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Sample records for b2 b3 approximation

  1. Quantising the B=2 and B=3 Skyrmion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the quantisation of a collective Hamiltonian for the two-baryon system derived by us in a previous paper. We show that by increasing the sophistication of the approximations we can obtain a bound state - or a resonance - not too far removed from the threshold with the quantum numbers of the deuteron. The energy of this state is shown to depend very sensitively on the parameters of the model. Subsequently we construct part of a collective Hamiltonian for the three-baryon system. Large-amplitude quantum fluctuations play an important role in the intrinsic wave function of the ground state, changing its symmetry from tetrahedral to cubic. Apart from the tetrahedron describing the minimum of the potential, we identify a ''doughnut'' and a ''pretzel'' as the most important saddle points in the potential energy surface. We show that it is likely that inclusion of fluctuations through these saddle points leads to an energy close to the triton's value. (orig.)

  2. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2-ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto-maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2-ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1-ErbB2-ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  3. Bridging η2 -BO in B2(BO)3(-) and B3(BO)3(-) clusters: boronyl analogs of boranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Guo, Jin-Chang; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are combined to probe the structures and chemical bonding of two boron-rich oxide clusters, B(5)O(3)(-) and B(6)O(3)(-), which are shown to be appropriately formulated as B(2)(BO)(3)(-) and B(3)(BO)(3)(-), respectively. The anion clusters are found to each possess a bridging η(2)-BO group, as well as two terminal BO groups and are analogs of B(2)H(3)(-) and B(3)H(3)(-). This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:21954002

  4. Scintillation characteristics of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth technique. The optical characteristics and scintillation parameters of the grown single crystals have been tested and discussed

  5. COMPARISON OF THREE APPROACHES OF ESTIMATING PROTEIN B2 AND B3 DEGRADATION RATES IN THE RUMEN OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.K. AVORNYO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method that involved the gravimetric measurement of the amounts of feed protein B2 (feed protein that is insoluble in borate phosphate buffer but soluble in neutral detergent solution and protein B3 (feed protein that is insoluble in neutral detergent solution but soluble in acid detergent solution that remain after each in situ incubation period, was used to obtain the degradation rates of these protein pools in six different feeds. These degradation rates were then compared with degradation rates provided by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for nominally similar feeds in order to establish the extent of agreement between these sets of data. Curve peeling technique was also used on the in situ results of this experiment to generate degradation rates for comparison with the gravimetric and the Cornell values. The study showed that the gravimetric, the curve peeling and the Cornell values were not statistically different for the degradation rates of protein B2 even though the gravimetric estimates were the highest followed by curve peeling and then the Cornell values. For protein B3, the degradation rate estimated with the gravimetric method was highest followed by the curve peeling method and then the Cornell values (P<0.01. The degradation rates assigned to protein B3 in the Cornell databank needs re-examination. There is a need for further application of the gravimetric technique to establish if it gives higher estimates of the degradation rates of proteins B2 and B3 in a range of feedstuffs.

  6. Fracturas del cuello quirúrgico del húmero (B2-B3). Tratamiento quirúrgico.

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Planelles, Antonio; D'Arrigo, A.; Arenas Miquélez, A.; Garbayo Marturet, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Se presentan 36 casos de fractura de húmero proximal tipos B2 y B3 tratados quirúrgicamente mediante osteosíntesis con clavo proximal (4 casos) o placa bloqueada (29 casos) o utilizando una hemiartroplastia de hombro (3 casos). Los resultados fueron buenos en la mayor parte de los pacientes, con un dolor medio de 11,97/15 en la cotación cifrada de Constant, una fuerza de 13,42/25 puntos y una movilidad de 24,33/40 puntos. Las complicaciones más importantes fueron el conflicto subacromial (10 ...

  7. Electronic structure of β-BaB2O4 and LiB3O5 nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Ling, J. W.; Ohuchi, F. S.; Chen, C. T.

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between the anionic groups of β-barium borate and lithium borate nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals and their bonding, electronic structure, and transmission cutoffs has been studied using the discrete variational self-consistent multipolar Xα method [B. Delley and D. E. Ellis, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1949 (1982)] for the electronic structure of the borate anionic groups, coupled with experimental studies of the band gap, absorption edge, and valence bands, using vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and valence-band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The band gap of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) is 6.43 eV while LiB3O5(LBO) has a larger band gap of 7.78 eV. The structures of LBO and BBO differ principally in two aspects: the bonding in the borate anionic groups, and the isolation or linkage of the anionic groups in the crystal. BBO consists of (B3O6)3- anionic groups, with boron trigonally coordinated by oxygen; these groups are isolated in the crystal structure. LBO, however, is based on (B3O7)5- anionic groups, with boron either trigonally or tetrahedrally coordinated by oxygen, these groups are linked throughout the crystal. These structural differences between BBO and LBO lead to a larger band-gap energy in LBO. The linkage of LBO's anionic groups removes states from the top of the valence band which arise from the nonbonding terminal oxygen atoms present in BBO's unlinked anionic groups and also partially removes the π-conjugated orbitals associated with trigonally coordinated boron-oxygen bonding. The relationship between the crystal structure and the electronic structure can be seen as an extension of the molecular-engineering approach to search for additional NLO crystals in the uv range.

  8. Lithium triborate LiB3O5 crystallization in Li2O-B2O3-MoO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution-melting crystallization at spontaneous nucleation, inoculation crystallization and quenching one extracted lithium triborate crystals from Li2O-B2O3-MoO3 system. Li2O-B2O3, B2O3-MoO3 and Li2MoO4-MoO3 binary systems faceting Li2O2-B2O3-MoO3 ternary oxide system were studied by means of solid-phase reactions in subsolidus range. LiB3O5-MoO3 and LiB3O5-Li4Mo5O17 cuts and LiB3O5-Li4Mo5O17-MoO3 ternary system of that oxide system were studied, as well

  9. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2–ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto–maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2–ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1–ErbB2–ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  10. Electronic structure and interatomic bonding of crystalline β-BaB2O4 with comparison to LiB3O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Nian; Ching, W. Y.; French, R. H.

    1993-12-01

    The electronic structure and the linear-optical properties of the nonlinear-optical crystal β-BaB2O4 (BBO) have been calculated using a first-principles band-structure method with the local-density approximation. The results are compared with those of another nonlinear-optical crystal LiB3O5 (LBO). An indirect band gap of 5.52 eV and a direct gap of 5.61 eV at Γ for BBO are obtained, which are to be compared with the measured optical gap of 6.43 eV. It is shown that the electronic structure of the BBO is dominated by the characteristic ionic (B3O6)-3 group in which the two different O sites show markedly different bonding structures. Comparison of charge-density distributions in BBO and LBO shows that the ionic groups are linked together in forming a networklike structure. The Ba atom in the BBO crystal is found to be bonded to the O ions in the adjacent layers in a partly covalent, partly ionic manner due to the presence of large semi-core-like 5p orbitals. The calculated optical properties for both BBO and LBO crystals are in good agreement with the measured vacuum ultraviolet spectrum especially in the region of absorption threshold. The agreements between theory and experiment near the absorption edges are much closer than that reflected by the gap values alone.

  11. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. PMID:26607421

  12. First-principles calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and BaB2O4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Duan, Chun-Gang; Gu, Zong-Quan; Wang, Ding-Sheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the calculation of electronic structure and linear optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO), CsB3O5 (CBO), and BaB2O4 (BBO) crystals using the linearized augmented plane-wave band method. It is found that the top of their valence bands consists of O orbitals, while the boron has almost no contribution. The linkage between (B3O7)5- anionic groups in the crystalline state is the main cause of making the gap of LBO and CBO larger than BBO's. The near-edge interband transition contains the contribution of the trigonal coordinated B-O bands in the final state for LBO. For CBO and BBO, the final state consists mainly of cation states at the bottom of the conduction bands. In this case, however, the transition from the O derived valence states to these cation states is quite weak; strong transition only appears till about 1 eV above the absorption edge when B-O orbitals are also involved in the final states.

  13. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB1, FB2 and FB3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg-1, respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  15. Infrared spectra of β-BaB 2O 4 and LiB 3O 5: new nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryc, U.; Ptak, W. S.

    1999-11-01

    Some boron compounds, among them low temperature phase β-barium metaborate (BBO) and lithium triborate (LBO), are very attractive materials exhibiting large nonlinear optical (NLO) effects. The two mentioned compounds, in the form of polycrystalline samples, were used in the infrared absorption spectra studies. In the synthesis of the samples, the boron isotopes: 10B, 11B and lithium isotope 6Li were used. The isotopic substitution as a method for giving additional data and better interpretation of the spectra was applied. The obtained spectra were discussed, applying group analysis of the basic structure units of the two phases: the (B 3O 6) 3- (BBO) and (B 3O 5) - (LBO). Assignment of the frequencies to the appropriate vibration according to the Redlich-Teller rule was also discussed.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  17. Fate of the fusarium mycotoxins fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize flour and maize grits during extrusion cooking.

    OpenAIRE

    Scudamore, Keith; Guy, Robin C, E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Extrusion technology is used widely to manufacture a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals and cereal products and fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) in maize are controlled in the European Community by legislation with the objective of minimising consumer exposure to these mycotoxins. Relatively few studies have examined the losses of fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The be...

  18. Lattice dynamics of α-TeO2 in the DFT-LCAO-B3LYP approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. A.; Mavrin, B. N.

    2015-11-01

    Ab initio DFT analysis of phonon frequencies at the center of the Brillouin zone, dispersion of phonons, phonon state density, effective Born charges, and IR reflection and Raman spectra of α-TeO2 is performed in the basis set of Gaussian functions using the hybrid B3LYP pseudopotential. Inverted phonons were discovered in the TO-LO splitting of polar modes. The possibility of assigning the frequencies to vibrations of the TeO2 molecule is discussed. The anisotropy of effective Born charges is explained to be a result of the ion-covalent character of the Te-O bond.

  19. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  20. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  1. Crystal structure of new synthetic Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(NaxCa0.5−x)[B3tB2δO8(OH)(O1−xOHx)](CO3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(NaxCa0.5−x) [B3tB2ΔO8(OH)(O1−xOHx)](CO3) crystals (x ∼ 0.4) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the Ca(OH)2-H3BO3-Na2CO3-NaCl-system at t = 250°C and P = 70–80 atm; the structure parameters are found to be a = 11.1848(3) Å, b = 6.4727(2) Å, c = 25.8181(7) Å, β = 96.364(3)°, V = 1857.60(9) Å3, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 8, and ρcalcd = 2.801 g/cm3 (Xcalibur S autodiffractometer (CCD), 2663 reflections with I > 2σ (I), direct solution, refinement by the least-squares method in the anisotropic approximation of thermal atomic vibrations, hydrogen localization, R1 = 0.0387). The structure is based on boron-oxygen layers of pentaborate radicals 5(2Δ + 3T). Ca and Na polyhedra and CO3 triangles are located between the layers. A crystallochemical analysis of the new Ca,Na carbonate-borate has established its similarity to natural Na,Ca pentaborates (heidornite and tuzlaite) and synthetic Na,Ba-decaborate.

  2. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M

    2016-08-31

    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  3. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.;

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale.......828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most commonly adopted in recent literature. The nominal total solar irradiance (1361 W/m$^2$) adopted in IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to apparent bolometric magnitude $m...

  4. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  5. B2(BO)6 0/- and B 2(BS) 6 0/- doubly bridged structures containing BO or BS as ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian

    2014-09-01

    The investigation on the geometrical and electronic properties of B(2)(BO)(6) (0/-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (0/-) has been performed by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and BP86 methods. The chemical bonding in B(2)A(6) (A = H, BO, and BS) series is elucidated through the recently developed adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP). D(2h) B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) were found to possess two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups, as well as four terminal BO or BS groups that are analogs of diborane B(2)H(6). D(2)h B(2)(BO)(6) (-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (-) with two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups which are more stable than their corresponding D(3d) structures. The binding energy of B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) with respect to B(2)(BO)(6) (D2h) → 2B(BO)(3) (D(3h)) and B(2)(BS)(6)(D(2h)) → 2B(BS)(3) (D(3h)) are estimated to be (△)E = 19.8 and 40.6 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)//B3LYP level, respectively. This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:25159274

  6. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of vitreous B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made of the structural data obtained by positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) for vitreous B2O3 (v-B2O3) and crystalline B2O3 (c-B2O3). Samples of v-B2O3 were dried by holding the melt at 1350K to reduce residual OH groups. Fast quenching and slow cooling were used to obtain glasses having different fictive structures. According to the literature, B3O6 rings are thought to be formed during slow cooling of v-B2O3. PLS measurements show that both the intensity value and the long lifetime component (t3) associated with positron decay in cavities and lifetime component (t1) associated with the positron annihilation in the bulk are different for v-B2O3 and c-B2O3. The low intensity of t3 for c-B2O3 and its high value for v-B2O3 is argued to be due to the presence of different structural units in the two states of B2O3

  7. Niacin and niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin and niacinamide are forms of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains. Niacin and niacinamide are also found in many vitamin B complex ...

  8. The cloning of cyclin B3 and its gene expression during hormonally induced spermatogenesis in the teleost, Anguilla japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We cloned cyclin B1, B2, and B3 cDNAs from the eel testis. Northern blot analysis indicated that these cyclin B mRNAs were expressed and increased from day 3 onward after the hormonal induction of spermatogenesis, and that cyclin B3 was most dominantly expressed during spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization showed that cyclin B1 and B2 were present from the spermatogonium stage to the spermatocyte stage. On the other hand, cyclin B3 mRNA was present only in spermatogonia. Although mouse cyclin B3 is expressed specifically in the early meiotic prophase, these results indicate that eel cyclin B3 expression is limited during spermatogenesis to spermatogonia, but is not present in spermatocytes. These facts together suggest that eel cyclin B3 is specifically involved in spermatogonial proliferation (mitosis), but not in meiosis

  9. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  10. B2-B2.5 code benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M; Voskoboynikov, S.; Rozhansky, V.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.; Kotov, V.; Boerner, P.

    2011-01-15

    ITER-IO currently (and since about 15 years) employs the SOLPS4.xxx code for its divertor design, currently version SOLPS4.3. SOLPS.xxx is a special variant of the B2-EIRENE code, which was originally developed by an European consortium (FZ Juelich, AEA Culham, ERM Belgium/KU Leuven) in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century under NET contracts. Until today even the very similar edge plasma codes within the SOLPS family, if run on a seemingly identical choice of physical parameters, still sometimes disagree significantly with each other. It is obvious that in computational engineering applications, as they are carried out for the various ITER divertor aspects with SOLPS4.3 for more than a decade now, any transition from one to another code must be fully backward compatible, or, at least, the origin of differences in the results must be identified and fully understood quantitatively. In this report we document efforts undertaken in 2010 to ultimately eliminate the third issue. For the kinetic EIRENE part within SOLPS this backward compatibility (back until 1996) was basically achieved (V. Kotov, 2004-2006) and SOLPS4.3 is now essentially up to date with the current EIRENE master maintained at FZ Juelich. In order to achieve a similar level of reproducibility for the plasma fluid (B2, B2.5) part, we follow a similar strategy, which is quite distinct from the previous SOLPS benchmark attempts: the codes are ''disintegrated'' and pieces of it are run on smallest (i.e. simplest) problems. Only after full quantitative understanding is achieved, the code model is enlarged, integrated, piece by piece again, until, hopefully, a fully backward compatible B2 / B2.5 ITER edge plasma simulation will be achieved. The status of this code dis-integration effort and its findings until now (Nov. 2010) are documented in the present technical note. This work was initiated in a small workshop by the three partner teams of KU Leuven, St. Petersburg

  11. In vivo knockdown of ErbB3 in mice inhibits Schwann cell precursor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takada, Shuji; Tsumura, Hideki; Arai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-09-26

    The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration. PMID:25204498

  12. Synthesis, structure, and characterization of a new rubidium cadmium borate: RbCdB3O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. Detailed structural analyses show that RbCdB3O6 possesses the [RbCdB3O6] layers. The antiparallel arrangement of B3O6 rings makes it crystallize in the centrosymmetric group and has a relatively large birefringence. -- Highlights: • A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized. • It is a layer-type structure composed of planar B3O6 rings, which are distributed discretely from layer to layer. • A comparison of the structures of RbCdB3O6, α-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 is presented. • The electronic structure and linear optical response are calculated. -- Abstract: A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, and in its crystal structure, RbO10 polyhedra and B3O6 rings comprise a three dimensional (3D) framework containing tunnels viewing along [1 0 1] direction in which Cd atoms are located to balance the charge. A comparison of the structures of RbCdB3O6, α-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 is presented. The IR, UV–Vis-IR absorption spectra and the thermal properties of RbCdB3O6 have also been reported. The electronic structure and birefringence have been calculated by the first-principle method based on the density-functional theory

  13. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling. - Graphical abstract: The in situ high temperature XRD contour plot (A) and XRD patterns

  14. A Dual Role of erbB2 in Myelination and in Expansion of the Schwann Cell Precursor Pool

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, A.N.; Voiculescu, O.; Topilko, P.; Charnay, P; Birchmeier, C.

    2000-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 provides an important axonally derived signal for the survival and growth of developing Schwann cells, which is transmitted by the ErbB2/ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinases. Null mutations of the neuregulin-1, erbB2, or erbB3 mouse genes cause severe deficits in early Schwann cell development. Here, we employ Cre-loxP technology to introduce erbB2 mutations late in Schwann cell development, using a Krox20-cre allele. Cre-mediated erbB2 ablation occurs perinatally in peripheral nerves...

  15. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  16. Mixed valent perovskites Ba3B3+Ru2sup(4.5+)O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black compounds Ba3B3+Ru2O9 crystallize with B3+ = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Y in a hexagonal BaTiO3 structure (6L, sequence (hcc)2) with an ordered distribution (1:2 order) of B3+ and ruthenium (BO6 single octahedra; Ru2O9 double groups). The mean oxidation state of ruthenium is about +4.5. The properties are compared with those of other isotypic stacking polytypes Ba3B3+M2sup(4.5)O9 (M2 = IrRu, Ir2, PtRu) and Ba3B2+M25+O9 (M = Ru, Ir). The results of activity tests concerning the efficiency of perovskite oxides with noble metals in respect of the oxidation of CO or CHsub(x) and the reduction of NOsub(x) are reported. (author)

  17. Nuclear quadrupole interactions of 11B in a LiB3O5 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotation patterns of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of an 11B nucleus in a LiB3O5 (LBO) single crystal were measured in the three mutually perpendicular crystallographic planes at room temperature. We identified three centres denoted as B1, B2, and B3, each of which consists of four sets of 11B NMR spectra originating from the chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent sites. The four sets belonging to each centre were properly classified in accordance with crystal symmetry and analysed. The principal values and principal axis orientations of the nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors were determined for the first time. The centres B1, B2, and B3 were assigned to boron sites in the crystalline lattice of LBO by comparing the directions of the B-O bonds and the principal axes of the NQC tensor (P). The NQC constant (e2qQ/h) and asymmetry parameter (η) were determined as follows: for B1, e2qQ/h 2.615 ± 0.005 MHz and η = 0.266 ± 0.005; for B2, e2qQ/h = 0.176 ± 0.003 MHz and η = 0.584 ± 0.003; and for B3, e2qQ/h = 2.690 ± 0.004 MHz and η = 0.204 ± 0.003

  18. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, E E; Prsa, A; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Laskar, J; Kutz, D W; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most com...

  19. Nuclear envelope remodeling during mouse spermiogenesis: Postmeiotic expression and redistribution of germline lamin B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamins are members of a multigene family of structural nuclear envelope (NE) proteins. Differentiated mammalian somatic cells express lamins A, C, B1, and B2. The composition and organization of the nuclear lamina of mammalian spermatogenic cells differ significantly from that of somatic cells as they express lamin B1 as well as two short germ line-specific isoforms, namely lamins B3 and C2. Here we describe in detail the expression pattern and localization of lamin B3 during mouse spermatogenesis. By combining RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that lamin B3 is selectively expressed during spermiogenesis (i.e., postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis). In round spermatids, lamin B3 is distributed in the nuclear periphery and, notably, also in the nucleoplasm. In the course of spermiogenesis, lamin B3 becomes redistributed as it concentrates progressively to the posterior pole of spermatid nuclei. Our results show that during mammalian spermiogenesis the nuclear lamina is composed of B-type isoforms only, namely the ubiquitous lamin B1 and the germline-specific lamin B3. Lamin B3 is the first example of a mammalian lamin that is selectively expressed during postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis

  20. 38 CFR 18b.2 - Reviewing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reviewing authority. 18b.2 Section 18b.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Rules § 18b.2 Reviewing authority. The term reviewing authority means the Secretary of Veterans...

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure refinement, and nonlinear-optical properties of CaB3O5(OH): Comparative crystal chemistry of calcium triborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium triborate CaB3O5(OH) obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the Ca(OH)2–H3BO3–Na2CO3–KCl system is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell are as follows: a = 13.490(1), b = 6.9576(3), and c = 4.3930(2) Å; V = 412.32(3) Å3 and space group Pna21. The structure is refined in the anisotropic approximation of the atomic displacement parameters to R = 4.28% using 972 vertical bar F vertical bar > 4σ(F). It is confirmed that the crystal structure of Ca triborate CaB3O5(OH) is identical to that described earlier. The hydrogen atom is localized. An SHG signal stronger than that of the quartz standard is registered. The phase transition of calcium triborate into calciborite is found on heating. The comparative crystal-chemical analysis of a series of borates with the general chemical formula 2CaO · 3B2O3 · nH2O (n = 0–13) with the constant CaO: B2O3= 2: 3 ratio and variable content of water is performed

  2. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  3. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  4. The Mysterious Ways of ErbB2/HER2 Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Vibeke Bertelsen; Espen Stang

    2014-01-01

    The EGFR- or ErbB-family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4. Receptor activation and downstream signaling are generally initiated upon ligand-induced receptor homo- or heterodimerization at the plasma membrane, and endocytosis and intracellular membrane transport are crucial for regulation of the signaling outcome. Among the receptors, ErbB2 is special in several ways. Unlike the others, ErbB2 has no known ligand, but is still the favore...

  5. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, M.D.; Fuller, V.L.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram;

    2009-01-01

    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze the...

  6. Sintering of TiB2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swiatek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Titanium diborides (TiB2 ceramic is particularly interesting because it exhibits high elastic modulus and hardness as well as high thermal conductivity. The interest in TiB2 ceramic increased enormously due to these properties but applications seem to be limited due to difficulties during densification process. In the experiment the TiB2 compacts was obtained using HP-HT method. The aim of this study is to work out and optimize the sintering densification process of TiB2 ceramics.Design/methodology/approach: The high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP Bridgman type apparatus was used for densification method of TiB2 powder. Ceramics were sintered at pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and temperature at 1500-2300ºC ± 50ºC. The duration of sintering was 60 seconds. In order to investigate the structure changes, the optical and scanning electron microscope was used. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness. Young modulus measurements were carried out using ultrasonic method.Findings: The TiB2 ceramics was obtained without using sintering agents. The properties and structure of TiB2 ceramics strongly depend on conditions of sintering process. The application of the temperature of 1500ºC±50ºC and pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and time of 60 seconds permits to obtain the TiB2 ceramics without cracks.Practical implications: The TiB2 ceramic might be used for production of composites. From a practical position it is important to optimize the sintering densification of TiB2 ceramic.Originality/value: The TiB2 ceramics were formed using HP-HT technique without the use of additives. This method of sintering for TiB2 ceramics is original one.T7

  7. Atomic structure and one-dimensional ionic conductivity of LiB3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction and electrophysical investigations into lithium triborate (LiB3O5) are presented. Specification of the atomic model is performed using the least square method in the full-matrix variant with regard to the atom thermal oscillation anisotropy in harmonic approximation. The results of investigations conducted allow one to conclude that conductivity in LiB3O5 is conditioned by Li+ ion mobility

  8. Nucleation, growth and characterization of LiB 3O 5 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C. V.; Kimura, H.; Miyazaki, A.; Ramasamy, P.

    2005-02-01

    Nucleation parameters of LiB 3O 5 (LBO) that crystallized from high-temperature solution using two different solvents, namely boron oxide (B 2O 3) and molybdate (MoO 3), have been studied for better understanding of the growth process. Our results showed that B 2O 3 solvent yielded a larger value of metastable zone width than that of molybdate flux, thus giving more stability to the solution. Based on our theoretical considerations, inclusion-free LBO crystals have been grown by spontaneous nucleation and TSSG techniques using B 2O 3 solvent. Variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive indices with wavelength has been studied. Results of optical and mechanical properties showed that the grown crystals are highly transparent and possesses hardness higher than that of KTP crystal.

  9. THE REINFORCING MECHANISM OF TiB2 IN TiB2/A357 COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Yu; Y.J. Zhang; Z.X. Zhao; F.X. Zhao; Q.K. Cai; C.S. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties were tested for in situ TiB2/A357 composite fabricated by LSM (mixed salts reaction) method. Microstructures of as cast and plastic deformed TiB2/A357 were investigated. The results show that there is a low misfit between (200)A1 and (101)TiB2 with [011]Al // [101]TiB2. There is a change from fully dendritic structure of the α-Al of A357 to a rosette-type structure of TiB2/A357. Significant increases in proof stress and Young's modulus can be obtained at low TiB2 additions. There exist dislocation loops around neighboring TiB2 particles with about 0. 1ηm in diameter and dislocation multiplication near TiB2 particles.

