlovas; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; McKinney, John D.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. Although M. tuberculosis can access vitamin B12 in vitro, it is uncertain whether the organism is able to scavenge B12 during host infection. This question is crucial to predictions of metabolic function, but its resolution is complicated by the absence in the M. tuberculosis genome of a direct homologue of BtuFCD, the only bact...

  7. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on otoacoustic emissions

    OpenAIRE

    KARLI, R.; Gül, A; UĞUR, B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between otoacoustic emission (OAE) values and cochlear function in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and no evidence of symptomatic hearing loss. Two groups were studied: Group 1: patients with vitamin B12 deficiency; Group 2: a matched control group of patients with normal vitamin B12 levels. There was no evidence of symptomatic hearing loss in either group. Transiently evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and spontaneous OAEs (SOA...

  8. Crystallography, semiconductivity, thermoelectricity, and other properties of boron and its compounds, especially B6O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, G. A.; Morgan, K. E.

    2015-09-01

    Electron deficient and non-deficient boron compounds are discussed as potential thermoelectric generator materials. Particular attention is paid to carbon-doped beta-boron, high-carbon boron carbide, and the alpha-boron derivative compound boron suboxide. Stoichiometric B6O shows some promise, and may have a higher ZT than the other two compounds. Carbon saturated beta-boron appears to have a higher ZT than undoped samples. Carbon saturated boron carbide at B12C3 does exist. Its thermoelectric behavior is unknown.

  9. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy. PMID:27056859

  10. Vitamin B12 and its effects on neurological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Melike; Demirci, Serpil

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for growth and development in humans. It is required for methylation reactions and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 deficiency has a causal relationship with a variety of disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for some others. Megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders are the most prevalent disorders seen with vitamin B12 deficiency. In this review, vitamin B12's absorption, the main physiological functions and the role of it in pathog...

  11. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  12. Folate and vitamin B12 status and dietary intake of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in the delta region of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Min Kyaw; Fahmida, Umi; Thurnham, David I; Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Akib, Arwin; Utomo, Budi; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 and, simultaneously, the nutrient intake adequacy of folate, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium in 391 adolescent anaemic (Hbvitamin B12 concentrations were 6·5 (4·6, 8·5) nmol/l and 612·8 (443·2, 795·2) pmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of folate deficiency defined as vitamin B12 deficiency defined as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Red meat or poultry was rarely consumed, but fish was consumed on a daily basis. Green leafy vegetables were also consumed frequently but consumption of dairy products was uncommon. Folate deficiency was high, and the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate among other key micronutrients was relatively common in this sample of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls. Appropriate strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are needed to improve the micronutrient status of these young women to ensure optimal health and future reproductive success. PMID:26481660

  13. Comparison of Injection Vitamin B12 With Symptomatic Management in Clinically Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficent Patients: an Interventional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janak Rathod , Taral Shah , Manisha Gupta, Rajendra Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study was an attempt to evaluate the advantage of empirical use of Injection. Vitamin B 12 versus symptomatic management in clinically suspected Vitamin. B 12 deficient patients. Methodology: A total of 100 patients over 20 years of age (irrespective of gender) were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, one group ( n = 50) receiving vitamin B12 injections and the other group (n = 50) received symptomatic treatment. Results: In clinically suspected ...

  14. Cobalamin (coenzyme B12): synthesis and biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J R; Lawrence, J G; Bobik, T A

    1996-01-01

    This review examines deoxyadenosylcobalamin (Ado-B12) biosynthesis, transport, use, and uneven distribution among living forms. We describe how genetic analysis of enteric bacteria has contributed to these issues. Two pathways for corrin ring formation have been found-an aerobic pathway (in P. denitrificans) and an anaerobic pathway (in P. shermanii and S. typhimurium)-that differ in the point of cobalt insertion. Analysis of B12 transport in E. coli reveals two systems: one (with two proteins) for the outer membrane, and one (with three proteins) for the inner membrane. To account for the uneven distribution of B12 in living forms, we suggest that the B12 synthetic pathway may have evolved to allow anaerobic fermentation of small molecules in the absence of an external electron acceptor. Later, evolution of the pathway produced siroheme, (allowing use of inorganic electron acceptors), chlorophyll (O2 production), and heme (aerobic respiration). As oxygen became a larger part of the atmosphere, many organisms lost fermentative functions and retained dependence on newer, B12 functions that did not involve fermentation. Paradoxically, Salmonella spp. synthesize B12 only anaerobically but can use B12 (for degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol) only with oxygen. Genetic analysis of the operons for these degradative functions indicate that anaerobic degradation is important. Recent results suggest that B12 can be synthesized and used during anaerobic respiration using tetrathionate (but not nitrate or fumarate) as an electron acceptor. The branch of enteric taxa from which Salmonella spp. and E. coli evolved appears to have lost the ability to synthesize B12 and the ability to use it in propanediol and glycerol degradation. Salmonella spp., but not E. coli, have acquired by horizontal transfer the ability to synthesize B12 and degrade propanediol. The acquired ability to degrade propanediol provides the selective force that maintains B12 synthesis in this group

  15. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T1/2). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P12 treatment (P1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  17. Comparison of Injection Vitamin B12 With Symptomatic Management in Clinically Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficent Patients: an Interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rathod , Taral Shah , Manisha Gupta, Rajendra Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was an attempt to evaluate the advantage of empirical use of Injection. Vitamin B 12 versus symptomatic management in clinically suspected Vitamin. B 12 deficient patients. Methodology: A total of 100 patients over 20 years of age (irrespective of gender were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, one group ( n = 50 receiving vitamin B12 injections and the other group (n = 50 received symptomatic treatment. Results: In clinically suspected vitamin B12 deficient patients after giving empirical therapy of Inj. Vit B 12; generalized fatigue (96%, pareshtesia (93.48%, myalgia (93.75%, loss of appetite (88.89%, confusion (93.75% and tremor (93.55% were improved with ( p<0.001. Labored breathing and depression were also improved with Inj.Vit B 12 as compared to symptomatic management, but this difference was statistically insignificant(p = 0.052 and p = 0.201 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude and recommend from the study to treat clinically suspected Vit. B 12 deficient patients with empirical Vit. B 12 Injections without the need of costly serum Vit. B 12 estimation

  18. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  19. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  20. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  1. Indications for Vitamin B12 Therapy: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Delva, M. Dianne; Anderson, J E

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective chart audit was undertaken to determine the clinical reasons for vitamin B12 therapy in family practice. Abnormal laboratory tests and symptoms were the most common reasons for initiating therapy. The high proportion of cases with little supporting evidence of B12 deficiency suggests that other factors influence treatment decisions.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency optic neuropathy detected by asymptomatic screening

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Colin; Scanlon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bilateral optic disc swelling was detected in a 19-year-old man with type 1 diabetes through routine photographic screening for retinopathy. He was found to have significant vitamin B12 deficiency which the authors believe was the cause for the optic neuropathy. After B12 replacement, visual function and optic disc appearances returned to normal.

  3. Electron addition to alkyl cobalamins, coenzyme B12 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of dilute solutions of methyl and ethyl cobalamins and coenzyme B12 in dilute solutions (D2O+CD3OD) to 60Co #betta#-rays at 77 K gave a single broad feature in the free-spin region assigned to electron-capture species with the excess electron largely confined to a π* corrin orbital. On warming above 77 K the methyl derivative gave a novel species with spectral features characteristic of an unpaired electron in the Co(dsub(x2-y2)) orbital. The other two substrates gave spectra due to Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) both on warming and after photolyses with visible light. The acetyl derivative gave an electron-capture species whose e.s.r. spectrum was characteristic of an electron in the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, which on warming above 77 K changed to the normal Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) spectrum. The cyano derivative (vitamin B12) gave electron addition into the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, as evidenced by the large hyperfine coupling to 13C from 13CN ligands. On annealing, cyanide ions were lost irreversibly, Bsub(12r) being detected by e.s.r. spectroscopy. In contrast, the dicyano derivative on electron addition at 77 K gave a species containing only one 13CN ligand. Hence in this case one CN- ligand was lost at 77 K, with no return of the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand. These results are discussed in terms of a new mechanism for electron-addition to alkyl cobalamins. (author)

  4. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  5. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Albersen; Marjolein Bosma; Jans, Judith J. M.; Hofstede, Floris C.; van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Gepke Visser; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. Materials and Methods B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem m...

  6. Absorption of vitamin B12 and effect of pancreatic juice on gastric vitamin B12 binder in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pancreatic juice on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in dogs. It was found that dog gastric juice as well as pancreatic juice contain vitamin B12 binding proteins which differ in the elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose columns, the former being eluted at much lower sodium chloride concentrations. When radio-active vitamin B12 was fed or instilled in the proximal bowel and vitamin B12 recovered at different bowel levels, it was found that vitamin B12-protein complex behaved like gastric juice binder in the proximal bowel and like pancreatic binder in the distal. In vitro digestion of gastric binder with pancreatic juice altered vitamin B12-protein complex in such a way that elution pattern became similar to that of pancreatic juice. It was also shown that the change was not due to transfer of vitamin B12 from gastric binder to pancreatic binder. Trypsin digestion had similar effect on gastric binder, and Sephadex G-200 gelfiltration demonstrated reduction in the molecular size. In the doz, vitamin B12 first bound to gastric binder undergoes chemical changes in the bowel and becomes a readily absorbable form in the distal bowel. (auth.)

  7. Determinación de vitamina B 12 en una formulación multivitamínica por espectrofotometría de derivada de primer orden

    OpenAIRE

    Sordo Martínez, Lissette; Soto Mulet, Laritza; González Hernández, Rolando

    1999-01-01

    Se desarrolló un método por espectrofotometría de derivadas de primer orden para la determinación de vitamina B12 en una formulación multivitamínica compuesta por vitamina B1, B6 y B12. La amplitud de la señal de la primera derivada se determinó a 378 nm. La validación prospectiva del método demostró que fue lineal (r=0,999), preciso (repetibilidad CV=0 y 132%; reproducibilidad CV=2,7 y 1,67 %), exacto y selectivo (se determinó B12 en presencia de las vitaminas B1, B6 y en presencia de los pr...

  8. Study of molecular basis of interaction between b12 enzymes and flavin derivatives using molecular docking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic studies indicate that riboflavin acts as a sensitizer in the photolysis of cyanocobalamin and in this way promotes the degradation of the molecule. Many microorganisms use light for pathogenesis.The present work describes the interaction of vitamin B2 and B12 at molecular level in bacterial enzymes which could delineate the possible mechanism of inhibiting the disease producing bacteria. Methodology: The molecular basis of interaction between the flavin derivatives and the B12- dependent enzymes was studied using molecular modeling software, the MVD. A series of nineteen flavin derivative sand three B12 containing enzymes; glutamate mutase, diol dehydratase and methionine synthase were taken for the study. The potential binding affinity between flavin derivatives and B12 enzymes was checked on the basis of lowest docking score, number of hydrogen bonds and favorable binding modes. Results: We found riboflavin, 2-ketoflavin and 4-ketoflavin as the best interacting compounds with each of the three enzymes taken. The regions containing lone pair of electrons are critical for the maximum number of binding conformations. Conclusion: It may be concluded that flavin derivatives may influence the activity of B12 enzymes. Therefore,the understanding of molecular basis of this interaction and the identification of the key factors involved,might be useful to design new molecules with enhanced selectivity towards B12 dependent enzymes. Thi scan lead to the screening and discovery of new compounds as useful antibiotics and the active natural drugs. (author)

  9. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with vitamin B12 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hisaeda, Takahiro Masuko, Erika Hanashima and Takashi Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by human serum albumin (HSA and vitamin B12 derivatives. The incorporation of hydrophobic vitamin B12 derivatives, which have ester groups in place of the peripheral amide moieties of the natural cobalamin, into HSA is primarily controlled by the hydrophobicity of the peripheral ester groups. Microenvironmental property around the hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was examined by fluorescence and fluorescence polarization measurements. The hydrophobic vitamin B12 itself in HSA is in a microenvironment equivalent in medium polarity to dichloromethane. The molecular motion of hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was markedly suppressed under such microenvironmental conditions. Carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction of an alkyl radical derived from an alkyl ligand bound to the hydrophobic vitamin B12 was markedly favored in HSA aqueous solution, relative to the reactions in methanol and benzene. The 1,2-migration of the electron-withdrawing group arises from both the suppression of molecular motion and desolvation effects on the alkylated hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA.

  11. 同型半胱氨酸、叶酸及VitB12与血管性痴呆的相关性研究%Relationship Between Homocysteine, Folate, Vitamin B12 and Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊蕴辉; 伊红丽; 李立群; 曹国富; 沈海涛

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), folate,vitamin B12and vascular dementia (VaD). Methods: The plasma levels of Hey. folate. vitamin B12 and MMSE were measured in 86 VaD patients, 87 non-VaD cerebral vascular disease patients, and 90 age-matched normal controls of Affiliated Hospital, North China Coal Medical University. Results: The plasma Hey levels were significantly increased in the VaD group than non-VaD cerebral vascular disease group and normal controls (P<0. 01). The Hey level was negatively related with folate and VitB12 levels. They all significantly correlated with VaD and the MMSE score (P<0. 01=. Conclusion-. The levels of Hey. folate and vitamin B12were significantly correlated with VaD.%目的:探讨血浆同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、叶酸(FA)、VitB12与血管性痴呆(VaD)的相关性.方法:检测VaD患者86例(VaD组),非VaD患者87例(非VaD组),健康体检正常者90例(正常组)血浆Hcy、FA、VitB 2浓度.并对3组受检者进行简易智能状态量表(MMSE)评定.结果:VaD组患者Hcy浓度显著高于非VaD组及正常组(P<0.01).FA、VitB12浓度与Hcy浓度负相关.血浆Hcy、FA、VitB12水平与VaD、MMSE得分显著相关(P<0.01).结论:VaD高危人群应定期检测Hcy浓度,推荐服用VitB12和FA可预防VaD的发生.

  12. Influence of Buformin retard on vitamin B12 absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 18 test persons with a healthy metabolism a significant reduction of the vitamin B12 absorption rate was observed when Buformin retard was administered 90 minutes before starting the Schilling test. This biguanide-induced reduction of vitamin B12 absorption was not detectable in preliminary examinations in which the interval between the last Buformin administration and the administering of 58Co-vitamin B12 was 14 hours. Thus could be shown that the reduction was due to the method used. There is no increased danger of an anemia provided that the therapeutic rules are obeyed i.e. Buformin should be taken after breakfast and supper, respectively

  13. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  14. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Vitamin B12 Compound Ointment- Ⅰ by HPLC%复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谊; 李兵; 史学慧

    2004-01-01

    建立了HPLC法测定复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的含量.采用Hypersll BDS C18柱,流动相为乙腈-0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(15:85),检测波长360nm.维生素B12在0.16~0.8μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率为98.4%,RSD为0.9%.

  15. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  16. The photochemical mechanism of a B12-dependent photoreceptor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutta, Roger J.; Hardman, Samantha J. O.; Johannissen, Linus O.; Bellina, Bruno; Messiha, Hanan L.; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Padmanabhan, S.; Barran, Perdita; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Jones, Alex R.

    2015-08-01

    The coenzyme B12-dependent photoreceptor protein, CarH, is a bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids in response to light. On binding of coenzyme B12 the monomeric apoprotein forms tetramers in the dark, which bind operator DNA thus blocking transcription. Under illumination the CarH tetramer dissociates, weakening its affinity for DNA and allowing transcription. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we describe the photochemistry in CarH that ultimately triggers tetramer dissociation; it proceeds via a cob(III)alamin intermediate, which then forms a stable adduct with the protein. This pathway is without precedent and our data suggest it is independent of the radical chemistry common to both coenzyme B12 enzymology and its known photochemistry. It provides a mechanistic foundation for the emerging field of B12 photobiology and will serve to inform the development of a new class of optogenetic tool for the control of gene expression.

  17. La Vitamine B12 et la Santé

    OpenAIRE

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Objectifs: Révision sur le rôle de la vitamine B12 et sur les évidences qui suggèrent que la vitamine B12 peut réduire le risque de certaines maladies chroniques. Evidences: recherche dans Medline depuis 1999 jusqu'en 2013 en utilisant le mot clé vitamin B12. Les articles les plus conséquents (150) étaient associés avec le cancer, la maladie cardiovasculaire, la santé mentale et les altérations du tube neural. Résultats: Le déficit avéré de la vitamine B12 est classiquement associé à...

  18. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; Nathalie van der Velde; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assess...

  19. Analysis of the Market of Vitamin B12%维生素B12市场透析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伦

    2004-01-01

    目的:掌握维生素 B12的市场现状及发展趋势.方法:对维生素 B12国内、外生产和销售情况进行分析.结果与结论:我国维生素 B12市场潜力巨大,制药企业应密切关注市场变化,完善自身条件,以求进一步发展.