  10. Diophantine approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Niven, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This self-contained treatment originated as a series of lectures delivered to the Mathematical Association of America. It covers basic results on homogeneous approximation of real numbers; the analogue for complex numbers; basic results for nonhomogeneous approximation in the real case; the analogue for complex numbers; and fundamental properties of the multiples of an irrational number, for both the fractional and integral parts.The author refrains from the use of continuous fractions and includes basic results in the complex case, a feature often neglected in favor of the real number discuss

  11. Hotelzon's B2B content marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang

    2015-01-01

    This thesis follows a research-based structure. The objective of this research was to help the case company Hotelzon develop a practical business-to-business (B2B) content marketing plan to engage new customers. The research topic came up when the case company named Hotelzon started expanding its business to many other countries. Therefore, attracting new prospects has become a critical issue to B2B corporates in this online world and constantly changing business environment. The first pa...

  12. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Masrour; E K Hlil; M Hamedoun; A Benyoussef; O Mounkachi; H El Moussaoui

    2015-08-01

    The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the ferromagnetic state between two adjacent Mn atoms. Magnetic moment considered to lie along the (001) axes are computed. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic energies of MnB2 systems are obtained. Obtained data from ab-initio calculations are used as input for the high-temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters. The exchange interactions between the magnetic atoms Mn–Mn in MnB2 are established by using the mean field theory. The HTSEs of the magnetic susceptibility with the magnetic moments in MnB2 (Mn) through Ising model is given. The critical temperature C (K) is obtained by HTSEs applied to the magnetic susceptibility series combined with the Padé approximant method. The critical exponent associated with the magnetic susceptibility is deduced as well.

  13. Growth and study of LuNi2B2C single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth-nickel-borocarbides have attracted much interest in the last years because the compounds show the interplay of superconductivity and magnetic ordering. LuNi2B2C can be considered as non-magnetic reference system of such magnetic borocarbides as HoNi2B2C in which superconducting and antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures, Tc and TN, are similar. So far, LuNi2B2C crystals were only prepared by a flux method. For growing larger crystals we used an optical floating zone (FZ) technique, which already was successful in crystal growth of other RNi2B2C (R = Y,Tb,Ho,Tm,Er) compounds. In the case of LuNi2B2C, the primary crystallization field is far from the stoichiometric composition, and adjacent to the properitectic LuB2C2 phase field an extended region of LuNiBC occurs. Systematic studies of polycrystalline samples revealed that samples with nominal compositions LuNi5B3.5C and LuNi5B3C0.5 are free of the properitectic LuB2C2 and LuNiBC phases. Thus in the FZ crystal growth experiments we used a molten zone which corresponds to these compositions. From the grown LuNi2B2C rods single crystalline pieces have been prepared to investigate Fermi surface peculiarities by magneto-resistance measurements and to study the electronic band structure

  14. Intermolecular biparatopic trapping of ErbB2 prevents compensatory activation of PI3K/AKT via RAS-p110 crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskovic, Rastislav; Schwill, Martin; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Jost, Christian; Schaefer, Dagmar C; Verdurmen, Wouter P R; Schaefer, Jonas V; Honegger, Annemarie; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms, such as relief of AKT-ErbB3-negative feedback, are known to desensitize ErbB2-dependent tumours to targeted therapy. Here we describe an adaptation mechanism leading to reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway during trastuzumab treatment, which occurs independently of ErbB3 re-phosphorylation. This signalling bypass of phospho-ErbB3 operates in ErbB2-overexpressing cells via RAS-PI3K crosstalk and is attributable to active ErbB2 homodimers. As demonstrated by dual blockade of ErbB2/RAS and ErbB3 by means of pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference or by specific protein binders obstructing the RAS-p110α interaction, both routes must be blocked to prevent reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Applying these general principles, we developed biparatopic designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) trapping ErbB2 in a dimerization-incompetent state, which entail pan-ErbB inhibition and a permanent OFF state in the oncogenic signalling, thereby triggering extensive apoptosis in ErbB2-addicted tumours. Thus, these novel insights into mechanisms underlying network robustness provide a guide for overcoming adaptation response to ErbB2/ErbB3-targeted therapy. PMID:27255951

  15. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities i...

  16. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  17. Compton profiles and electronic properties of TiB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the experimental Compton profile (CP) of TiB2 using high energy 137Cs γ-rays Compton spectrometer. To interpret the experimental momentum density, we have calculated the CPs using Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of DFT and HF within linear combination of atomic orbitals. The theoretical profile with generalized gradient approximation is found to be relatively in better agreement with the experimental profile. A sharp valley in density of states and hence the pseudogap near the Fermi energy is attributed to hybridization of Ti-3d and B-2p states and almost reverse trend of energy bands below and above the Fermi energy

  18. The thermoluminescent properties of lithium triborate (LiB3O5) activated by aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of Al-doped LiB3O5 compounds are presented. The powder samples were prepared by the solid-state reaction method and the formation of the compounds were confirmed by an X-ray diffraction study. The TL studies of undoped and Al-doped LiB3O5 samples showed similar glow curve structures. They have three TL glow peaks at about 60, 130 and 200 deg. C after heating at a constant heating rate of 1 deg. C/s. Their comparative TL studies indicated that 5 wt% Al-doped LiB3O5 compound was approximately 240 times more sensitive than undoped compound. The TL emission spectra of Al-doped LiB3O5 showed a maximum band at around 520 nm. The main dosimetric characteristics, which are namely the TL dose response, TL sensitivity, fading, minimum detectable dose, reproducibility, precision of dose measurement and annealing procedure, indicated that Al-doped LiB3O5 sample, can be used in dosimetric applications. The trap parameters namely order of kinetics (b), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with the glow peaks in beta irradiated undoped and Al-doped LiB3O5 samples were obtained by glow curve deconvolution (GCD) program

  19. Lattice defects and recombination processes in non-linear crystals LiB3O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.; Porotnikov, A. V.; Yakovlev, Yu. V.

    The paper presents the results of a study of kinetics of the recombination processes in crystals LiB3O5 (LBO) obtained by the use of time-resolved luminescence and optical absorption spectroscopy. It was revealed that the observed peculiarities of the recombination processes in LBO are due to a participation of the trapped electron (B2+) and hole (O-) centres. In the framework of a model of the competing trapped hole centres the time dependence of both transient optical absorption and luminescence as well as their temperature dependencies was interpreted.

  20. Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 lithium triborate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystals in visible and ultraviolet ranges of spectrum were studied, the results are presented. By the method of absorption optical spectroscopy it was ascertained that short-lived optical absorption of LBO is brought about by optical transitions in hole centers. It is shown that kinetics of pulsed cathodoluminescence of LBO is controlled by recombination process involving two competing hole centers, interacting via valence zone, and small electronic centers of B2+. Radiative recombination dictates characteristic σ-polarized LBO luminescence in the range of 4.0 eV

  1. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  2. Diophantine approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1980-01-01

    "In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)

  3. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit alibaba.com

  4. B2-Eirene modelling of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, D. P.; Schneider, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Bosch, H.-S.; Wunderlich, R.; Fuchs, C.; Mast, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Becker, G.; Braams, B. J.; Reiter, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1997-02-01

    The extension of the computational region of the coupled fluid plasma, Monte-Carlo neutrals code, B2-Eirene, to the plasma center is discussed. The simulation of completely detached H-mode plasma is presented, as is the modelling of He and Ne compression.

  5. On Heavy Carbon Doping of MgB$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K. -W.; PICKETT, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy carbon doping of MgB$_2$ is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B$_{1-x}$C$_{x}$)$_{2}$,x=0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate $\\sigma$-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e.7 meV/%C) and the $\\sigma$ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for ...

  6. ESR study on high Tc superconductor MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MgB2, a high-Tc superconductor, has been studied by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) techniques at the temperature range of 6-300 K. Polycrystalline powders consisting of MgB2 and MgB4 phases were diluted and oriented in paraffin by applying an external magnetic field of 15 kG. A very narrow (2.5 G), strong, and isotropic signal that corresponded to almost free electron g-values was observed at all temperatures. Both the signal intensity and line width were observed to exhibit strong temperature dependence. The intensity of the ESR spectra, which corresponds to dc susceptibility, generally obeys the Curie law in this temperature range. However, some critical temperatures (approximately 215, 190, 150, and 39 K) were evident from both intensity and line width curves. While the ESR line is broadened, the signal intensity is drastically decreased just below T=39 K, corresponding to a transition temperature to a superconducting state. The origins of the minor changes both in the intensity and line width curves at other (higher) critical temperatures are not clear yet. In fact, the change at 215 K was observed to be meta-stable. These minor changes might be taken as signs for changes of local crystalline field symmetry around weakly localized conduction electrons or holes, which are the sources of the ESR signal in the MgB2 compound

  7. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Sorensen, Boe S; Nexo, Ebba; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Rasmussen, Louise M; Riese, David J; de Cremoux, Patricia; Stenvang, Jan; Lykkesfeldt, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Seven fulvestrant resistant cell lines derived from the estrogen receptor alpha positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were used to investigate the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1-4) signaling. We found an increase in mRNA expression of EGFR and the ErbB3/ErbB4 ligand...... growth inhibition of two resistant cell lines. These data indicate that ligand activated ErbB3 and EGFR, and Erk signaling play important roles in fulvestrant resistant cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased level of ErbB4 in resistant cells may facilitate heterodimerization of ErbB3 with EGFR and ErbB2....... Our data support that a concerted action against EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3 may be required to obtain complete growth suppression of fulvestrant resistant cells....

  8. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated

  9. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal; S K Sikka

    2002-05-01

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated (F) and the experimental specific heat data. The c is found to be 24.7 K.

  10. Effect of TiB2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB2 Catalyst Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We pretreated Titanium diboride by different acids and alkali. • We synthesis the Pt/as-pretreated TiB2 catalysts by a colloid route. • We investigated the effects of TiB2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB2 Catalyst Performance. • The BET surface area and defects on the surface have a close relationship with the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. - Abstract: Carbon support corrosion of traditional Pt/C catalyst is one of the major contributors causing poor durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Titanium diboride (TiB2) has high electrical conductivity and considerable chemical stability, which making it as a good candidate for catalyst support in PEMFC. In this work, TiB2 was pretreated by different acid and alkali. The as-obtained samples were characterized by Ex-situ microscopy (ESM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size distribution (PSD) was analyzed by using DFT method. The PSD shows distinct volume in mesopore regions (less than 50 nm). The TiB2 pretreated by H2O2 shows the biggest BET surface area of 57 m2 g−1 and its PSD focus on mesoporous (1.5-8 nm) region, which resulted to high dispersion and better loading of Pt particles. The Hydrogen oxidization reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was characterized by Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The Pt/TiB2 prepared by H2O2-pretreated TiB2 using the colloidal method showed better half-cell electrochemical performance. Facile synthetic for the development of Pt/TiB2 catalysts was developed

  11. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  12. Electroless deposition of superconducting MgB2 films on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting properties of magnesium diboride (MgB2) films prepared by electroless deposition on various substrates including silver, gold and silicon are reported. In this study, MgB2 films were fabricated on silver, gold, and silicon using an electroless plating technique, while controlling the redox potential to improve the deposition quality. The structure, morphology, and superconducting properties of the samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the films are polycrystalline MgB2 but also contain some impurity phases. All the MgB2 films show superconducting transitions near 39 K, the value for bulk MgB2, with the superconducting volume fraction ranging from approximately 1 to 2%. We find a strong dependence of film quality with the oxidation potential of the bath.

  13. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-3 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer,...

  14. MgB2 superconductors with addition of ZrB2 and different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MgB2 has been catching the attention due to the possibility to apply the material in magnets and electronic devices, operating with cryocoolers. In this work, MgB2 bulks were developed and analyzed with addition of ZrB2, another diboride with the same C32 hexagonal structure as MgB2, and simultaneous addition of different carbon sources (SiC, graphite, and carbon nanotubes). The objective of these additions is to modify the Mg planes with the diborides and to dope the material with carbon, improving the upper critical fields. Besides the doping of the material, this method creates crystalline defects in the superconducting matrix, which can act as pinning centers. As a result we could improve the critical current density of the material and estimate the behavior of dopants on the superconducting properties.

  15. Anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibodies and ErbB-2-directed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Ward, Robyn L

    2002-01-01

    The tumour antigen ErbB-2 belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Numerous studies have shown that ErbB-2 is overexpressed in many cancers and it is prognostically important in a subset of malignancies. It is well recognised that this receptor has many characteristics that make it an excellent target for tumour-specific immunotherapy. One anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody, Herceptin or TrastuzuMab, has already shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, despite this success, it is still currently unclear how monoclonal antibodies inhibit tumour growth in vivo. This review will summarise the biological activities of a range of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs, as well as their possible mechanisms of action. In addition, as an active mode of immunotherapy, the current vaccine strategies for inducing or enhancing ErbB-2-specific immunity will also be discussed. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the activities of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs will aid in the development of both passive and active immunotherapies against this important receptor. PMID:11807621

  16. Ambient temperature cured TiB2 cathode coating for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖延清; 李庆余; 杨建红; 李劼

    2003-01-01

    The concept of ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was put forward, and the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was prepared successfully. Differing from the previous TiB2 cathode coating solidified approximately at 200 ℃,the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating can be solidified at room temperature, so the heating equipment is not necessary, which simplifies the preparation process and facilitates the industrial application of TiB2 cathode coating. Many kinds of resin and curing agent were investigated. On the above-mentioned basis, the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was prepared with furan resin 5 500 mixed with complex resins B as carbon binder and DXG1 as curing agent in 24 h. The results show that the properties of prepared coating are excellent, the electrical resistivity is 29.8 μΩ*m, the compressive strength is 33.6 MPa, which are all better than the relevant properties of partially graphitized cathode carbon block for aluminum electrolysis prescribed by the GB 8744-88. SEM morphologies show that the section morphology of the TiB2 coating is unaltered during the electrolysis test, the TiB2 coating can be used in aluminum electrolysis industry to save energy and prolong the life of aluminum electrolysis cell.

  17. 维生素B2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红卫

    2007-01-01

    维生素B2又称核黄素(riboflavin)。最初人们于19世纪后期认识到,在天然乳清中存在着一种可溶于水的能产生黄色荧光的物质,可预防皮肤炎症。1933年由几个科研小组将其分离出来,并命名为核黄素,意指其来源于卵黄素、肝黄素和尿黄素。

  18. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  19. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of soybean mature glycinin A1bB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean mature glycinin was purified and crystallized and its preliminary crystallographic analysis is also reported. Glycinin is one of the most abundant storage-protein molecules in soybean seeds and is composed of five subunits (A1aB1b, A1bB2, A2B1a, A3B4 and A5A4B3). A1bB2 was purified from a mutant soybean cultivar containing glycinin composed of only A5A4B3 and A1bB2. At 281 K the protein formed hexagonal, rectangular and rod-shaped crystals in the first [0.1 M imidazole pH 8.0, 0.2 M MgCl2, 35%(v/v) MPD], second [0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 30%(v/v) MPD] and third (0.1 M phosphate–citrate pH 4.2, 2.0 M ammonium sulfate) crystallization conditions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data were collected to resolutions of 1.85, 1.85 and 2.5 Å from crystals of the three different shapes. The crystals belonged to space groups P6322, P21 and P1, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 143.60, c = 84.54 Å, a = 114.54, b = 105.82, c = 116.67 Å, β = 94.99° and a = 94.45, b = 94.96, c = 100.66 Å, α = 107.02, β = 108.44, γ = 110.71°, respectively. One, six and six subunits of A1bB2 were estimated to be present in the respective asymmetric units. The three-dimensional structure of the A1bB2 hexamer is currently being determined

  1. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J

    2001-01-01

    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  2. Whole Genome and Transcriptome Sequencing of a B3 Thymoma

    OpenAIRE

    Iacopo Petrini; Arun Rajan; Trung Pham; Donna Voeller; Sean Davis; James Gao; Yisong Wang; Giuseppe Giaccone

    2013-01-01

    Molecular pathology of thymomas is poorly understood. Genomic aberrations are frequently identified in tumors but no extensive sequencing has been reported in thymomas. Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels. A 55-year-old Caucasian female underwent complete resection of a stage IVA B3 thymoma. RNA and DNA were extracted from a snap frozen tumor sample with a fraction of cancer cells over 80%. We performed array comparative genomi...

  3. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 402.02. The certificate holder shall be deemed in compliance with § 157.206(b)(2)(vi) of the... appropriate) as determined pursuant to 50 CFR 402.01 for the purpose of initiating informal consultations. 2... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F...

  4. Hall effect in LuNi2B2C and YNi2B2C borocarbides in normal and superconducting mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the Hall resistivity ρxy for LuNi2B2C and YNi2B2C is negative in the normal and mixed states and has no sign reversal below Tc. In the mixed state the scaling relation ρxy approximately ρxxβ (ρxx is the longitudinal resistivity) was found for both compounds with β ∼ 2.0. In the normal state a distinct nonlinearity in the ρxy(H) dependence, accompanied by a large magnetoresistance, was found below 40 K only for LuNi2B2C. The difference in the behavior of Lu- and Y-based borocarbides seems to be connected with the difference in the Fermi surfaces of these compounds

  5. Some Considerations on B2B in China%对我国B2B的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 和金生

    2001-01-01

    B2B的现状入手,指出中国非常需要B2B;从B2B企业的内部环境对B2B出现的问题加以分析,并提出了相关对策,最后对B2B给予了展望。%Based on the analysis of the present situation of B2B,it indicates the requirement of B2B in China. Then,it analyses the questions in the implementation of B2B in enterprises and puts forward some countermeasures. Finally,the prospect of B2B development is given.

  6. A promising birefringent crystal Ba2Na3(B3O6)2F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xia, Mingjun; Li, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Bulk crystals of Ba2Na3(B3O6)2F (BNBF) have been successfully grown by top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) technique. Its transmittance spectra show a wide transparency range from 186 nm to 3000 nm. The refractive indices in 13 wavelengths were measured with high accuracy and the Sellmeier equations were obtained, which demonstrated that the title crystal displayed a birefringence (Δn = 0.1030 at 588 nm) comparable to that of the commercial birefringent crystal α-BBO (the high temperature form of BaB2O4). A prototype Glan-Taylor polarizer made of BNBF prisms was fabricated, which showed high transparency and large optical extinction ratio similar to the commercial polarizer made of α-BBO. In addition, BNBF crystal is less moisture sensitive than that of α-BBO, thus BNBF can be a potential new birefringent crystal.

  7. Buck-Buck- Boost Regulatr (B3R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourra, Olivier; Fernandez, Arturo; Landstroem, Sven; Tonicello, Ferdinando

    2011-10-01

    In a satellite, the main function of a Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) is to manage the energy coming from several power sources (usually solar arrays and battery) and to deliver it continuously to the users in an appropriate form during the overall mission. The objective of this paper is to present an electronic switching DC-DC converter called Buck-Buck-Boost Regulator (B3R) that could be used as a modular and recurrent solution in a PCU for regulated or un- regulated 28Vsatellite power bus classes. The power conversion stages of the B3R topology are first described. Then theoretical equations and practical tests illustrate how the converter operates in term of power conversion, control loops performances and efficiency. The paper finally provides some examples of single point failure tolerant implementation using the B3R.

  8. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Salah Daoud; Kamel Loucif; Nadhira Bloud; Noudjoud Lebgaa; Laarbi Belagraa

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the results obtained from first-principles calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the strucural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide, using the pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP-PW) based on density functional theory within the Teter and Pade exchange-correlation functional form of the local density approximation (LDA). The lattice parameter, molecular and crystal densities, near-neighbour distances, independent elastic constant, bulk modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and energy bandgaps of (B3) BP under high pressure are presented. The results showed a phase transition pressure from the zinc blende to rock-salt phase at around 1.56 Mbar, which is in good agreement with the theoretical data reported in the literature.

  9. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... INFORMATION: The FAA proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 by superseding AD 2009-01-01, Amendment 39-15779 (73 FR... (74 FR 67834). That action proposed to require continuous monitoring of EGT margin deterioration... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a...

  10. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  11. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, H.J.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Business-to-business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing, e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should suppor

  12. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  13. Radiation resistance of nonlinear LiB3O5 crystals: optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.; Porotnikov, A. V.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the results of study of the radiation stability of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals with regard to optical properties. LBO crystals of the high optical quality were studied under action of an electron beam with energy of 0.2 - 10 MeV, x-rays, and polarized synchrotron radiation of a high intensity. Both the trapped electron (B2) and hole (O-) centers were revealed and their optical manifestations were studied in detail. In particular, the strong radiation-induced optical absorption band at lambda equals 306 nm, extending up to the spectral region of the second harmonic (at about 532 nm), was attributed to the optical transitions inside the O- center. The accumulation of defects over the dose region between 1010 and 5 multiplied by 1016 electrons per cm2 was measured. The accumulation curve at 77 K exhibits two well-defined flux regions: 1010-1014 and 1014- 1016 electrons per cm2. The paper discusses the origin of radiation degradation of LiB3O5 optical properties.

  14. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  15. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  16. Transposable B2 SINE elements can provide mobile RNA polymerase II promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, O; Virolle, T; Djabari, Z; Ortonne, J P; White, R J; Aberdam, D

    2001-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are highly abundant components of mammalian genomes that are propagated by retrotransposition. SINEs are recognized as a causal agent of human disease and must also have had a profound influence in shaping eukaryotic genomes. The B2 SINE family constitutes approximately 0.7% of total mouse genomic DNA (ref. 2) and is also found at low abundance in humans. It resembles the Alu family in several respects, such as its mechanism of propagation. B2 SINEs are derived from tRNA and are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III to generate short transcripts that are not translated. We find here, however, that one B2 SINE also carries an active pol II promoter located outside the tRNA region. Indeed, a B2 element is responsible for the production of a mouse Lama3 transcript. The B2 pol II promoters can be bound and stimulated by the transcription factor USF (for upstream stimulatory factor), as shown by transient transfection experiments. Moreover, this pol II activity does not preclude the pol III transcription necessary for retrotransposition. Dispersal of B2 SINEs by retrotransposition may therefore have provided numerous opportunities for creating regulated pol II transcription at novel genomic sites. This mechanism may have allowed the evolution of new transcription units and new genes. PMID:11326281

  17. Screening survey of co-production of fusaric acid, fusarin C, and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 by Fusarium strains grown in maize grains

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Z.; Tangni, E. K.; Huybrechts, B.; Munaut, Françoise; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Wu, A.; A. Callebaut

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium species isolated from Belgian maize were screened for their ability to produce fusarin C, fusaric acid, fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 in maize grains. First, cultivation of Fusarium species in Myro liquid medium allowed overcoming the shortage of the standard of fusarin C on the market. All Fusarium verticillioides produced much higher contents of mycotoxins in Myro compared to Fusarium graminearum or Fusarium venenatum. The optimization of the LC-MS/MS method resulted in low limi...

  18. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... instructed to expire completely, momentarily hold his breath, place the mouthpiece in his mouth and close the.... Inspiration and expiration shall be checked visually for reproducibility. The effort shall be...

  19. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release from human monocytes treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the capacity of counterflow-isolated human monocytes to independently synthesize thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Independent metabolism was confirmed by establishing different specific activities (dpm/ng) of TxB2 and PGE2 released from LPS-treated cells. For metabolites released during the initial 2-hr treatment period, the specific activity of PGE2 was approximately threefold higher than that of TxB2 regardless of labeling with [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) or [14C]AA. Cells that were pulse-labeled for 2 hr with [3H]AA demonstrated a decreasing PGE2 specific activity over 24 hr, whereas the TxB2 specific activity remained unchanged. In contrast, cells continuously exposed to [14C]AA demonstrated an increasing TxB2 specific activity that approached the level of PGE2 by 24 hr. These results suggest the presence of at least 2 cyclooxygenase metabolic compartments in counterflow-isolated monocytes. Although freshly isolated monocytes have been reported to contain variable numbers of adherent platelets, additional experiments demonstrated that counterflow-isolated platelets are not capable of releasing elevated levels of TxB2 or PGE2 when treated with LPS. It is proposed from these findings that at least two subsets of monocytes exist in peripheral blood that can be distinguished on the basis of independent conversion of AA to TxB2 and PGE2

  20. Core-hole effects on the B K edge in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected density of states (DOS) for the ground and excited states of boron in MgB2 has been calculated using the augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. The core-hole interaction is found to have a significant effect on the B pxpy states, but has little effect on the more metallic B pz states. The unoccupied B pxpy DOS near the Fermi level decreases as a function of core-hole strength. Comparisons with experimental electron energy loss spectra of the B K edge show that a simulation with half a core hole provides the best approximation to the final states in MgB2

  1. LiB 3O 5 crystal structure at 20, 227 and 377 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Yu. F.; Bubnova, R. S.; Filatov, S. K.; Sennova, N. A.; Pilneva, N. A.

    2005-10-01

    Crystal structure of LiB 3O 5 (a framework of [B 3O 5] - rings and Li atoms located in interspaces) was refined at high temperatures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mo Kα-radiation, anharmonic approximation, orthorhombic; Pna2 1; Z=4; 20 °C ( a=8.444, b=7.378, c=5.146 Å, 1411 F( hkl), R=0.022); 227 °C ( a=8.616, b=7.433, c=5.063 Å, 1336 F( hkl), R=0.026), 377 °C ( a=8.746, b=7.480, c=5.013 Å, 1193 F( hkl), R=0.035). A high mobility of Li atoms and their highly asymmetric vibrations are revealed. Ellipsoid of Li thermal vibrations is oviform. Li is shifted on heating to 0.26 Å mainly along a-axis causing high thermal expansion in this direction; Li temperature factors are multiplied by 4 on heating. Rigid boron-oxygen groups in LiB 3O 5 remain practically stable on heating similar to α-Na 2B 8O 13 and α-CsB 5O 8. At the same time these groups rotate relative to each other like hinges leading to extremely anisotropic thermal expansion ( α a=101, α b=31, α c=-71, α v=60×10 -6 °C -1, 20-530 °C, HTXRPD data).

  2. A research on B2B modes%B2B电子商务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎梅

    2001-01-01

    21世纪是电子商务时代,在对最具潜力的B2B电子商务模式的网站调查基础上,对B2B电子商务的模式进行了详细分类和分析,为我国的B2B电子商务经营者制订切实可行的发展策略和营销策略提供了参考和借鉴.从目前情况和长远趋势来看,在B2B电子商务的4种模式中,其中企业B2B网站、B2B交易场、垂直型的B2B网站在中国将有很好的发展趋势.

  3. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  4. Potassium zinc borate, KZnB3O6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, KZnB3O6 contains a remarkable [B6O12]6− group (overline{1} symmetry formed by two rings linked by edge-sharing BO4 tetrahedra, a feature that has only been observed previously under high pressure conditions. These borate groups are connected through distorted ZnO4 tetrahedra in edge-shared pairs (overline{1} symmetry, forming a three-dimensional network whose cavities are filled by K+ cations.

  5. Potassium zinc borate, KZnB(3)O(6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Yao, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Xiu; Fu, Pei-Zhen; Wu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, KZnB(3)O(6) contains a remarkable [B(6)O(12)](6-) group ( symmetry) formed by two rings linked by edge-sharing BO(4) tetra-hedra, a feature that has only been observed previously under high pressure conditions. These borate groups are connected through distorted ZnO(4) tetra-hedra in edge-shared pairs ( symmetry), forming a three-dimensional network whose cavities are filled by K(+) cations. PMID:21578991

  6. LiB3O5 crystal structure at 20, 227 and 377 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structure of LiB3O5 (a framework of [B3O5]- rings and Li atoms located in interspaces) was refined at high temperatures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, MoKα-radiation, anharmonic approximation, orthorhombic; Pna21; Z=4; 20 deg. C (a=8.444, b=7.378, c=5.146 A, 1411 F(hkl), R=0.022); 227 deg. C (a=8.616, b=7.433, c=5.063 A, 1336 F(hkl), R=0.026), 377 deg. C (a=8.746, b=7.480, c=5.013 A, 1193 F(hkl), R=0.035). A high mobility of Li atoms and their highly asymmetric vibrations are revealed. Ellipsoid of Li thermal vibrations is oviform. Li is shifted on heating to 0.26 A mainly along a-axis causing high thermal expansion in this direction; Li temperature factors are multiplied by 4 on heating. Rigid boron-oxygen groups in LiB3O5 remain practically stable on heating similar to α-Na2B8O13 and α-CsB5O8. At the same time these groups rotate relative to each other like hinges leading to extremely anisotropic thermal expansion (αa =101, αb =31, αc =-71, αv =60x10-6 deg. C-1, 20-530 deg. C, HTXRPD data). - Graphical abstract: Li anharmonic thermal vibrations in LiB3O5 crystal structures. Display Omitted

  7. Electronic structure study of TiB2 and Ti2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the electronic properties of TiB2 and Ti2B are computed within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. In the present calculations, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew-Burke-Erenzerhof (PBE) and Becke’s scheme are considered to treat the correlation and exchange effects respectively. TiB2 crystallizes in the hexagonal AlB2 type structure which is designated as C32 with the space group P6/mmm. While the crystal structure of Ti2B described in this paper is isomorphous to the body centered tetragonal (Al2Cu - type) structure with space group I4/mcm

  8. Electronic structure study of TiB2 and Ti2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashistha, M.; Kabra, K.; Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the electronic properties of TiB2 and Ti2B are computed within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. In the present calculations, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew-Burke-Erenzerhof (PBE) and Becke's scheme are considered to treat the correlation and exchange effects respectively. TiB2 crystallizes in the hexagonal AlB2 type structure which is designated as C32 with the space group P6/mmm. While the crystal structure of Ti2B described in this paper is isomorphous to the body centered tetragonal (Al2Cu - type) structure with space group I4/mcm.

  9. The Methane Abundance in Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H. A.; Brooke, T. Y.; Disanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Chin, G.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Owen, T. C.; Lisse, C. M.

    1997-07-01

    We report on infrared observations of methane in comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) that were obtained during April 1996 using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. The effective aperture size was 1'' x 2'' and the spectral resolving power was ~ 20,000. On 8-9 April we observed at r=0.73-0.71 AU and Delta =0.47-0.50 AU, while on 16 April r=0.54 AU and Delta =0.73 AU. Seven different lines in the nu_ {3} band near 3.3 mu m were clearly detected, and we have used their relative intensities to conduct the first detailed examination of the rotational excitation in cometary methane. We derive a rotational temperature (Trot) of ~ 110 K on 8-9 April and ~ 150 K on 16 April, which indicates that Trot varied approximately inversely with the heliocentric distance. We also find that the population distribution among the different spin species is consistent with the value expected in the high temperature limit (Tspin>=50 K). We estimate that the methane abundance relative to water was ~ 1% during the period of our observations, although this value is uncertain by at least a factor of two due to uncertainties in the water production rate. Methane is apparently an important trace constituent of both cometary nuclei and grain mantles in star-forming regions, which provides further evidence that comets retain a signature of their interstellar heritage.

  10. Organizational patterns for knowledge capture in B2B engagements

    OpenAIRE

    Niwe, Moses

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a means of knowledge capture in form of patterns that are solutions to reoccurring problems for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Using empirical data, we examine the processes involved in the B2B engagement and capture valuable solutions as best practices. The collection of patterns forms a pattern language for B2B engagements that addresses operational, communication and collaboration areas of the B2B environment. The thesis is organized in...

  11. Compton profile study of ZrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, V.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, G.; Sharma, B. K.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Compton profile of ZrB2. The theoretical Compton profile of ZrB2 is computed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). To compare the spherically averaged theoretical values, the measurement on polycrystalline ZrB2 is performed using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from an 241Am radioisotope. To estimate the charge transfer in ZrB2, ionic model based calculations have also been performed which suggest transfer of electron from Zr to B atoms.

  12. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed 11B NMR measurements in 11B enriched MgB2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11B and 27Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T1) are also reported for AlB2. The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T1 for 11B in AlB2 with respect to MgB2. We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T1 for 11B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB2 with respect to MgB2

  13. HER2/ErbB2 Receptor Signaling in Rat and Human Prolactinoma Cells: Strategy for Targeted Prolactinoma Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuoka, Hidenori; Cooper, Odelia; MIZUTANI, JUN; Tong, Yunguang; Ren, Song-Guang; Bannykh, Serguei; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine agonist resistance or intolerance is encountered in approximately 20% of prolactinoma patients. Because human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is overexpressed in prolactinomas and ErbB receptor ligands regulate prolactin (PRL) gene expression, we tested the role of HER2/ErbB2 in prolactinoma hormone regulation and adenoma cell proliferation to assess the rationale for targeting this receptor for prolactinoma therapy. As we showed prolactinoma HER2 overexpression, we g...

  14. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of a B3 thymoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Petrini

    Full Text Available Molecular pathology of thymomas is poorly understood. Genomic aberrations are frequently identified in tumors but no extensive sequencing has been reported in thymomas. Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels. A 55-year-old Caucasian female underwent complete resection of a stage IVA B3 thymoma. RNA and DNA were extracted from a snap frozen tumor sample with a fraction of cancer cells over 80%. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization using Agilent platform, transcriptome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina and whole genome sequencing using Complete Genomics Inc platform. Whole genome sequencing determined, in tumor and normal, the sequence of both alleles in more than 95% of the reference genome (NCBI Build 37. Copy number (CN aberrations were comparable with those previously described for B3 thymomas, with CN gain of chromosome 1q, 5, 7 and X and CN loss of 3p, 6, 11q42.2-qter and q13. One translocation t(11;X was identified by whole genome sequencing and confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Ten single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 2 insertion/deletions (INDELs were identified; these mutations resulted in non-synonymous amino acid changes or affected splicing sites. The lack of common cancer-associated mutations in this patient suggests that thymomas may evolve through mechanisms distinctive from other tumor types, and supports the rationale for additional high-throughput sequencing screens to better understand the somatic genetic architecture of thymoma.

  15. Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn

  16. Removal of oxide contamination from TiB2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerical TiB2 powders from the carbothermic process are invariably contaminated with oxygen. Contamination is usually caused by surface oxidation during grinding or comminution. Surface oxide contamination, which commonly occurs in fine TiB2 powders and affects their properties, can be removed by treatment with BCl3(g) at 6500C

  17. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 powder has been densified by spark plasma sintering. • The sintered OsB2 contains ∼80 wt.% hexagonal and ∼20 wt.% orthorhombic phases. • The average grain size of the sintered OsB2 sample was 0.56 ± 0.26 μm. • H = 31 ± 9 GPa and E = 574 ± 112 GPa measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The metastable high pressure ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (∼80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (∼20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; however, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics

  18. ORM-based semantics of B2B transactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.; Meersman, R; Herrero, P; Dillon, T

    2009-01-01

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely n

  19. EXTREMAL VECTORS FOR VERMA TYPE REPRESENTATION OF B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čestmír Burdík

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Verma modules of the algebra B2 we explicitly construct factor representations of the algebra B2 which are connected with the unitary representation of the group SO(3, 2. We find a full set of extremal vectors for representations of this kind. So we can explicitly resolve the problem of the irreducibility of these representations.

  20. Chemical synthesis of superconducting MgB2 nanopowder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MgB2 nanopowder has been synthesized by chemical method. • Powder characterized by XRD and SEM. • Superconducting behavior confirmed by susceptibility and magnetization measurements. • Nanopowder will facilitate the fabrication of small diameter MgB2 filaments. - Abstract: Superconducting MgB2 nanopowder has been synthesized through chemical reaction between lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride at relatively low temperatures. From quantitative Rietveld analysis, the average crystallite size of MgB2 powder was evaluated to be 33 nm. The superconducting transition temperature of the MgB2 nanopowder was found to be 38.8-38.9 K from magnetization and DC susceptibility measurements. Powder morphology has been evaluated by scanning electron microscopy

  1. Structural investigation of the ternary RM3B2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the ternary borides CeRh3B2, CeCo3B2 structure type, P6/mmm space group, a=5.470(2) A, c=3.080(2) A, Z=1, V=79.81(2) A3, ρ=9.789 g cm-3, μ=28.92 mm-1 and YIr3B2, ErIr3B2 structure type, C2/m space group, a=5.432(2) A, b=9.398(4) A, c=3.099(1) A, β=90.38(1) deg., Z=2, V=158.2(1) A3, ρ=14.425 g cm-3, μ=143.632 mm-1 were refined to R=0.0224, wR2=0.0573 and R=0.0467, wR2=0.1138, respectively, from single crystal X-ray diffraction data of the 'as cast' samples. The CeCo3B2 structure type was confirmed for the CeRh3B2 compound, a=5.47509(16) A, c=3.08143(9) A from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data of the sample annealed at 1070 K (RP=2.76%, RWP=4.32%, RB=4.91%, RF=4.94%). The crystal structures of the annealed at 1070 K RIr3B2 (R=Ce, Nd and Y) and YRh3B2 compounds are more complicated. Different splittings of the reflexions in the X-ray powder patterns of these compounds can be an indication of different structure models related with the CeCo3B2 and ErIr3B2 structure types

  2. First-Principles Calculations of Elastic Constants of Superconducting MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-Zhong; CHEN Xiang-Rong; ZHU Jun; CAI Ling-Cang; GAO Jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ The five independent elastic constants of superconducting MgB2 are obtained using the first-principles plane wave method with the new relativistic analytic pseudopotential of the Hartwigsen-Goedecker-Hutter (HGH) scheme in the frame of local density approximation. The dependences of bulk modulus on temperature and pressure are also obtained. It is suggested that the HGH-type pseudopotentials are successful in investigating the ground-state mechanical properties of any solids.

  3. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  4. Genetische Analyse des Tyrosinkinase-Rezeptors ErbB2

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeyesus, Masresha Tsegaye

    2001-01-01

    ErbB2 gehört zu den Klasse I Rezeptor-Tyrosinkinasen und funktioniert als Ko-rezeptor bei der Vermittlung des Neuregulin-Signals. Während der Embryonal-entwicklung wird ErbB2 im Herzen, in den Neuralleistenzellen, im Muskel und in den Epithelien exprimiert (Kokai et al. 1987). Embryonen mit einer Null-Mutation im ErbB2 Gen sterben am Tag 10,5 der Embryonalentwicklung. Die Mutation bewirkt eine morphogenetische Fehlbildung des Herzens, die durch das Fehlen von ventrikulären Trabekeln gekennzei...

  5. B2B营销的权威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣

    2006-01-01

    现在很流行的一个词就是B2B营销,那么到底什么叫B2B营销呢?雷·赖特所著的《组织间营销》(英文全名Business—to—Business Marketing:AStep-by-Step Guide)可以回答你的问题,它可谓是全面了解B2B营销所涉及的各个层面的权威书籍。

  6. Sosiaalisen median strategia B2B-yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin sosiaaliseen mediaan ja sen hyödyntämiseen B2B-näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli selvittää, miten B2B-yritys voi hyödyntää sosiaalista mediaa osana liiketoimintaansa ja miten sosiaalisen median strategia käytännössä toteutetaan. Työn aikana opinnäytetyön tekijä oli osana sosiaalisen median strategian suunnittelua ja valmistumista case-yrityksessä. Case-yritys on oululainen informaatioteknologian alalla toimiva B2B-yritys. Sosiaalisen median avulla...

  7. B2B virksomheders brug af sociale medier

    OpenAIRE

    Persdatter Gotfredsen, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this master thesis is to explore how B2B firms perceive their own usage of social media to establish and strengthen successful relational exchanges. Approach: In-depth interviews were carried out with three key informants responsible for social media marketing at large B2B firms. The findings from the three interviews were then analysed case-by-case and finally a cross case analysis was conducted. Findings: In relation to the market B2B firms mainly see social media...

  8. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelma b2b-yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Harhakoski, Oskari

    2011-01-01

    Työ käsittelee digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelman tekemistä b2b-yritykselle. Tavoitteena oli kilpailuedun hankkiminen sosiaalisen median tehokkaalla hyödyntämisellä mark-kinoinnissa. Konkreettisemmin yritys halusi lisää näkyvyyttä ja myyntiä. Suunnitelman laatimisessa hyödynnettiin POST-menetelmää. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitettiin b2b-markkinoinnin eroihin b2c-markkinointiin verrattuna. Myös yrityksen toimiminen Suomen markkinoilla huomioitiin. Lisäksi analysoitiin kilpailijoita asia...

  9. Pulse laser irradiation into superconducting MgB2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed 20-ps pulse laser irradiation experiments on a MgB2 neutron detector to know a thermal-relaxation process for designing a MgB2 neutron detector. The membrane-type structured MgB2 device was fabricated to minimize the heat capacity of sensing part of a detector as well as to enhance its sensitivity. We successfully observed a thermal-relaxation signal resulting from pulse laser irradiation by developing a detection circuit. The response time was faster than 1 μs, meaning that the detector would be capable of counting neutrons at a rate of more than 106 events per second

  10. Ultrasonic Properties of the MgB2 Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ri-Cheng; JIN Chang-Qing; LI Shao-Chun; WANG Ru-Ju; LI Feng-Ying; LIU Zhen-Xing; ZHU Jia-Lin

    2001-01-01

    The sound velocities of longitudinal and shear waves are measured on a polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor with Tc of 39 K. The specimen used in the experiments is pressed and heated using the MgB2 powder. The elastic moduli, Debye temperature and specific heat at room temperature are obtained based on sound velocity data. The results indicate that the velocities are much higher than those in the usual materials, while elastic constants remain reasonably soft, which may be due to the high transition temperature of the MgB2 superconductor.

  11. Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kayvan Etebari; Leila Matindoost

    2004-12-01

    A high-dose of vitamin B3 in silkworm diet interrupts larval feeding and normal growth. High mortality of larvae occurs during molting and they cannot complete this process normally. Also the larvae exhibit nicotinamide hypervitaminosis symptoms such as immobility, dyspepsia, darkening of the skin, inability to excrete normally, exerting brownish fluid from anus and swelling of rectal muscles. Maximum larval weights in 1, 2 and 3 g/l treatments were 2.9, 1.6 and 1.2 g respectively, while maximum larval weight in the control was 5.6 g. Larval stage compared to control had increased 18, 26 and 31 days respectively. The concentration increase of uric acid in haemolymph demonstrates the hyperuricemia, while other measured biochemical compounds show significant decrease; sodium and potassium did not change significantly.

  12. Characterization of LiB(3)O(5) crystal for second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F; Wu, B; You, G; Chen, C

    1991-08-15

    We present second-harmonic generation characteristics of LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal with different phase-matching lengths and comparison with those of beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal. A computer program of the numerical interaction method was adopted to make the theoretical calculation of second-harmonic generation conversion efficiencies of LBO with different phase-matching lengths and power densities of the fundamental beam of a Nd:YAG laser, and the calculated result was compared with the experimental one. It is seen from the calculated and experimental results that for certain power densities of the fundamental laser beam, so long as the length of the LBO crystal is selected appropriately, a high energy conversion efficiency could be obtained. For example, an optimal external energy conversion efficiency of LBO crystal of more than 70% has been attained for several 100-MW/cm(2) fundamental laser beams. Experiments also showed that the crystal could be used under high power densities without any damage to the surface and the interior. PMID:19776930

  13. Thermal shock resistance of ZrB2 and ZrB2-30% SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal shock of high density (>99% relative density) zirconium diboride (ZrB2) and zirconium diboride containing 30 vol.% silicon carbide (SiC) was studied. Calculations based on thermal shock theory indicated that ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC should have greater thermal shock resistance than ZrB2 due to its higher fracture strength. Water quench tests revealed essentially the same critical thermal shock values for both materials (ΔTcrit = ∼400 deg. C). A finite element model was used to estimate the temperatures and stresses in both ceramics during quench testing. The model predicted that maximum thermal stresses during the experimental quench test exceeded the strength of ZrB2 (568 MPa) but not ZrB2-30 vol.% SiC (863 MPa). The lower than predicted thermal shock resistance of ZrB2-SiC was attributed to the non-uniform cooling between the ZrB2 matrix grains and the SiC particulate phase

  14. Structural stability and electrical properties of AlB2-type MnB2 under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural stability and electrical properties of AlB2-type MnB2 were studied based on high pressure angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction, in situ electrical resistivity measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and first-principles calculations under high pressure. The x-ray diffraction results show that the structure of AlB2-type MnB2 remains stable up to 42.6 GPa. From the equation of state of MnB2, we obtained a bulk modulus value of 169.9±3.7 GPa with a fixed pressure derivative of 4, which indicates that AlB2-type MnB2 is a hard and incompressible material. The electrical resistance undergoes a transition at about 19.3 GPa, which can be explained by a transition of manganese 3d electrons from localization to delocalization under high pressure. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  15. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  16. Thromboxane B2 formation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thromboxane A2 is a stable metabolite of thromboxane B2 which production and release were reported with many of the risk factors related to coronary-artery disease. In 18 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction serial determinations of thromboxane B2 were performed in the blood having clotted at 370C for 30 min. Significantly less (p < 0.05) of thromboxane B2 was formed in the first week after infarction compared to the control group. Thromboxane B 2 formed in the blood of these patients increased slightly in the recovery period but was still lower than in healthy population. Since thromboxane A2 exerts deleterious effects upon myocardial performance an adaptive protective effect of the decreased thromboxane synthesis in patients with myocardial infarction was suggested. (orig.)

  17. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...... the ways in which design sense making artefacts may drive also B2B sales agents’ work....

  18. B2B“风口”渐近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁

    2014-01-01

    经过十多年的发展,B2B业务在2014年有一种“风口”的感觉。经过十多年的发展,B2B在2014年有一种“风口”的感觉。2009-2013年,B2B交易额和市场收入差异非常大:包括阿里巴巴、慧聪网等总收入不到200亿元,而中国B2B市场的交易规模在7万~8万亿之间。

  19. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-07-28

    Photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory are combined to study the structures and chemical bonding in boron-gold alloy clusters and boron boronyl clusters: B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2). Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all four species and the B-Au and B-BO clusters exhibit similar spectral patterns, with the latter species having higher electron binding energies. The electron affinities of B3Au, B3Au2, B3(BO), and B3(BO)2 are determined to be 2.29 ± 0.02, 3.17 ± 0.03, 2.71 ± 0.02, and 4.44 ± 0.02 eV, respectively. The anion and neutral clusters turn out to be isostructural and isovalent to the B3H(n)(-)∕B3H(n) (n = 1, 2) species, which are similar in bonding owing to the fact that Au, BO, and H are monovalent σ ligands. All B3Au(n)(-) and B3(BO)n(-) (n = 1, 2) clusters are aromatic with 2π electrons. The current results provide new examples for the Au∕H and BO∕H isolobal analogy and enrich the chemistry of boronyl and gold. PMID:23901981

  1. Fabrication of sandwich-type MgB2/Boron/MgB2 Josephson junctions with rapid annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwich-type MgB2/Boron/MgB2 Josephson junctions were fabricated using magnetron sputtering system. The rapid-anneal process was adopted to replace traditional way of annealing, trying to solve the problem of interdiffusion and oxidation with multilayer films. The boron film was used as barrier layer to avoid the introduction of impurities and improve reproducibility of the junctions. The bottom MgB2 thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire substrate exhibits a critical temperature TC of 37.5 K and critical current density JC at 5 K of 8.7 × 106 A cm−2. From the XRD pattern, the bottom MgB2 thin film shows c-axis orientation, whereas the top MgB2 became polycrystalline as Boron barrier layer grown thicker. Therefore, all junction samples show lower TC than single MgB2 thin film. The junctions exhibit excellent quasiparticle characteristics with ideal dependence on temperature and Boron barrier thickness. Subharmonic gap structure was appeared in conductance characteristics, which was attributed to the multiple Andreev reflections (MAR). The result demonstrates great promise of this new fabrication technology for MgB2 Josephson junction fabrication. - Highlights: • Sandwich-type MgB2/Boron/MgB2 Josephson junctions were fabricated. • The junctions were annealed after deposition with the rapid-anneal process. • The highest critical current is 25.3 mA at 5 K and remains non-zero near 25 K. • Subharmonic gap features can be observed in the dI/dV – V curves

  2. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  3. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashwati Sen; D K Aswal; Ajay Singh; T V Chandrasekhar Rao; K P Muthe; J C Vyas; L C Gupta; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been determined using magnetization data. The current–voltage characteristics recorded under an applied magnetic field revealed the existence of vortex glass transition. The surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that MgB2 is sensitive to atmospheric degradation.

  4. TiB2 ceramic and DLC Multilayered PVD coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos da Silva Cruz, Ricardo Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Titanium diboride (TiB2) has been investigated as a potential candidate for several industrial applications, such as: cutting tools, electric devices, wear parts and many more fields of application. The main drawback of TiB2 is its brittle nature, which has limited its range of applications. Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) has been used in industrial applications, mainly for wear resistant parts. However, the application of DLC films has been limited by the level of internal stres...

  5. Branding of electricity in B2B markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rolanda Simenaite 1986

    2013-01-01

    Branding has gained an important role in the B2B (business-to-business) market. Liberation of the energy markets in recent years has increased competition and branding could create a competitive advantage. This thesis analyzes the branding of electricity in a business-to-business context. In depth, this thesis explores the supplier of electricity brand importance for business customers in both Icelandic and Lithuanian B2B markets. The focus of the thesis is to research how much brands matter ...

  6. POLICY CONCERNS FOR ONLINE B2B EXCHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Neal H.; Rha, Jong-Youn; Ernst, Stanley C.; Widdows, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Policy concerns arise as e-business activities become increasingly common. This paper discusses important elements of such concerns, particularly the pro- and anti-competitive assessment of online business-to-business (B2B) exchanges. The definition of markets, the role of quality management and communication, and join purchasing implications within such environments are related to food distribution systems. Other online business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-business (C2B) policy concern...

  7. B2B品牌的隐形价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·格雷戈里; 唐纳德·塞克斯顿

    2007-01-01

    @@ 消费品营销人员满脑子想着品牌资产(brand equity),他们也理应如 此.B2B公司如能效法,将是明智之举.我们对450多家公司进行了16年的量化研究,结果表明B2B品牌蕴藏着数十亿美元的价值.

  8. B2B emarketplace announcements and shareholder wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Chen; Siems, Thomas F.