  20. Coenzyme B12 and Its Model Compounds%辅酶B12及其模型化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧兰

    1989-01-01

    @@辅酶B12即5′-脱氧腺苷钴胺素,是一个天然存在的有机金属化合物。它与维生素B12,即氰钴胺素组成和结构相似,但生理功能不同,维生素B12是一种抗恶性贫血的药物,而辅酶B12在生物体内多种代谢过程中起着重要作用,其中研究得最多的是与分子内重排有关的酶反应。弄清辅酶B12在生物体内的作用是当前医学、生物化学和生物无机化学中的一个重要课题。本文就辅酶B12在分子重排反应中的作用机理、模型体系的研究和钴-碳键能的测定等方面的最新进展作一评述。 一、辅酶B12的结构 辅酶B12和维生素B12同属于类钴啉(Corrinoid)化合物。由于光敏性和在酸中的不稳定性,它的发现比维生素B12晚了十年。经过X射线衍射结构分析确定:辅酶B12和维生素B12都由钴(Ⅲ)离子与咕啉环组成,二者之差别仅仅是C0(Ⅲ)的一个轴向配体的不同。

  1. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti Rita; Torre Paola; Antonello Rodolfo; Cattaruzza Tatiana; Cazzato Giuseppe; Bava Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, low levels of folate and B12 have been shown to be associated with cognitive decline and dementia Evidence for the putative role of folate, vitamin B12 in neurocognitive and other neurological functions comes from reported cases of severe vitamin deficiencies, particularly pernicious anemia, and homozygous defects in genes that encode for enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The neurological alterations seen in these cases allow for a biological role of vitamins in ne...

  2. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  3. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using 57CoB12 and 51CrCl3, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%)

  4. Thermotoga lettingae Can Salvage Cobinamide To Synthesize Vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Butzin, Nicholas C.; Secinaro, Michael A.; Swithers, Kristen S.; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that the Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B12 by acquisition of genes from two distantly related lineages, Archaea and Firmicutes (K. S. Swithers et al., Genome Biol. Evol. 4:730–739, 2012). Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the cobinamide salvage gene cluster was present in the Thermotogales' most recent common ancestor. We also predicted that Thermotoga lettingae could not synthesize B12 de novo but could use the cobinamide salvage...

  5. The photochemical mechanism of a B12-dependent photoreceptor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kutta, Roger J.; Hardman, Samantha J O; Johannissen, Linus O.; Bellina, Bruno; Messiha, Hanan L.; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; S Padmanabhan; Barran, Perdita; Nigel S. Scrutton; Jones, Alex R

    2015-01-01

    The coenzyme B12-dependent photoreceptor protein, CarH, is a bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls the biosynthesis of carotenoids in response to light. On binding of coenzyme B12 the monomeric apoprotein forms tetramers in the dark, which bind operator DNA thus blocking transcription. Under illumination the CarH tetramer dissociates, weakening its affinity for DNA and allowing transcription. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we describe the photochemistry in Car...

  6. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Arpita Patel; Chandan Chakrabarty; Arjun Singh; Jatin Patel; Hitesh Mewada; S L Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly veget...

  7. NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF B12 DEFICIENCY IN BIDAR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Sandeep,; Sajjal; Shivraj B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiological factors resulting in Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with sub-acute combined degeneration (SACD) and other neurological manifestation manifestations. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study of 50 patients, all clinically suspected to have Vit B12 deficiency; they were investigated clinically, hematologically, biochemically and radiologically. RESULTS: There was a dominance of males (41of 50) with the majority in the age group ...

  8. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 in homozygous β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling tests were performed in ten children aged 5-12 years suffering from homozygous β-thalassemia. 57Co labelled vitamin B12 values excreted in the urine have been found much lower than normal and remained low when the same procedure was repeated with the addition of intrinsic factor. The possible factors responsible for this malabsorption of vitamin B12 seemed to be liver damage and folic acid deficiency. (orig.)

  9. Coenzyme B12 Repurposed for Photoregulation of Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Old cofactor, new tricks: In enzymes, coenzyme B12 has a well-known function as a radical initiator through homolysis of the Co-C bond. It has recently been shown that nature has repurposed this cofactor as a photosensitive switch for the regulation of bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis. Co-C bond breakage is again the key event in this process, triggering huge conformational changes in the B12 -binding protein. PMID:27010518

  10. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  11. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  12. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  13. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  14. Vitamin B12 And Folate Deficiency In a Hospital Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia RS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of B12 and folate deficiency in a hospital population. We studied the incidence of their deficiency by evaluating blood levels in every tenth hospital admission. Among the 450 patients chosen, 417 had normal levels of both, 2 had deficiency of folate alone (folate < 3ng.ml, 3 had B12 deficiency alone (B12<200pg/mland 11 had deficiency of both (total 3.5%. In addition 12 had borderline b12 level(200-300pg/ml, 2 had borderline folate level (3-4ng/ml(0.44%and 3 had borderline levels for both (0.66% . Thus 33% had definite or borderline deficiency. This deficiency was more common in the elderly and in patients on vegetarian diet (5.7% definite deficiency, 8.8% borderline levels compared to those on a non-vegetarian diet. During the 2 1/2 years of the study a total of 99 definite deficiency and 69 borderline deficiency were seen. In the definite deficiency group, 22.3% had neuropathy, 6.1% had evidence of myelopathy, 18.2% had neuropsychiatric changes (memory defect, dementia, behavioural abnormalities, depression and 4.1% had cerebellar signs. The neurologic findings in the borderline group were almost similar (neuropathy 29%, myelopathy 8.6% and neuropsychiatric changes 18.4%. High mean corpuscular volume (MCV> 95 was seen in 69% of those with both B12 and folate deficiency, 43.4% with B12 deficiency and 61.15 with folate deficiency. Hypersegmented polymorphs were seen in 21.7% with B12 deficiency, 27.5% with folate both B12 and folate deficiency had either megaloblastosis or dimorphic picture. It is to be noted that B12 and folate deficiency in this population was more frequent than we previously considered and reliance on haematologic parameters will miss half to one third of all cases. As expected B12 deficiency is more frequent in vegetarians than non-vegetarians.

  15. Tryptophan metabolism in vitamin B6-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, D A; Njagi, E. N.; Danielian, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin B6 deficiency was induced in mice by maintenance for 4 weeks on a vitamin B6-free diet. Tryptophan metabolism was assessed by determining the urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites, the metabolism of [14C]tryptophan in vivo and the formation of tryptophan and niacin metabolites by isolated hepatocytes. The vitamin B6-deficient animals excreted more xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine, and less of the niacin metabolites N1-methyl nicotinamide and methyl-2-pyridone-4-carboxami...

  16. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients

  17. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Selhub, Jacob; Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational data are inconclusive. With the use of data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we evaluated the interaction between high serum folate and low vitamin B-12 ...

  18. Multiple Roles of ATP:Cob(I)alamin Adenosyltransferases in the Conversion of B12 to Coenzyme B12

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Paola E.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Our mechanistic understanding of the conversion of vitamin B12 into coenzyme B12 (a.k.a. adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl) has been substantially advanced in recent years. Insights into the multiple roles played by ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ACA) enzymes have emerged through the crystallographic, spectroscopic, biochemical, and mutational analyses of wild-type and variant proteins. ACA enzymes circumvent the thermodynamic barrier posed by the very low redox potential associated with the r...

  19. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Albersen

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce.B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated.The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine. Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF.We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy, which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  20. The content determination of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 gels%维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪万里; 要辉; 沈定文

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6的含量测定方法。方法:采用卡波姆940为基质,以维生素 B6为主药,制备成维生素 B6凝胶剂,采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6的含量。结果:卡波姆为基质制备的凝胶剂质地均匀细腻、质量稳定;采用紫外分光光度法,以291nm 作为维生素 B6检测波长,含量测定方法可行,维生素 B6在5~25μg/ml 浓度范围内,线性关系良好,平均回收率为98.79%,RSD 为0.46%。结论:采用紫外分光光度法测定维生素 B6凝胶剂中维生素 B6含量方法简单可行,结果准确。%Objective To establish the method for the content determination of vitamin B6 gels.Method Using the matrix of Car-bopol 940 and vitamin B6 -based medicine to prepare vitamin B6 gels,and using the UV to evaluate content determination of vitamin B6 .Results Using carbopol gels as matrix to prepare the gels which is uniform,exquisite and stable quality.Using the UV spectro-photometry to 291nm as wavelength to detect the content determination of vitamin B6 ,which is feasible and the calibration curve are linear within a well range of vitamin B6 in 5 -25μg/ml,the average recovery is 98.79%,RSD is 0.46%.Conclusion Using the UV spectrophotometry to detect the ointmen of vitamin B6 ,which is simple,feasible and accurate.

  1. Stabilization of HfB12 in Y1-xHfxB12 under Ambient Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, Georgiy; Yeung, Michael T; Turner, Christopher L; Li, Rebecca L; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-05-16

    Alloys of metal dodecaborides-YB12 with HfB12-were prepared via arc-melting in order to stabilize the metastable HfB12 high-pressure phase under ambient pressure. Previously, HfB12 had been synthesized only under high-pressure (6.5 GPa). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to confirm the purity and phase composition of the prepared samples. The solubility limit for HfB12 in Y1-xHfxB12 (cubic UB12 structure type) was determined to be ∼35 at. % Hf by PXRD and EDS analysis. The value of the cubic unit cell parameter (a) changed from 7.505 Å (pure YB12) to 7.454 Å across the solid solution range. Vickers hardness increased from 40.9 ± 1.6 GPa for pure YB12 to 45.0 ± 1.9 GPa under an applied load of 0.49 N for the Y1-xHfxB12 solid solution composition with ∼28 at. % Hf, suggesting both solid solution hardening and extrinsic hardening due to the formation of secondary phases of hafnium. PMID:27115173

  2. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P < 0.001) from baseline at 6 h (11%) and 24 h (50......BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration and...... postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses of...

  3. Application status of Vitamin B6%维生素B6的临床应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status of the relevant domestic Vitamin B6. Methods Reviewing the domestic literature, summarizing and analyzing related data. Results The clinical Vitamin B6 had many new uses where we could draw lessons from. Conclusion Vitamin B6 has very good sight of clinical application and research.%目的:了解国内有关维生素B6的临床应用现状。方法复习国内文献,总结和分析相关资料。结果维生素B6有不少临新用途,可以借鉴。结论维生素B6有很好的临床应用和研究前景。

  4. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Rita

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In cross-sectional studies, low levels of folate and B12 have been shown to be associated with cognitive decline and dementia Evidence for the putative role of folate, vitamin B12 in neurocognitive and other neurological functions comes from reported cases of severe vitamin deficiencies, particularly pernicious anemia, and homozygous defects in genes that encode for enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The neurological alterations seen in these cases allow for a biological role of vitamins in neurophysiology. Results are quite controversial and there is an open debate in literature, considering that the potential and differential role of folate and B12 vitamin in memory acquisition and cognitive development is not completely understood or accepted. What is not clear is the fact that vitamin B12 and folate deficiency deteriorate a pre-existing not overt pathological situation or can be dangerous even in normal subjects. Even more intriguing is the interaction between B12 and folate, and their role in developing hyperhomocysteinemia. The approach to the rehabilitation of the deficiency with adequate vitamin supplementation is very confusing. Some authors suggest it, even in chronic situations, others deny any possible role. Starting from these quite confusing perspectives, the aim of this review is to report and categorize the data obtained from the literature. Despite the plausible biochemical mechanism, further studies, based on clinical, neuropsychological, laboratory and (lastly pathological features will be necessary to better understand this fascinating biochemical riddle.

  5. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  6. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  7. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly vegetarian city, its population is at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. But no systematic study has been done in Ahmedabad to know whether B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels influence pregnancy. To know this answer this study was planned to know total homocysteine level and its correlation in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were measured in all the subjects using fluorescence polarized immunoassay in AxSym Immunochemistry analyzer on 60 non vitamin supplemented vegetarian women. Vitamin levels were within lower normal limit. Homocysteine level was higher among preeclampsia patient. From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that measurement of these biochemical parameter in ante natal care are useful for further management and prevention of complication of pregnancy like preeclampsia

  8. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). PMID:27596424

  9. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  10. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry;

    2010-01-01

    FBI and iso-FB1, having hydroxyl functions at C3, C4, and C5. Analysis of the NMR data for FB2 showed very similar chemical shift values when compared to an authentic Fusarium FB2 standard, strongly indicating identical molecules despite that an absolute stereochemical assignment of FB2 from A. niger...

  11. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E.

    OpenAIRE

    PazEtcheverry; LisaE.Fleige

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answ...

  12. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PazEtcheverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answering bioaccessibility or bioavailability related questions for specific nutrients. The need for more validation studies in which in vivo results are compared to in vitro results is also discussed.

  13. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    OpenAIRE

    Etcheverry, Paz; Grusak, Michael A.; Fleige, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM)™, and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a discussion of how these methods have been applied to generate data for a range of nutrients, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Recommendations are given regarding which methods are most justified for answ...

  14. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for polyphenols and selected nutrients is presented. The review focuses on in vitro solubility, dialyzability, the dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM), and Caco-2 cell models, the latter primarily for uptake and transport, and a disc...

  15. Vitamin B-12 in breast milk and diet, and riboflavin in breastmilk, are very low in Kenyan lactating women, although vitamin B-6 is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk B-vitamin concentrations can fluctuate with maternal intake. Low maternal intake of B-vitamins may result in low B-vitamin breastmilk concentrations and consequently B-vitamin deficiency in their infants because infants 0–6 months are recommended to be exclusively breastfed. T...

  16. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content an...

  17. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Thomas H; Pickersgill, Trevor T; J Peall, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration, mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame, and was independently mobile 8 weeks later. PMID:27247211

  18. Boronyl as a terminal ligand in boron oxide clusters: hexagonal ring C(2v) B6O4 and ethylene-like D(2h) B6O4(-/2-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Ying-Jin; Bai, Hui; Gao, Ting-Ting; Li, Hai-Ru; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-08-14

    Considerable recent research effort has been devoted to the development of boronyl (BO) chemistry. Here we predict three perfectly planar boron boronyl clusters: C2v B6O4 (1, (1)A1), D2h B6O4(−) (2, (2)B3u), and D2h B6O4(2−) (3, (1)Ag). These are established as the global-minimum structures on the basis of the coalescence kick and basin hopping structural searches and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level, with complementary CCSD/6-311+G* and single-point CCSD(T)/6-311+G*//B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations for 2. The C2v B6O4 neutral cluster features a hexagonal B4O2 ring with two terminal BO groups. The D2h B6O4(−/2−) clusters have ethylene-like structures and are readily formulated as B2(BO)4(−/2−), in which a B2 core with double bond character is bonded to four terminal BO groups. Chemical bonding analyses show that B6O4 (1) possesses an aromatic π bonding system with three delocalized, six-centered π bonds over the hexagonal ring, rendering it an inorganic analogue of benzene, whereas the B6O4(−/2−) (2 and 3) species closely resemble ethylene in terms of structures and bonding. This work provides new examples for the analogy between boron oxides and hydrocarbons. PMID:26166194

  19. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.

  20. [Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C; Mary, S; Brazo, P; Dollfus, S

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestations are frequently associated with pernicious anemia including depression, mania, psychosis, dementia. We report a case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency, who has presented severe depression with delusion and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania successively, during a period of two Months. Case report - Mme V., a 64-Year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital because of confusion. She had no history of psychiatric problems. She had history of diabetes, hypertension and femoral prosthesis. The red blood count revealed a normocytosis with anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl). At admission she was uncooperative, disoriented in time and presented memory and attention impairment and sleep disorders. She seemed sad and older than her real age. Facial expression and spontaneous movements were reduced, her speech and movements were very slow. She had depressed mood, guilt complex, incurability and devaluation impressions. She had a Capgras' syndrome and delusion of persecution. Her neurologic examination, cerebral scanner and EEG were postponed because of uncooperation. Further investigations confirmed anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl) and revealed vitamin B12 deficiency (52 pmol/l) and normal folate level. Antibodies to parietal cells were positive in the serum and antibodies to intrinsic factor were negative. An iron deficiency was associated (serum iron=7 micromol/l; serum ferritin concentration=24 mg/l; serum transferrin concentration=3,16 g/l). This association explained normocytocis anemia. Thyroid function, hepatic and renal tests, glycemia, TP, TCA, VS, VDRL-TPHA were normal. Vitamin B12 replacement therapy was started with hydroxycobalamin 1 000 ng/day im for 10 days and iron replacement therapy. Her mental state improved dramatically within a few days. After one week of treatment the only remaining symptoms were lability of mood, delusion of persecution, Capgras' syndrome but disappeared totally 9 days after the

  1. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  2. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  3. Evaluation of vitamin B 12 deficiency in various clinical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low levels of vitamin B 12 have been associated with several clinical conditions. However no single symptom or group of symptoms can be made responsible. Reported causes of deficiency among older population are hematologic or neurological, followed by gastrointestinal and possibly vascular symptoms. The present prospective observational study was, hence, initiated to evaluate the underlying clinical condition or symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was prospective observational and carried out on 121 patients (males, n=63 and females, n=58) for the period from January 1, 2004 to January 24, 2007. Age ranges were between 16 - 70 years, and categorized as > 60 yrs and < 60 years. All blood parameters were analyzed by standardized methods on automated analyzers. The deficiency was found to be more prevalent in males and increased from 52.06% to 58.10% in individuals with vitamin B12 <150 pg/ml. Mal nourishment was noted among the most subjects and weakness and anemia were frequent clinical findings (35.55%, n=43, 14%, n=51). Other clinical conditions were neuropsychiatric. Whereas less frequent findings were paraesthesia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypertension was more prevalent in vitamin B12 deficient individuals followed by diabetes, dementia, stroke, ischemic heart disease and Parkinson's disease. (author)

  4. Vitamin-B12 deficiency following therapy in gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin-B12 deficiency results from inadequate absorption of the vitamin by the distal ileum and depletion of available stores. Both radiotherapy and intestinal resection can contribute to development of this condition. The significance of this problem in gynecologic oncology is discussed and two patients are described

  5. Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Haye H.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B-12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause m

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Pregnant Women in Samsun Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin; Basar Demir; Mahir igde; Banu Gulcan Oksuz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy can cause severe demyelinating central nervous system disorder. Most cases are exclusively breast-fed infants born to mothers with deficient vitamin B12 stores. As maternal vitamin B12 stores are the main determinant of neonatal vitamin B12 status, we aimed to determine the vitamin B12 status of pregnant women at term in our region. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B12, folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in addition to routine test...