    2001-01-01

    In the business-to-business (B2B) sector, new supply-chain models within electronic marketplaces (eMarketplaces) offer firms significantly lower procurement costs, increased operating efficiencies, and expanded market opportunities. Using event-study methodology to look at the period July 1999-March 2000, Andrew Chen and Thomas Siems find that investors reacted favorably to B2B eMarketplace announcements, with slightly higher abnormal returns associated with vertical than with horizontal eMar...

  9. ZrB2 and HfB2 toughened with Hi Nicalon SiC chopped fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestroni, Laura; Sciti, Diletta

    2012-01-01

    ZrB2 and HfB2 are candidate materials for use in aggressive environment, owing a unique combination of favourable properties of high temperature stability and excellent engineeristic properties. This class of materials is raising always more interest for future generation space vehicles, as wing leading edges and nose tips, as well as propulsion system elements. The most investigated system is based on ZrB2-SiC, owing to a high strength, up to 1 GPa, high hardness, around 20 GPa and oxidation...

  10. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  11. Covalent magnetism, exchange interactions and anisotropy of the high temperature layered antiferromagnet MnB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the electronic structure and magnetism for the compound MnB2 with crystal structure type AlB2 has been revisited to resolve contradictions between various experimental and theoretical results present in the literature. We find that MnB2 exhibits an interesting example of a Kübler’s covalent magnetism (Williams et al 1981 J. Appl. Phys. 52 2069). The covalent magnetism also appears to be the source of some disagreement between the calculated values of the magnetic moments and those given by neutron diffraction experiments. We show that this shortcoming is due to the atomic sphere approximation applied in earlier calculations. The application of the disordered local moment approach and the calculation of the inter-atomic exchange interactions within the Liechtenstein formalism reveal strong local moment antiferromagnetism with a high Néel temperature predicted from Monte Carlo simulations. A fully relativistic band structure calculation and then the application of the torque method yields a strong in-plane anisotropy of the Mn magnetic moments. The agreement of these results with neutron diffraction studies rules out any possible weak itinerant electron magnetism scenarios as proposed earlier for MnB2. (paper)

  12. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in superconducting ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in an applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field-induced magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in are especially interesting because the field suppresses the superconducting order parameter and therefore the magnetic properties can be studied while varying the strength of superconductivity. ErNi2B2C: For magnetic fields along all three symmetry directions, the observed magnetic structures have a period corresponding to the Fermi surface nesting structure. The phase diagrams present all the observed magnetic structures. Two results remain unresolved: 1. When applying the magnetic field along [010], the minority domain (QNB = (0,Q,0) with moments perpendicular to the field) shows no signs of hysteresis. I expected it to be a meta-stable state, which would be gradually suppressed by a magnetic field, and when decreasing the field it would not reappear until some small field of approximately 0.1 T. 2. When the field is applied along [110], the magnetic structure rotates a small angle of 0.5 degrees away from the symmetry direction. TmNi2B2C: A magnetic field applied in the [100] direction suppresses the zero field magnetic structure QF = (0.094,0.094,0) (TN = 1.6 K), in favor of the Fermi surface nesting structure QN = (0.483,0,0). The appearance of the QN phase was initially believed to be caused by the suppression of superconductivity. This suppression should make it favorable to create a magnetic order with a Q-vector determined by the maximum in the magnetic susceptibility at the Fermi surface nesting vector QN. The phase diagram for the magnetic structures is presented, however several properties of the QN magnetic structure cannot be explained within any known models. Quadrupolar ordering is suggested as a possible candidate for explaining these features of the QN structure. (au)

  13. Fuzzy Approximating Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Qin

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between fuzzy relations and fuzzy topologies are deeply researched. The concept of fuzzy approximating spaces is introduced and decision conditions that a fuzzy topological space is a fuzzy approximating space are obtained.

  14. Stochastic approximation: invited paper

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Tze Leung

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic approximation, introduced by Robbins and Monro in 1951, has become an important and vibrant subject in optimization, control and signal processing. This paper reviews Robbins' contributions to stochastic approximation and gives an overview of several related developments.

  15. Approximate flavor symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Rasin, A

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  17. Superconductivity in Dense MgB2 Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MgB2 becomes superconducting just below 40K. Whereas porous polycrystalline samples of MgB2 can be synthesized from boron powders, in this Letter we demonstrate that dense wires of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing boron filaments to Mg vapor. The resulting wires have a diameter of 160 μm , are better than 80% dense, and manifest the full χ=-1/4π shielding in the superconducting state. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements indicate that MgB2 is a highly conducting metal in the normal state with ρ(40 K)=0.38 μΩcm . By using this value, an electronic mean-free path, l∼600 angstrom can be estimated, indicating that MgB2 wires are well within the clean limit. Tc , Hc2(T) , and Jc data indicate that MgB2 manifests comparable or better superconducting properties in dense wire form than it manifests as a sintered pellet

  18. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  19. Myocilin mediates myelination in the peripheral nervous system through ErbB2/3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heung Sun; Johnson, Thomas V; Joe, Myung Kuk; Abu-Asab, Mones; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi Chao; Tomarev, Stanislav I

    2013-09-13

    The glaucoma-associated gene, myocilin, is expressed in ocular and non-ocular tissues including the peripheral nervous system, but its functions in these tissues remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in sciatic nerve, myocilin is expressed in Schwann cells with high concentrations at the nodes of Ranvier. There, myocilin interacts with gliomedin, neurofascin, and NrCAM, which are essential for node formation and function. Treatment of isolated dorsal root ganglion cultures with myocilin stimulates clustering of the nodal proteins neurofascin and sodium channel Nav1.2. Sciatic nerves of myocilin null mice express reduced levels of several myelin-associated and basal membrane proteins compared with those of wild-type littermates. They also demonstrate reduced myelin sheath thickness and partial disorganization of the nodes. Myocilin signaling through ErbB2/3 receptors may contribute to these observed effects. Myocilin binds to ErbB2/ErbB3, activates these receptors, and affects the downstream PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. These data implicate a role for myocilin in the development and/or maintenance of myelination and nodes of Ranvier in sciatic nerve. PMID:23897819

  20. The erbB3- and IGF-1 receptor-initiated signaling pathways exhibit distinct effects on lapatinib sensitivity against trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hui; Yang, Xiao He; Edgerton, Susan M; Thor, Ann D; Wu, Xiaoying; He, Zhimin; Liu, Bolin

    2016-01-19

    Both erbB3 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been shown to play an important role in trastuzumab resistance. However, it remains unclear whether erbB3- and IGF-1R-initiated signaling pathways possess distinct effects on the sensitivity of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against both EGFR and erbB2, in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Here, we show that the trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 breast cancer sublines, as compared the parental SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively, exhibit refractoriness to lapatinib. Knockdown of erbB3 inhibited Akt in SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 cells, significantly increased lapatinib efficacy, and dramatically re-sensitized the cells to lapatinib-induced apoptosis. In contrast, specific knockdown of IGF-1R did not alter the cells' responsiveness to lapatinib. While the levels of phosphorylated Src (P-Src) were reduced upon IGF-1R downregulation, the P-Akt levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of Akt, but not Src, significantly enhanced lapatinib-mediated anti-proliferative/anti-survival effects on SKBR3-pool2 and BT474-HR20 cells. These data indicate that erbB3 signaling is critical for both trastuzumab and lapatinib resistances mainly through the PI-3K/Akt pathway, whereas IGF-1R-initiated Src activation results in trastuzumab resistance without affecting lapatinib sensitivity. Our findings may facilitate the development of precision therapeutic regimens for erbB2-positive breast cancer patients who become resistant to erbB2-targeted therapy. PMID:26621843

  1. Kinetic energy release in CO fragmentation by electron loss and capture collisions of fast B''2''+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization and fragmentation of CO molecules have been investigated in charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ ions at v = 1.69 a.u.. Fragment ions from CO were measured by using a momentum 3D imaging technique in coincidence with outgoing projectile charge states. We deduced the kinetic energy release (KER) associated with charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ to B''3''+, B''1''+ and B''0''+. The KER spectra in the fragmentation to C''+ and O''+ ions are found to be different to some extent for these loss and capture collisions. It is concluded that the electron loss collision populates the intact CO molecule to highly excited states of (CO)''2''+''1 more effectively than electron capture collisions, resulting from different effective impact parameters associated with loss and capture collisions.

  2. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Assessment of G3(MP2)//B3 theory including a pseudopotential for molecules containing first-, second-, and third-row representative elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G3(MP2)//B3 theory was modified to incorporate compact effective potential (CEP) pseudopotentials, providing a theoretical alternative referred to as G3(MP2)//B3-CEP for calculations involving first-, second-, and third-row representative elements. The G3/05 test set was used as a standard to evaluate the accuracy of the calculated properties. G3(MP2)//B3-CEP theory was applied to the study of 247 standard enthalpies of formation, 104 ionization energies, 63 electron affinities, 10 proton affinities, and 22 atomization energies, comprising 446 experimental energies. The mean absolute deviations compared with the experimental data for all thermochemical results presented an accuracy of 1.4 kcal mol−1 for G3(MP2)//B3 and 1.6 kcal mol−1 for G3(MP2)//B3-CEP. Approximately 75% and 70% of the calculated properties are found with accuracy between ±2 kcal mol−1 for G3(MP2)//B3 and G3(MP2)//B3-CEP, respectively. Considering a confidence interval of 95%, the results may oscillate between ±4.2 kcal mol−1 and ±4.6 kcal mol−1, respectively. The overall statistical behavior indicates that the calculations using pseudopotential present similar behavior with the all-electron theory. Of equal importance to the accuracy is the CPU time, which was reduced by between 10% and 40%

  4. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  5. Mechanical-thermal synthesis of NbB2 powder from Mg/B2O3/Nb powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different approaches were used for the synthesis of niobium boride using a stoichiometric ratio of Mg-B2O3-Nb powder mixture: (i) thermal ignition, (ii) mechanochemical and (iii) a combined mechanical and thermal activation process. Phase transformation analysis and structural evaluation were carried out by means of differential thermal analysis techniques, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the thermal synthesis, the reaction between Mg and B2O3 partially occurred (liquid state reaction). The desired final phase (NbB2) was poorly obtained. Phase analysis revealed that the NbB2 phase was synthesized after 10 h of high energy ball milling. A pre-milling treatment of the powder mixture up to 2 h significantly reduced the reactions temperature (580 C). Consequently, NbB2 was prepared simultaneously involving magnesiothermic reduction of B2O3 and reaction between elemental of Nb and boron. Mg3(BO3)2, as major by-product, was formed in noticeable amounts during the thermal process, while its quantity significantly decreased during mechanochemical synthesis and completely eliminated by using the combined mechanical and thermal synthesis.

  6. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting MgB2 and MgB2 + MgO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janhavi P Joshi; Subhasis Sarangi; A K Sood; Dilip Pal; S V Bhat

    2002-02-01

    Non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing ∼ 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field c1 is observed indicating a non- wave superconductivity. However, the phase reversal of the NRMA signal which could suggest wave symmetry is also not observed. In the MgB2 + MgO sample, much larger low field dependent absorption is observed indicating the presence of intergranular weak links. The hysteretic behavior of NRMA is compared and contrasted in the two samples. In the pure MgB2 sample, a large hysteresis is observed between the forward and the reverse scans of the magnetic field indicating strong pinning of flux lines. This hysteresis saturates a few degrees below c while in the MgB2 + MgO sample, a much slower increase of hysteresis with decreasing temperature is observed, a signature of weaker pinning.

  7. LWR containment thermal hydraulic codes benchmark demona B3 exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent discussion about the aerosol codes currently used for the analysis of containment retention capabilities have revealed a number of questions concerning the reliabilities and verifications of the thermal-hydraulic modules of these codes with respect to the validity of implemented physical models and the stability and effectiveness of numerical schemes. Since these codes are used for the calculation of the Source Term for the assessment of radiological consequences of severe accidents, they are an important part of reactor safety evaluation. For this reason the Commission of European Communities (CEC), following the recommendation mode by experts from Member Stades, is promoting research in this field with the aim also of establishing and increasing collaboration among Research Organisations of member countries. In view of the results of the studies, the CEC has decided to carry out a Benchmark exercise for severe accident containment thermal hydraulics codes. This exercise is based on experiment B3 in the DEMONA programme. The main objective of the benchmark exercise has been to assess the ability of the participating codes to predict atmosphere saturation levels and bulk condensation rates under conditions similar to those predicted to follow a severe accident in a PWR. This exercise follows logically on from the LA-4 exercise, which, is related to an experiment with a simpler internal geometry. We present here the results obtained so far and from them preliminary conclusions are drawn, concerning condensation temperature, pressure, flow rates, in the reactor containment

  8. Crystal growth of Li10B3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of boron 10 isotope enriched L10BO (Li10B3O5) optical crystal has been developed from Top-Seeded-Solution-Growth using a resistance furnace. In the preparation for growth materials, we have made further improvement on a charge loading technique to a crucible and succeeded in forming suitable high temperature flux for producing crystals. Adequate temperature gradient of 1K/cm inside the crucible was achieved from searching for a combination of setting temperatures in the vertical three-zone furnace and installing a ceramic ring under the crucible. We have also optimized seed holder configuration and established growth conditions by several attempts. As a result, two good quality L10BO crystals were produced with sizes of 14 x 25 x 22 mm and 13 x 10 x 12 mm from oriented seed crystals. Although these sizes were limited by the size of the crucible used, appropriate oriented samples were extracted for detailed studies in optical measurements. (author)

  9. Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis and Caspase-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN PING YUAN; WEI ZHAO; HONG TAO WANG; KAI YU WU; TAO LI; XIAO KUI GUO; SHAN QING TONG

    2003-01-01

    Cell death can be classified into two categories: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic pathway can beeither caspase-dependent or caspase-independent. Caspase-independent cytopathic effect (CPE) has beendescribed. In order to evaluate the pattern of HeLa cell death induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)and whether apoptosis involves caspase activation, we co-cultivated HeLa cells with CVB3 and detectedthe cytopathic changes, the alteration of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 gene plus caspase-3activity, as well as analyzing DNA fragmentation before and after caspase-3 activity inhibition. Accordingto the results, we propose that CVB3 may induce apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, the latter appearingmuch earlier. Caspase-3 is activated at the levels of both transcription and translation, and procaspase-3 isproteolytically cleaved, thus leading to the continuous increasing of both caspase-3 precursor protein and itssubunit. However, besides CPE, apoptosis induced by CVB3 is not a direct consequence of the activationof caspase-3, or caspase-3 is not the only effector molecule in apoptotic cell death, for caspase-3 inhibitorcan not decrease DNA fragmentation. Some other biochemical mechanisms may participate in the process,whose role weakens the effect of inhibiting caspase-3 activity.

  10. Kinematics of the SgrB2(N-LMH) Molecular Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Liu, S.-Y.; Snyder, L. E.; Palmer, Patrick; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) emission and absorption have been imaged with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward SgrB2(N-LMH) by means of the 5(sub 15)-4(sub 14) rotational transition at 43.5 GHz (lambda approx. 7 mm). The 1.5" x 1.4" VLA beam shows two principal sources of ethyl cyanide emission: an unresolved source approx. 5" north of the LMH that is kinematically consistent with simple expansion, contraction, or small-scale turbulence, and the resolved LMH core source itself that shows kinematics indicating an edge-on rotating disk that extends 23" (approx. 0.1 pc) in the approximate east-west direction. A search for the 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06) rotational transition of the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) at 43.7 GHz toward SgrB2(N-LMH) gave negative results.

  11. Magneto-optical study of the superconducting gap of MgB(2) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucchi, A; Degiorgi, L; Jun, J; Angst, M; Karpinski, J

    2002-08-26

    We present magneto-optical reflectivity results in the basal plane of the hexagonal MgB(2). The data were collected on a mosaic of MgB(2) single crystals with T(c)=38 K from the ultraviolet down to the far infrared as a function of temperature and magnetic field oriented along the c axis. In the far infrared, there is a clear signature of the superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2 Delta/k(B)T(c) approximately 1.2, well below the weak-coupling value. The gap is suppressed in an external magnetic field, which is a function of temperature. We extract the upper critical field H(c2) along the c axis. The temperature dependence of H(c2) is compatible with the Helfand-Werthamer behavior. PMID:12190429

  12. First-principles study of B1 to B2 phase transition in PbS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, P.; Munjal, N.; Sharma, G.; Vyas, V.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-07-01

    The high pressure structural phase transition in PbS has been studied by means of first-principles total energy calculations which are based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method within local density approximation (LDA). In the present study, the exchange scheme of Becke and correlation functional of von-Barth-Hedin (VBH) are employed. It is observed that more stable phase for PbS is NaCl type (B1) and PbS transforms to the CsCl type (B2) structure under high pressure (22.8 GPa). The calculated value of transition pressure (Pt) from B1 to B2 structure is found in good agreement with the earlier experimental and theoretical investigations.

  13. The compressibility of high purity YbB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B; Suzer, S; Ozdas, E

    2012-08-29

    The compressibility and phase stability of Y bB(2) are investigated under high pressure using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The bulk modules of high purity Y bB(2) is obtained as ∼182 GPa using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The patterns measured up to 20 GPa and the pressure dependence of normalized lattice parameters, a/a(0) and c/c(0), reveal that the compressibility of Y bB(2) is low and fairly isotropic, and this material can be classified as a hard material. X-ray photoemission studies demonstrate that Yb in Y bB(2) has a mostly trivalent valence state at room temperature. Moreover, sample preparation details provide a new insight into the high purity synthesis of Y bB(2) at ambient pressure and moderate temperatures. The presented structural and compressibility results are in agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data on binary rare-earth borides and can serve as a reliable reference for future studies. PMID:22850355

  14. AN OPTIMAL FUZZY APPROXIMATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YueShihong; ZhangKecun

    2002-01-01

    In a dot product space with the reproducing kernel (r. k. S. ) ,a fuzzy system with the estimation approximation errors is proposed ,which overcomes the defect that the existing fuzzy control system is difficult to estimate the errors of approximation for a desired function,and keeps the characteristics of fuzzy system as an inference approach. The structure of the new fuzzy approximator benefits a course got by other means.

  15. Approximation of irrationals

    OpenAIRE

    Malvina Baica

    1985-01-01

    The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF), and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA) to approximate irrationals.This paper deals with approximation of irrationals of degree n=2,3,5. Though approximations of these irrationals in a variety of patterns are known, the results are new and practical, since there is used an algorithmic method.

  16. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability distributions which are made consistent on a set of moments and encode different features of the original intractable distribution. In this way we are able to use Gaussian approximations for models with ...

  17. Thermoluminescence, point defects and recombination processes in BeO and LiB3O5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the TSL study of the main dosimetric peak region from BeO single crystals doped with boron or lithium impurities in different concentrations are presented. The TSL peculiarities at 420 K were interpreted in terms of the field fluctuation process model. It was suggested that in BeO over the region between 380 K and 420 K the thermostimulated lattice process occurs, decreases the potential barrier of a portion of the B2+ centres and results in over-thermal emission. It was found that a small concentration of the hole trapped [Li]o centres effectively suppresses the over-thermal emission. TSL from LiB3O5 single crystals and temperature dependence of the activation energy (T) were studied. The kinetics peculiarities of TSL over the range from 100 to 130 K were revealed and interpreted as a lattice process, which decreases the potential barrier of the actual trapping centres. (author)

  18. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  19. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  20. Percolative superconductivity in Mg1-xB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results from various transport experiments on Mg1-xB2 indicate a surprising effect associated with the presence of a Mg deficiency in MgB2: the phase separation between Mg-vacancy rich and Mg-vacancy poor phases. The Mg-vacancy poor phase is superconducting, but the insulating nature of the Mg-vacancy rich phase probably originates from the Anderson (disorder-induced) localization of itinerant carriers. Furthermore, electron diffraction measurements indicate that within vacancy-rich regions these defects tend to order with intriguing patterns. This electronic phase separation in Mg1-xB2 shows similar, but also distinct characteristics compared with that observed in La2CuO4+δ

  1. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  2. Expanding Interprofessional EHR Data in i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Christie, Beverly; Johnson, Steven G; Pruinelli, Lisiane; LaFlamme, Anne; Park, Jung In; Sherman, Suzan G; Byrne, Matthew D; Ranallo, Piper; Speedie, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Emerging issues of team-based care, precision medicine, and big data science underscore the need for health information technology (HIT) tools for integrating complex data in consistent ways to achieve the triple aims of improving patient outcomes, patient experience, and cost reductions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of creating a hierarchical flowsheet ontology in i2b2 using data-derived information models and determine the underlying informatics and technical issues. This study is the first of its kind to use information models that aggregate team-based care across time, disciplines, and settings into 14 information models that were integrated into i2b2 in a hierarchical model. In the process of successfully creating a hierarchical ontology for flowsheet data in i2b2, we uncovered a variety of informatics and technical issues described in this paper. PMID:27570680

  3. Kallikrein activates bradykinin B2 receptors in absence of kininogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyashev, Dauren; Tan, Fulong; Chen, Zhenlong; Zhang, Kai; Deddish, Peter A; Erdös, Ervin G; Hecquet, Claudie

    2006-03-01

    Kallikreins cleave plasma kininogens to release the bioactive peptides bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (Lys-BK). These peptides then activate widely disseminated B2 receptors with consequences that may be either noxious or beneficial. We used cultured cells to show that kallikrein can bypass kinin release to activate BK B2 receptors directly. To exclude intermediate kinin release or kininogen uptake from the cultured medium, we cultured and maintained cells in medium entirely free of animal proteins. We compared the responses of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express human B2 receptors (CHO B2) and cells that coexpress angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) as well (CHO AB). We found that BK (1 nM or more) and tissue kallikrein (1-10 nM) both significantly increased release of arachidonic acid beyond unstimulated baseline level. An enzyme-linked immunoassay for kinin established that kallikrein did not release a kinin from CHO cells. We confirmed the absence of kininogen mRNA with RT-PCR to rule out kininogen synthesis by CHO cells. We next tested an ACE inhibitor for enhanced BK receptor activation in the absence of kinin release and synthesized an ACE-resistant BK analog as a control for these experiments. Enalaprilat (1 microM) potentiated kallikrein (100 nM) in CHO AB cells but was ineffective in CHO B2 cells that do not bear ACE. We concluded that kallikrein activated B2 receptors without releasing a kinin. Furthermore, inhibition of ACE enhanced the receptor activation by kallikrein, an action that may contribute to the manifold therapeutic effects of ACE inhibitors. PMID:16272198

  4. B2B-verkkokaupan internetmarkkinointi : Case: More On Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Niina; Jesar, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää, millaiseksi More On Oy B2B-liikelahjayrityksen verkko¬-kaupan internetmarkkinointi pitää suunnitella, jotta uusi verkkokauppa antaa hyvän kuvan yrityksestä. Opinnäytetyö on tehty laadullisin tutkimusmenetelmin ja se on rajattu käsittelemään B2B-verkkokaupan internetmarkkinointia erityisesti toimeksiantajayrityksen näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa on kerrottu verkkokaupasta yleisesti sekä verkkokaupan inter-netmarkkinoinnin keinoista. More...

  5. Risk Analysis and Consumer Protection in B2C Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-zheng; SHI Qi-liang; Gary Millar; Ruhul A. Sarker

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the perceived lack of security is a major obstacle to the wider acceptance of e-commerce. To overcome this barrier, businesses need to implement comprehensive consumer protection systems that protect consumers during every stage of the purchasing process. This paper used the consumer behaviour model as the basis for analysing risks in Bussiness-to-Consumer (B2C) transactions. Four categories of risks were identified: information, agreement, payment and delivery risk. By combining these risk categories with the three dimensions of management, technology and legislation, a comprehensive B2C consumer protection framework is developed.

  6. Customized E-Learning for B2B Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thomasma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business-to-Business (B2B companies have customers that are primarily other corporations. These companies have unique problems in workplace training. They must train their customers and their customers’ employees. A B2B company may operate with only a few dozen employees, but they may need to help thousands of customers learn how to make best use of their product or service. Discussions with industry executives suggest an ideal training solution might include a number of features that are reviewed in this paper.

  7. B2B-asiantuntijayritys ja sosiaalinen media

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlman, Katriina

    2012-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten B2B-asiantuntijayritykset toimivat sosiaalisessa mediassa, miten ne hyödyntävät sitä palvelujensa ja brändinsä markkinointiin sekä lopulta liiketoimintansa edistämiseen. Tutkimus suoritettiin haastattelumuotoisena, laadullisena tutkimuksena. Tutkimukseen haastateltiin yhdeksää B2B-asiantuntijayrityksissä toimivaa, sosiaalista mediaa työkseen tai sen parissa työskentelevää henkilöä, jotka myös vapaa-ajallaan aktiivisesti käyttävät sosiaal...