  7. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl...

  8. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyun-soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer’s dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4′-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication,...

  9. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, En-Pei; Smith, Donald E.; Selhub, Jacob; Dallal, Gerard; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-01-01

    Previously we observed strong and consistent associations between vitamin B6 status and several indicators of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical indicators, including the disability score, the length of morning stiffness, and the degree of pain, and biochemical markers, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, were found to be inversely correlated with circulating vitamin B6 levels. Such strong associations imply that impaired vitam...

  10. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  11. VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TOXICOSIS IN FALCONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Perlman, Janine; Kinne, Jörg; Baskar, Vijay; Wernery, Ulrich; Dorrestein, Gerry

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections. Three individuals vomited frothy, partially digested blood and had clonic spasms and convulsions. Postmortem and histopathology revealed multifocal severe hepatic necrosis, splenic lymphoid tissue depletion and hemorrhages with arterial necrosis, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Following administration of a different, oral, mineral-vitamin supplement, a total of 21 peregrine falcons in two separate European facilities died suddenly. Histology of the liver showed diffuse congestion and multifocal coagulative necrosis with mild infiltration of heterophils. The particular nutritional supplement, used by both breeders, was analyzed and found to contain 5-9.7% Vit B6. Other randomly selected lots of the product contained 0.007-0.27% Vit B6. According to the product label, Vit B6 should have been present at 0.004%. To confirm the hypothesis that Vit B6 was responsible for the deaths of the falcons in Abu Dhabi, Vit B6 (British Pharmacopoeia [BP] grade) in powder form was diluted in water for injection and administered IM to four groups of falcons. Groups of four gyrfalcon × peregrine hybrid falcons or gyrfalcons (or both) were given a single IM dose of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Vit B6 or received an oral dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg of Vit B6. Only birds in the lowest

  12. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... = 18) were divided into two groups and given daily subcutaneous injections with metformin or saline (control) for three weeks. Following this, the animals received an oral dose of radio-labeled B(12) ((57)[Co]-B(12)), and urine and feces were collected for 24 h. Plasma, bowel content, liver, and...... kidneys were collected and analyzed for B(12), unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity, and (57)[Co]-B(12). RESULTS: Three weeks of metformin treatment reduced plasma B(12) by 22% or 289 [47-383] pmol/L (median and [range]) (p = 0.001), while no effect was observed on unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity...

  13. Potentiation of cellular radiosensitivity by nitroprusside and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two cyano-metal complexes, sodium nitroprusside and vitamin B12 on the radiosensitivity of plateau-phase V-79 monolayers were studied. Cells were irradiated under aerobic conditions or hypoxic conditions following degassing and purging with nitrogen. Concentrations of nitroprusside as low as 10-6M resulted in potentiation of radiation cell killing under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Potentiation of radiation cell killing was also observed with the less-toxic vitamin B12 at concentrations of 10-3M; this effect was observed only under anoxic irradiation conditions. These results suggest that cyanide-releasing compounds might be used to augment the effect of radiation therapy, providing a different effect on aerobic compared to hypoxic cells

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  15. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  16. Microbiological Method for Assay of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin Drinks%微生物法测定维生素饮料中的维生素B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚波; 周敏; 杨彤

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To establish a microbiological method for assay of vitamin B6 in vitamin drinks.[Method] The Saccharomyces Carlsbrgensis (ATCC 9080) has great sensitivity for vitamin B6 in materials.According to this specificity,it can be assay vitamin B6 in samples.Prepare standard concentrate-response curve by plotting absorbance reading for each level of standard solution.Determine the amount of vitamin B6 activity for each level of assay solution by interpolating from standard curve.[Result] The precision were 1.5%,1.1% and 1.5%.The RSD was 0.788 7%.The recoveries were all above 96.5%.[Conclusion] Microbiological method can be used to determination of vitamin B12 in vitamin drinks and this method has high sensitivity.The results are precise.%[目的]建立维生素饮料中维生素B6的微生物检测法.[方法]利用卡尔斯伯酵母菌(ATCC 9080)对维生素B6极高的灵敏性和特异性,定量测定出试样中维生素B6含量.即以不同浓度标准溶液的吸光度相对于各浓度水平标准物质的浓度绘制标准曲线,再根据标准曲线计算出试样中维生素B6的含量.[结果]试验方法精密度分别为1.5%、1.1%及1.5%,相对标准偏差为0.788 7%,回收率在96.5%以上.[结论]微生物法可以作为维生素饮料中维生素B6的检测方法,且灵敏度高、测定结果准确.

  17. Decreased Vitamin B12 Levels in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Altunoluk; Mehmet Davutoglu; Mesut Garipardic; Vedat Bakan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Nocturnal enuresis is a common pediatric problem, the etiology of which is unclear. In the present study, vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured in children with nocturnal enuresis and compared with those in healthy control group children to investigate whether there was any relation with enuresis and neurogenic maturation as a first time in the literature. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included thirty children (16 girls, 14 boys) who had presented with primary n...

  18. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Loukili, Noureddine Henoun; Noel, Esther; Kaltenbach, Georges; Abdelgheni, Maher Ben; Perrin, Anne Elisabeth; Noblet-Dick, Marie; Maloisel, Frédéric; Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Blicklé, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    VITAMIN B12 OR COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY occurs frequently (> 20%) among elderly people, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. Causes of the deficiency include, most frequently, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome (> 60% of all cases), pernicious anemia (15%–20% of all cases), insufficent dietary intake and malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption, whic...

  19. The cobalamin (coenzyme B12) biosynthetic genes of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J. G.; Roth, J R

    1995-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli synthesizes cobalamin (coenzyme B12) only when provided with the complex intermediate cobinamide. Three cobalamin biosynthetic genes have been cloned from Escherichia coli K-12, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The three genes form an operon (cob) under the control of several promoters and are induced by cobinamide, a precursor of cobalamin. The cob operon of E. coli comprises the cobU gene, encoding the bifunctional cobinamide kinase...

  20. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kam S. Woo; Timothy C.Y. Kwok; Celermajer, David S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabo...

  1. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-...

  2. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  3. NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF B12 DEFICIENCY IN BIDAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiological factors resulting in Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with sub-acute combined degeneration (SACD and other neurological manifestation manifestations. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study of 50 patients, all clinically suspected to have Vit B12 deficiency; they were investigated clinically, hematologically, biochemically and radiologically. RESULTS: There was a dominance of males (41of 50 with the majority in the age group of more than 40 years of age. There was no correlation between the socio-economic and dietary status on the one hand and the clinical manifestation on the other. Anti-intrinsic factor antibodies (AIFAB were positive in 19 of 50 patients (38% and anti-parietal cell antibodies (APCAB were positive in 28 of 50(56% patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Pernicious anemia is an important cause of various neurological manifestations including s ACD in the Vitamin B12 deficient population in the age group of more than 40 years, irrespective of the socio-economic and dietary status in the Indian subcontinent. It is supported by the presence of AIFAB ro APCAB in this group

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of B6 vitamers and riboflavin in milk and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, reliable and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection at different programmed wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of B6 vitamers (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine) and Vitamin B2 in commercial vitaminized milk and in woman milk. The chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed phase octyl column by using a mobile phase consisting of sodium pentanesulfonate in 1% acetic acid-methanol-tetrahydrofuran under gradient elution conditions. The fluorescence intensity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was enhanced by post-column photochemical conversion, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra by a on-line photoreactor switched OFF and ON under irradiation at 254 nm. In addition, a simple and rapid method in isocratic conditions without the need of photochemical conversion was proposed for the analysis of Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B2 in pharmaceuticals. Linearity, precision, recovery, selectivity and sensitivity were found satisfactory for each analysed compound. Quantitation limits ranged from 26 to 240 fmol

  5. Absent ileal uptake of IF-bound vitamin B12 in vivo in the Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (familial vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria).

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, J. F.; Jenkins, W. J.; Walker-Smith, J A; Phillips, A D; Sourial, N A; Williams, C B; Mollin, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A Syrian family is described with three children who had inherited selective vitamin B12 malabsorption associated with proteinuria. (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome). Although inherited the defect was apparently not present at birth. A third child had less severe vitamin B12 malabsorption, was not vitamin B12 deficient and had no proteinuria. Studies on two of the affected children with subcellular fractionation of the uptake of radioactive vitamin B12 by ileal tissue in vivo indicate a defect in...

  6. Systematic review on daily vitamin B12 losses and bioavailability for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake with the factorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Szczecinska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the literature on daily losses and bioavailability of vitamin B12. These estimates could be used for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake for adults and elderly. Methods: We identified publications on daily vitamin B12 losses (July 2011) and publications on t

  7. Prognostic Impact of Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B6 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis induction by distinct types of physical and chemical stress, including multiple chemotherapeutics. This effect requires pyridoxal kinase (PDXK, the enzyme that generates the bioactive form of vitamin B6. In line with a general role of vitamin B6 in stress responses, low PDXK expression levels were found to be associated with poor disease outcome in two independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. These results indicate that PDXK expression levels constitute a biomarker for risk stratification among patients with NSCLC.

  8. 氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6含量测定方法改进%Improvement of Assay Method of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 and Fluocinonide Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敦明; 王全华; 吴小华; 左杰

    2007-01-01

    目的 改进氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量测定方法.方法 流动相由甲醇-水(25:75)改为甲醇-用冰乙酸调节pH=3.0的0.04%庚烷磺酸钠溶液(25:75).检测波长由320 nm改为291 nm.结果 维生素B6质量浓度在3.4~17.0 μg/mL范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为97.1%,RSD为1.2%(n=6).结论 改进后的方法准确、重现性好、精密度高,可用于测定氟轻松维B6乳膏中维生素B6含量.

  9. HPLC法测定林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Lincomycin Hydrochloride and Vitamin B6 Cream by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志华; 黄奇建; 康丽红

    2014-01-01

    目的 用高效液相色谱法测定林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱以十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以0.04%戊烷磺酸钠溶液(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(85:15)为流动相;检测波长为291 nm;进样量:20 μL.结果 维生素B6在2.51 ~25.10 μg/mL的浓度范围内线性关系良好,r=0.999 8;平均回收率为99.7%,RSD为0.9%(n=9).结论 本法操作简便,灵敏,准确,专属性强,可用于林可霉素维B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量测定.

  10. HPLC法测定维生素B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B6 in Vitamin B6 Cream by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定维生素B6乳膏中维生素B6的含量.方法 采用Purospher STAR RP-18e色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm);流动相为0.04%戊烷磺酸钠溶液(用冰醋酸调节pH值至3.0)-甲醇(85:15);柱温为30℃;流速为1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长为291 nm.结果 维生素B6在0.021 6~0.216 mg·mL-1(r=0.999 8)的浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系;维生素B6的平均加样回收率为98.57% (RSD =0.72%).结论 该方法简便、准确,结果稳定,可为维生素B6乳膏的质量评价提供依据.

  11. Vitamin B6: A Molecule for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 is an intriguing molecule that is involved in a wide range of metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Based on its water solubility and high reactivity when phosphorylated, it is a suitable co-factor for many biochemical processes. Furthermore the vitamin is a potent antioxidant, rivaling carotenoids or tocopherols in its ability to quench reactive oxygen species. It is therefore not surprising that the vitamin is essential and unquestionably important for the cellular metabolism and well-being of all living organisms. The review briefly summarizes the biosynthetic pathways of vitamin B6 in pro- and eukaryotes and its diverse roles in enzymatic reactions. Finally, because in recent years the vitamin has often been considered beneficial for human health, the review will also sum up and critically reflect on current knowledge how human health can profit from vitamin B6.

  12. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer's dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4'-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  13. Short pulse photoemission from LaB 6-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, B.; Kuznetsov, G.; Batazova, M.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental results obtained in picosecond regime with new LaB 6 compounds are presented and compared to LaB 6 monocrystal . Quantum yield values up to 6.8 × 10 -4 are obtained by using the fourth harmonic of a ND:YAG laser. The lifetime of these classical thermionic cathodes can be improved by heating the photocathode just below the thermoemission threshold. Measurements are performed to verify the temperature effects on this parameter. Effects of pressure in the experimental cell on the lifetime of the photocathode are also given.

  14. Prognostic impact of vitamin B6 metabolism in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Ilio Vitale; Laura Senovilla; Ken André Olaussen; Guillaume Pinna; Tobias Eisenberg; Aïcha Goubar; Isabelle Martins; Judith Michels; Gueorgui Kratassiouk; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez; Marie Scoazec; Erika Vacchelli; Frederic Schlemmer; Oliver Kepp

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are routinely treated with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Through a genome-wide siRNA-based screen, we identified vitamin B6 metabolism as a central regulator of cisplatin responses in vitro and in vivo. By aggravating a bioenergetic catastrophe that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione, vitamin B6 exacerbates cisplatin-mediated DNA damage, thus sensitizing a large panel of cancer cell lines to apoptosis. Moreover, vitamin B...

  15. Vitamin B6: A Long Known Compound of Surprising Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Mooney; Jan-Erik Leuendorf; Christopher Hendrickson; Hanjo Hellmann

    2009-01-01

    In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound’s critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back a...

  16. Dietary source of vitamin B12 intake and vitamin B12 status in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and older living in rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Lee, Hae Jeung; Whang, Jin Yong; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found and analyzed vitamin B12 in some Korean traditional plant foods which had not reported, yet. This study was to investigate vitamin B12 intake and its dietary sources and the vitamin B12 status in the very old elderly Koreans. We measured serum vitamin B12 level and estimated the amounts of vitamin B12 intake from different dietary sources in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and over who had consumed a relatively low animal traditional diet for the whole life. The average age ...

  17. Crystallographic studies on B12 binding proteins in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, Narayanasami

    2013-01-01

    The x-ray crystal structures of several important vitamin B12 binding proteins that have been solved in recent years have enhanced our current understanding in the vitamin B12 field. These structurally diverse groups of B12 binding proteins perform various important biological activities, both by transporting B12 as well as catalyzing various biological reactions. An in-depth comparative analysis of these structures was carried out using PDB coordinates of a carefully chosen database of B12 b...

  18. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisa...

  19. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  20. Ligand stimulation induces clathrin- and Rab5-dependent downregulation of the kinase-dead EphB6 receptor preceded by the disruption of EphB6-Hsp90 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allonby, Odette; El Zawily, Amr M; Freywald, Tanya; Mousseau, Darrell D; Chlan, Jennifer; Anderson, Deborah; Benmerah, Alexandre; Sidhu, Vishaldeep; Babu, Mohan; DeCoteau, John; Freywald, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Ligand-induced internalisation and subsequent downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) serve to determine biological outputs of their signalling. Intrinsically kinase-deficient RTKs control a variety of biological responses, however, the mechanism of their downregulation is not well understood and its analysis is focused exclusively on the ErbB3 receptor. The Eph group of RTKs is represented by the EphA and EphB subclasses. Each bears one kinase-inactive member, EphA10 and EphB6, respectively, suggesting an important role for these molecules in the Eph signalling network. While EphB6 effects on cell behaviour have been assessed, the mechanism of its downregulation remains elusive. Our work reveals that EphB6 and its kinase-active relative, and signalling partner, EphB4, are downregulated in a similar manner in response to their common ligand, ephrin-B2. Following stimulation, both receptors are internalised through clathrin-coated pits and are degraded in lysosomes. Their targeting for lysosomal degradation relies on the activity of an early endosome regulator, the Rab5 GTPase, as this process is inhibited in the presence of a Rab5 dominant-negative mutant. EphB6 also interacts with the Hsp90 chaperone and EphB6 downregulation is preceded by their rapid dissociation. Moreover, the inhibition of Hsp90 results in EphB6 degradation, mimicking its ligand-induced downregulation. These processes appear to rely on overlapping mechanisms, since Hsp90 inhibition does not significantly enhance ligand-induced EphB6 elimination. Taken together, our observations define a novel mechanism for intrinsically kinase-deficient RTK downregulation and support an intriguing model, where Hsp90 dissociation acts as a trigger for ligand-induced receptor removal. PMID:25152371

  1. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  2. ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents and the documentation of the ENDF/B-6 fission-product yield sublibraries which were released in 1991 and updated in 1993, are summarized. Copies of the data libraries are available on magnetic tape of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree upon request. (author). 1 tab

  3. Elemental abundances of the B6 IV star Xi Octantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Robinson, Richard D.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    An elemental abundance study used AAT echelle spectrograms of the ultrasharp-lined, superficially normal B6 IV star Xi Octantis. The derived abundances fall within the trends of values derived for normal B main-sequence band stars. On average, they are 0.28 dex less than solar.

  4. Literatuuroverzicht analysemethoden voor vitamine B-6 in voedingsmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.