  8. Creeping of ZrC-ZrB2 and TiC-TiB2 system alloys at compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with regularities of high-temperature (1700-2420 deg C) creeping in high-dense fine-grained sintered compositions of the ZrC-ZrB2 and TiC-TiB2 systems. Extremum creeping rate epsilon is determined for alloys with the most developed grain interface (V1:V2=1:1) which for the mentioned system coincides with eutectic compositions. It is shown that nonadditive changes in the creeping rate and a considerable increase in the absolute value of deformation (not less than 30%) in compositions with extremum epsilon as compared with that in individual alloys (5-6%) testify to superplasticity effects in alloys of the mentioned systems. An effect of stress (5-30 MPa) on the epsilon=f(σsup(n)) dependence is studied. It is determined that in alloys of the ZrC-ZrB2 system n>=1 in the TiC-TiB2 system - n>=1.5. It is shown that participation of threshold mechanisms in the mainly intergranular deformation in the TiC-TiB2 system may be related to a possibility for coherent grain boundaries to arise during sintering of disperse powders (d<<0.5 μm)

  9. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  10. Cluster variation method calculation of the A2/B2 phases of the system Nb-Ti-Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable work has been devoted to Nb-Ti-Al phase diagram investigation to develop high temperature structural materials but the ordered B2 (Ti2AlNb) phase field remains uncertain. The aim of this work is to calculate this phase diagram with a thermodynamic statistic method : the Cluster Variation Method (CVM). The CVM is used in the irregular tetrahedron approximation and takes into account first and second nearest neighbour interactions. The numerical values for the chemical pair interactions have been chosen to present the main experimental and theorical results available in the literature. Isothermal sections at T = 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 C are presented. The B2 phase field is large and extended towards the Nb-rich area. The calculated probabilities of sites occupation show an ordered L2l (Heussler phase) instead of the B2 phase in the Ti-rich area. A miscibility gap is found between the ordered L2l phase and the disordered A2 phase. Another miscibility gap is obtained between the ordered B2 phase and the disordered A2 phase in the Al-rich area (metastable field). The temperatures of the order-disorder B2→A2 transition and of the L2l→B2 transition have been calculated for different compositions. (orig.)

  11. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  12. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  13. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  14. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    modulus 180-200GPa), while TiB2 may be classified as superhard (bulk modulus about 260GPa). We report here first experimental and theoretical determinations of the bulk modulus for HoB4 (195(5) and 198.2GPa, respectively), and first experimental values of the bulk modulus for ScB2 (196(2)GPa) and YB4 (185......(4)GPa). No pressure-induced phase transformations are observed in any of the above borides up to about 20GPa. A continuous temperature-driven orthorhombic distortion is observed for HoB4 below 285K. Values of the thermal expansion coefficient are reported for ScB2 and HoB4 at 293, 200 and 100K...

  15. Preparation and characterisation of Os doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline osmium doped MgB2 samples were prepared by solid state route. • Up to 1 at.% Mg can be replaced by Os in the MgB2 lattice. • Tc decreases at a rate of 2.1 K/at.% Os upon doping. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples with Mg1−xOsxB2.04 nominal stoichiometry were made by reacting elemental powders at 800 °C under argon atmosphere. Based on XRD diffraction patterns, EDS analysis and magnetisation measurements, it is found that Os can replace up to about 1 at.% Mg in the MgB2 lattice. Beyond this doping level, unreacted Os and Mg-rich Mg–Os impurity phases are formed. The a-axis parameter contracts upon doping while the superconducting transition temperature decreases at a rate of 2.1 K/at.% Os substitution. At 10 K, Os doping induces an improvement of the normalised critical current density under applied magnetic fields in excess of 0.5 T, indicating a modest enhancement of flux pinning in this range

  16. Electronic and bonding properties of TiB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and electronic properties of TiB2 have been calculated using the first-principles total-energy pseudopotential method based on density functional theory. It is shown that the calculated lattice constants and heat of formation of TiB2 are in good agreement with the experimental results. By analyzing the band structure, density of states and Mulliken population, it is found that the bonding nature in TiB2 is a combination of ionic, covalent and metallic. The 2s-2p interaction exists in the close-packed layer of boron atoms. The hybridization of Ti-3d and B-2p from different layers is the main reason for the creation of pseudogap and results in the strong interlayer covalent bonding. In the same time, the charge transfer from titanium to boron is as significant as 1.16 electrons in the present case. The d-d resonance and free-electron 3d states of titanium atoms contribute to the covalent and metallic bonding in the layer of titanium atoms

  17. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Behzad Mehdikhani; Gholam Hossein Borhani; Saeed Reza Bakhshi; Hamid Reza Baharvandi

    2016-02-01

    The TaC–TaB2 composition was sintered by spark plasma (SPS) at 1900–2100°C and applied pressure of 30 MPa. TaC and 2–3 wt% B4C were used as starting powders. Densification process, phase evolution, microstructure and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicated that the TaC–TaB2 composition could be SPS to 97% of theoretical density in 10 min at 2100°C. Addition of B4C leads to an increase in the density sample from 76 to 97%. B4C nano-powder resists grain growth even at high temperature 2100°C. The formation of TaB2/carbon at TaC grain boundaries helps in pinning the grain boundary and inhibiting grain growth. The phase formation was associated with carbon and boron diffusion from the starting particles B4C to form TaB2 phases. TaC grain sizes decreased with increase in B4C concentration. Samples with 2.0 wt% B4C composition had highest flexure strength up to 520 MPa. The effect of B4C addition on hardness measured by microhardness has been studied. Hardness of samples containing 3.0 wt% B4C was 16.99 GPa.

  18. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  19. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-2 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-2 Meaning of terms. (a) For purposes of the tax imposed by section 4161(b), and unless otherwise expressly indicated: (1)...

  20. Supporting B2B Business Documents in XML Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hyoungdo

    2004-01-01

    While XML web services become recognized as a solution to business-to-business transactions, there are many problems that should be solved. For example, it is not easy to manipulate business documents of existing standards such as RosettaNet and UN/EDIFACT EDI, traditionally regarded as an important resource for managing B2B relationships. As a starting point for the complete implementation of B2B web services, this paper deals with how to support B2B business documents in XML web services. In the first phase, basic requirements for driving XML web services by business documents are introduced. As a solution, this paper presents how to express B2B business documents in WSDL, a core standard for XML web services. This kind of approach facilitates the reuse of existing business documents and enhances interoperability between implemented web services. Furthermore, it suggests how to link with other conceptual modeling frameworks such as ebXML/UMM, built on a rich heritage of electronic business experience.

  1. Directional crystallization of B4C-NbB2 and B4C-MoB2 eutectic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the directional crystallization of different compositions in B4C-NbB2 and B4C-MoB2 systems. The eutectic compositions for both systems are evaluated. It is shown that in the first system the rod-like eutectic structure is formed, in second, the 'Chinese hieroglyphics'. In both cases high hardness and high microplasticity are observed, which are much more than for individual component phases. These compositions may be considered as a new kind of self-strengthening composite materials

  2. Approximations to toroidal harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal harmonics P/sub n-1/2/1(cosh μ) and Q/sub n-1/2/1(cosh μ) are useful in solutions to Maxwell's equations in toroidal coordinates. In order to speed their computation, a set of approximations has been developed that is valid over the range 0 -10. The simple method used to determine the approximations is described. Relative error curves are also presented, obtained by comparing approximations to the more accurate values computed by direct summation of the hypergeometric series

  3. Reinvestigation on the phase transition of a LiB3O5 crystal near its melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S. M.; Zheng, G. M.; Feng, D. X.; Yao, Y. N.; Zhao, Y.; You, J. L.; Hu, Z. G.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate in-situ the phase transition of a LBO (LiB3O5) crystal near its melting point in order to explain the discrepancies between the experimental results observed in the LBO crystal growth process and the predicted results obtained from the Li2O-B2O3 phase diagram. When the LBO crystal begins to melt, it first decomposes to the kinetic products Li2B4O7 and B2O3; then the Li2B4O7 reacts with the undecomposed LBO to form the thermodynamic product Li3B7O12. On the basis of these results, a set of models have been proposed to describe the structural transformations present in the phase transition. Additionally, our experimental result indicates that Li3B7O12 is stable/metastable at room temperature. Its Raman spectrum has been calculated by the density functional theory method for identification of the Li3B7O12 crystalline phase in a mixture. The result shows that Li3B7O12 has three strong characteristic Raman peaks located around 595, 775 and 1040 cm-1.

  4. Structure and crystallization behavior of La2O3⋅3B2O3 metaborate glasses doped with Nd3+ or Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The structure and crystallization behavior of the La2O3⋅3B2O3 glass are studied. • LaB3O6 crystallizes congruently without intermediate but only from glass surface. • The structure of the amorphous and the crystalline phases differ significantly. • The activation energy of LaB3O6 crystal growth is determined. - Abstract: The local structure and crystallization behavior of the stoichiometric La2O3⋅3B2O3 (LaMB) metaborate glass doped with Nd3+ or Eu3+ ions are studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and 11B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), optical absorbance and luminescence techniques. In the crystallized samples, XRD, NMR and Raman spectroscopy have detected the formation of only one crystalline phase (congruent crystallization of LaB3O6). No intermediate metastable crystalline phase has been detected before LaB3O6 crystals formation (single stage crystallization process). The observation of heat treated glass samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy coupled with the study of the effect of varying the glass particle size on the DTA curves have both revealed that LaB3O6 crystallization only occurs by a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (needle-shape crystals) from glass surface. The activation energy Ec of crystal growth has been determined by performing DTA experiments at different heating rates with the Kissinger (784 kJ/mol) and Ozawa (801 kJ/mol) equations than can be used for surface crystallization processes. The heterogeneous crystallization behavior and the spectroscopic results obtained in this work by comparing the LaMB glass with the LaB3O6 crystalline phase suggest the existence of significant structural differences between the amorphous and the crystalline phases contrary to what was previously reported in literature

  5. Orbital Interaction and Electron Density Transfer in PdII([9]aneB2AL2 Complexes: Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Keun Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The geometric structures of Pd-complexes {Pd([9]aneB2AL2 and Pd([9]aneBABL2 where A = P, S; B = N; L = PH3, P(CH33, Cl−}, their selective orbital interaction towards equatorial or axial (soft A…Pd coordination of macrocyclic [9]aneB2A tridentate to PdL2, and electron density transfer from the electron-rich trans L-ligand to the low-lying unfilled a1g(5s-orbital of PdL2 were investigated using B3P86/lanl2DZ for Pd and 6-311+G** for other atoms. The pentacoordinate endo-[Pd([9]aneB2A(L-donor2]2+ complex with an axial (soft A--Pd quasi-bond was optimized for stability. The fifth (soft A--Pd quasi-bond between the σ-donor of soft A and the partially unfilled a1g(5s-orbital of PdL2 was formed. The pentacoordinate endo-Pd([9]aneB2A(L-donor2]2+ complex has been found to be more stable than the corresponding tetracoordinate endo-Pd complexes. Except for the endo-Pd pentacoordinates, the tetracoordinate Pd([9]aneBABL2 complex with one equatorial (soft A-Pd bond is found to be more stable than the Pd([9]aneB2AL2 isomer without the equatorial (A-Pd bond. In particular, the geometric configuration of endo-[Pd([9]anePNP(L-donor2]2+ could not be optimized.

  6. Direct measurement of the magnetic anisotropy of thin sputtered MgB2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simple hexagonal crystal structure and large London penetration depth make Magnesium-diboride an excellent candidate for spin polarization measurements using the Meservey-Tedrow method. In a step towards these measurements, we investigated the magnetic anisotropy of thin MgB2 films sputtered onto cubic (001)MgO and R-cut sapphire substrates. We present the high field cooling experiments with an applied magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the film plane for those samples. These measurements were done in the high field laboratory in Nijmegen due to the required high upper critical field for thin sputtered films of up to 30 T. Our measurements show an upper critical field of 38.31 T with field parallel to the film plane and 27.7 T with a field perpendicular to the film plane for the samples with 120 nm MgB2. A linear fit shows a good approximation with the data points, although the parallel magnetic field could not destroy the superconductivity. We achieved a magnetic anisotropy ratio of 1.38. Literature values show an anisotropy ratio between 1.25 and 2 for thin films, which was fit with the Ginzburg Landau theory. Therefore our results agrees with the previously estimated anisotropy ratio for thin MgB2 films, where magnetic fields of up to 7 T were used.

  7. Approximations in Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Bloch, Allan

    2000-01-01

    . One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found by the......Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations...... inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....

  8. The Karlqvist approximation revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.

  9. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  10. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  11. Structural nature of 7Li and 11B sites in the nonlinear optical material LiB3O5 using static NMR and MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5 is analyzed using single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. The 3-coordinated trigonal [B(1) and B(2)] and 4-coordinated tetragonal [B(3)] sites are distinguished using the spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ, which was obtained from the 11B MAS NMR. Moreover, the T1 and T1ρ values for 7Li and 11B are compared, and the activation energies were obtained. The T1ρ values of the boron nuclei in LiB3O5 show no significant changes. These results may be closely related to the largest second-order nonlinear optical coefficient. - Highlights: • The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5. • Single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR. • The 3-coordnated trigonal and 4-coordinated tetragonal. • The spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ

  12. Approximate spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  13. Microstructural and electrical characterization of MgB2 produced from boron oxide (B2O3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of superconducting MgBz (39 K) draws attention as a new material for appIications based on superconductivity. Many researchers successfulIy synthesized MgB2 using commercial Boron (B) and Magnesium (Mg). Due to the fact that Turkey is rich in amount of B203, in this studyelemental boron is synthesized from B203. Boron is obtained by acid leaching process af ter sintering B203 and Mg in Argon atmosphere at 800 degrees for Ih. EDX (Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) results revealed that the obtained powder was Boron in 92% purity with Mg as a major impuriy. Superconducting MgB2 is produced from acquired Boron and Magnesium in Argon atmosphere at 9000C by a conventional solid state reaction. Phase identification and microstructural properties of MgB2 is determined by using XRD (X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy), EDX and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. Electrical properties of fabricated MgB2 is analyzed by resistivity measurements with closed-cycle. He cooled system between 20 and 300 K

  14. Structure and magnetism of MnMgB2O5 and Mn2B2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an investigation of the magnetic properties of the pyroborates Mn2B2O5 and MnMgB2O5 using magnetization and electron-paramagnetic-resonance measurements. The pyroborates have in common with another well studied family of borates, the warwickites, substructures in the form of ribbons where the metals are located. The homometallic Mn2B2O5 system is shown to be a conventional three-dimensional antiferromagnet with Neel temperature TN≅24 K. Its magnetization isotherms present steps indicating spin-flop-like transitions involving distinct pairs of metal sites. The heterometallic compound MnMgB2O5 shows a susceptibility with a power-law temperature dependence χ(T)∝T-α, down to T=1.8 K and a magnetization with a power-law field dependence M(H)∝H(1-α) at low temperatures. This behavior is characteristic of a random singlet phase, in this case, in a system with spin S=5/2. We discuss our magnetic results on the pyroborates in connection with their structure and compare them with those obtained in the warwickites

  15. An ab initio molecular dynamics study on the structural and electronic properties of AlB2, TiB2 and (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 in Al–Ti–B master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The dominant bonding of AlB2 and TiB2 are ionic and covalent, respectively. • The covalent bonding nature of AlB2 and TiB2 are strengthened with increasing temperature. • The different bonding natures between Al–B and Ti–B weaken the cohesion of (Alx Ti(1−x))B2. • The higher formation energy of (Alx Ti(1−x))B2 is a barrier for the transformation from AlB2 to TiB2. -- Abstract: The structural and electronic properties of AlB2, TiB2 and (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 diborides in Al–Ti–B master alloys are investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics calculations at high temperature. It is found that the dominant bonding states of AlB2 and TiB2 at 1073 K are ionic and covalent, respectively. The larger linear thermal expansion coefficient of AlB2 than that of TiB2 results from their different bonding nature. The original ionic or covalent bonding states of Al or Ti with B atoms is reversed to be covalent or ionic to suit the whole bonding environment of the diborides when Al or Ti atoms acts as the solute atoms replacing Ti or Al atoms to form (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 duplex diborides. The inter-layer cohesion in (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 diborides is weakened owing to the weakened bonding and enhanced anti-bonding of Al–B and Ti–B bonds. The thermal stability of (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 duplex diborides compared with AlB2 and TiB2 are elucidated from thermodynamic considerations. The higher formation energy of (Alx,Ti(1−x))B2 duplex diborides is a barrier for restricting the transformation from AlB2 to TiB2

  16. Strongly bound metastable states of B2 + 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Pablo J.; Wright, James S.

    1990-08-01

    The stabilities of about 25 electronic states of B2+2 have been investigated using a multireference CI (MRD-CI) method and an AO basis set composed of 6s4p2d contracted Gaussian species per atom, including semidiffuse functions relevant for an adequate description of charge transfer interactions. The ground state X1∑+g (σ2gσ2u) is repulsive, as expected by its electronic configuration with a zero bond order. In spite of this and the doubly-positive charge, many excited states are found to be metastable, four of them (11∏g, 11∏u, 13∑-g, and 11Δg ) having potential wells from 1.52 eV (11∏u) to 2.83 eV (13∑-g). Relative to the ground state configuration, the metastable states arise from the excitations σu→σg(3∑+u), σu→πu(3,1∏g), σ2u→σgπu(3,1∏u), and σ2u→π2u(3∑-g, 1Δg, 1∑+g); they are analogous to those states showing deep local minima in B2 and B+2. Differences in stabilities among quasibound states can be explained on the basis of the asymptotic ΔE's between repulsive channels B++B+ and appropriate higher-lying limits (states) B+B2+ of bonding character; another important factor governing stability is the actual bonding character of the electronic configurations assigned to each state. The vertical double-ionization potential B2B2+2(π2u→∞) between both ground states is 27.97 eV, the repulsive X1∑+g dication state being created with 8.37 eV excess energy relative to B++B+. Doubly-ionized states with a chance of being detected because of their long lifetimes against predissociation are those showing a strongly quasibound character, such as (with the vertical double ionization potential in eV given in parentheses): 11∏g(σuπu→∞; 30.29); 11∏u(σ2uπu→σg∞; 31.30); 13∑-g(σ2u→∞; 31.33), and 11Δg(σ2u→∞; 31.95).

  17. Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and Debye temperature of (B3) boron–bismuth compound under pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Daoud; N Bioud; N Lebgaa

    2013-11-01

    Pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP–PW) based on density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) within the Teter and Pade exchangecorrelation functional form of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) is applied to study the effect of pressure on the elastic and piezoelectric properties of the (B3) boron–bismuth compound. The phase transition, the independent elastic stiffness constants, the bulk modulus, the direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients, the longitudinal, transverse, and average sound velocities, and finally the Debye temperature under pressure are studied. The results obtained are generally lower than the available theoretical data (experimental data are not available) reported in the literature.

  18. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high TC materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  19. Compressibility of AlB2-type transition metal diborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure behaviour of a series of transition metal borides has been studied both experimentally and by means of ab initio calculations. X-ray diffraction patterns measured up to ∼50 GPa for VB2 and ZrB2 show no obvious phase transition. Bulk moduli of 322 and 317 GPa, respectively, were obtained using a Murnaghan equation of state. Hartree-Fock LCCO (linear combination of crystal orbitals) calculations performed for TiB2 have allowed its compression behaviour to be studied. The bulk modulus obtained (292 GPa) and the proposed important contribution of the interlayer interaction to the elastic behaviour under high pressure are consistent with the experimental results for the other borides

  20. X-ray photoemission study of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A c-axis oriented thin film and a high-density sintered pellet of MgB2 have been studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and compared to measurements from MgO and MgF2 single crystals. The as-grown surface has a layer which is Mg-rich and oxidized, which is effectively removed by a nonaqueous etchant. The subsurface region of the pellet is Mg deficient. This nonideal near-surface region may explain varied scanning tunneling spectroscopy results. The MgB2 core level and Auger signals are similar to measurements from metallic Mg and transition-metal diborides, and the measured valence band is consistent with the calculated density of states

  1. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gal Peled; Roman Yasinov; Nir Karasikov

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operat...

  2. Social media usage: an investigation of B2B salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta J. Schultz; Charles H. Schwepker, Jr; David J. Good

    2012-01-01

    A great deal has been written recently in the practitioner press about the strategic importance and usage of social media. However, as practitioners only release limited information about the internal advantages such a tool provides, research in this emerging field remains extremely limited about its usage in the sales area. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically assess a model of social media usage among business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. A survey of 27...

  3. STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NEW SUPERCONDUCTOR MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE LUN-HUA; YAN QI-WEI; ZHANG PAN-LIN; HU GUI-QING

    2001-01-01

    The superconductivity of a sintered pellet of the newly discovered MgB2 superconductor has been studied with magnetic measurements and its crystal structure was analysed using the Rietveld method of powder X-ray patterns. It has hexagonal symmetry (S.G. P6/mmm) with unit cell lattice parameters a=0.308136(14)nm and c=0.351782(17)nm.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN B2B MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Monika £obaziewicz

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic progress in development of ICT technologies based on B2B, as well as their application in order to improve business processes carried out between enterprises and their business partners, have gained much importance during recent years. It was influenced by such factors as developing and tightening national and international cooperation, high competitiveness, time pressure and striving for improvement of customer and business partners service quality. While the reference books provid...

  5. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.;

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from t...... this a qualitative explanation for the anomalously high Curie temperature of the compound is proposed. Furthermore, the spin density is found to be highly nonspherical....

  6. Content Marketing vs. Traditional Advertising for B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This thesis follows a traditional research-based structure. The thesis focuses around content marketing and traditional advertising for B2B companies. The thesis was pro-duced for a company called INS and aims at showing that, in present times, content marketing is more valuable than traditional advertising. The first part of the thesis covers different views and theories on both content market-ing and traditional advertising, from definitions, types, roles and stages to planning and mea...

  7. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. L. Sun; J. S. Zhang; D. R. Lu; J. J. Qiu

    2014-09-01

    We present our observations toward Sgr B2 region in = 1−0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and C17O using 13.7-m Delingha millimeter telescope with newly installed 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver. From the integrated line intensity, we derive the abundance ratio of C18O/C17O with a mean value of 3.11 ± 0.10, which is consistent with the previous results.

  8. Pressure dependent thermoelectric power of MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, E S; W. Kang; Kim, J.Y.; Park, Min-Seok; Jung, C. U.; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2001-01-01

    We have measured temperature dependence of thermoelectric power (TEP) on MgB$_2$ superconductor under hydrostatic pressure. The sign and temperature dependence of TEP shows metallic hole carriers are dominant with activation type contribution at higher temperature. TEP increases with pressure while $T_c$ decrease with ratio -0.136 K/kbar. The data are discussed in consideration of carriers from different bands and anisotropy of compressibility.

  9. Molecular cloning of the genome of a cardiotropic Coxsackie B3 virus: full-length reverse-transcribed recombinant cDNA generates infectious virus in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kandolf, R; Hofschneider, P H

    1985-01-01

    The molecular cloning of double-stranded cDNA synthesized from the single-stranded RNA genome of the cardiotropic Coxsackie B3 virus (Nancy strain) is reported. Full-length reverse-transcribed cloned viral cDNA of approximately equal to 7500 nucleotides generated infectious antigenically identical Coxsackie B3 virus upon transfection of recombinant plasmid DNA into mammalian cells, demonstrating the molecular cloning of a biologically active viral cDNA copy. Furthermore, the cloned cDNA is ch...

  10. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  11. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (<10 micrometers) could reduce alternating current (AC) losses that occur due to hysteresis, eddy currents, and coupling losses. The company refined a manufacturing method that incorporates a magnesium-infiltration process and provides a tenfold enhancement in critical current density over wire made by a conventional method involving magnesium-boron powder mixtures. Hyper Tech also improved its wire-drawing capability to fabricate fine multifilament strands. In Phase II, the company developed, manufactured, and tested the wire for superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  12. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present the experimental results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of a superconducting MgB2 bolometer. The device was made from an MgB2 meander-like structure suspended on a 500 nm thick SiN membrane. The MgB2 meander line was 50 μm wide and 7.6 mm long and it was defined by optical lithography and dry etching. The SiN membrane had an area of 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm and it was obtained by a silicon micromachining technique. The electrical and thermal properties of the device were measured at low temperature in a closed-cycle cryocooler. The resulting Tc of the meander was unchanged with respect to the unprocessed film and the transport properties, measured in voltage-biased mode, indicated a value for Jc of the order of 105 A cm-2 at 27 K. The logarithmic sensitivity of the bolometer turned out to be higher than 150. The study of the thermal properties of the bolometer on the membrane showed a thermal conductance of the order 10-5 W K-1 at a working temperature of 32 K. The bolometer, irradiated by a chopped laser beam, showed a cut-off frequency of 94 Hz. The maximum experimental responsivity was estimated to be 2.3 x 103 V W-1

  14. Diophantine approximations on fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred; Shapira, Uri

    2009-01-01

    We exploit dynamical properties of diagonal actions to derive results in Diophantine approximations. In particular, we prove that the continued fraction expansion of almost any point on the middle third Cantor set (with respect to the natural measure) contains all finite patterns (hence is well approximable). Similarly, we show that for a variety of fractals in [0,1]^2, possessing some symmetry, almost any point is not Dirichlet improvable (hence is well approximable) and has property C (after Cassels). We then settle by similar methods a conjecture of M. Boshernitzan saying that there are no irrational numbers x in the unit interval such that the continued fraction expansions of {nx mod1 : n is a natural number} are uniformly eventually bounded.

  15. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  16. Accuracy of Approximate Eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Lucha, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Besides perturbation theory, which requires, of course, the knowledge of the exact unperturbed solution, variational techniques represent the main tool for any investigation of the eigenvalue problem of some semibounded operator H in quantum theory. For a reasonable choice of the employed trial subspace of the domain of H, the lowest eigenvalues of H usually can be located with acceptable precision whereas the trial-subspace vectors corresponding to these eigenvalues approximate, in general, the exact eigenstates of H with much less accuracy. Accordingly, various measures for the accuracy of the approximate eigenstates derived by variational techniques are scrutinized. In particular, the matrix elements of the commutator of the operator H and (suitably chosen) different operators, with respect to degenerate approximate eigenstates of H obtained by some variational method, are proposed here as new criteria for the accuracy of variational eigenstates. These considerations are applied to that Hamiltonian the eig...