    1983-01-01

    In dit literatuuronderzoek wordt een overzicht gegeven van recente ontwikkelingen (vanaf ca. 1970) in de analytiek van vitamine B-6. Een aantal alternatieven voor de tot op heden meest gebruikte microbiologische methoden is beschreven in de literatuur. Selektieve methoden op basis van vloeistofchrom

  5. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  6. The role of Vitamin B12 in the critically ill-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, M; Sviri, S; Linton, D M; Stav, I; van Heerden, P V

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient, as humans have no capacity to produce the vitamin and it needs to be ingested from animal proteins. The ingested Vitamin B12 undergoes a complex process of absorption and assimilation. Vitamin B12 is essential for cellular function. Deficiency affects 15% of patients older than 65 and results in haematological and neurological disorders. Low levels of Vitamin B12 may also be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. High levels of Vitamin B12 are associated with inflammation and represent a poor outlook for critically ill patients. Treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency is simple, but may be lifelong. PMID:27456173

  7. Relationship between vitamin B12 and sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Leishear, K; Boudreau, RM; Studenski, SA; Ferrucci, L.; Rosano, C.; De Rekeneire, N; Houston, DK; Kritchevsky, SB; Schwartz, AV; Vinik, AI; Hogervorst, E.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, TB; Newman, AB; Strotmeyer, ES

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand two hundred and eightyseven adults aged 72 to 83 (mean 76.5 ±2.9; 51.4% female; 38.3% black). MEASUREMENTS: Low serum B12 was defined as serum B12 less than 260 pmol/L, and deficient B12 status was defined as B12 less than 260 pmol...

  8. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead, a...... transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  9. Effect of X-irradiation on vitamin B12 binding capacity to intrinsic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of whole-body X-irradiation on vitamin bB12-protein complex formation in gastric juice after oral administration of [57Co]-B12 have been studied. Two proteins with B-12-binding activity have been isolated by gel filtration from gastric juice. 57Co-activity, recovered from B12-protein complex in gastric juice, is found to be about 30 percent less in the X-irradiated rat. In serum, vitamin B12 is mainly associated with alpha1-globulin. Radioactivity distribution in serum globulins after intraperitoneal injection of [57Co]-B12 was similar in control and X-irradiated rats. (author)

  10. B2-B2.5 code benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M; Voskoboynikov, S.; Rozhansky, V.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.; Kotov, V.; Boerner, P.

    2011-01-15

    ITER-IO currently (and since about 15 years) employs the SOLPS4.xxx code for its divertor design, currently version SOLPS4.3. SOLPS.xxx is a special variant of the B2-EIRENE code, which was originally developed by an European consortium (FZ Juelich, AEA Culham, ERM Belgium/KU Leuven) in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century under NET contracts. Until today even the very similar edge plasma codes within the SOLPS family, if run on a seemingly identical choice of physical parameters, still sometimes disagree significantly with each other. It is obvious that in computational engineering applications, as they are carried out for the various ITER divertor aspects with SOLPS4.3 for more than a decade now, any transition from one to another code must be fully backward compatible, or, at least, the origin of differences in the results must be identified and fully understood quantitatively. In this report we document efforts undertaken in 2010 to ultimately eliminate the third issue. For the kinetic EIRENE part within SOLPS this backward compatibility (back until 1996) was basically achieved (V. Kotov, 2004-2006) and SOLPS4.3 is now essentially up to date with the current EIRENE master maintained at FZ Juelich. In order to achieve a similar level of reproducibility for the plasma fluid (B2, B2.5) part, we follow a similar strategy, which is quite distinct from the previous SOLPS benchmark attempts: the codes are ''disintegrated'' and pieces of it are run on smallest (i.e. simplest) problems. Only after full quantitative understanding is achieved, the code model is enlarged, integrated, piece by piece again, until, hopefully, a fully backward compatible B2 / B2.5 ITER edge plasma simulation will be achieved. The status of this code dis-integration effort and its findings until now (Nov. 2010) are documented in the present technical note. This work was initiated in a small workshop by the three partner teams of KU Leuven, St. Petersburg

  11. Low-temperature thermoelectric power of CaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of measurements of the thermoelectric power S of stoichiometric CaB6 and vacancy-doped Ca1-δB6 between 5 and 300 K. The thermopower for both materials is surprisingly large at room temperature. Across the whole temperature range covered, S is negative and the temperature dependence is most probably dictated by band-structure effects. The phenomenological interpretation of our data involves a calculation of S(T), using the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and assuming a band of defect states in proximity to the lower edge of the conduction band. Good agreement with our data is found by considering acoustic phonon and ionized impurity scattering for the electrons in the conduction band, which is well separated from the valence band. (author)

  12. Systematic studies of ferromagnetic ordering in EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ferromagnetic semimetal EuB6 recently has attracted renewed interest due to its rich transport and magnetic properties. In transport and thermodynamic measurements, two consecutive phase transitions at ∝ 12.6 K and 15.3 K are observed, where upon lowering the temperature a charge-localization transition via the overlap of magnetic polarons precede the ferromagnetic ordering. This behavior is discussed in terms of electronic phase separation and a percolative phase transition. In this work, we performed fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy measurements of high-quality single crystals of EuB6 in order to investigate the dynamics of the charge carriers close to the above-mentioned transitions. In addition, higher-harmonics transport measurements reveal clear signatures of non-linear effects going along with the lower ferromagnetic transition. Furthermore, ultra high-resolution thermal expansion measurements reveal that lattice degrees of freedom are strongly coupled to both low-temperature transitions.

  13. Serum thymidine kinase in vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In DNA synthesis deoxythymidine kinase (TK) catalyses the conversion of deoxythymidine to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) via the 'salvage pathway'. Serum deoxythymidine kinase (S=TK) was measured in this study in 75 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency by a new, very sensitive method, using 125I-deoxyuridine as substrate. Elevated S-TK levels were found in those patients who had developed haemolysis and anaemia and the more advanced the disease the higher the S-TK value. Thus there was a highly significant correlation between S-TK, haemoglobin level and lactic dehydrogenase activity. These findings are consistent with the theory that elevated levels of S-TK are due to release from unstable proliferating tissue. (author)

  14. Kynurenines and vitamin B6: link between diabetes and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; Ratner, Rebecca; Summergrad, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The increased association between depression and diabetes mellitus is generally acknowledged. Recent studies suggest that depression leads to diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this association remain unclear. Literature and our data indicate that inflammatory and/or stress factors in depression up-regulate tryptophan (TRP) conversion into kynurenine (KYN), a substrate for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Deficiency of vitamin B6, a cofactor of the...

  15. Development on Fermentation Process of Vitamin B12%维生素B12发酵工艺进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑶

    2012-01-01

    综述了维生素B12(VB12)发酵工艺路线、菌种选育、工艺优化等方面的研究进展,展望了VB12发酵工艺发展前景。%To Summary the fermentation process route,process optimization and strain transformation of vitamin B12. To prospect the development of vitamin B12.

  16. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women

  17. Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, J; Kubota, K; Murakami, H; Sawamura, M; Matsushima, T; Tamura, T; Saitoh, T; Kurabayshi, H; Naruse, T

    1999-04-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity. PMID:10209501

  18. Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Willnow, Thomas E; Nielsen, Rikke;

    2002-01-01

    Megalin has previously been shown to bind and mediate endocytosis of transcobalamin (TC)-B(12). However, the physiological significance of this has not been established, and other TC-B(12) binding proteins have been suggested to mediate renal uptake of this vitamin complex. The present study...... demonstrates by the use of megalin-deficient mice that megalin is, in fact, essential for the normal renal reabsorption of TC-vitamin B(12) and for renal accumulation of this highly conserved vitamin. Megalin-deficient mice excrete increased amounts of TC and B(12) in the urine, revealing a defective renal...... tubular uptake of TC-B(12). The urinary B(12) excretion is increased approximately 4-fold, resulting in an approximately 28-fold higher renal B(12) clearance. This is associated with an approximately 4-fold decrease in B(12) content in megalin-deficient kidney cortex. Thus megalin is important to prevent...

  19. Formation of a vitamin B-12-serum complex on heating at alkaline pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of vitamin B-12 to serum proteins during heating at alkaline pH was investigated by gel filtration of serum supplemented with cyano[57Co]-cobalamin. Heating for 5 min at 1000C destroyed most of the vitamin B-12 binding activity of serum but, with further heating, the vitamin B-12 became incorporated into a complex that did not correspond in molecular size to the original vitamin B-12 binding proteins. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 in heated serum showed correspondingly first an increase then a progressive decrease in the apparent vitamin B-12 level suggesting that, on heating, vitamin B-12 was initially released then subsequently complexed by the serum. The formation of complexed vitamin B-12 was abolished by the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol during the heating step. (Auth.)

  20. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of heterofullerenes C48B12

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Rui-Hua; Jensen, Lasse; Bryant, Garnett W.; Zhao, Jijun; Smith Jr, Vedene H.

    2003-01-01

    Bonding, electric (hyper)polarizability, vibrational and magnetic properties of heterofullerene ${\\rm C}_{48}{\\rm B}_{12}$ are studied by first-principles calculations. Infrared- and Raman-active vibrational frequencies of ${\\rm C}_{48}{\\rm B}_{12}$ are assigned. Eight $^{13}$C and 2 $^{11}$B NMR spectral signals of ${\\rm C}_{48}{\\rm B}_{12}$ are characterized. The first-order hyperpolarizability in ${\\rm C}_{48}{\\rm B}_{12}$ is zero because of the inversion symmetry. The average second-order...

  1. Negative symptoms presenting as neuropsychiatric manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Manoj Kumar; Avasthi, Ajit; Singh, Parampreet

    2011-01-01

    Long lists of psychiatric illness or symptoms have been documented to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. We describe an atypical case of a young adult who presented with predominant negative symptoms followed by neurological symptoms consistent with vitamin B12 deficiency. The symptoms showed complete remission after vitamin B12 supplementation. The uniqueness of this case is that vitamin B12 deficiency presented with predominant negative symptoms without other psychotic and manic symptoms,...

  2. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group than the diabetic group who did not receive oral B12 supplementation. Low serum vitamin B12 is commonly overlooked in the elderly, with or without diabetes. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect BMD in the elderly. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and BMD among diabetics.

  3. Serum Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Mountifield, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate levels were determined in a group of healthy women eating a balanced diet. Approximately 50% were using oral contraceptives. Vitamin B12 levels were lower in the oral contraceptive users. However, their folate levels were no different from those of non-users. Age had no effect on either vitamin B12 or folate levels. Oral contraceptive users taking multiple vitamin tablets containing vitamin B12 and folate had slightly higher folate levels, but their vi...

  4. Functions required for vitamin B12-dependent ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1989-01-01

    When B12 is available, Salmonella typhimurium can degrade ethanolamine to provide a source of carbon and nitrogen. B12 is essential since it is a cofactor for ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, the first enzyme in ethanolamine breakdown. S. typhimurium makes B12 only under anaerobic conditions; in the presence of oxygen, exogenous B12 must be provided to permit ethanolamine utilization. Genes required for ethanolamine utilization are encoded in the eut operon. For complementation testing, an F' plas...

  5. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Najafi; Vahid Shaygannajad; Maryam Mirpourian; Ali Gholamrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin) deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B 12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B 12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Serum B 12 concentration was measured with R...

  6. Evaluation of bioadhesive capacity and immunoadjuvant properties of vitamin B(12)-Gantrez nanoparticles.

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, H.H. (Hesham H.); Gamazo, C; de Smidt, P C; Russell-Jones, G. (Gregory); J.M. Irache

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To design bioadhesive Gantrez AN (poly[methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride], PVM/MA) nanoparticles (NP) coated with Vitamin B12 (Vit B12), and investigate their application in oral antigen delivery. METHODS: The association of Vit B12 to Gantrez AN nanoparticles was performed by the direct attachment of reactive Vit B12 to the surface of the nanoparticles (NPB), or linking to the copolymer chains in dimethylformamide prior to NP formation (NPBDMF). Nanoparticles ...

  7. Evidence for intestinal origin of transcobalamin II during vitamin B12 absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma binding of newly absorbed, radioactively labelled vitamin B12 was studied during a urinary excretion (Schilling) test. Vitamin B12, after being absorbed from the gut, enters blood attached to transcobalamin II, which seemed to be derived from the ileal enterocyte. The absorbed B12 re-entered the blood stream after the transcobalamin II-B12 complex was cleared by the liver and it was then excreted into the urine during the Schilling test. (author)

  8. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Tanner, Rikki M.; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  9. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment. PMID:27115686

  10. A preliminary study on the teratogenesis of dexamethasone and the preventive effect of vitamin B12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-jun LU; Wei HE; Bing SHI; Tian MENG; Xiao-yu LI; Yu-rong LIU

    2008-01-01

    Excessive dexamethasone (Dex) administrated into pregnant mice during critical periods of palatal development can produce a high incidence of cleft palate. Its mechanisms remain unknown. Vitamin B12 has been shown to antagonize the tera-togenic effects of Dex, which, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of Dex and vitamin B,2 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion using organ culture of murine embryonic shelves. The explanted palatal shelves on embryonic day 14 (E14) were cultured for 24,48,72 or 96 h in different concentrations of Dex and/or vitamin B12. The palatal shelves were examined histologically for the morphological alterations on the medial edge epithelium (MEE) and fusion rates among different groups. It was found that the palatal shelves were not fused at 72 h or less of culture in Dex group, while they were completely fused in the control and vitamin B12-treated groups at 72 and 96 h, respectively. The MEE still existed and proliferated. In Dex+vitamin B12 group the palatal shelves were fused at each time point in a similar rate to controls. These results may suggest that Dex causes teratogenesis of murine embryonic palatal shelves and vitamin B12 prevents the teratogenic effect of Dex on palatogenesis on murine embryos in vitro.

  11. New metabolites of vitamin B6 in cat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma from adult cats and from humans with adult onset hypophosphatasia has low alkaline phosphatase activity and high pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). Since the cats do not show the bone disease seen in humans, the authors initiated a study of vitamin B6 metabolism in cats. 14C-pyridoxine HCL was donated by Hoffmann LaRoche (Nutley, NJ) and purified by HPLC. Following oral doses of 14C-pyridoxine HCL ranging from .97 to 486 μmol, urinary pyridoxic acid (PA) accounted for only 1 to 5% of the dose. Cation exchange HPLC of the urine revealed about 50% of the dose in a very fast eluting peak (X) and another 20 to 25% of the dose in a very slow eluting peak (Y). X elutes faster than PLP, is stable in base, but is hydrolyzed by acid to pyridoxal and pyridoxine. These properties are similar to those of 3-sulfate esters. Y is not altered by treatment with acid or base. In cation-exchange HPLC Y does not elute with the common B6 vitamers but does elute with N-methyl-pyrdoxine. Y moves with N-methyl-pyridoxine in 3 TLC solvents. Both Y and N-methyl-pyridoxine fail to give an orange spot with diazotized p-nitroaniline. Further attempts to characterize X and Y are in progress. The low concentrations of PA in cat plasma and urine suggest a very limited capacity to oxidize vitamin B6. This limitation apparently forces the use of alternate metabolic pathways

  12. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  13. Assessment of a radioisotopic assay for vitamin B12 using an intrinsic factor preparation with R proteins blocked by vitamin B12 analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Barbara; Broom, GN; Woodside, Jackie; Litwinczuk, RA; Wickramasinghe, SN

    1982-01-01

    A competitive protein binding radioassay kit for serum vitamin B12 has been assessed. Precision, linearity, sensitivity, and specificity have been found to be satisfactory. Falsely-normal assay results in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have not been observed.

  14. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  15. Simultaneous radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioassays of vitamin B12 and folic acid can be carried out in a single tube to give the simultaneous assay of both vitamins in 100 μl of serum. Release of bound vitamins from their endogenous binders and the destruction of these binders are effected by a heating step at pH 9.3. The subsequent binding reactions with hog intrinsic factor and milk binder protein proceed advantageously and simultaneously in the same tube at pH 9.3. A single set of dual reagents replaces two sets of reagents that would normally be used for separate radioassays. Complete separation of bound radioactivities, [57Co] cyanocobalamin and 125I-labeled folate derivative, is obtained in a dual-channel gamma counter with no requirement for any correction for spill-over of counting data. Analytical results are comparable to those found for previously developed individual radioassays. The simultaneous assay has decreased technical time of analysis for these interrelated vitamins by about 50%

  16. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12 in serum, with use of radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radioassays for vitamin B12 with use of any of several binding proteins have been available for many years, a radioimmunoassay for B12 has not been reported. We describe here such a radioimmunoassay, incorporating, for the first time, a radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of B12 as the radioactive tracer. Polypropylene tubes are coated with antiserum raised in a rabbit against B12/bovine serum albumin to simplify the separation of bound and free radioactivity. Factors affecting the preparation of coated tubes are described. The assay is accurate, sensitive, precise, and specific for vitamin B12. Accuracy of the assay is unaffected by the presence of denatured protein. The advantages of this radioimmunoassay over conventional radioassays are discussed

  17. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  18. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  19. Translational regulation of genes in salmonella typhimurium by vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Ravnum, Solveig

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis I have studied the mechanism by which vitamin B12 regulates the expression of the cob operon and the btuB gene in Salmonella typhimurium. The cob operon encodes most of the 25 genes required for the de novo synthesis of vitamin B12, and the butB gene encodes the outer membrane protein needed for transport of exogenous vitamin B12 into the cell. Vitamin B12 is used as a cofactor in four enzymatic reactions in Salmonella typhimurium. The regulation by vitamin B12 of the cob opero...

  20. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Greibe, E; Miller, J. W.; Foutouhi, S H; Green, R.; Nexo, E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats.METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 18) were divided into two groups and given daily subcutaneous injections with metformin or saline (control) for three weeks. Following this, the animals received an oral dose of radio-labeled B(12...

  1. Evidence that a B12-Adenosyl Transferase Is Encoded within the Ethanolamine Operon of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, David E.; Penrod, Joseph T.; Bobik, Thomas; Kofoid, Eric; Roth, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-B12) is both the cofactor and inducer of ethanolamine ammonia lyase (EA-lyase), a catabolic enzyme for ethanolamine. De novo synthesis of Ado-B12 by Salmonella enterica occurs only under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, aerobic growth on ethanolamine requires import of Ado-B12 or a precursor (CN-B12 or OH-B12) that can be adenosylated internally. Several known enzymes adenosylate corrinoids. The CobA enzyme transfers adenosine from ATP to a biosynthetic intermediate in ...

  2. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Kesiktaş; Nurten Eskiyurt; Ayşe Karan; Semih Akı; Halim İşsever

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12) is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to ou...

  3. Clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease, the concentration of serum vitamin B12 and folate in 32 patients with cerebrovascular disease was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the changes in folate in all groups were not significant. The content of vitamin B12 in multi-infarct dementia was markedly lower than that in cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Moreover, the level of vitamin B12 was lower in paralytic patients with muscular strength of grade 0-III. It can be concluded that serum vitamin B12 level had association with intelligent disorder and paralytic degree

  4. Cobas e 411 -analysaattorin validointi – B12- ja D-vitamiinitutkimukset

    OpenAIRE

    Kankare, Terttu; Toivonen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    B12-vitamiinia tarvitaan ihmisen elimistössä solujen nukleiinihappojen valmistamiseen. Elimistö ei itse pysty valmistamaan B12-vitamiinia, vaan sitä saadaan eläinperäisestä ruoasta. Kokonais-B12-vitamiinimääritys P-B12-Vit on yleisimmin käytetty veren B12-vitamiinipitoisuuden laboratoriotutkimus. D-vitamiini on sekä ravinnosta saatava vitamiini että elimistön muodostama hormoni. D-vitamiinin kahdesta muodosta D2-vitamiinia saadaan ravinnosta tai lisäravinteista ja D3-vitamiinia muodos...

  5. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm. PMID:27486161

  6. Electronic structure and optical properties of the B12O2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Ching, W. Y.

    1996-07-01

    The electronic structure and the optical properties of the icosahedral B12O2 crystal are studied by means of first-principles calculations. The results are compared with the other B12-based compounds with the same rhombohedral crystal structure. B12O2 is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 2.40 eV at Z. It is shown that intericosahedral bonding is stronger than the intraicosahedral bonding in B12O2. There is no covalent bonding between the O atoms and a net charge transfer from the B12 icosahedron to the O atoms. From the calculated complex dielectric function and energy-loss function, the static dielectric constant and bulk plasmon frequency in B12O2 are estimated to be 3.4 and 26.9 eV, respectively, which are smaller than that of other B12-based compounds.

  7. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  8. Drugs and vitamin B12 and folate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbaum, J

    1983-01-01

    Deficiency of either folic acid or vitamin B12 may interfere with DNA synthesis and result in megaloblastic anemia or other conditions. These 2 vitamins have dissimilar molecular structures and are present in different foods; they are also absorbed and metabolized differently. In 201 consecutive cases of megaloblastic anemia, for 90% the cause was alcoholism and poor diet; 0.5% (1 case) was related to oral contraceptives (OCs). Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency has occasionally been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and has been attributed to poor diet, impaired absorption, and increased tissue utilization of folate. Sulfasalazine, a compound containing a sulfa drug and a salicylate that is broken down to its active components by the gut flora, is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and has been shown to impair the absorption of folic acid, polyglutamyl folate, and methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in patients with these disorders. There is also evidence suggesting an interaction between anticonvulsant drugs and folate balance. A number of cases of megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency have been reported in women taking OCs. While in some cases no apparent cause for the megaloblastic anemia other than contraceptive therapy was demonstrated, in many patients other underlying disorders that were likely to disturb folate balance such as celiac disease, decreased dietary vitamin intake, and the administration of other drugs known to affect folate status have also been present. There is no convincing evidence that sex steroids affect folate absorption; about 20% of women taking OCs were found to have mild megaloblastic changes on Papanicolaou smears. These changes disappered after folic acid therapy, suggesting that OCs may cause an increased demand for folate limited to the reproductive system. Another finding is of low serum cobalamin levels in women using OCs; this appears however to be a laboratory abnormality

  9. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  10. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    OpenAIRE

    M. Albersen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, frequently, developmental delay. Disturbances of vitamin B6 metabolism may be missed by biochemical profiling of the secondary effects of functional vitamin B6 deficiency. Direct analysis of the dif...

  11. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  12. 维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质的检测方法.方法:高效液相色谱法,乙腈-0.05mol/l磷酸二氢钾溶液(17:83),用磷酸调节PH值至3.0.检测波长361nm.结果:本方法能有效检测出维生素B12的有关物质.

  13. 根据血清维生素B12水平测定值诊断维生素B12缺乏症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod; Devalia; 颜淑敏(译)

    2006-01-01

    当患者出现血液系统、神经系统及神经精神系统异常时,血清维生素B12水平被用价是否存在维生素B12的缺乏。及早给予维生素B12补充治疗可阻止不可逆性神经系统病变和认知功能障碍的发生。

  14. Megalin-mediated endocytosis of transcobalamin-vitamin-B12 complexes suggests a role of the receptor in vitamin-B12 homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moestrup, S K; Birn, H.; Fischer, P B; Petersen, C M; Verroust, P. J.; Sim, R. B.; Christensen, E I; Nexø, E.

    1996-01-01

    Kidney cortex is a main target for circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in complex with transcobalamin (TC). Ligand blotting of rabbit kidney cortex with rabbit 125I-TC-B12 and human TC-57Co-B12 revealed an exclusive binding to megalin, a 600-kDa endocytic receptor present in renal proximal tubule epithelium and other absorptive epithelia. The binding was Ca2+ dependent and inhibited by receptor-associated protein (RAP). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a high-affinity interacti...

  15. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  16. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  17. Relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 levels with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) with coronary artery disease and the mechanism, whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 in 94 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were measured and compared with normal controls. The relationship of folate, Vit. B12 levels with the number of coronary vessel stenosis was also studied. Homocysteine(Hcy) and lipid levels in 57 subjects randomly selected were measured and the correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy and lipid levels was analyzed. The results showed that whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 concentrations in CHD patients were significantly lower than those in normal controls. There were no significant differences in whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 levels between patients with different number of coronary vessel stenosis. There was negative correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy, but no significant correlation was found with lipid. The results demonstrated that low blood folate and Vit. B12 levels were associated with the coronary heart disease, and that high plasma Hcy caused by deficiency of folate and Vit. B12 may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. (authors)

  18. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Since 2008, approximately 30,000 Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. Routine medical examinations of refugees after arrival in resettlement states indicated hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. These cases were reported by examining physicians and state health departments to CDC, which initiated an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation. Sera from overseas medical examinations, postarrival examinations in three state health departments (Minnesota, Utah, and Texas), and medical records and interviews at a health clinic in St. Paul, Minnesota, were evaluated. Vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as serum vitamin B12 concentration Bhutanese refugees screened for vitamin B12 deficiency at the St. Paul clinic. Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. Additionally, infection with Helicobacter pylori might play a role. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for vitamin B12 deficiency in Bhutanese refugees. All Bhutanese refugees should be given nutrition advice and should receive supplemental vitamin B12 upon arrival in the United States. In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy. PMID:21430638

  20. Association of B12 deficiency and clinical neuropathy with metformin use in type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Long-term metformin use has been hypothesized to cause B12 deficiency and neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes patients. However, there is a paucity of Indian data regarding the same. Aim: To compare the prevalence of B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with or without metformin. Materials and Methods: We recruited patients with Type 2 diabetes and divided them into metformin exposed and nonmetformin exposed groups. We measured baseline demographic variables like age, sex, vegetarian status, and HbA1c levels in both groups. We compared vitamin B12 levels and severity of peripheral neuropathy (using Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS in both groups. Definite B12 deficiency was defined as B12 <150 pg/ml and possible B12 deficiency as <220 pg/ml. The difference in vitamin B12 levels and TCSS was calculated in both groups using independent samples t-test. Spearman′s rank correlation between cumulative metformin use and B12 level was calculated. Odds ratio of vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin exposed group was also estimated. Results: Mean serum B12 levels was significantly lower in metformin exposed group (n=84 compared with nonmetformin exposed group (n=52 (410±230.7 versus 549.2±244.7, P=0.0011. Mean neuropathy score was significantly higher in metformin exposed group. (5.72±2.04 versus 4.62±2.12, P=0.0064. Odds ratio for possible B12 deficiency was 4.45 (95% CI 1.24-15.97. There was significant negative correlation between cumulative metformin dose and vitamin B12 level (r=−0.68, P<0.0001. Conclusion: Metformin use is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and clinical neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes patients.

  1. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kesiktaş

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12 is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to our outpatient clinic because of chronic low back pain were examined and divided with vitamin B-12 levels over or below 400 pg/ml. 26 participant who met all inclusion criteria with vit-B12 level below 400pg/ml were assigned to case group. Among the patients that vit-B12 levels were over 400pg/ml, 20 participants were randomly selected to control group. Bone mineral density (BMD, biochemical measurements, causes of osteoporosis and vit-B12 defiencies were investigated. A computer program was used for statistic evaluation. Results: There was not statistically significant difference between BMD’s of case and control groups (p>0.05. When the vit-B12 levels were grouped with over 400 pg/ml, below 200 pg/ml and between 200-400 pg/ml, osteodensimetric examinations of femur neck BMD (p<0.05 were achieved statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this trial highlight an association of vitamin B-12 status with osteoporosis. Vit-B12 defiency is an easy and cheap treatable condition so that reason we suggest that levels of vit-B12 should be investigated. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:1-6

  2. Interaction of conjugated bile acids and detergents with a radiosorbent assay of vitamin B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of conjugated bile acids and detergents on the radiosorbent technique for the determination of vitamin B-12 activity is reported. It is shown that whereas the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has no effect on the vitamin B-12-radiosorbent assay, the addition of ionic detergents, e.g. glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid or sodium lauryl sulfate, results in a falsely-elevated vitamin B-12 activity presumably due to the disruption of the binding of vitamin B-12 to the intrinsic factor-Sephadex complex. This effect may be of importance not only to the radiosorbent assaying of vitamin B-12, but to the in vivo intestinal absorption of vitamin B-12 as well

  3. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-10-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B(12)) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B(12) levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 1970 itself. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B(12) deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vit B(12) levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12). PMID:21264109

  4. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  5. CAUSES AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED LEVEL OF VITAMIN B12: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Belwal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an important role in building of genetic material, in development of normal red blood cells and in maintenance of nervous system. Major deficiency symptoms of Vitamin B12 include anemia and neurological disorders. The daily recommended intake of vitamin B12 for an adult is 1.5μg a day. Eating a diet containing required amount of vitamin B12 is the best way to treat the conditions associated with its low level. Vitamin B12 found only in animal based foods such as meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters and shellfish. Hence, vegetarians are more likely to have low level of Vitamin B12.

  6. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B12-sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B12-sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B12-sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B12-sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B12-bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B12-sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B12-sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B12-sepharose which was made by coupling B12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B12-sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: An Important Reversible Co-Morbidity in Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gregor Issac; Soundararajan Soundarya; Rita Christopher; Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 d...

  8. Do MCI patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have distinctive cognitive deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dina; Albers, Ulrike; Santana, Isabel; Vicente, Margarida; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Verdelho, Ana; Guerreiro, Manuela; de-Mendonça, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older people, and may be responsible for reversible dementia. Low serum vitamin B12 levels were also observed in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). It is not known whether patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have a distinctive profile of cognitive impairment different from the episodic memory deficit usually observed in MCI. Results From a cohort of 310 patients with MCI followed in a memory clinic in Lisbon, only 10 cases with vitam...

  9. Influence of Co and B12 on the growth and nitrogen fixation of Trichodesmium

    OpenAIRE

    Irene B. Rodriguez; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of varying cobalt (Co) and B12 concentrations to growth and nitrogen fixation of Trichodesmium, a major diazotroph in the tropical and subtropical oligotrophic ocean. Here we show that sufficient inorganic Co, 20 pmol L-1, sustains the growth of Trichodesmium either with or without an additional B12 supply. We also found that in these culture conditions, nitrogen levels fixed by Trichodesmium were higher in treatments with insufficient B12 than in treatments with...

  10. 可改善维生素B12吸收的Eligen技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽珠(摘)

    2008-01-01

    Emisphere Technologies报告,采用其Eligen配方技术能改善口服维生素B12的生物利用度。Eligen B12产品(I)可使需要补充维生素B12的患者避免多次注射或口服大剂量。

  11. A case of acute psychosis due to vitamin b12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sayın, Selim; Arslan, Erol; Demirbaş, Şeref; ESER, Mithat; Kenan SAĞLAM

    2014-01-01

    Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may present with hematologic, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular symptoms. A clinical Picture of acute psychosis can be seen in rare cases and if not corrected, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to permanent demage. Acute psychosis and symptoms of anemia with sixty-year-old male patient was evaluated and found that vitamin B12 deficiency due to the terminal ileitis. The patient was healed without permanent damage with replacement therapy.The diagnosis and t...

  12. An audit to determine if vitamin b12 supplementation is necessary after sleeve gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Eltweri, Amar M.; Bowrey, David J.; Christopher D Sutton; Graham, Lisa; Williams, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sleeve gastrectomy has increased in popularity over the last five years and it is likely to supersede gastric banding. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether vitamin B12 supplementation is required after surgery. The aim of this short report is to identify any vitamin B12 deficiency and highlight the necessity of post laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy vitamin B12 monitoring. Patients and methods A review of 66 patients underwent LSG in our institution. 25 patients were excluded as they ha...

  13. Cerebral Atrophy in a Vitamin B12-deficient Infant of a Vegetarian Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Şükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, ...

  14. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Randaccio; Silvano Geremia; Nicola Demitri; Jochen Wuerges

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl) are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, wit...

  15. Long-term outcome in children with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Şahin Erdöl; Özlem Özdemir; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently observed in developing countries. Herein we report the long-term clinical and laboratory outcomes in 45 children presented with various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.Materials and Methods: Symptoms and physical findings, and percentiles for weight, height, and head circumference at presentation were recorded. The educational level of the patients’ mothers, vitamin B12 deficiency-related diseases and family income data were collected. Compl...

  16. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions?1234

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of folic acid fortification of flour 10 y ago, an initiative to consider fortifying flour with vitamin B-12 has gained momentum in the United States. The impetus for this move stems from several considerations, including some evidence that a proportion of neural tube defect pregnancies may be the result of vitamin B-12 rather than folate deficiency. However, no interventional trials have taken place to show the efficacy of vitamin B-12 supplementation or fortification i...

  17. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) or selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin) malabsorption with proteinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency commonly resulting in megaloblastic anemia, which is responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy and appears in childhood. Other manifestations include failure to thrive and grow, infections and neurological damage. Mild proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease) is present in about half of the patients. Anatom...

  18. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Y; Hodgson N.W.; Trivedi M.S.; Abdolmaleky H.M.; Fournier M.; Cuenod M.; Do K.Q.; Deth R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal...

  19. Biochemical Impedance on Intracellular Functions of Vitamin B12 in Chronic Toxigenic Mold Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere C. Anyanwu; Ijeoma Kanu

    2007-01-01

    A majority of patients with neurological disorders with chronic exposures to toxigenic molds and mycotoxins has vitamin B12 deficiency that is unrelated to dietary insufficiency. Vitamin B12 is a source of coenzymes, and participates in intracellular recycling of methionine, and in methionine synthase reactions. The biochemical processes that lead to B12 depletion and deficiency are not fully understood. This paper examines and assesses various most likely biochemical reasons that could imped...

  20. 维生素B12对抑郁症的辅助治疗%Vitamin B12 as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春燕; 赵约翰; 徐广军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察抑郁症患者血清维生素B12水平,探讨抗抑郁剂合并维生素B12治疗维生素B12缺乏抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法对400名抑郁症患者进行血清维生素B12浓度测查,将筛查出的维生素B12缺乏的抑郁症患者70例,随机分为两组,各35例。对照组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,治疗8周;研究组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,同时合并使用维生素B12,治疗8周。研究组及对照组治疗前后1,2,4,8周末分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)评定;治疗后1,2,4,8周末分别评定副反应量表(TESS);治疗前及治疗后4,8周末分别查血清维生素B12浓度。结果抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平(359.7±183.2)pg/ml,维生素B12缺乏发生率为19.5%,研究组与对照组第1周末汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),治疗第2,4、8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),研究组有效率为94.3%,对照组为74.3%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.01),血清维生素B12浓度治疗后4,8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),且研究组汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分与血清维生素B12浓度负相关。两组不良反应均较轻微,TESS评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平较正常明显降低,维生素B12缺乏发生率高,维生素B12辅助抗抑郁剂治疗可明显提高疗效,且不增加不良反应。%Objective To observe serum vitamin B 12 levels in patients with depression and explore the curative effects and safety of antidepressant combined with vitamine B 12 in the treatment of depression with vitamin B 12 deficiency.Methods Serum vitamin B12 lev-els in 400 patients with major depressive disorder were determined at baseline .70 depressive patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency were randomly divided into research

  1. 38 CFR 18b.2 - Reviewing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reviewing authority. 18b.2 Section 18b.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Rules § 18b.2 Reviewing authority. The term reviewing authority means the Secretary of Veterans...