  17. Synthesis of approximation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, E.H.; Michel, P.

    1977-07-01

    A method is developed for the synthesis of the error in approximations in the large of regular and irregular functions. The synthesis uses a small class of dimensionless elementary error functions which are weighted by the coefficients of the expansion of the regular part of the function. The question is answered whether a computer can determine the analytical nature of a solution by numerical methods. It is shown that continuous least-squares approximations of irregular functions can be replaced by discrete least-squares approximation and how to select the discrete points. The elementary error functions are used to show how the classical convergence criterions can be markedly improved. There are eight numerical examples included, 30 figures and 74 tables.

  18. On the luminescence of Ti4+ In Mg5SnB2O10 and Mg3ZrB2O8

    OpenAIRE

    Konijnendijk, W.L.; Blasse, G.

    1985-01-01

    The following new compounds are reported: Mg5TiB2O10 (ludwigite structure), Mg5SnB2O10 (orthopinakiolite structure) and Mg3ZrB2O8 (warwickite structure). The luminescences of the systems Mg5(Sn,Tl)B2O10 and Mg3(Zr,Ti)B2O8 were measured. The results are discussed in terms of delocalization in clusters of titanate octahedra. A general scheme for the luminescence of Ti4+-activated compositions is given. The composition Mg5SnB2O10: Ti is a very efficient luminescent material for titanium concentr...

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nonlinear LiB3O5 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic structure of LiB3O5 crystals has been studied by the method of X-ray electron spectroscopy. The results presented show that electronic structure of the perfect LBO is determined mainly by B3O5 boron-oxygen skeleton. The crystals of LiB3O5 possess very low chemical activity. An alkali component of lithium triborate is found not to reach the crystal surface. 9 refs., 2 figs

  20. The Zeldovich approximation

    CERN Document Server

    White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yakov Zel'dovich. Amongst his many legacies is the Zel'dovich approximation for the growth of large-scale structure, which remains one of the most successful and insightful analytic models of structure formation. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the two-point function of the matter and biased tracers, and compare to the results of N-body simulations and other Lagrangian perturbation theories. We show that Lagrangian perturbation theories converge well and that the Zel'dovich approximation provides a good fit to the N-body results except for the quadrupole moment of the halo correlation function. We extend the calculation of halo bias to 3rd order and also consider non-local biasing schemes, none of which remove the discrepancy. We argue that a part of the discrepancy owes to an incorrect prediction of inter-halo velocity correlations. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the ingredients of the Gaussian streaming model and show that ...

  1. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Approximating The DCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2005-01-01

    The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM that...

  3. Benchmarking the starting points of the GW approximation for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GW approximation is nowadays being used to obtain accurate quasiparticle energies of atoms and molecules. In practice, the GW approximation is generally evaluated perturbatively, based on a prior self-consistent calculation within a simpler approximation. The final result thus depends on the choice of the self-consistent mean-field chosen as a starting point. Using a recently developed GW code based on Gaussian basis functions, we benchmark a wide range of starting points for perturbative GW, including Hartree-Fock, LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, HSE06, BH and HLYP, CAM-B3LYP, and tuned CAM-B3LYP. In the evaluation of the ionization energy, the hybrid functionals are clearly superior results starting points when compared to Hartree-Fock, to LDA, or to the semi local approximations. Furthermore, among the hybrid functionals, the ones with the highest proportion of exact-exchange usually perform best. Finally, the reliability of the frozen-core approximation, that allows for a considerable speedup of the calculations, is demonstrated. (authors)

  4. City centres in the internet age : Exploring the implications of b2c e-commerce for retailing at city centres in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet use and b2c e-commerce led to many speculations about the impacts of ICT on society. In the Netherlands, there is a growing concern about the implications of b2c e-commerce for city centre retailing. Therefore, this dissertation has empirically investigated the implications of b2c e-commerce for retailing at city centres in the Netherlands. Approximately 1,000 city centre retailers and 3,200 internet users have been interviewed. So far, the large majority (ar...

  5. Correlation of needle core biopsy with excision histology in screen-detected B3 lesions: the Merrion Breast Screening Unit experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B D

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Needle core biopsy (NCB) is a widely-used technique for non-operative evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions. Although most NCBs are B2 (benign) or B5 (malignant), some fall into the B3 category of "uncertain malignant potential". This study aims to categorise the lesions prompting a B3 NCB in the Merrion Breast Screening Unit, and establish the incidence of malignancy on subsequent excision biopsy. METHODS: Patients attending the Merrion Breast Screening Unit in Dublin between 2000 and 2008 who had a B3 NCB were identified. The NCB pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnosis correlated with excision histology; the latter was classified as benign, atypical or malignant. Lesion-specific positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy were derived. RESULTS: 141 patients with a B3 NCB were identified. The most frequent lesions on NCB were radial scar (RS; n = 57), atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation (AIDEP; n = 25) and papillary lesion (n = 24). The final diagnosis was malignant in 22 patients (16%), atypical in 40 (28%) and benign in 79 (56%). Two of the patients with a malignant diagnosis had invasive carcinoma. The lesion-specific PPVs were: lobular neoplasia 50%, AIDEP 32%, columnar cell lesion with atypia 12.5%, RS 12.3%, papillary lesion 8.3%, suspected phyllodes tumour 7.7%, and spindle cell lesion 0%. Atypia on RS NCB predicted an atypical or malignant excision diagnosis, but atypia on papillary lesion NCB did not. CONCLUSIONS: One-sixth of B3 NCBs in this series proved to be malignant on excision. The PPV for malignancy varied according to lesion type.

  6. Electric-quadrupole interaction at 181Hf/181Ta in Hf doped MgB2 and HfB2: a perturbed angular correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfine interaction of the 181Hf/181Ta is studied in HfB2 and Hf doped MgB2 by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Nuclear quadrupole constants and attenuation factors were extracted from the data. Quadrupole coupling constant shows that Hf goes to three inequivalent sites in MgB2. There is sign of HfB2 formation at high temperature. (author)

  7. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  8. Approximate level method

    OpenAIRE

    Richtárik, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a variant of the level method [4], which is an algorithm for minimizing nonsmooth convex functions. The main work per iteration is spent on 1) minimizing a piecewise-linear model of the objective function and on 2) projecting onto the intersection of the feasible region and a polyhedron arising as a level set of the model. We show that by replacing exact computations in both cases by approximate computations, in relative scale, the theoretical ...

  9. Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111. ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf

  10. Local approximate inference algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyomin; Shah, Devavrat

    2006-01-01

    We present a new local approximation algorithm for computing Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) and log-partition function for arbitrary exponential family distribution represented by a finite-valued pair-wise Markov random field (MRF), say $G$. Our algorithm is based on decomposition of $G$ into {\\em appropriately} chosen small components; then computing estimates locally in each of these components and then producing a {\\em good} global solution. We show that if the underlying graph $G$ either excl...

  11. Fragments of approximate counting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  12. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    we identify five integration scenarios. In the subsequent confirmatory phase of the research we analyse 112 real-world company cases to validate these five integration scenarios. Our research advances and deepens existing studies by developing a B2B reference model, which reflects the current state...... of practice and is independent of specific implementation technologies. In the next stage of the research the emerging reference model will be extended to create an assessment model for analysing the maturity level of a given company in a specific supply chain....

  13. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Bhide; R M Kadam; M D Sastry; Ajay Singh; Shashwati Sen; Manmeet Kaur; D K Aswal; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave absorption has been found to obey a $\\sqrt{H}$ dependence with two different slopes, which indicated a transition from strongly pinned lattice to flux flow regime.

  14. Permanent magnet with MgB2 bulk superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-01

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB2) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  15. Current noise in MgB2 superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present some experimental results concerning the current noise produced during the resistive transition in MgB2 thin films. Preliminary investigations evidenced the presence of electrical noise whose power spectrum has a region of the 1/fn type with n ∼ 3. We suggest that the noise may originate from abrupt rearrangement of the current distribution inside the specimen during the percolative process of a diphasic system. Experimental measurements of the spectral components of the current noise taken during the resistive transition will be given and discussed

  16. INTERNET-MARKKINOINTI B2B-LIIKETOIMINNASSA

    OpenAIRE

    Iiskola, Jani

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäyteyö toimeksiantajana toimi Artepro Oy. Työn tarkoituksena oli tutkita Internet-markkinoinnin osa-alueita erityisesti business-to-business liiketoimintaa ajatellen. Työn tavoittee-na oli laatia toimeksiantajayritykselle markkinointiohjeistus ja esittää hyviä käytänteitä verkossa markkinoimiseen. Työssä tutkittiin myös miten markkinointi B2B-liiketoiminnassa eroaa perinteisestä kuluttajamark-kinoinnista, sekä miten Internetin yhteisöllisyyden lisääntyminen on vaikuttanut perinteisii...

  17. B2B-verkkokaupan suunnittelu : Case Laihian Levypala Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotilainen, Sanna-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa B2B-verkkokaupan suunnitelma metallialan perheyritys Laihian Levypala Oy:lle. Idea verkkokaupasta lähti Nettikone.com-ilmoituspalvelun kautta saadusta myynnistä ja totesimme yrittäjän kanssa, että verkkokaupan perustaminen voisi olla sopiva opinnäyteprojekti. Projektin alkuvaiheessa toteutettiin kysely lähialueiden maanrakennus-, maatalous- ja metallialan pk-yrityksille. Kyselyn aiheita olivat halukkuus perustaa oma verkkokauppa, yleinen verk...

  18. B2B-verkkokaupan markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli luoda markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma Yritys Oy:n kehitteillä olevalle verkkokaupalle. Työn tavoitteena oli markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelman avulla selvittää miten Yritys Oy:n B2B-verkkokauppa saadaan osaksi myyntitoimia ja miten se mahdollisimman tehokkaasti tuodaan asiakkaiden tietoisuuteen. Yritys Oy on vuonna 2003 perustettu perheyritys, jonka toiminta on kiinnitystekniikan tukkumyynti alan ammattilaisille. Yritys Oy:llä on useampi toimipiste ympäri Suomea...

  19. Neon ion Irradiation studies on MgB2 Superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Talapatra, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Sen, Pintu; P. Barat

    2004-01-01

    160 MeV Neon ion irradiation has been carried out on MgB2 polycrystalline pellets at various doses. There has not been any significant change in Tc except at the highest dose of 1x10^15 ions/cm^2. Increase in resistivity has been noticed. Resistivity data has been fitted with Bloch-Gruneisen function and the values of Debye temperature, residual resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistivity have been extracted for irradiated as well as unirradiated samples. The increase in the resist...

  20. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building a mystery shopping procedure to get strategic insights from engineers delivering temporary consultancy services to these clients. After a successful trial period with three mystery shoppers the experiment (a...

  1. Improved S2 approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of optimization rules for S2 quadrature sets. • Studying the dependency of optimized S2 quadratures on composition and geometry. • Demonstrating S2 procedures preserving the features of higher approximations. - Abstract: Discrete ordinates method relies on approximating the integral term of the transport equation with the aid of quadrature summation rules. These quadratures are usually based on certain assumptions which assure specific symmetry rules and transport/diffusion limits. Generally, these assumptions are not problem-dependent which results in inaccuracies in some instances. Here, various methods have been developed for more accurate estimation of the independent angle in S2 approximation, as it is tightly related to valid estimation of the diffusion coefficient/length. We proposed and examined a method to reduce a complicated problem that usually is consisting many energy groups and discrete directions (SN) to an equivalent one-group S2 problem while it mostly preserves general features of the original model. Some numerical results are demonstrated to show the accuracy of proposed method

  2. Glass-crystals materials of B2O3-Bi2O3-Me2O3 (Me ≡ Yb, Lu) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    glasses, crystal compounds and un-mixed phases. The boundaries of regions of glass-formation were determined by visually and from rentgenographyc study of obtained specimens. Variety of approximated equations Cp = f(T) have been determined by us for low-temperature modifications of L-LnBO3- type compounds. Maer-Kelli correlations: Cp= a+bT+cT-2 and values of heat capacity of B2O3, Ln2O3 binary oxides have been used for calculations.

  3. MgB2 superconducting joints for persistent current operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; See, Khay Wai; Xu, Xun; Barua, Shaon; Ma, Zongqing; Choi, Seyong; Tomsic, Mike; Kim, Jung Ho

    2015-06-01

    High-performance superconducting joints are essential for realizing persistent-mode magnets. Herein, we propose a concept and fabrication of such superconducting joints, which yielded reliable performance in the operating temperature range of 4.2-25 K. MgB2-MgB2 joints in magnets are known to result in deterioration of localized electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. To overcome these problems, the ends of the two wires are inserted into a pellet press, which is then filled with a mixture of unreacted magnesium and boron powders, followed by heat treatment. The critical current capacity and joint resistance were precisely evaluated by the standard four-probe method in open-circuit and by field-decay measurements in a closed-loop, respectively. These joints demonstrated up to 66% of the current-carrying capacity of unjoined wire at 20 K, 2 T and joint resistance of 1.4 × 10-12 Ω at 4.2 K in self-field.

  4. Preparation of highly preferred orientation TiB2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preparation of titanium diboride (TiB2) coatings on the graphite substrate by continuous current plating (CCP) and pulse current plating (PIC) electrochemical techniques in fluoride electrolytes (LiF-NaF-KF)containing K2TiF6 and KBF4 as the electrochemically-active components at 700℃. Thick leveled and uniform coatings were obtained and were composed of relatively pure TiB2. The effect of the experimental parameters on the microstructure of the coatings was studied. The results showed the electrodeposition with PIC produced coatings with better quality, when compared with those obtained by CCP, under the conditions of the current density i = 0.6 A/cm2, frequency = 100 Hz, and ton/toff = 4/1. XRD analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of coatings is (110) plane, which is in accordance with the prediction of the two-dimensional crystal nuclei theory. The effect of a ratio of ton/toff and frequency on the crystal size, texture coefficient and microstress was also investigated.

  5. Carbon Doped MgB2 Thin Films using TMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. H. T.; Li, Qi; Xi, X. X.; Lamborn, D. R.; Redwing, J.

    2007-03-01

    The most effective method to enhance the upper critical field in MgB2 is through carbon doping. In the case of thin films, ``alloying'' with carbon has resulted in enhanced Hc2 values estimated to be as high as 70 T for H parallel to ab and 40 T for H perpendicular ab [1]. ``Alloying'' refers to the in-situ Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) of carbon containing MgB2 films using (C5H5)2Mg as the carbon source. While these films exhibit enhanced Hc2 values, there are amorphous boron- carbon phases in the grain boundaries that reduce the cross section area for superconducting current. We present here the results of our attempts to make more homogeneously carbon doped thin films using gaseuous trimethyl-boron (TMB) as the carbon source. Initial results indicate different behavior upon carbon doping using TMB from carbon-alloying. The microstructures and upper critical fields of the carbon doped films using TMB and carbon alloyed films will be compared. [1] V. Braccini et al., Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 012504. [2] A.V. Pogrebnyakov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett 85 (2004) 2017.

  6. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  7. The Microwave Sintering Technology and Its Application in the Synthesis of ZrB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhiyong; LI Lin; PENG Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    The principles and features of microwave sintering, the application in refractories and synthesis methods of ZrB2 are reviewed. The synthesis results of ZrB2 by thermit deoxidate method show that production price of ZrB2 can be effectively lowered through microwave synthesis. It will expand the application of ZrB2 in refractories.

  8. NuSTAR Detection of the Blazar B2 1023+25 at Redshift 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Balokovic, M.; Nardini, M.; Stern, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Giommi, P.; Greiner, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at zeta = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we detected in the hard X-ray energy band. The X-ray flux is approximately 5.5 × 10 (exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (5-10 keV) and the photon spectral index is Gamma(x) approx. =1.3-1.6. Modeling the full spectral energy distribution, we find that the jet is oriented close to the line of sight, with a viewing angle of approximately 3deg, and has significant Doppler boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor approximately 13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive black holes located at very high redshift.

  9. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  10. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  11. On the WKBJ approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)

  12. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points in the...

  13. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  14. Approximations to Euler's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a problem of finding good approximations to Euler's constant γ=lim→∞ Sn, where Sn = Σk=Ln (1)/k-log(n+1), by linear forms in logarithms and harmonic numbers. In 1995, C. Elsner showed that slow convergence of the sequence Sn can be significantly improved if Sn is replaced by linear combinations of Sn with integer coefficients. In this paper, considering more general linear transformations of the sequence Sn we establish new accelerating convergence formulae for γ. Our estimates sharpen and generalize recent Elsner's, Rivoal's and author's results. (author)

  15. Approximating Majority Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating the majority depth (Liu and Singh, 1993) of a point q with respect to an n-point set, S, by random sampling. At the heart of this problem is a data structures question: How can we preprocess a set of n lines so that we can quickly test whether a randomly selected vertex in the arrangement of these lines is above or below the median level. We describe a Monte-Carlo data structure for this problem that can be constructed in O(nlog n$ time, can answer queries O((log n)^{4/3}) expected time, and answers correctly with high probability.

  16. Enhancement of superconducting temperature in MgB2 under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, by the means of experimental and theoretical studies on superconducting MgB2 system under plane strain, it has been shown that strain can enhance the superconducting transition temperature. So, the effect of structural distortion on the electronic structure of this system would be an interesting research subject. We have carried out ab initio full potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the MgB2 system in order to investigate the role of plane strain in the superconducting properties. We have relaxed the system under plane strain and have determined the change of axial lattice parameter c with the application of strain. Our results show that changes in the axial lattice constant is one third of the changes in the inplane lattice constant a. Also, the density of states (DOS) and band structure (BS) of this system have been calculated under plane strain. Due to the small changes in the axial lattice parameter under application of plane strain and even smaller effect of this lattice parameter change on the electronic structure, behavior of DOS and BS under plane strain was similar to the change of the in-plane lattice constant, as expected. We have found that by applying positive in-plane strain (tensile), DOS at the Fermi level increases for small strains, but decreases for higher strains. For negative in-plain strain (compression) DOS at the Fermi level decreases monotonically. In the BS diagrams, we have found that tension makes bands to move downward in the Γ-A direction, but compression makes them to move upward. Based on these results, we conclude that by applying small tension one could enhance the superconducting transition temperature in MgB2.(authors)

  17. Experimental search of structures in missing mass spectra of B=2, T=1 system: possible evidence for narrow states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The missing mass spectra for the transfer reaction p(3He,d)X (B=2, T=1) have been measured at Tsub(3He) = 2.7 GeV. The data show: 1) a narrow structure lying on top of an important continuum, with a mass M = 2.240+-0.005 GeV and a width GAMMAsub(1/2) = .016 +- .003 GeV; 2) a large structure with centroid location close to Msub(x) approximately equal to 2.170 +- .005 GeV and width GAMMAsub(1/2) approximately .100 +- .005 Gev

  18. Study of TaB2 and SiC additions on the properties of MgB2 superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the synthesis and modification of MgB2 bulk samples to produce better transport superconducting materials. The methodology uses a mixture of MgB2 with another diboride, TaB2, which has the same C32 hexagonal structure as MgB2. The simultaneous addition of TaB2 and SiC, which contributes carbon doping, is also investigated. As an important result, the critical current densities (Jc) were enhanced at low magnetic fields (0–2 T) when TaB2 alone was added. In addition, Jc was enhanced in the entire range of the measured applied magnetic fields when TaB2 was simultaneously added with SiC. Some explanations for this Jc enhancement are presented. (paper)

  19. The Compact Approximation Property does not imply the Approximation Property

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, George A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown how to construct, given a Banach space which does not have the approximation property, another Banach space which does not have the approximation property but which does have the compact approximation property.

  20. 75 FR 23572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... CONTACT: Dan Rodina, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate... (75 FR 11428, March 11, 2010), for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4... total flight \\1\\ '' has been corrected to read ''>17,500 total flight cycles \\1\\.'' (The word...

  1. Cross section of the impact single ionization of B2+ by H+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Dan-Dan; Qi Yue-Ying; Hu Ya-Hua; Ning Li-Na

    2013-01-01

    The ionization process of B2+ by H+ impact is studied using the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) method and the modified free electron peak approximation (M-FEPA),respectively.Total,single-,and doubledifferential cross sections from ls and 2s orbitals are presented for the energy range from 10 keV/u to 10 MeV/u.Comparison between the results from the two methods demonstrates that the total and single-differential cross sections for the high-energy incident projectile case can be well evaluated using the simple M-FEPA model.Moreover,the M-FEPA model reproduces the essential features of the binary-encounter (BE) bump in the double-differential cross sections.Thus,the BE ionization mechanism is discussed in detail by adopting the M-FEPA model.In particular,the double-and single-differential cross sections from the 2s orbital show a high-energy hip,which is different from those from the 1 s orbital.Based on Ref.[1],the Compton profiles of B2+ for ls and 2s orbitals are given,and the hips in DDCS and SDCS from the 2s orbital are explained.

  2. Identification of New Methanol Lines toward Sagittarius B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, C. C.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Snyder, Lewis E.

    2000-02-01

    The first astronomical measurements of the Jk=182-181, 192-191, and 202-201 E transitions of methanol (CH3OH) are presented. A rotational temperature Trot=170(13) K was determined for the Sgr B2N-LMH core by combining the data from the Jk=132-131 and 172-171 E transitions. The total column density of CH3OH is NT(CH3OH)=4.2(6)x1017 cm-2, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is X(CH3OH)~4x10-8. The H59α recombination line and a new unidentified line were detected.

  3. Vortex lattice transitions in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Levett; C D Dewhurst; D McK Paul

    2002-05-01

    We have performed extensive small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffraction studies of the vortex lattice in single crystal YNi2B2C for $B||c$. High-resolution SANS, combined with a field-oscillation vortex lattice preparation technique, allows us to separate Bragg scattered intensities from two orthogonal domains and accurately determine the unit cell angle, . The data suggest that upon increasing field there is a finite transition width where both low- and high-field distorted hexagonal vortex lattice phases, mutually rotated by 45°, coexist. The smooth variation of diffracted intensity from each phase through the transition corresponds to a redistribution of populations between the two types of domains.

  4. Specific heat of MgB2 after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2Δ0/kBTc=1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses Tc and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dHc2/dT at Tc can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in Tc. The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T→0

  5. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  6. Matchmaking Framework for B2B E-Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete ZOLTAN ALPAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years trading on the Internet become more popular. Online businesses gradually replace more and more from the conventional business. Much commercial information is exchanged on the internet, especially using the e-marketplaces. The demand and supply matching process becomes complex and difficult on last twenty years since the e-marketplaces play an important role in business management. Companies can achieve significant cost reduction by using e-marketplaces in their trade activities and by using matchmaking systems on finding the corresponding supply for their demand and vice versa. In the literature were proposed many approaches for matchmaking. In this paper we present a conceptual framework of matchmaking in B2B e-marketplaces environment.

  7. Widespread Occurrence of the Mycotoxin Fumonisin B-2 in Wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins because they are suspected to cause human and animal toxicoses by the consumption of contaminated corn-based food and feeds. However, with the discovery of fumonisin production in grapes by Aspergillus niger, wine may also be a fumonisin-containing commodity....... In the present study, we have developed a simple and quantitative cation-exchange-based purification method for the subsequent isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of fumonisins in wine. A comparative study of seven different solid-phase extraction (SPE......) columns showed that polymeric mixed-mode reversed-phase (RP) cation-exchange columns were superior to classic silica-based cation and mixed-mode cation-exchange columns. A total of 77 wine samples from 13 countries were subsequently tested, and surprisingly, 18 (23%) were found to contain fumonisin B-2...

  8. Enhanced MgB2 Superconductivity Under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振兴; 靳常青; 游江洋; 李绍春; 朱嘉林; 禹日成; 李风英; 苏少奎

    2002-01-01

    We report on in situ high-pressure studies up to 1.0 GPa on the MgB2 superconductor which was high-pressure synthesized. The as-prepared sample is of high quality in terms of sharp superconducting transition (Tc) at 39K from the magnetic measurements. The in situ high-pressure measurements were carried out using a Be-Cu piston-cylinder-type instrument with mixed oil as the pressure transmitting medium which warrants a quasihydrostatic pressure environment at low temperature. The superconducting transitions were measured using the electrical conductance method. It is found that Tc increases by more than 1 K with pressure in the low-pressure range, before the Tc value decreases with the further increase of the pressure.

  9. Sosiaalisen median strategia pienelle b2b-yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Surkko, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Sosiaalinen media on tänä päivänä tärkeä osa ihmisten elämää ja yritysten kannattaa siksi käyttää sitä hyödykseen markkinointitoimissaan. Aihe opinnäytetyöhön tuli toimeksiantajalta, joka on jo mukana sosiaalisen median palveluissa. Toimeksiantajayritys ei kuitenkaan tiedä, miten hyödyntää sosiaalisen median palveluiden täysi potentiaali markkinointikanavana. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, mitä pienen b2b-yrityksen pitäisi ottaa huomioon sosiaalisen median markkinointitoimia aloi...