  2. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  3. A general review on vitamin B12 deficiency with focus on the situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that is only obtained from foods of animal origin, such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis and neurological function. Thus its deficiency can lead to several neurological symptoms such as memory loss, dizziness and in severe cases may lead to dementia. Many factors can cause or lead to vitamin B-12 deficiency. Among these are malabsorption, several gastron intestinal problems (i.e. celiac disease, Crobn's disease) and gastrointestinal surgeries. diagnosis of vitamin B-12 status depends commonly on serum vitamin B12 which is nonspecific tool for the deficiency. Other more specific tests, which reflect true deficiency, include serum and urine methylmalonic aci de, total serum homocysteine and serum holotranscobalamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a worldwide public health problem; epidemiological studies showed that its prevalence in industrialized countries ranges from 5-60% of the population depending on the used cutoff point of cobalamin level. In Jordan, many reports were published on vitamin B 12 deficiency. However, these reports gave different results of its prevalence ranging from 16-48% depending on the serum vitamin B12 cutoff point used. A recent study showed a prevalence of true deficiency of 32.7% based on measuring both serum vitamin B12 level and plasma methylmalonic acid. (authors).

  4. Light-dependent gene regulation by a coenzyme B12-based photoreceptor

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Polanco, María Carmen; Murillo, Francisco J; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Cobalamin (B12) typically functions as an enzyme cofactor but can also regulate gene expression via RNA-based riboswitches. B12-directed gene regulatory mechanisms via protein factors have, however, remained elusive. Recently, we reported down-regulation of a light-inducible promoter in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by two paralogous transcriptional repressors, of which one, CarH, but not the other, CarA, absolutely requires B12 for activity even though both have a canonical B12-binding mo...

  5. 血清活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值%The value of the serum active vitamin B12 in vitamin B12 deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊瑚; 张文辉; 周碧碧; 陈晓东

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值.方法 采用酶免疫发光分析竞争法检测血清中维生素B12和叶酸的含量,及ELISA法检测血清活性维生素B12,通过ROC曲线分析活性维生素B12在诊断维生素B12缺乏中的特异度和敏感度;并且通过回归分析活性维生素B12水平与性别、年龄、总维生素B12及叶酸的相关性;统计分析各疾病组中活性维生素B12含量的累积百分比.结果 血清活性维生素B12判断维生素B12缺乏的ROC曲线下面积为0.983,敏感度为60.0%,特异性为99.2%;活性维生素B12与总维生素B12和叶酸存在良好的正相关,P<0.001,与年龄、性别不相关;各病例组中血液病组的活性维生素B12含量累计百分比最高,其次为神经系统疾病组.结论 血清活性维生素B12是用于临床维生素B12缺乏诊断较敏感、特异的指标,在血液病、神经系统疾病患者中,其临床应用价值更突出.

  6. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B 12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B 12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Serum B 12 concentration was measured with Radioimmunoassay Dual Isotope method. The cutoff value for low serum vitamin B 12 concentrations was 75 pg/mL. Patients were in remission at the time of blood draw. Results: There were 13 (21.6% MS patients and 10 (26.3% controls with low serum B 12 concentration with no significant difference between the groups; P>0.05. The mean serum vitamin B 12 concentration in MS patients (108.9±45.3 pg/mL was not significantly different compared with controls (98.9±44.4 pg/mL; P=0.284. Likewise, there was no correlation between the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and disease′ age of onset, duration, subtypes, or disability status. Conclusions: In contrast to some previous reports, our findings did not support any association between B 12 deficiency and MS.

  7. Transport of vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: cloning of the btuCD region.

    OpenAIRE

    DeVeaux, L C; Kadner, R J

    1985-01-01

    The transport of vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli requires a specific vitamin B12 receptor protein in the outer membrane and the tonB gene product. In addition, the btuC gene, located at min 38 on the genetic map, has been found to influence vitamin B12 uptake or utilization. The btuC function is required for the growth response to vitamin B12 when the outer membrane transport process (btuB or tonB function) is defective. However, even in a wild-type strain, btuC is required for proper transpo...

  8. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  9. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences: an overview Estado de vitamina B6, deficiencia y sus consencuencias: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    A. Spinneker; Sola, R.; V. Lemmen; Castillo, M.J.; K. Pietrzik; M. González-Gross

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B6 is thought to be a most versatile coenzyme that participates in more than 100 biochemical reactions. It is involved in amino acid and homocysteine metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, neurotransmitter production and DNA/RNA synthesis. Vitamin B6 can also be a modulator of gene expression. Nowadays, clinically evident vitamin B6 deficiency is not a common disorder, at least in the general population. Nevertheless, a subclinical, undiagnosed deficiency may be present...

  10. Thermal expansion investigation on EuB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EuB6 is a semimetallic correlated electron system, which exhibits a complex sequence of electronic and magnetic phase transitions at ∝15.5 K (T1) and 12.5 K (T2). The material also shows a colossal magnetoresistance effect which is largest at T1. The paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in this system is suggested to take place via the formation of magnetic polarons. In this work, we investigate by means of thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements to which extent lattice degrees of freedom are involved in these phase transitions. We find two corresponding anomalies in the thermal expansion, the one occurring at T2 being much larger than that at T1. The anomalies are very sensitive to magnetic fields. By applying a small magnetic field of less than 50 mT the anomaly at T1 is fully suppressed, while the lower-temperature anomaly at T2 shifts to higher temperature as the field is increased and finally fades out at a field B>5 T. These measurements are complemented by measurements of the magnetostriction at various temperatures from below T2 to above T1 which highlight the extraordinarily large magnetoelastic effects in this material.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  12. Simplified Assay for Vitamin B12 in Plastic Tubes Coated with Intrinsic Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric surfaces of some plastic test tubes can be firmly coated with protein solutions. Catt and Tregear have described a radioimmunoassay for polypeptide hormones using plastic tubes coated with specific antihormone antibody. We have developed a competitive binding assay for vitamin B12 using plastic tubes coated with intrinsic factor (I.F.). The method is simple and economical. I. F .-coated tubes are prepared by placing an I.F. solution in plastic test tubes overnight. After pouring out and rinsing twice with normal saline, the coated tubes are drained, dried and stored at 4°C until ready for use. The assay for serum B12 is run with a set of known B12 standard solutions in albumin. The B12 is liberated from protein binders by acidification and boiling. The freed B12 is then mixed with 1000 pg high specific activity 57Co B12 at pH 7.4 and poured into the I.F . -coated tubes. After standing for 24 h to allow for equilibration and competitive binding of hot and cold B12, the plastic tubes are emptied and rinsed twice with tap water. The wall-bound radioactivity is counted in a gamma counter. Tube counts/min are plotted for each B12 standard. An almost straight line curve is obtained. Tube counts/min of test sera are located on the standard curve and their B12 content read off. Serum B12 levels in 28 blood donors ranged from 400 to 2280 pg/m l with a mean of 1341 pg and a standard deviation of 503. Predicted B12 values for dilutions of normal sera agreed closely with levels experimentally determined. This test has proved stable and useful in clinical haematology. (author)

  13. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rumeau Dominique; Szewczyk Agnieszka; Ksas Brigitte; Havaux Michel; Franck Fabrice; Caffarri Stefano; Triantaphylidès Christian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2). These results raise the important question as to whether...

  14. The effect of a subnormal vitamin B-6 status on homocysteine metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J.B.; van der Merwe, A.; Delport, R; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Riezler, R; Vermaak, W J

    1996-01-01

    Homocysteine, an atherogenic amino acid, is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine by the transsulfuration pathway. The biochemical conversion of homocysteine to cysteine is dependent upon two consecutive, vitamin B-6-dependent reactions. To study the effect of a selective vitamin B-6 deficiency on transsulfuration, we performed oral methionine load tests on 22 vitamin B-6-deficient asthma patients treated with theophylline (a vitamin B-6 antagonist) and 24 age- and sex-...

  15. Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldby Ida K; Fosnes Gunvor S; Ligaarden Solveig C; Farup Per G

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin deficiency is a cause of health related problems in elderly people. The aims were to study associations between vitamin B6 (B6) and diseases (primarily functional gastrointestinal disorders) in elderly people in nursing homes, the prevalence of B6 deficiency and factors associated with B6 deficiency. Methods This cross-sectional study included residents in nursing homes. Demographics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA® ), physical activity, activ...

  16. If high folic acid aggravates vitamin B12 deficiency what should be done about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is malabsorption of food-bound vitamin B12. Thus, it is suggested that the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 microg/d be met primarily with crystalline vitamin B12, which is believed to be well absorbed in individuals who have food-bound malabsorption. There is concern that high intakes of folic acid from fortified food and dietary supplements might mask the macrocytic anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency, thereby eliminating an important diagnostic sign. One recent study indicates that high serum folate levels during vitamin B12 deficiency exacerbate (rather than mask) anemia and worsen cognitive symptoms. Another study suggests that once vitamin B12 deficiency is established in subjects with food-bound malabsorption, 40 microg/d to 80 microg/d of oral crystalline vitamin B12 for 30 d does not reverse the biochemical signs of deficiency. Together, these studies provide further evidence that public health strategies are needed to improve vitamin B12 status in order to decrease the risk of deficiency and any potentially adverse interactions with folic acid. PMID:17972439

  17. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  18. Acute Reversible Mania as a Presenting Feature Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with hematological or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common clinical presentations include pernicious anemia, myelopathy (Subacute combined degeneration of the cord, myeloneuropathy, optic atrophy, dementia and psychosis. An uncommon manifestation of Vitamin B12 deficiency-acute onset mania-in a 25-years old man that responded to treatment is reported. Relevant literature is also reviewed.

  19. Acute Reversible Mania as a Presenting Feature Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with hematological or neuropsychiatric manifestations. The common clinical presentations include pernicious anemia, myelopathy (Subacute combined degeneration of the cord), myeloneuropathy, optic atrophy, dementia and psychosis. An uncommon manifestation of Vitamin B12 deficiency-acute onset mania-in a 25-years old man that responded to treatment is reported. Relevant literature is also reviewed.

  20. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Szczecinska, A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Souverein, O.W.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 µg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cogniti

  1. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  2. Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Nexø, Ebba; Greibe, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering...... metformin. Methods: Male Wistar rats aged 16 weeks at sacrifice was treated for 6 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (n = 10) or metformin (n = 10). We collected plasma and organs for analyses of B12, and we explored the fraction of protein-bound B12 in selected organs. In addition we...... examined the effect of four weeks administration of metformin (n = 10= or sline (n = 10) by intra-peritoneal osmotic pumps on levels of B12 in plasma, liver, and kidneys of rats aged 14 weeks at sacrifice. Results: Median concentration of B12 in the 16 weeks old control rats was highest in the kidney (1350...

  3. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency with...

  4. Relationship between vitamin B12 and sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leishear, K.; Boudreau, R.M.; Studenski, S.A.; Ferrucci, L.; Rosano, C.; Rekeneire, N. de; Houston, D.K.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Schwartz, A.V.; Vinik, A.I.; Hogervorst, E.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, T.B.; Newman, A.B.; Strotmeyer, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand two hundred and eighty-seven adult

  5. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  6. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  7. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  8. Development of radiolabelled vitamin B12 and derivatives on oncology and tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current study and clinical application of the radiolabelled Vitamin B12 and derivative are summarized. The biological activity of Vitamin B12 and the application of 111In, 10B, 99Tcm (Re) labelling derivatives on oncology and tumor therapy are mainly reviewed

  9. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos F.; Vera, J.L.; Heijden, van der R.; Valdez, G.F.; Vos, de W.M.; Sesma, F.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 OR

  10. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santos; J.L. Vera; R. van der Heijden; G. Valdez; W.M. de Vos; F. Sesma; J. Hugenholtz

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 OR

  11. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good... and reports shall be in the English language. If any exhibit or other paper or document filed with...

  12. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W J; de Rooij, S E J A; Huijmans, J G M; Fischer, C; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum vit

  13. Vitamin B12 in Obese Adolescents with Clinical Features of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Ho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates an association between obesity, metformin use and reduced vitamin B12 status, which can have serious hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric consequences. This study aimed to examine B12 status in obese adolescents with pre-diabetes and/or clinical features of insulin resistance. Serum B12 was measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay in 103 (43 male, 60 female obese (mean body mass index (BMI z-score ± SD (2.36 ± 0.29, adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, median (range insulin sensitivity index of 1.27 (0.27 to 3.38 and 13.6% had pre-diabetes. Low B12 (<148 pmol/L was identified in eight (7.8% and borderline status (148 to 221 pmol/L in an additional 25 (24.3% adolescents. Adolescents with borderline B12 concentrations had higher BMI z-scores compared to those with normal concentrations (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.32 ± 0.30, p = 0.008 or those with low B12 concentration (2.50 ± 0.22 vs. 2.27 ± 0.226, p = 0.041. In conclusion, nearly a third of obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance had a low or borderline serum B12 status. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to explore the cause and the impact of low B12 status in obese pediatric populations.

  14. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., if the filing is an HTML document, as defined in Regulation S-T Rule 11 (17 CFR 232.11). (e) Where a..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed...

  15. Inhibition of the vitamin B12 binding capacity of proteins by the hydrolysis product of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide hydrolysis product (CPHP) on vitamin B12 binding ability to proteins has been established. The ester N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(3-phosphopropyl)-etheylenediamine hydrochloride is probably responsible, in vitro, for blocking the protein binding sites. Preincubation of proteins with vitamin B12 prevents the inhibitory effect of CPHP. (au)

  16. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  17. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  18. Vitamin B-12 treatment of asymptomatic, deficient, elderly Chileans improves conductivity in myelinated periphreal nerves, but high serum folate impairs vitamin B-12 status response assessed by the combined indicator of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2005 the National Feeding Program for the Elderly (PACAM) in Chile has provided a B12 fortified milk drink (1.7 µg B12/d) which is insufficient to ensure B12 adequacy in many individuals. The objective was to evaluate effects of adding 1 mg B12/d to PACAM vs 1 mg B12/d as a pill with PACAM on ...

  19. Vitamin B6: a challenging link between nutrition and inflammation in cardiovasular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present review is to highlight the relationship between low vitamin B6 status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through its link with inflammation. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in clinical practice, increasing evidence suggests that mild vitamin B6 deficiency is ...

  20. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  1. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H;

    2013-01-01

    the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed...... in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT......, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find...

  2. 60岁后要补维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    据统计,美国60岁以上的老年人当中,1/5缺乏维生素B12。因此,医学家建议:素食者和老年人尤其要注意多吃富含维生素B12的食物,以弥补膳食中维生素B12不足的缺陷。维生素B12对于维持缝康的神经经胞和红细胞非常关键。缺乏维生素B12轻则导致疲劳、眩晕.重则会引起神经损伤、贫血和痴呆。

  3. Novel method for bioproduction labelled vitamin B12 with cobalt-57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first stage of project 'investigation for preparation and production of radio-kit vitamin B12 with med-grade', isolation and purification of solution containing vitamin B12 after fermentation by using different resins such as XAD-4, XAD7 was achieved. After extensive researches on Amberlite-XAD and eluation of the column by different solvents, the purified cyanocobalamin was prepared. The second stage of this research concerns with the bioproduction of radioactive form of vitamin B12 in which the nonradioactive cobalt atom present in the vitamin B12 molecule is replaced by a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 which is generated in 30 MeV p-Cyclotron. Such radioactive form of vitamin is used extensively in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency states in nuclear medicine

  4. Subhyaloid haemorrhage in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency: a unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Wadood Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pancytopenia and also is also assocciated with platelet dysfunction. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl, who presented with fatigue and sudden painless, non-progressive loss of vision in the left eye. An ophthalmologic evaluation revealed bilateral subhyaloid haemorrhage, with macular involvement on the left eye. Earlier Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were suggestive of partially treated vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia. The patient had received four doses of vitamin B12 injections. She was given a complete course of vitamin B12 injections. Both the pancytopenia and subhyaloid haemorrhage improved completely with restoration of normal vision. This case documents the rare occurrence of subhyaloid haemorrhage in vitamin B12 deficiency.

  5. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Marc J. M.; Bouwman, Aniek C; R Corinne Sprong; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visker, Marleen H. P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial...

  6. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  7. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality. PMID:27003215

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans results in loss of fertility, extended life cycle, and reduced lifespan ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bito, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Yohei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, metabolic abnormalities, and neuropathy; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans grown under B12-deficient conditions for five generations develop severe B12 deficiency associated with various phenotypes that include decreased egg-laying capacity (infertility), prolonged life cycle (growth retardation), and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes resemble the consequences of B12 defic...

  9. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; HOLZ, GEORGE G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like ...