  10. Semantic ETL into i2b2 with Eureka!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Andrew R; Krc, Tahsin; Rathod, Himanshu; Agravat, Sanjay; Mansour, Michel; Torian, William; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping is an emerging research information systems capability. Research uses of electronic health record (EHR) data may require the ability to identify clinical co-morbidities and complications. Such phenotypes may not be represented directly as discrete data elements, but rather as frequency, sequential and temporal patterns in billing and clinical data. These patterns' complexity suggests the need for a robust yet flexible extract, transform and load (ETL) process that can compute them. This capability should be accessible to investigators with limited ability to engage an IT department in data management. We have developed such a system, Eureka! Clinical Analytics. It extracts data from an Excel spreadsheet, computes a broad set of phenotypes of common interest, and loads both raw and computed data into an i2b2 project. A web-based user interface allows executing and monitoring ETL processes. Eureka! is deployed at our institution and is available for deployment in the cloud. PMID:24303265

  11. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy;

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation and...... technology development and customer relationship management. Examples will be used to derive a general roadmap, and to identify specific areas worthy of increased attention. The roadmap is developed as a six-stage approach that begins with task specification and concludes with management of inputs generated...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task and...

  12. Evolution of the B3 DNA binding superfamily: new insights into REM family gene diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisson A C Romanel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF, abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3, high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI, related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV and reproductive meristem (REM. The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa sativa, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens,the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri and the red algae Cyanidioschyzon melorae provided an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of this superfamily. METHODOLOGY: In order to better understand the origin and the diversification of B3 domains in plants, we combined comparative phylogenetic analysis with exon/intron structure and duplication events. In addition, we investigated the conservation and divergence of the B3 domain during the origin and evolution of each family. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that showed that the B3 containing genes have undergone extensive duplication events, and that the REM family B3 domain has a highly diverged DNA binding. Our results also indicate that the founding member of the B3 gene family is likely to be similar to the ABI3/HSI genes found in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Among the B3 families, ABI3, HSI, RAV and ARF are most structurally conserved, whereas the REM family has experienced a rapid divergence. These results are discussed in light of their functional and evolutionary roles in plant development.

  13. Antibody-mediated neutralization of myelin-associated EphrinB3 accelerates CNS remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Yasir A; Zhao, Chao; Mahad, Don; Möbius, Wiebke; Altmann, Friedrich; Foss, Franziska; Sentürk, Aycan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Lubec, Gert; Lilley, Kathryn; Franklin, Robin J M; Nave, Klaus-A; Kotter, Mark R N

    2016-02-01

    Remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions often remains incomplete despite the presence of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Amongst other factors, successful remyelination depends on the phagocytic clearance of myelin debris. However, the proteins in myelin debris that act as potent and selective inhibitors on OPC differentiation and inhibit CNS remyelination remain unknown. Here, we identify the transmembrane signalling protein EphrinB3 as important mediator of this inhibition, using a protein analytical approach in combination with a primary rodent OPC assay. In the presence of EphrinB3, OPCs fail to differentiate. In a rat model of remyelination, infusion of EphrinB3 inhibits remyelination. In contrast, masking EphrinB3 epitopes using antibodies promotes remyelination. Finally, we identify EphrinB3 in MS lesions and demonstrate that MS lesion extracts inhibit OPC differentiation while antibody-mediated masking of EphrinB3 epitopes promotes it. Our findings suggest that EphrinB3 could be a target for therapies aiming at promoting remyelination in demyelinating disease. PMID:26687980

  14. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Peled

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operational robustness. This paper reviews the design of high precision motion solutions based on L1B2 ultrasonic motors—from the basic motor structure to the complete motion solution architecture, including motor drive and control, material considerations and performance envelope. The performance is demonstrated, via constructed motion stages, to exhibit fast move and settle, a repeatability window of tens of nanometers, lifetime into the tens of millions of operational cycles, and compatibility with clean room and aerospace environments. Example stages and modules for semiconductor, aerospace, electro-optical and biomedical applications are presented. The described semiconductor and aerospace solutions are powered by Nanomotion HR type motors, driven by a sine wave up to 80 V/mm rms, having a driving frequency of 39.6 kHz, providing a maximum force up to 4 N per driving element (at 5 W power consumption per element and a maximum linear velocity above 300 mm/s. The described electro-optical modules are powered by small Nanomotion Edge motors driven by voltages up to 11 V AC, providing stall forces up to 0.35 N (power consumption up to 0.75 W and maximum linear velocity above 200 mm/s.

  15. Modeling the Magnetosphere of the B2Vp star sigma Ori E

    CERN Document Server

    Oksala, M E; Townsend, R H D; Kochukhov, O; Owocki, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from Stokes I and V spectra of the B2Vp star sigma Ori E, observed by both the Narval and ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeters. Using Least- Squares Deconvolution, we investigate the longitudinal magnetic field at the current epoch, including period analysis exploiting current and historical data. sigma Ori E is the prototypical helium-strong star that has been shown to harbor a strong magnetic field, as well as a magnetosphere, consisting of two clouds of plasma forced by magnetic and centrifugal forces to co-rotate with the star on its 1.19 day period. The Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model of Townsend & Owocki (2005) approximately reproduces the observed variations in longitudinal field strength, photometric brightness, Halpha emission, and various other observables. There are, however, small discrepancies between the observations and model in the photometric light curve, which we propose arise from inhomogeneous chemical abundances on the star's surface. Using Magn...

  16. Flux pinning mechanism and Hc2-anisotropy in melanin doped bulk MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin Shah, M.; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Parakkandy, Jafar M.

    2014-06-01

    Flux pinning mechanism in melanin doped MgB2 superconductor has been studied using a scaling law proposed by Dew-Hughes and another method proposed by Eisterer. Our experimental data could be fitted very closely by the aforementioned scaling law. The fitting parameters, the positions of peaks bpeak and k = bpeak/bn confirm a grain-boundary pinning in the 10% melanin doped sample, while the undoped sample consists of mixed pinning. Furthermore, percolation theory was utilized under grain-boundary approximation to investigate the role of Hc2-anisotropy in the critical current density, and its dependence on applied field as well as temperature. The Hc2-anisotropy decreases with melanin doping resulting in the increase of Jc in high field. There is suppression of flux pinning maximum due to melanin doping, which is found to be the main reason for the degradation of low-field Jc.

  17. B3-lesions of the breast and cancer risk - an analysis of mammography screening patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOFFMANN, OLIVER; STAMATIS, GESINA ATHINA; BITTNER, ANN-KATHRIN; ARNOLD, GEORG; SCHNABEL, ROLF; KRÜGER, KARLGEORG; KIMMIG, RAINER; HEUBNER, MARTIN

    2016-01-01

    The use of mammography screening, followed by needle core biopsy (NCB), is associated with an increasing amount of invasive procedures. A considerable amount of specimens must be classified as lesions with uncertain malignant potential (B3-lesion). In these cases, an open biopsy is indicated for further diagnosis. We evaluated patients with B3-lesions to determine the risk of malignancy corresponding to the histopathological NCB results and the type of radiological lesion identified. A total of 95 patients participating in the German mammography screening program with a B3-lesion following NCB (104 B3-lesions in total) were included in our analysis. We analyzed the correlation between the initial histopathological findings from the NCB specimen and cancer risk. We further analyzed the correlations of malignant results with the type of mammographic lesion. In 23 cases (22%), histopathological examination following excision revealed a malignant lesion, including invasive and in situ carcinoma. The positive predictive value of the subgroups of B3-lesions ranged between 0.11 and 0.31; the B3-lesion associated with the highest cancer risk was the atypical ductal hyperplasia; however, no significant difference was observed between the B3-lesion subgroups (P=0.309) regarding the risk of malignancy. Comparing the different types of mammographic findings, such as radiological mass or microcalcifications, there was no significant difference in the risk for malignancy (P=0.379). The different types of B3-lesions did not exhibit differences in the risk for malignancy, and the morphological type of mammographic lesion does not appear to be correlated with cancer risk; therefore, our results underline the need for open biopsy in patients with B3-lesions following NCB. PMID:27123266

  18. Physical properties of ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system in electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wei; Lo Veng-Cheong; Bai Bao-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the differential operator technique, a transverse Ising model (TIM) in the effective-field theory is developed to study the physical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system. The effects of an external electric field on the polarization, susceptibility and pyroelectric coefficient of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system are discussed in detail. The susceptibility of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system decreases with the increase of the electric field, implying that the polarization is weak.

  19. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Lescat

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  20. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Interacting boson approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectures notes on the Interacting Boson Approximation are given. Topics include: angular momentum tensors; properties of T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices; T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices as Clebsch-Gordan coefficients; construction of higher rank tensors; normalization: trace of products of two s-rank tensors; completeness relation; algebra of U(N); eigenvalue of the quadratic Casimir operator for U(3); general result for U(N); angular momentum content of U(3) representation; p-Boson model; Hamiltonian; quadrupole transitions; S,P Boson model; expectation value of dipole operator; S-D model: U(6); quadratic Casimir operator; an O(5) subgroup; an O(6) subgroup; properties of O(5) representations; quadratic Casimir operator; quadratic Casimir operator for U(6); decomposition via SU(5) chain; a special O(3) decomposition of SU(3); useful identities; a useful property of D/sub αβγ/(α,β,γ = 4-8) as coupling coefficients; explicit construction of T/sub x//sup (2)/ and d/sub αβγ/; D-coefficients; eigenstates of T3; and summary of T = 2 states

  2. B2B E- Commercial Exchange Platform Based on RosettaNet%基于RosettaNet的B2B电子商务交换平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟山; 许炜

    2005-01-01

    B2B hub是简化Busines-to-Business(B2B)交换的一个中介体.通过B2B网关,管理不同贸易伙伴间消息交换的通信及安全问题,通过管理系统和数据转换引擎实现购买流程中,买卖双方的匹配.HUB架构中的核心部分是B2B集成服务器,它实现了RosettaNet以及其他B2B协议.因此,hub是一个在B2B集成服务器上的特殊应用.

  3. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2) presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK) guidelines were used as reference. Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2) and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF) protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0% MembErbB-2 prevalence by IHC in our cohort. We identified NuclErbB-2 positivity as a significant independent predictor of worse OS in patients with MembErbB-2 overexpression. NuclErbB-2 was also a biomarker of lower OS in tumors that overexpress MembErbB-2 and lack steroid hormone receptors. We revealed a novel role for NuclErbB-2 as an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in MembErbB-2-positive breast tumors. Our work indicates that patients presenting NuclErbB-2 may need new therapeutic strategies involving specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear migration

  4. Flotillins as regulators of ErbB2 levels in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pust, S; Klokk, T I; Musa, N;

    2013-01-01

    Amplification and overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 occur in up to 30% of human breast cancers, and high ErbB2 levels are correlated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. In contrast to the epithelial growth factor receptor (ErbB1), ErbB2 is not downregulated by ligand...... complex with ErbB2 and Hsp90. The depletion of one of these proteins results in disruption of this complex, followed by destabilization of ErbB2 at the membrane, and its internalization and degradation. As a consequence, ErbB2-triggered downstream signalling is inhibited. Our data demonstrate a novel...

  5. Experiences and Future Expectations towards Online Courses--An Empirical Study of the B2C-and B2B-Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the future potential for the development of online courses. The findings are based on an empirical study with 3 sample groups: (1) B2C segment in Germany, (2) B2C segment in the United States, and (3) B2B segment (international). In the first step the status quo of the use of e-learning in general and online courses in…

  6. Study on electronic commerce pattern of B2B in China%中国B2B电子商务模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新方

    2008-01-01

    介绍了中国B2B的现状及五大发展趋势,指出了阻碍B2B企业发展的症结所在--模式选择不当,战略分析不清,盲目追从,缺乏创新.提出了几条适合中国B2B企业发展的创新途径.

  7. Inertia kinetics of short-wave luminescence of LiB3O5 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out into inertia constituent of luminescence kinetics of LiB3O5. It is shown that capture and recombination centers play an important role in the process of UV-luminescence excitation in LiB3)5 crystals. The influence of the centers covers the range up to 400 K and overlaps operating temperature range of articles. The results obtained may elucidate the effect of radiation defects on nonlinear properties of lithium borate

  8. First Spectroscopic Studies and Detection in SgrB2 of 13C-DOUBLY Substitued Ethyl Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Belloche, Arnaud

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH_3CH_2CN) is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium firstly detected in OMC-1 and Sgr B2 in 1977. The vibrationally excited states are enough populated under ISM conditions and could be detected. Apart from the deuterated ones, all mono-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide (13C and 15N have been detected in the ISM. The detection of isotopologues in the ISM is important: it can give information about the formation process of complex organic molecules, and it is essential to clean the ISM spectra from the lines of known molecules in order to detect new ones. The 12C/13C ratio found in SgrB2: 20-30 suggests that the doubly 13C could be present in the spectral line survey recently obtained with ALMA (EMoCA), but no spectroscopic studies exist up to now. We measured and analyzed the spectra of the 13C-doubly-substitued species up to 1 THz with the Lille solid-state based spectrometer. The spectroscopic results and and the detection of the doubly 13C species in SgrB2 will be presented. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. This work was also done under ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS. Support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB 956, project B3 is acknowledged D.~R.~Johnson, et al., Astrophys.~J. 1977, 218, L370 A.~Belloche, et al., A&A 2013, 559, A47 A.M.~Daly, et al., Astrophys.~J. 2013, 768, 81 K.~Demyk, et al. A&A 2007 466, 255 Margulès, et al. A&A 2009, 493, 565 Belloche et al. 2014, Science, 345, 1584

  9. Study on Logistics Distribution Centers for B2C Online Shopping%B2C网购物流配送中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凌燕; 尹军琪

    2011-01-01

    分析了我国B2C网购物流配送的现状,对其特点和难点作了分析,并提出了相应的B2C网购物流配送中心设计解决方案.%The paper analyzes the current status of the logistics and distribution operations for B2C online shopping in China, analyzes its characteristics and existing issues, and puts forth solutions for the design of logistics and distribution centers for B2C online shopping.

  10. Customer Behavior Analysis under B2C Environment%B2C环境下的客户行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文博

    2012-01-01

    Taking the background of B2C e-commerce transactions, this paper starts from the objective of customer behavior analysis, proposes the process of customer behavior analysis based on B2C e-commerce environment, analyzes the customer's consumer psychology and behavior under B2C environment, and points out the customer retention strategy. This paper has a reference to B2C website.%本文以B2C电子商务交易过程为背景,从客户行为分析的目标出发,提出了基于B2C电子商务环境下的客户行为分析过程,并对B2C环境下的客户消费心理和行为进行了分析,提出了B2C环境下的客户保留策略,这对B2C网站具有借鉴意义.

  11. Discussion on B2B electronic commerce pattern%B2B电子商务模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌

    2007-01-01

    针对B2B模式将成为未来电子商务发展的主流,文章先从价值链角度分析了B2B电子商务模式对价值链上游的冲击,然后概括性地总结了目前主要的3种B2B电子商务模式,最后用"SWOT"战略评估方法分析了基于供应链管理的区域型B2B电子商务新模式.

  12. Protective role of miR-23b-3p in kainic acid-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lianbo; Yao, Yi; Fu, Huajun; Li, Zhenghui; Wang, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; He, Wencan; Zheng, Weihong; Zhang, Yunwu; Zheng, Honghua

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs has been proposed to contribute toward epilepsy. The miRNA miR-23b-3p has been found to protect against neuronal apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we assessed the potential role of miR-23b-3p in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model. We found that miR-23b-3p levels were significantly decreased in the brain cortex of mice and in cultured mouse primary neurons treated with KA. Importantly, supplement of miR-23b-3p agomir by an intacerebroventricular injection alleviated seizure behaviors and abnormal cortical electroencephalogram recordings in KA-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that miR-23b-3p plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy and that miR-23b-3p supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating seizure. PMID:27232518

  13. Crystal Growth of CsB3O5 from NaF Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optical CsB3O5 single crystals have been grown successfully using NaF as a flux. The primary CsB3O5-NaF quasi-binary system has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. There is a single eutectic point, and the eutectic composition corresponds to 40mol% NaF with the temperature of 690.5 ℃ in CsB3O5-NaF system. Volatility of the CsB3O5-NaF system along the liquidus has been measured, and the volatiles of the solution were collected and detected by XRD method. Growth of CsB3Os crystals was carried out by different composition of NaF in CsB3O5-NaF system, and the growth parameters were discussed. Simultaneously, the properties of grown crystals from NaF flux were characterized by transmission spectrum and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites

  15. Phonon linewidths in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Pintschovius; F Weber; W Reichardt; A Kreyssig; R Heid; D Reznik; O Stockert; K Hradil

    2008-10-01

    Phonons in a metal interact with conduction electrons which give rise to a finite linewidth. In the normal state, this leads to a Lorentzian shape of the phonon line. Density functional theory is able to predict the phonon linewidths as a function of wave vector for each branch of the phonon dispersion. An experimental verification of such predictions is feasible only for compounds with very strong electron–phonon coupling. YN2B2C was chosen as a test example because it is a conventional superconductor with a fairly high c (15.2 K). Inelastic neutron scattering experiments did largely confirm the theoretical predictions. Moreover, they revealed a strong temperature dependence of the linewidths of some phonons with particularly strong electron–phonon coupling which can as yet only qualitatively be accounted for by theory. For such phonons, marked changes of the phonon frequencies and linewidths were observed from room temperature down to 15 K. Further changes were observed on entering into the superconducting state. These changes can, however, not be described simply by a change of the phonon linewidth.

  16. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Gaitonde; P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal

    2003-01-01

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated, $D(E_F)$ and the experimental specific heat data. The $T_c$ is found to be 37 K. We use a parametrized description of the calculated band structure to obtain the = 0 K values of the London penetration depth and the superconducting coherence length. The penetration depth calculated by us is too small and the coherence length too large as compared to the experimentally determined values of these quantities. This indicates the limitations of a theory that relies only on electronic structure calculations in describing the superconducting state in this material and implies that impurity effects as well as mass renormalization effects need to be included.

  17. Effects of neutron irradiation on polycrystalline Mg11B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the influence of the disorder introduced in polycrystalline MgB2 samples by neutron irradiation. To circumvent self-shielding effects due to the strong interaction between thermal neutrons and 10B we employed isotopically enriched 11B which contains 40 times less 10B than natural B. The comparison of electrical and structural properties of different series of samples irradiated in different neutron sources, also using Cd shields, allowed us to conclude that, despite the low 10B content, the main damage mechanisms are caused by thermal neutrons, whereas fast neutrons play a minor role. Irradiation leads to an improvement in both upper critical field and critical current density for an exposure level in the range 1-2x1018 cm-2. With increasing fluence the superconducting properties are depressed. An in-depth analysis of the critical field and current density behavior has been carried out to identify what scattering and pinning mechanisms come into play. Finally, the correlation between some characteristic lengths and the transition widths is analyzed

  18. Microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave surface impedance Zs = Rs + jωμ0λ was measured with dielectric resonator techniques for two c-axis-oriented MgB2 thin films. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ measured with a sapphire resonator at 17.93 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to Tc by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kTc to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. From these fits the penetration depth at zero temperatures was determined to be 102 nm and 107 nm, respectively. The results clearly indicate the s-wave nature of the order parameter. The temperature dependence of surface resistance Rs, measured with a rutile dielectric resonator, shows an exponential behaviour below about Tc/2 with a reduced energy gap being consistent with the one determined from the λ data. The Rs value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with that of a high-quality high-temperature thin film of YBa2Cu3O7. A higher-order mode at 17.9 GHz was employed to determine the frequency f dependence of Rs ∝ fn(T). Our results revealed a decrease of n with increasing temperature ranging from n = 2 below 8 K to n 1 from 13 to 34 K

  19. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  20. Advanced Modelling and Functional Characterization of B2 Bradykinin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (giant hives is an autosomal dominant malady characterized by repetitive episodes of probably life-threatening angioedema due to a partial deficiency of C1 inhibitor. B2 Bradykinin Receptor's (BKRB2 amino acid sequence is deposited within UniProt under accession number P30411. The Physicochemical properties of BKRB2 sequence are determined by using ProtParam. BKRB2's secondary structure was predicted through PROTEUS. Pfam domain was used for functional characterization of BKRB2. PSI-BLAST was used to find homologs of known structure. Modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints, either uses distance geometry or optimization techniques to satisfy spatial restraints performed by MODELLER. The quality of the generated model was evaluated with PROCHECK by Ramachandran plot analysis. Validation of the generated models was further performed by WHAT IF. ProSA was used for the analysis of Z-scores and energy plots. The 3D structures of the modeled proteins were analyzed using UCSF Chimera. Clustal Omega is used for multiple sequence alignment that uses seeded guide trees and HMM profile-profile techniques to generate alignments.

  1. Herschel observations of deuterated water towards Sgr B2(M)

    CERN Document Server

    Comito, Claudia; Rolffs, Rainer; Lis, D C; Belloche, A; Bergin, E A; Phillips, T G; Bell, T A; Crockett, N R; Wang, S; Blake, G A; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Latter, W D; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Mueller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Olberg, M; Szczerba, R; Larsson, B; Liseau, R; Lin, R H; Samoska, L A; Schlecht, E

    2010-01-01

    Observations of HDO are an important complement for studies of water, because they give strong constraints on the formation processes -- grain surfaces versus energetic process in the gas phase, e.g. in shocks. The HIFI observations of multiple transitions of HDO in Sgr~B2(M) presented here allow the determination of the HDO abundance throughout the envelope, which has not been possible before with ground-based observations only. The abundance structure has been modeled with the spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, which also takes radiative pumping by continuum emission from dust into account. The modeling reveals that the abundance of HDO rises steeply with temperature from a low abundance ($2.5\\times 10^{-11}$) in the outer envelope at temperatures below 100~K through a medium abundance ($1.5\\times 10^{-9}$) in the inner envelope/outer core, at temperatures between 100 and 200~K, and finally a high abundance ($3.5\\times 10^{-9}$) at temperatures above 200~K in the hot core.

  2. Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan

    2004-01-01

    Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.

  3. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Brian A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. Methods We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Results Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.

  4. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival

  5. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  6. Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbuBakar Sazaly

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ≥85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. Results Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71 subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.

  7. TiB2 nanostructured coating for GFRP injection moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, R P; Silva, F J G; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2011-06-01

    In the injection moulding of polypropylene reinforced with hard glass fibres, die materials are commonly subjected to severe abrasive wear. In order to improve its wear resistance, an unbalanced magnetron sputtering PVD compositional monolayered coating has been produced. The film was composed by a nanostructured TiB2 monolayer. Microstructure characterization and thickness evaluation were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film topography and roughness were accessed by SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The phase analyse was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using Cu Kalpha radiation. Scratch tests were conducted in order to study the film adhesion to the substrate. Load-Displacement curves (nanoindentation analysis) allowed measuring the film hardness and Young's modulus. A ball-cratering tribometer was used to determine the micro-abrasion laboratorial wear resistance, under different tests conditions, using SiC particles in distilled water slurry. At the end of these tests, the worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare these results with some other coatings already tested in the same conditions. To test the practical wear resistance, 135000 injection cycles were done in a plastic injection industrial mould. Coated samples were put on the plastic feed canal, after a turbulent zone. In these tests, a 30% (wt) glass fibres reinforced polypropylene was used. Worn sample surfaces were analyzed by SEM after 45.000 and 90.000 cycles. Image analyses were made in order to evaluate the damage increases and to observe the wear mechanisms involved. PMID:21770191

  8. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  9. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-2 - Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assets. 20.2056(b)-2 Section 20.2056(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-2 Marital deduction; interest in unidentified assets. (a) In general. Section... of assets (or their proceeds) which include a particular asset that would be a nondeductible...

  11. Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken B-cells develop in a specific organ, the bursa of Fabricius. To understand the bursal microenvironment guiding B-cell development, previous studies identified ephrin (Eph) receptor B2 (EphB2) gene transcripts in the embryonic bursa. We hypothesize that the EphB2 receptors and their ligands r...

  12. CCD SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF THE LOW-LUMINOSITY RADIO GALAXIES CONTAINING RADIO JETS B-2-0034+25 AND B-2-0206+35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GONZALEZSERRANO, JI; PEREZFOURNON, [No Value

    1991-01-01

    We present broad-band CCD imaging of the radio galaxies B2 0034+25 and B2 0206+36. Both galaxies are of low radio power and contain radio jets at the arcsec scale. The galaxies have close companions and the optical morphology suggests that they are interacting. The surface photometry method and its

  13. Approximation algorithms and hardness of approximation for knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Loff, B.; Torenvliet, L.

    2012-01-01

    We show various hardness of approximation algorithms for knapsack and related problems; in particular we will show that unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis is false, then subset-sum cannot be approximated any better than with an FPTAS. We also give a simple new algorithm for approximating knapsac

  14. Approximate nonlinear self-adjointness and approximate conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, approximate nonlinear self-adjointness for perturbed PDEs is introduced and its properties are studied. Consequently, approximate conservation laws which cannot be obtained by the approximate Noether theorem are constructed by means of the method. As an application, a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations is considered to illustrate the effectiveness. (paper)

  15. Vortex phase diagram studies in the weakly pinned single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jaiswal-Nagar; D Pal; M R Eskildsen; P C Canfield; H Takeya; S Ramakrishnan; A K Grover

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization measurements performed on the single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. For both the compounds, we find flux jumps in magnetisation values in the respective field regions, where the structural transitions in the flux line lattice symmetry have been reported in these systems via the small angle neutron scattering experiments. The magnetisation hysteresis loops and the AC susceptibility measurements show pronounced peak effect as well as second magnetisation peak anomaly for both YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. Based on these results, a vortex phase diagram has been constructed for YNi2B2C for $H \\Arrowvert c$ depicting different glassy phases of the vortex matter.