  10. Sintering of TiB2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swiatek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Titanium diborides (TiB2 ceramic is particularly interesting because it exhibits high elastic modulus and hardness as well as high thermal conductivity. The interest in TiB2 ceramic increased enormously due to these properties but applications seem to be limited due to difficulties during densification process. In the experiment the TiB2 compacts was obtained using HP-HT method. The aim of this study is to work out and optimize the sintering densification process of TiB2 ceramics.Design/methodology/approach: The high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP Bridgman type apparatus was used for densification method of TiB2 powder. Ceramics were sintered at pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and temperature at 1500-2300ºC ± 50ºC. The duration of sintering was 60 seconds. In order to investigate the structure changes, the optical and scanning electron microscope was used. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness. Young modulus measurements were carried out using ultrasonic method.Findings: The TiB2 ceramics was obtained without using sintering agents. The properties and structure of TiB2 ceramics strongly depend on conditions of sintering process. The application of the temperature of 1500ºC±50ºC and pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and time of 60 seconds permits to obtain the TiB2 ceramics without cracks.Practical implications: The TiB2 ceramic might be used for production of composites. From a practical position it is important to optimize the sintering densification of TiB2 ceramic.Originality/value: The TiB2 ceramics were formed using HP-HT technique without the use of additives. This method of sintering for TiB2 ceramics is original one.T7

  11. Mielopatia por deficiência de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa Myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Rocha Vasconcellos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações neurológicas associadas à deficiência de vitamina B12 incluem polineuropatia, mielopatia, demência e neuropatia óptica. O diagnóstico laboratorial é feito através da dosagem sérica de cianocobalamina ou homocisteína e da excreção urinária de ácido metilmalônico. No estudo anatomopatológico observa-se na microscopia a destruição da mielina e de axônios vistos na substância branca. A região mais comumente afetada é o cordão posterior cervical e/ou torácico. O acometimento da coluna lateral é raro, ocorrendo em casos graves e avançados. O tratamento consiste na reposição de vitamina B12 e a resposta depende da gravidade do quadro e do tempo transcorrido entre o inicio dos sintomas e inicio do tratamento. Relatamos o caso de um paciente que apresentou, como manifestação de deficiência de vitamina B12, mielite transversa. O estudo morfológico da medula demonstrou comprometimento dos tractos cortico-espinhais lateral e anterior, da coluna dorsal e ainda do tracto espino-talâmico.Vitamin B12 deficiency may induce neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia and optic neuropathy. The diagnosis is established by vitamin B12, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid measurements. Myelin and axon destruction in the white matter of the spinal cord are observed. The posterior column of the cervical and thoracic level is the most common involved area. The involvement of the anterior column is restricted to advanced and relatively severe cases. Treatment is based on vitamin B12 injections, and the prognosis depends on the stage of vitamin deficiency and deterioration at treatment onset. We report a case with transverse myelitis due to vitamin B12 deficiency. This picture is relatively uncommon, however, we believe patients with transverse myelitis should have vitamin B12 studies as part of the diagnosis work up.

  12. Investigation of Ni-B Alloys for Joining of TiB2 Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, L.; Kaban, I.; Nowak, R.; Bruzda, G.; Sobczak, N.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2016-02-01

    Melting and wetting behavior of Ni83B17 and Ni50B50 alloys on TiB2 ceramic are investigated upon heating to 1105 and 1050 °C, respectively, using the sessile drop technique. Both alloys show a very good wetting on the TiB2 substrates immediately after incipient melting. Liquid Ni50B50 alloy is revealed not to dissolve TiB2, but penetrates along the grain boundaries into the ceramic. Upon heating and melting of the Ni83B17 alloy on TiB2, a small amount of ceramic is dissolved and the ternary Ni21Ti2B6 phase is formed. Whereas multiple microcracks are observed at the Ni83B17/TiB2 interface, the Ni50B50/TiB2 couple is well bonded and free of interfacial microcracks.

  13. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  14. Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.

  15. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  16. Voltammetry of Vitamin B12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, -0.41 V in a 0.01 mol l-1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1. The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21 V by a one-electron transfer accomplished by CN- cleavage into the cyanocob(II)alamin. The latter species then equilibrated with the base-off B12r, which was immediately reduced into B12s at 0.16 V. The wave at -0.41 V might be a catalytic hydrogen wave. The cathodic peak currents at 0.21 V were controlled by the diffusion of Vitamin B12. On the base of its diffusion behavior, the semi-derivate voltammetric method for the detection of Vitamin B12 was presented. The semi-derivate voltammetric peak current of the wave at 0.21 V was linear with the content of Vitamin B12 in the range of 4.0 x 10-9 to 4.0 x 10-5 mol l-1. The detection limit was 1.0 x 10-9 mol l-1. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the content of Vitamin B12 in pharmaceutical preparations

  17. Measurement of FA and VitB12 in serum by TRFIA and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the correlation between diseases and the quantity of folic acid(FA) and vitamine B12 (VitB12) in serum, the quantity of FA and VitB12 in serum was measured by TR- FIA. The results showed that the levels of FA and VitB12 in 68 controlled subjects were 20.13±5.72 nmol/L and 240.45±58.23 pmol/L respectively. The levels of FA and VitB12 in 6 patients with megaloblastic anemia, 26 with medium-terminal gestation femineity, 7 with liver cirrhosis, 10 with gastric ulcerand 31 with cerebral infarction were significant lower than those in the control group. The level of FA in 24 with malignant hematopathy and 57 with malignant tumor was significantly lower but VitB12 between the 31 patients with iron deficiency anemia and 12 with CAA and the control group. The amount of the FA in 9 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and 42 blood donors were lower than that in the control. The determination of FA and VitB12 levels may be quite significant in the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of diseases. Laboratories should establish the reference values which fit the locals specifically. (authors)

  18. [Vitamin B12, folic acid and mental function in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti

    2005-03-01

    Elderly people is a vulnerable population group to specific nutrient deficiencies as vitamin B12 and folic acid, which are closely related to mental functions deterioration, especially of cognitive functions. This study was aimed to measure B12 vitamin and folic acid indicators and to establish relationships to mental function. 53 elderly, older than 60 years, living in a geriatric home were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by the direct weighed method, serum B12 vitamin and folic acid by radioimmunoanalysis and mental function by Foltein's mini-mental test. Dietary intake for Vit B12 was adequate and deficient for folic acid while serum levels were within normal range. Vitamin B12 levels were at marginal or deficiency values in 26,4% of the elderly and folic acid deficiency was present in 43.4%. 49% of the elderly had mental function alterations and B12 vitamin levels were significantly lower in this group. A positive association between age and mental function (elderly below 80 years had lower risk of mental impairment) and between serum B12 and mental function were found. Elderly were at risk of deficiency for both vitamins and age and mental function were associated to this risk. Further evaluation including other nutrients should be performed. PMID:15782537

  19. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  20. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  1. 维生素B_6的合成研究进展%Process in Synthesis of Vitamin B_6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇智; 范卫东; 党登峰; 张晓增

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of important water-soluble vitamin,vitamin B6 was necessary for human and animals,and was widely used for pharmaceutical,food,feed additive and other fields.The progress in synthesis of vitamin B6 in recent decades was reviewed.Chemical and biological methods for synthesis of vitamin B6 were introduced,and their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed.Finally,the further prospects in synthesis of vitamin B6 were stated.%维生素B6是一种重要的水溶性维生素,为人体和动物生长所必需,因此被广泛用于医药、食品及饲料添加剂等领域。本文综述了近年来维生素B6的合成研究进展,分别介绍了化学合成方法及微生物法在维生素B6合成中的应用,比较了各法的优缺点,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  2. Fisiopatologia da deficiência de vitamina B12 e seu diagnóstico laboratorial Physiopathology of vitamin B12 deficiency and its laboratorial diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Paniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A vitamina B12 é hidrossolúvel, não-sintetizada pelo organismo humano, presente em alimentos de origem animal. Sua deficiência é muito freqüente entre idosos, vegetarianos e indivíduos que adotam baixa dieta protéica ou apresentam problemas de absorção gastrintestinal. FISIOPATOLOGIA: A deficiência de vitamina B12 leva a transtornos hematológicos, neurológicos e cardiovasculares, principalmente, por interferir no metabolismo da homocisteína (Hcy e nas reações de metilação do organismo. Muitas vezes a deficiência pode permanecer assintomática por longos períodos, desencadeando uma deficiência crônica que, se mantida, pode levar a manifestações neurológicas irreversíveis. METODOLOGIAS: Metodologias eficientes que permitam um diagnóstico precoce são imprescindíveis. Porém um método considerado padrão-ouro ainda não é consensual. A dosagem sérica de vitamina B12 sofre algumas restrições pelos problemas de sensibilidade e especificidade, podendo ocorrer sintomas de deficiência mesmo com vitamina B12 sérica dentro dos níveis normais ou, de outro modo, ocorrendo baixos níveis de vitamina B12 sérica sem, contudo, apresentar baixos níveis da fração de vitamina realmente disponível para as células e sem apresentar sintomatologia. Novas alternativas vêm surgindo, como a dosagem de transcobalamina II (Tc II, a única fração de vitamina B12 disponível para as células, ou a dosagem de ácido metilmalônico (MMA e Hcy, metabólitos que aumentam quando ocorre diminuição de vitamina B12 intracelular. Estes testes apresentam algumas vantagens, mas também limitações importantes para uso rotineiro. CONCLUSÃO: Em casos subclínicos, um diagnóstico correto e precoce representa ainda um desafio, e futuros estudos são necessários para definir um método padrão para diagnóstico laboratorial da deficiência de vitamina B12.INTRODUCTION: The vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin, not

  3. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  4. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  5. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  6. 食品中维生素B12的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑云; 徐兰

    2004-01-01

    维生素B12——氰钴胺,是人体必需的微量营养成分之一,可助人体对铁的代谢及对血红蛋白的合成具有重要的生理功能和临床意义。还有些专业人士认为维生素B12可以防止心血管疾病和白癜风疾病的发生。研究维生素B12检测方法,可用于检

  7. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B12) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B12 levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 197...

  8. DETECTION OF VITAMIN B12 IN DIFFERENT COW MILK USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİ, Göknur; KAMBER, Ufuk; NİSBET, Cevat; ÇENESİZ, Sena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. It contains cobalt, and is also known as cobalamin. It is exclusively synthesised by bacteria and is found primarily in fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products. Vitamin B12 deficiency have an underlying stomach or intestinal disorder that limits the absorption of vitamin B12 and might be caused to megaloblastic anemia. In this study cow milk samples were collected from in two different region in Turkey. In milk samples the a...

  9. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Morad; Mark Gringols; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower th...

  10. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Turkish Cohort: Association of Vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Eroglu, Nilgun; Kandur, Yasar; Kalay, Salih; Kalay, Zuhal; Guney, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiency of vitamin B12 (VitB12) causes failure of erytrocyte maturation leading to cell lysis. Red blood cell lysis causes excess heme production that ends with hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of VitB12 in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH) with prolonged jaundice and to compare patients with control group who did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. Methods A total of 20 patients (M/F = 13/7) with jaundice and 20 healthy controls (M/F = 11/9) were inc...

  11. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with...... cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  12. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

    OpenAIRE

    Wadia R S; Edul N C; Bhagat S; Bandishti S; Kulkarni R; Sontakke S; Barhadi S; Shah M

    2004-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID). Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes...

  13. Towards the synthesis of light-stable coenzyme B12 analogs

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gallo; E. Freisinger; Sigel, R. K. O.

    2007-01-01

    The organometallic complex coenzyme B12 (adenosyl cobalamin, AdoCbl) is not only an essential coenzyme in many biochemical reactions of most if not all living organisms but has lately been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of B12 related genes. As a consequence, coenzyme B12 has been a target of intense research. However, the investigations of AdoCbl have often been hampered due to its high light-sensitivity leading to decomposition of the compound within a few seconds. Here, we ...

  14. A pediatric patient with recurrent pseudotumor cerebri and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Derman, Orhan; Dogan, Muhsin

    2006-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid values, and a normal cerebral ventricles on brain imaging studies. A patient with a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri was admitted to the authors' hospital twice within a 2.5-year interval and treated with vitamin B12 (vit-B12). At the second admission she also presented with a cerebral venous thrombosis that might have been explained by vit-B12 deficiency, homocysteinemia, and an increased level of lipoprotein-a. PMID:16326411

  15. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD; Randa Ali-Labib, MD; Tamer M. Farid, MD; Doha Rasheedy, MD; Mohammad F. Tolba, MSc

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: There have been many conflicting reports on the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and the level of vitamin B12 on bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly patients. Moreover, conflicting data exists regarding the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly diabetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between vitamin B12 levels, type 2 DM, and BMD in elderly patients. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 61 participants, ≥60 years of ...

  16. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    OpenAIRE

    PawelMichalKozlowski; PiotrLodowski

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic featu...

  17. Intrinsic factor van castle en resorptie van vitamine B12 : een klinisch en experimenteel onderzoek met behulp van radioaktieve vitamine B12.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, Johannes

    1959-01-01

    Hoofdstuk I bevat enkele opmerkingen over de werking van vit.B12 met radioactieve kobalt isolopen. Bij toediening aan de mens geven wij voorkeur aan Co56 en Co58 op grond van hun relatief korte haveringstijden t.o.v. Co60. De vier gangbare metoden voor het meten van de resorptie van radioaktieve vit

  18. Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Clarke, R.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has reduced the number of neural tube defects in North America. Concerns that high intakes of folic acid might mask vitamin B-12 deficiency in older persons have delayed the introduction of fortification in many European countries. Coforti

  19. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  20. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Taş; Emre Sarandöl; Melahat Dirican

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6) on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6), diabetes (D), and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6). Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight) was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0...

  1. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  2. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  3. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    Het Ministerie van VWS overweegt om bepaalde voedselbestanddelen te verrijken met foliumzuur. Foliumzuurverrijking houdt echter een gezondheidsrisico in, omdat het vitamine B12 deficientie maskeert, waardoor het de incidentie van megaloblastische anemie en perifere neuropathie kan verhogen. Dit ra

  4. 辅酶B12及其模型化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧兰

    1989-01-01

    辅酶B12,即5’-脱氧腺苷钴胺素,是一个天然存在的有机金属化合物。它与维生素B12,即氰钴胺素组成和结构相似,但生理功能不同,维生素B12是一种抗恶性贫血的药物,而辅酶B12在生物体内多种代谢过程中起着重要作用,其中研究得最多的是与分子内重排有关的酶反

  5. 维生素B12的保健作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    一、维生素B12的生理功能1提高叶酸利用率维生素B12与叶酸一起合成甲硫氨酸(由高半胱氨酸合成)和胆碱,在产生嘌呤和嘧啶的过程中合成甲基钴胺和辅酶B12,参与许多重要化合物的甲基化过程.维生素B12缺乏时,使叶酸变成不能利用的形式,导致叶酸缺乏症.

  6. 素食者及老人应补充维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马因

    2005-01-01

    维生素B12对维持健康的神经细胞和血红细胞至关重要,缺乏维生素B12会导致很多疾病,轻者出现疲劳和轻微头晕,重则神经受损、贫血和痴呆。目前维生素B12缺乏现象比医生认为的更普遍,而那些最容易缺乏维生素B12的人群是素食者及老人们。

  7. 维生素B12与老年痴呆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严段梅(译)

    2006-01-01

    美国营养学掌调查了马萨诸塞州一家族的后裔,从26岁到83岁的男女共5000人的难生素B12血浆冰平。结果表明,39%的人体内B12水平居于正常偏低,近25%的人维生素B12水平处于不足状态。研究者认为,在一般人中还有很多维生素B12缺乏的患者未被发现。

  8. 维生素B12与二甲双胍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪经平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 二甲双胍是治疗2型糖尿病最常用的一线药物.根据新英格兰杂志的最新研究:2型糖尿病患者长期使用二甲双胍会增加维生素B12缺乏的风险,换句话说,维生素B12随着用药时间较长而流失.众所周知,二甲双胍能引起维生素B12缺乏,这与叶酸浓度降低有关,最终导致同型半胱氨酸的水平升高,这是维生素B12和叶酸缺乏的标记.

  9. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  10. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha Jm

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. PMID:27383050

  11. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  12. Is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible for cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Khattar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs and serum Vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in them. Results: Vitamin B12 levels were found to be deficient, and latencies of waves P200 and P300 were prolonged in the diabetics as compared to the controls. The dose and duration of metformin had no association with the ERPs. Conclusions: Although the Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in diabetics on metformin, this is not the reason behind the cognitive impairment found in them.

  13. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison′s pigmentation: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Agrawala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis.

  14. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B......12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status. PMID:26995945

  17. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  18. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yasar; Kamer Gunduz; Ece Onur; Mehmet Calkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time ...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF VITAMIN B12 CONCENTRATION: A REVIEW ON AVAILABLE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Karmi O et al

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It is one of the eight vitamins of vitamin B complex, needed for blood and cell maturation. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and it is needed in DNA replication. Its deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia (amidst others health issues). For these and many similar reasons, it sometimes becomes necessary to measure its concentration. This article has carefully reviewed the different methods used for measuring vitamin B12 concen...

  20. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE MARIE

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED PubMed ID: 17991650 BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Exa...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Kibirige, Davis; Mwebaze, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient required for optimal hemopoetic, neuro-cognitive and cardiovascular function. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It presents with diverse clinical manifestations ranging from impaired memory, dementia, delirium, peripheral neuropathy, sub acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia. This review ar...

  2. Vitamin B12 Status in a Tertiary Care Center in Central Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Liggy, Tintu Thomas , Haridas Nambudiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with pernicious anemia or various neuropsychiatric manifestations such as neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, pscyhosis and mood disorders. Hence vitamin B12 deficiency should be identified. The local population in our area mainly comprises of vegetarians, this study was initiated with a view to assess their B12 status early, to rule out its deficiency and help to prevent further complications. Methodology: We analyzed serum B12 levels in 396 cases by competitive chemiluminescent immunometric method using Immulite instrument. Result: It was found that B12 levels were significantly low in 260(65.6% patients (P<0.000. Majority 225 (86.5% of the deficient patients were vegetarians and the deficiency was found less in non vegetarians (P<0.000. The B12 deficiency was evident more in patients below 50years (199 out of 396 i.e. 76.5% of age as compared to those who are above 51 years of age (60 out of 396 i.e. 23.4%, with a P value <0.000. The deficiency was prevalent more in females 179 (68.8% in comparison to males 81(31.1% and the P<0.000. Our study found that B12 deficiency is quiet prevalent in local population (65.6%, the condition being worse in females. And it was also noticed that deficiency was relatively more in vegetarians. Conclusion: The early detection of B12 deficiency could help in warding off the resultant complications.

  3. Association of vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and cognition in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Lökk, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Normal and subnormal serum levels of vitamin B12 and/or folate do not exclude functional deficiency, and elderly people are specifically exposed to deficiency owing to impaired nutrition, malabsorption, accompanying diseases and current medication. Several studies report that low levels of vitamin B12 are more common in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than in non-demented people. Low levels of folate are also correlated with other types of dementia. Current studies suggest that low level...

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with an acute reversible extrapyramidal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joy M.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with pernicious anemia or various neuropsychiatric manifestations. Commonly seen neuropsychiatric manifestations include large fiber neuropathy, myelopathy (subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord), dementia, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, psychosis and mood disorders. The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency- acute onset extrapyramidal syndrome in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 10-day...

  5. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57Co-vitamin B12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B12 was unimpaired. (author)

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Prevalence among South Asians at a Toronto clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil K.; Damji, Alkarim; Uppaluri, Aparna

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in adult South Asian patients. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Family practice clinic in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Records of 988 South Asian patients. INTERVENTION: Of 1000 randomly selected records, we found 988 charts. From charts with at least one documented B12 level, we extracted data on age, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin and ferritin levels, and diet (if available). Descriptive and analytic stati...

  7. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    OpenAIRE

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency related pernicious anaemia by folic acid. aggravate neurological manifestations comes from publications in the mid-1940s, when folic acid was first used to treat patients with pernicious anaemia. This ...

  8. The role of holotranscobalamin in examination of vitamin B12 status

    OpenAIRE

    Čabarkapa Velibor; Stošić Zoran; Uzurov Vera; Sakač Vladimir; Đerić Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Holotranscobalamin contains biologically available cobalamin because only holotranscobalamin promotes the uptake of the cobalamin therein by all cells, via specific receptors. Therefore holotranscobalamin has been proposed as a potentially useful alternative indicator of vitamin B12 status. The aim of the present study was to assess usefulness of holotranscobalamin in the evaluation of vitamin B12 status. Material and methods. We examined serum level of holotranscobalamin in 135...

  9. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, dos, T.C.; Vera, J.L.; Heijden, van der, C.A.M.; G. F. VALDEZ; De Vos; Sesma, F.; Hugenholtz, J

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 ORFs encoding the complete enzymic machinery necessary for de novo biosynthesis. Transcriptional analysis showed it to be expressed as two tandem transcripts of approximately 22 and 4 kb, carrying co...

  10. Vitamin B12, folate and folate-binding proteins in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Arkbåge, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are two important B vitamins for maintaining good health, being involved in amino acid metabolism and DNA synthesis. Milk and dairy products are good sources of vitamin B12 and folate. Moreover, they are of interest due to their content of folate-binding proteins (FBP), since it was hypothesised that these promote folate bioavailability. Furthermore, fermentation of milk is a way to increase the content of both vitamins. Vitamin analysis in fermented dairy products is c...

  11. Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Maureen M.

    2008-01-01

    Folate deficiency in the periconceptional period contributes to neural tube defects; deficits in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have negative consequences on the developing brain during infancy; and deficits of both vitamins are associated with a greater risk of depression during adulthood. This review examines two mechanisms linking folate and vitamin B12 deficiency to abnormal behavior and development in infants: disruptions to myelination and inflammatory processes. Future investigations should f...

  12. Association of B12 deficiency and clinical neuropathy with metformin use in type 2 diabetes patients

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A.K.; Kumar, A.; D Karmakar; R K Jha

    2013-01-01

    Context: Long-term metformin use has been hypothesized to cause B12 deficiency and neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes patients. However, there is a paucity of Indian data regarding the same. Aim: To compare the prevalence of B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with or without metformin. Materials and Methods: We recruited patients with Type 2 diabetes and divided them into metformin exposed and nonmetformin exposed groups. We measured baseline...

  13. Is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible for cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Khattar; Farah Khaliq; Neelam Vaney; Madhu, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were eva...

  14. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in ...

  15. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET gro...

  16. Premarital screening of 466 Mediterranean women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Karabulut, Aysun; GÜLER, ÖMER TOLGA; KARAHAN, HATİCE TUBA; ÖZKAN, SEVGİ; KOYUNCU, HASAN; DEMİRCİLER, İBRAHİM

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 serum levels are closely related with dietary habits and have an essential role in the healthy development of a fetus. We aimed to investigate hemoglobin, ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in preconceptional women in an area where a plant-based diet referred to as Mediterranean cuisine is commonly used. Materials and methods: The study population included 466 women between the ages of 18 and 45 years admitted for thalassemia screening. So...

  17. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydroge...

  18. Correlations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and thrombopoietin to platelet count in HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Somayh S. Eissa; Olfat M. Hendy; Fatma Younis; Aziza K. Omar Samy; Ayat R. Abdallah; Laila A. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionThe platelet count is known to decrease in proportion to the advancement of the stage of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) viral infection. The platelet count is currently used as an index for fibrosis staging. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not completely understood. PurposeThis work aimed to study the correlations of folic acid (FA), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), homocysteine (Hcy), and thrombopoietin to t...

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Cobalamins (Vit.B12) Produced by Native Propionibacteria

    OpenAIRE

    H.kazemi fard; N. Mozami; Jalali, M.

    1995-01-01

    in order to prepare cobalamins (Vit. B12) using microbial culture method, the strains of Genus propionibacteriun have been chosen in preference to other species because of their rapid growth and high productivity of selected mutants."nIn the present research we examined the quantitative evaluation of cobalamins (Vit.B12) produced by native propionibacteria and results have been compared to other reports in this subject."nThe native propionibacteria were isolated from Iranien dairy p...

  20. AB156. Homocysteine and vitamin B12: risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheng; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing levels of homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with cardiovascular disease, and erectile dysfunction (ED) has close relation with cardiovascular disease, therefore, high homocysteine may be one of the risk factors of ED. During the metabolism of homocysteine, vitamin B12 plays an important role and could be the main factor in causing erectile dysfunction as well. Purpose To investigate the relationship between Hcy, vitamin B12 and ED in sample. Methods The study included 1,4...

  1. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated p...

  2. Visual Evoked Potentials in Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Results of a Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Değirmenci, Yıldız; Örs, Ceyda Hayretdağ; Yılmaz, Yeliz; Karaman, Handan Işın Özışık

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and P100 latency and amplitudes with visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with B12 vitamin deficiency without optic neuritis (ON). Material and Methods: Patients who presented to the outpatient neurology clinic of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Research Hospital underwent initial evaluation. Among those, complete blood count, full biochemistry (blood glucose, liver and kidne...

  3. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Regland; Sara Forsmark; Lena Halaouate; Michael Matousek; Birgitta Peilot; Olof Zachrisson; Carl-Gerhard Gottfries

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six m...

  4. Face-capping μ3-BO in B6(BO)7-: boron oxide analogue of B6H7- with rhombic 4c-2e bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Lu, Hai-Gang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2013-11-14

    Using the first-principle approaches, we predict a B6(BO)7(-) cluster with a face-capping μ(3)-BO, which is the boron oxide analogue of closo-B6H7(-) with a face-capping μ(3)-H. Detailed topological analysis of electron density clearly reveals the existence of three rhombic 4c-2e bonds around the B/H apex in both C3v B6(BO)7(-) and C3v B6H7(-), which possesses similar electron densities at their bond and ring critical points. The adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP) analysis provides a direct and visual picture of the B-B-B-B/H 4c-2e bonds for the first time. Adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies of the concerned monoanions are calculated to facilitate their future photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and characterizations. The presence of the B6(BO)7(-) and B6H7(-) clusters extends the BO/H isolobal analogy to the whole μ(n)-BO/H series (n = 1, 2, and 3) and enriches the chemistry of boronyl. PMID:24147988

  5. THE REINFORCING MECHANISM OF TiB2 IN TiB2/A357 COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Yu; Y.J. Zhang; Z.X. Zhao; F.X. Zhao; Q.K. Cai; C.S. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties were tested for in situ TiB2/A357 composite fabricated by LSM (mixed salts reaction) method. Microstructures of as cast and plastic deformed TiB2/A357 were investigated. The results show that there is a low misfit between (200)A1 and (101)TiB2 with [011]Al // [101]TiB2. There is a change from fully dendritic structure of the α-Al of A357 to a rosette-type structure of TiB2/A357. Significant increases in proof stress and Young's modulus can be obtained at low TiB2 additions. There exist dislocation loops around neighboring TiB2 particles with about 0. 1ηm in diameter and dislocation multiplication near TiB2 particles.

  6. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  7. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  8. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  9. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  10. Validity of transcobalamin II-based radioassay for the determination of serum vitamin B12 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valid radioassay for the estimation of serum vitamin B12 in the presence of naturally occurring vitamin B12 (= cobalamin) analogues can be operated if serum transcobalamin II (TC II) is used as the binding protein. Serum samples that gave diagnostically discrepant results when their vitamin B12 content was analysed (i) by a commercial radioassay known to be susceptible to interference from cobalamin analogues, and (ii) by microbiological assay, were further analysed by an alternative radioassay which uses the transcobalamins (principally TC II) of diluted normal serum as the assay binding protein. Concordance between the results from microbiological assay and the TC II-based radioassay was found in all cases. In an extended study over a three-year period, all routine serum samples sent for vitamin B12 analysis that had a vitamin B12 content of less than 320 ng/l by the TC II-based radioassay (reference range 200-850 ng/l) were reanalysed using an established microbiological method. Over 1000 samples were thus analysed. The data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the TC II-based radioassay results in this group of patients, serum samples from which are most likely to produce diagnostically erroneous vitamin B12 results when analysed by a radioassay that is less specific for cobalamins. (author)

  11. Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algae Use Different Chemical Variants of Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Lawrence, Andrew David; Holzer, Andre; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sasso, Severin; Kräutler, Bernhard; Scanlan, David John; Warren, Martin James; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-04-25

    Eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria are the major components of the phytoplankton. Determining factors that govern growth of these primary producers, and how they interact, is therefore essential to understanding aquatic ecosystem productivity. Over half of microalgal species representing marine and freshwater habitats require for growth the corrinoid cofactor B12, which is synthesized de novo only by certain prokaryotes, including the majority of cyanobacteria. There are several chemical variants of B12, which are not necessarily functionally interchangeable. Cobalamin, the form bioavailable to humans, has as its lower axial ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we show that the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus synthesizes only pseudocobalamin, in which the lower axial ligand is adenine. Moreover, bioinformatic searches of over 100 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes for B12 biosynthesis genes, including those involved in nucleotide loop assembly, suggest this is the form synthesized by cyanobacteria more broadly. We further demonstrate that pseudocobalamin is several orders of magnitude less bioavailable than cobalamin to several B12-dependent microalgae representing diverse lineages. This indicates that the two major phytoplankton groups use a different B12 currency. However, in an intriguing twist, some microalgal species can use pseudocobalamin if DMB is provided, suggesting that they are able to remodel the cofactor, whereas Synechococcus cannot. This species-specific attribute implicates algal remodelers as novel and keystone players of the B12 cycle, transforming our perception of the dynamics and complexity of the flux of this nutrient in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27040778

  12. Metabolic engineering of cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Malten, Marco; Barg, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Martens, Jan-Henning; Deery, Evelyne; Leech, Helen; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) production in Bacillus megaterium has served as a model system for the systematic evaluation of single and multiple directed molecular and genetic optimization strategies. Plasmid and genome-based overexpression of genes involved in vitamin B(12) biosynthesis, including cbiX, sirA, modified hemA, the operons hemAXCDBL and cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR, and the regulatory gene fnr, significantly increased cobalamin production. To reduce flux along the heme branch of the tetrapyrrole pathway, an antisense RNA strategy involving silencing of the hemZ gene encoding coproporphyrinogen III oxidase was successfully employed. Feedback inhibition of the initial enzyme of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, HemA, by heme was overcome by stabilized enzyme overproduction. Similarly, the removal of the B(12) riboswitch upstream of the cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR operon and the recombinant production of three different vitamin B(12) binding proteins (glutamate mutase GlmS, ribonucleotide triphosphate reductase RtpR and methionine synthase MetH) partly abolished B(12)-dependent feedback inhibition. All these strategies increased cobalamin production in B. megaterium. Finally, combinations of these strategies enhanced the overall intracellular vitamin B(12) concentrations but also reduced the volumetric cellular amounts by placing the organism under metabolic stress. PMID:21255303

  13. B12 Vitamin and Folat Prevelance of Children and Adolescents in Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Öncel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood are vitamin B12 and folat deficiency. Folat and vitamin B12 play a role in DNA synthessis in gastrointestinal, urogenital,nerves and hemotopoetic cells. The diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia is easy and the treatment cost is low.In this study, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folat deficiencies in 889 students were determined. Vitamin B12 and folat levels in blood samples were measured via RİAThe average age were betwen 12 and 22 years. Of this students 294(%33,1 were female and 595 (%66,9 were male. The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be 2.2%, while folat deficiency was 21.8%. The mean vitamin B12 level was 331,51±144,05 pg/mL (325,60±138,91 in pg/mL male, 343,48±153,48 pg/mL in female, the mean folat level was 5,42±2,12 ng/ml (5,23±2,11 ng/ml in male, 5,80±2,10 ng/ml in female.The prevelance of folat deficiency in our region was higher than other countries, possibly due to low socioeconomical status, improper or inadequate food intake and low educational status.

  14. Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algae Use Different Chemical Variants of Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Lawrence, Andrew David; Holzer, Andre; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sasso, Severin; Kräutler, Bernhard; Scanlan, David John; Warren, Martin James; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria are the major components of the phytoplankton. Determining factors that govern growth of these primary producers, and how they interact, is therefore essential to understanding aquatic ecosystem productivity. Over half of microalgal species representing marine and freshwater habitats require for growth the corrinoid cofactor B12, which is synthesized de novo only by certain prokaryotes, including the majority of cyanobacteria. There are several chemical variants of B12, which are not necessarily functionally interchangeable. Cobalamin, the form bioavailable to humans, has as its lower axial ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we show that the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus synthesizes only pseudocobalamin, in which the lower axial ligand is adenine. Moreover, bioinformatic searches of over 100 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes for B12 biosynthesis genes, including those involved in nucleotide loop assembly, suggest this is the form synthesized by cyanobacteria more broadly. We further demonstrate that pseudocobalamin is several orders of magnitude less bioavailable than cobalamin to several B12-dependent microalgae representing diverse lineages. This indicates that the two major phytoplankton groups use a different B12 currency. However, in an intriguing twist, some microalgal species can use pseudocobalamin if DMB is provided, suggesting that they are able to remodel the cofactor, whereas Synechococcus cannot. This species-specific attribute implicates algal remodelers as novel and keystone players of the B12 cycle, transforming our perception of the dynamics and complexity of the flux of this nutrient in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27040778

  15. Gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia: different types of responsiveness to vitamin B6.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, S.; Saito, T.; Nakajima, H.; Takaku, Y; Shiono, T; Mizuno, K; Ohmura, K.; Tada, K

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of Japanese patients with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia were studied clinically and biochemically. The types of disease differed in responsiveness to vitamin B6. In-vivo responsiveness to vitamin B6 was correlated with in-vitro data. It is suggested that the in-vitro examination of the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on ornithine ketoacid transaminase activity in cultured fibroblasts may be useful in ascertaining the efficacy of vitamin B6 treat...

  16. Evaluation of vitamin B6 intake and status of 20- to 64-year-old Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-OK

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent research regarding vitamin B6 status including biochemical index is limited. Thus, this study estimated intakes and major food sources of vitamin B6; determined plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); and assessed vitamin B6 status of Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h diet recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (n = 254) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, cities of Kwangju and Gumi, Korea. Vit...

  17. Genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content of bovine milk and its association with SNP along the bovine genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J M Rutten

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland.

  18. Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which 57Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline 57Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with 58Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline 57Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk-58Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test

  19. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamim B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Eussen, S.J.; Groot, de, H.L.F.; Joosten, L.W.; Bloo, R.; Clarke, R.; Ueland, P.M.; Schneede, J.; Blom, H. J.; Hoefnagels, W. H.; Staveren, van, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether daily supplementation with high doses of oral vitamin B-12 alone or in combination with folic acid has any beneficial effects on cognitive function in persons aged 70 y with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design: I...

  20. FeB6 Monolayers: The Graphene-like Material with Hypercoordinate Transition Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Yafei; Hou, Jianhua; Tu, Kaixiong; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-05-01

    By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations and global minimum search using particle-swarm optimization (PSO) method, we predicted three FeB6 monolayers, namely α-FeB6, β-FeB6 and γ-FeB6, which consist of the Fe©Bx (x = 6, 8) wheels with planar hypercoordinate Fe atoms locating at the center of six- or eight-membered boron rings. In particular, the α-FeB6 sheet constructed by Fe©B8 motifs is the global minimum due to completely shared and well delocalized electrons. The two-dimensional (2D) boron networks are dramatically stabilized by the electron transfer from Fe atoms, and the FeB6 monolayers have pronounced stabilities. The α-FeB6 monolayer is metallic, while the β-FeB6 and γ-FeB6 sheets are semiconductors with indirect band gaps and significant visible-light absorptions. Besides the novel chemical bonding, the high feasibility for experimental realization, and unique electronic and optical properties, render them very welcome new members to the graphene-like materials family. PMID:27035286