  16. Doping effects of ZrC and ZrB2 in the powder-in-tube processed MgB2 tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of ZrC and ZrB2 doping on the superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube processed MgB2/Fe tapes. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), transport and magnetic measurements. We confirmed the following quite different roles of ZrC and ZrB2 in MgB2.ZrC doping was found to decrease the transport critical current density (Jc) at 4.2 K, while the critical temperature (Tc) kept constant. In contrast, the Jc values in magnetic fields were enhanced greatly by the ZrB2 addition, which resulted in a decrease in Tc by only 0.5 K. The reason for different effects of two dopants is also discussed.

  17. Bridging gold: B-Au-B three-center-two-electron bonds in electron-deficient B(2) Au(n) (-/0) (n = 1, 3, 5) and mixed analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen-Zhi; Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian

    2011-01-30

    A systematic density functional theory and wave function theory investigation on the geometrical and electronic structures of the electron-deficient diboron aurides B(2) Au n-/0 (n = 1, 3, 5) and their mixed analogues B(2) H(m) Au n- (m + n = 3, 5) has been performed in this work. Ab initio theoretical evidences strongly suggest that bridging gold atoms exist in the ground states of C(2v) B(2) Au(-) ((1) A(1) ), C(2) B(2) Au 3-((1) A), C(2v) B(2) Au(3) ((2) B(1) ), C(2v) B(2) Au 5-((1) A(1) ), and C(s) B(2) Au(5) ((2) A″), which all prove to possess a B-Au-B three-center-two-electron (3c-2e) bond. For B(2) H(m) Au n- (m + n = 3, 5) mixed anions, bridging B-Au-B units appear to be favored in energy over bridging B-H-B, as demonstrated by the fact that the Au-bridged C(2v) B(2) H(2) Au(-) ((1) A(1) ), C(s) B(2) HAu 2- ((1) A'), and C(1) B(2) HAu 4- ((1) A) lie clearly lower than their H-bridged counterparts C(s) B(2) H(2) Au(-) ((1) A'), C(2) B(2) HAu 2- ((1) A), and C(2v) B(2) HAu 4- ((1) A(1) ), respectively. Orbital analyses indicate that Au 6s makes about 92-96% contribution to the Au-based orbitals in these B-Au-B 3c-2e interactions, whereas Au 5d contributes 8-4%. The adiabatic and vertical detachment energies of the concerned anions have been calculated to facilitate their future experimental characterizations. The results obtained in this work establish an interesting 3c-2e bonding model (B-Au-B) for electron-deficient systems in which Au 6s plays a major role with non-negligible contribution from Au 5d. PMID:20652871

  18. Effect of Nano Scale Fe Doping on Superconducting Properties of MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    S. X. Dou; Soltanian, S.; Zhao, Y.; Getin, E.; Chen, Z.; Horvat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Iron is an important sheath material for fabrication of MgB2 wires. However, the effect of Fe doping on the superconducting properties of MgB2 remains controversial. In this work, we present results of nano-scale Fe particle doping in to MgB2. The Fe doping experiments were performed using both bulk and thin film form. It was found that Fe doping did not affect the lattice parameters of MgB2, as evidenced by the lack of change in the XRD peak positions for MgB2. Because of the high reactivity...

  19. B2B电子商务网站分类新探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢启燕

    2010-01-01

    B2B电子商务是电子商务的主流,发展前景可观.B2B电子商务网站每年呈快速增长趋势,要研究B2B电子商务网的发展规律和发展方向,我们应将从更深的维度和不同的角度来分类和分析B2B电子商务网站.由此文章分析了三种B2B电子商务网站新分类.

  20. Analysis of the Role of Social Media in B2B Marketing for Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Fomicheva, Yekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Social media is a new, yet very prominent concept in present marketing communication. It has been growing steadily and became popular among marketers both in business-to-customer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B). However, there has been more research done on how to apply and utilize social media in the B2C scenario and there are fewer explanations about B2B cases. Therefore, it was interesting to do research and analysis on how B2B companies operate, what are the factors influencing socia...

  1. $\\sigma $ -Approximately Contractible Banach Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Momeni, M; Yazdanpanah, T.; Mardanbeigi, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate $\\sigma $ -approximate contractibility and $\\sigma $ -approximate amenability of Banach algebras, which are extensions of usual notions of contractibility and amenability, respectively, where $\\sigma $ is a dense range or an idempotent bounded endomorphism of the corresponding Banach algebra.

  2. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Halevy, A; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L

    2011-01-01

    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by more than three times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  3. Adult-Onset Vanishing White Matter Disease Due to a Novel EIF2B3 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Piana, Roberta; Vanderver, Adeline; van der Knaap, Marjo; Roux, Louise; Tampieri, Donatella; Brais, Bernard; Bernard, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a novel mutation in the gene EIF2B3 responsible for a late-onset form of vanishing white matter disease. Design Case report. Setting University teaching hospital. Patient A 29-year-old pregnant woman with a history of premature ovarian failure and hemiplegic migraines presented with a 10-week history of progressive confusion and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Results Sequencing of the exons and intron boundaries of EIF2B3 uncovered 2 missense mutations: c.260C>T (p.Ala87Val) and c.272G>A (p.Arg91His). To our knowledge, the latter missense mutation has never been previously reported. Conclusion This is the second report of adult-onset vanishing white matter disease due to mutations in EIF2B3 and the first report of the c.272G>A (p.Arg91His) missense mutation. PMID:22312164

  4. Deformation density in lithium triborate, LiB3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate set of X-ray data collected at 293 K was used to refine the structure and study the deformation density of the title compound, LiB3O5, orthorhombic, Pna21, a=8.447(1), b=7.3789(8), c=5.1408(6) A. According to the deformation electron density distribution, the vacant 2p orbital of the triangulary coordinated B(1) atom is mainly populated by electrons belonging to lone pairs of the O(1) and O(2) atoms which are linked by short bonds to the B(1) atom. The vacant 2p orbital of the B(3) atom is also triangularly coordinated and is mainly populated by electrons from a lone pair of a single oxygen O(4) atom. From the analysis of the atomic arrangement of LiB3O5, it is possible that a highly anisotropic Li-ion conductivity exists in the title compound. (orig./GSCH)

  5. 17 CFR 275.203(b)(3)-1 - Definition of “client” of an investment adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... generally to the public as an investment adviser, within the meaning of section 203(b)(3) of the Act (15 U.S... than the United States, and is regulated as a public investment company under the laws of the country... investment adviser. 275.203(b)(3)-1 Section 275.203(b)(3)-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  6. A Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab initio Study of B3- and B4- Anions and Their Neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai S.; Alexandrova, A N.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Zakrzewski, V G.

    2003-11-06

    The two smallest boron clusters (B3 and B4) in their neutral and anionic forms were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra were observed for B3- at three photon energies (355, 266, and 193 nm) and the electron affinity of B3 was measured to be+0.02 eV.

  7. Determination of the bond-angle distribution in vitreous B2O3 by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B-O-B bond angle distributions for both ring and non-ring boron sites in vitreous B2O3 have been determined by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR and multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR. The [B3O6] boroxol rings are observed to have a mean internal B-O-B angle of 120.0±0.7 deg. with a small standard deviation, σR=3.2±0.4 deg., indicating that the rings are near-perfect planar, hexagonal structures. The rings are linked predominantly by non-ring [BO3] units, which share oxygens with the boroxol ring, with a mean Bring-O-Bnon-ring angle of 135.1±0.6 deg. and σNR=6.7±0.4 deg. In addition, the fraction of boron atoms, f, which reside in the boroxol rings has been measured for this sample as f=0.73±0.01. - Graphical abstract: Connectivities and B-O-B bond angle distributions of ring and non-ring boron atoms in v-B2O3 have been determined by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR, multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR and spin-diffusion DOR. Near-perfect planar, hexagonal [B3O6] boroxol rings are shown to be present. Display Omitted

  8. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2015-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  9. Approximate sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-08-01

    We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)

  10. Structure and microtribological characteristics of laser-arc deposited TiB2 thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiankun; SHAO Tianmin; WEN Shizhu; QING Tao; QI Feng

    2004-01-01

    TiB2 thin film was deposited by laser-arc deposition method on the surface of single crystalline silicon. The morphology, composition, structure and microtribological properties of the film were studied by using XPS, XRD and atomic force/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM). The results show that TiB2 (100) preferred growth on the Si(100)substrate, TiB2(001) preferred growth on the Si(111) substrate. The TiB2 thin film was composed of TiB2 and a small amount of TiO2. The friction coefficient of TiB2 film on substrates Si (100) and Si(111) in microtribological process were 0.087 and 0.073,respectively. TiB2 thin film displayed distinct ability of anti-scratch and wear-resistance.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties investigation of in situ TiB2 and ZrB2 reinforced Al-4Cu composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi Anis, Ahmad; Ramli, Rosmamuhammadani; Darham, Widyani; Zakaria, Azlan; Talari, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Conventional Al-Cu alloys exhibit coarse grain structure leading to inferior mechanical properties in as-cast condition. Expensive thermo-mechanical treatments are needed to improve microstructure and corresponding mechanical properties. In situ Al-based composites were developed to improve mechanical properties by dispersion strengthening and grain refinement obtained by the presence of particulates in the melt during solidification. In this work Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites were prepared by liquid casting method. XRD, electron microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on suitably sectioned and metallographically prepared surfaces to investigate the phase distribution, hardness and tensile properties. It was found that the reinforcement particles were segregated along the grain boundaries of Al dendrites. Tensile fracture morphology for both Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 were analyzed and compared to determine the fracture propagation mechanism in the composites. Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites displayed higher strength and hardness compared to Al-4Cu-3TiB2 which could be ascribed to the stronger interfacial bonding between the Al dendrites and ZrB2 particulates as evidenced from fractographs.

  12. BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+: The novel single-emitting-component phosphors for near UV-white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials with low-cost, high stability and excellent luminescent properties. In this paper, a new kind of luminescent material BPO4@B2O3 was prepared by using a facile method. The as-obtained samples contain numerous BPO4 nanoparticles enclosed by amorphous and crystalline B2O3 homogeneously, which exhibits a broad emission band ranging from 380 to 700 nm under near-UV irradiation. More importantly, it is worth noting that the BPO4@B2O3 phosphor exhibits the excellent thermal quenching property, which endows it with a promising prospect as phosphors for high power white LEDs. To further promote its application as white light phosphors, Eu3+ ions were doped into the BPO4@B2O3 samples and prepared the (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ phosphors with chromaticity coordinates (0.3022, 0.3122). The corresponding packaging of LEDs indicates that both BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ can be considered as the promising phosphors for WLEDs.

  13. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Wyroba, Elzbieta [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Cierniewski, Czeslaw S., E-mail: czeslaw.cierniewski@umed.lodz.pl [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells. - Highlights: ► LPS stimulates generation of secretory vesicles containing SerpinB2. ► SerpinB2 concentrates in TGN46 positive vesicles close to the plasma membrane. ► Brefeldin A inhibits secretion of SerpinB2. ► The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa.

  14. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells. - Highlights: ► LPS stimulates generation of secretory vesicles containing SerpinB2. ► SerpinB2 concentrates in TGN46 positive vesicles close to the plasma membrane. ► Brefeldin A inhibits secretion of SerpinB2. ► The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa

  15. Thermal conductivity of A1B3C26 ternary compounds and their solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds A1B3C26 and solid solutions CuGaxIn1-xS2, CuGaxIn1-xSe2, CuInS2xSe2(1-x), was studied by the absolute and relative methods in the temperature range of 300-550 K. Interrelation between thermal conductivity and tetragonal distortion of the ternary compounds A1B3C26 was established. It is shown that concentrational dependence of thermal conductivity for the solid solutions has the minimum near equimolar compositions

  16. Fracturas del radio distal tipo B3. Tratamiento quirúrgico.

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Planelles, Antonio; Ortega Arruti, J.A.; Corchuelo Maíllo, C.; Arenas Miquélez, A.; Ortega Sáez, M. (Marta)

    2007-01-01

    Se presentan 67 casos de fractura de radio distal tipo B3 tratadas en nuestro Servicio. Se utilizó como método de osteosíntesis una placa palmar en 30 casos, agujas de Kirschner en 19 casos, fijadores externos en 17 y fijador externo + agujas en 1 caso. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en el grupo de casos tratados con placa palmar (90 % de resultados satisfactorios). A total of 67 cases of B3 type fracture of the distal radius treated in our Department are presented. A volar plate ...

  17. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF INTERACTIONS OF POLYMYXIN B3 AND ITS ALA-MUTANTS WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (especially Gram-negative bacteria with multiple resistance against almost all available antibiotics is a growing medical problem. No novel drugs targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been developed in recent years. In this context, there has been greatly renewed interest to cyclic lipodecapeptides polymyxins. Polymyxins exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, they are specific and highly potent against Gramnegative bacteria, but have potential nephrotoxic side effects. So polymyxins are attractive lead compounds to develop analogues with improved microbiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polymyxin interactions with its cell targets is a prerequisite for the purposeful improvement of its therapeutic properties. The primary cell target of a polymyxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The binding site of polymyxin on LPS has been supposed to be Kdo2-lipid A fragment. Methods. For all molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation experiments the YASARA suite of programs was used. Complex of antimicrobial peptide polymyxin В3 (PmB3 with Kdo2-lipid A portion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide was constructed by rigid docking with flexible side chains of the peptide. By alanine scanning of polymyxin В3 bound to LPS followed by simulated annealing minimization of the complexes in explicit water environment, the molecular aspects of PmB3-LPS binding have been studied by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 298 K and pH 7.0. The AMBER03 force field was used with a 1.05 nm force cutoff. To treat long range electrostatic interactions the Particle Mesh Ewald algorithm was used. Results. Ala-mutations of polymyxin’s residues Dab1, Dab3, Dab5, Dab8 and Dab9 in the PmB3-LPS complex caused sustained structural changes resulting in the notable loss in stability of

  18. Thermostimulated electron and photon emission in LiB3O5 nonlinear crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on thermostimulated emission of electrons and photons in lithium tri-borate monocrystals are presented. The study is accomplished mainly through the method of thermostimulated emission of electrons and photons after various radiation impacts. In particular, the thermostimulated exo-emission of the LiB3O5 crystals is for the first time identified and studied. Analysis of experimental results revealed two new capture centers. It is established that thermal annealing of the given centers at 450 and 515 K conditions enabled its contribution only to the exoelectron emission. Essential dependence of thermostimulated processes in LiB3O5 on the radiation impact parameters is found

  19. UV-luminescence and thermostimulated processes in nonlinear crystals LiB3O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study on luminescence and recombination processes in the large LiB3O5 single crystals are reported. It was shown that the luminescence at 295 nm is excited by photons with energy exceeding the band gap energy, by an electron beam, and also in recombination processes. Four peaks of thermoluminescence at 130, 180, 240 and 330 K are revealed, their parameters are fixed, and the origin of the trapping and recombination centers are determined. The most acceptable models of recombination processes and the origin of the LiB3O5 luminescence are discussed. (Author)

  20. Electronic structure of a LiB 3 O 5 nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Sobolev, A. B.; Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.

    1995-12-01

    The electronic bands of a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal with excellent nonlinear optical properties have been studied using the scattered-wave method in embedded-cluster model. Calculations were carried out for a [B 3 O 7]5? cluster, as this anionic group is the crystal basic structural unit. The interpretation of experimental photoemission spectra is based on electronic structure cluster calculations. From calculation performed, it follows that the contribution of trigonal and tetrahedral boron-oxygen groups dominates in the electronic structure of LBO, the contribution of 2p-boron states is immaterial.

  1. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  2. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2014-01-01

    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  3. A report on how foreign trade enterprises use B2B platform%外贸B2B平台使用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠艺

    2010-01-01

    @@ 为帮助外贸企业更好地选择外贸B2B平台所提供的服务,用好外贸B2B平台,提高使用效果,2010年5月,我们针对全国的外贸企业进行了网络抽样调查,根据调查结果形成此外贸B2B平台使用调查报告.

  4. Factors Required for the Uridylylation of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3B1, 3B2, and 3B3 Peptides by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (3Dpol) In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Arabinda; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Belsham, Graham J.

    2005-01-01

    The 5′ terminus of picornavirus genomic RNA is covalently linked to the virus-encoded peptide 3B (VPg). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is unique in encoding and using 3 distinct forms of this peptide. These peptides each act as primers for RNA synthesis by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase 3Dpol. To act as the primer for positive-strand RNA synthesis, the 3B peptides have to be uridylylated to form VPgpU(pU). For certain picornaviruses, it has been shown that this reaction is achieved by ...

  5. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    .sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis of the...

  6. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  7. Thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of different amount La-doped ZnB2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic parameters of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% La-doped ZnB2O4 phosphors (i.e. ZnB2O4:0.01La, ZnB2O4:0.02La, ZnB2O4:0.03La and ZnB2O4:0.04La) synthesized by nitric acid method have been calculated. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ZnB2O4:La phosphors after beta-irradiation showed a very well defined main peak having the maximum temperature at around 200 °C and a shoulder peak at around 315 °C with a constant heating rate of 5 °C/s. The kinetic parameters of ZnB2O4:La phosphors TL glow peaks (i.e. order of kinetics (b), activation energies (Ea) and frequency factors (s)) have been determined and evaluated by Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD), and Peak Shape (PS) methods using the glow curve data. From the results, it can conclude that the values of Ea obtained with these methods for ZnB2O4:La phosphors are consistent with each other, but the s values differ considerably. - Highlights: • Calculation of TL kinetic parameters for La-doped ZnB2O4. • La-doped ZnB2O4 was synthesized by nitric acid method. • Well defined main peak at about 200 °C

  8. Preparation and Microstructure of Porous ZrB2 Ceramics Using Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Huiping; LI Junguo; SHEN Qiang; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and boron carbide (B4C) were added to ZrB2 raw powders to prepare ZrB2 porous ceramics by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS). The reactions between ZrO2 and B4C which produce ZrB2 and gas (such as CO and B2O3) result in pore formation. X-Ray Diffraction results indicated that the products phase was ZrB2 and the reaction was completed after the RSPS process. The porosity could be controlled by changing the ratio of synthesized ZrB2 to raw ZrB2 powders. The porosity of porous ceramics with 20 wt% and 40 wt% synthsized ZrB2 are 0.185 and 0.222, respectivly. And dense ZrB2-SiC ceramic with a porosity of 0.057 was prepared under the same conditions for comparison. The pores were homogeneously distributed within the microstructure of the porous ceramics. The results indicate a promising method for preparing porous ZrB2-based ceramics.

  9. Probable transmission of coxsackie B3 virus from human to chimpanzee, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mourier, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik;

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among...... humans and other primates....

  10. The magnetic field of the B3V star 16 Pegasi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Henrichs; C. Neiner; R.S. Schnerr; E. Verdugo; A. Alecian; C. Catala; F. Cochard; J. Gutiérrez; A.L. Huat; J. Silvester; O. Thizy

    2008-01-01

    The slowly pulsating B3V star 16 Pegasi was discovered by Hubrig et al. (2006) to be magnetic, based on low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with FORS1 at the VLT. We have confirmed the presence of a magnetic field with new measurements with the spectropolarimeters Narval at TBL, France a

  11. Vibrational thermodynamics of Fe90Zr7B3 nanocrystalline alloy from nuclear inelastic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankov, S.; Miglierini, M.; Chumakov, A. I.;

    2010-01-01

    Recently we determined the iron-partial density of vibrational states (DOS) of nanocrystalline Fe(90)Zr(7)B(3) (Nanoperm), synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous precursor, for various stages of nanocrystallization separating the DOS of the nanograins from that of the interfaces [S. Stank...

  12. Unidirectional thermal expansion in KZnB3O6: role of alkali metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanfang; Li, Dandan; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2015-12-14

    The driving force of the unidirectional thermal expansion in KZnB3O6 has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Our results show that the low-energy vibrational modes of alkali metals play a crucial role in this unusual thermal behavior. PMID:26515521

  13. Thermodynamic properties and low-temperature X-ray diffraction of vitamin B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B3 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B3 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 346 K. • The thermodynamic analysis of reactions involving nicotinic acid was made. • The low-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determination of coefficients of thermal expansion. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) has been measured for the first time in the range from 5 to 346 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B3, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) – H°(0), entropy S°(T) – S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) – H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye’s theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermodynamic parameters ΔfS°, ΔfG° at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis of reactions involving nicotinic acid was made. The low-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determination of coefficients of thermal expansion

  14. A functional nuclear localization sequence in the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsid proteins of some RNA viruses can translocate to the nucleus and interfere with cellular phenotypes. In this study we found that the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was dominantly localized in the nucleus of the cells transfected with VP1-expressing plasmid. The VP1 nuclear localization also occurred in the cells infected with CVB3. Truncation analysis indicated that the VP1 nuclear localization sequence located near the C-terminal. The substitution of His220 with threonine completely abolished its translocation. The VP1 proteins of other CVB types might have the nuclear localization potential because this region was highly conserved. Moreover, the VP1 nuclear localization induced cell cycle deregulation, including a prolonged S phase and shortened G2-M phase. Besides these findings, we also found a domain between Ala72 and Phe106 that caused the VP1 truncates dotted distributed in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest a new pathogenic mechanism of CVB. - Highlights: ► The VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3 can specifically localize in the nucleus. ► The nuclear localization signal of coxsackievirus B3 VP1 protein locates near its C-terminal. ► The VP1 nuclear localization of coxsackievirus B3 can deregulate cell cycle. ► There is a domain in the VP1 that determines it dotted distributed in the cytoplasm.

  15. A functional nuclear localization sequence in the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianying; Yu, Bohai; Lin, Lexun; Zhai, Xia; Han, Yelu; Qin, Ying; Guo, Zhiwei; Wu, Shuo; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Fengmin; Si, Xiaoning [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhao, Wenran, E-mail: wenran.zhao@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhong, Zhaohua, E-mail: zhonghmu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-11-25

    The capsid proteins of some RNA viruses can translocate to the nucleus and interfere with cellular phenotypes. In this study we found that the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was dominantly localized in the nucleus of the cells transfected with VP1-expressing plasmid. The VP1 nuclear localization also occurred in the cells infected with CVB3. Truncation analysis indicated that the VP1 nuclear localization sequence located near the C-terminal. The substitution of His220 with threonine completely abolished its translocation. The VP1 proteins of other CVB types might have the nuclear localization potential because this region was highly conserved. Moreover, the VP1 nuclear localization induced cell cycle deregulation, including a prolonged S phase and shortened G2-M phase. Besides these findings, we also found a domain between Ala72 and Phe106 that caused the VP1 truncates dotted distributed in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest a new pathogenic mechanism of CVB. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3 can specifically localize in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear localization signal of coxsackievirus B3 VP1 protein locates near its C-terminal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The VP1 nuclear localization of coxsackievirus B3 can deregulate cell cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a domain in the VP1 that determines it dotted distributed in the cytoplasm.

  16. 17 CFR 270.24b-3 - Sales literature deemed filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales literature deemed filed... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.24b-3 Sales literature deemed filed. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter or other sales literature addressed to or...

  17. 2D numerical comparison of trailing edge flaps - UpWind WP1B3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Barlas, T.K.

    This report covers the investigations and comparisons of trailing edge flaps carried out by Delft and Risø. The work is a part of the W1B3 work package of the UpWind EU-project. This report covers only 2D test cases with simple control of the trailing edge flap with the objective of keeping CL...

  18. First-principles studies for the stability of a graphene-like boron layer on CrB2(0001) and MoB2(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With extensive first-principles density-functional-theory calculations, we investigate the stability and the atomic and electronic structures of the CrB2(0001) and MoB2(0001) surfaces, each with two different terminations. It is found that the boron-terminated surface is energetically more favorable over the wide range of thermodynamically allowed chemical potentials than the metal-terminated surface for both CrB2(0001) and MoB2(0001), suggesting a stable layer of graphene-like boron on the surfaces. Our results also show the similarities and the differences in relaxation and in bonding characteristics between the boron-terminated and metal-terminated surfaces.

  19. 关于B2B服务品牌忠诚度的研究%A research on brand loyalty of B2B service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令明; 耿禧则

    2012-01-01

    The research on brand loyalty has been confined to the product brand in the past. This paper applied brand loyalty theory to B2B service brand. Through empirical research, this paper reflected the effect of the brand recognition and brand image to action loyalty and attitude loyalty, and put forward some suggestions for the B2B service brand management%对于品牌忠诚度的研究,过去一直局限于产品品牌上。本文将品牌忠诚度理论运用于B2B服务品牌,通过实证调查,研究品牌认知度与品牌形象对态度忠诚度和行动忠诚度的影响作用,并据此为B2B服务品牌的成功管理提出建议。

  20. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C ˜ 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    The C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X ˜ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C ˜ state below 1600 cm-1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C ˜ electronic state.

  1. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C̃ (1)B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X̃ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C̃ state below 1600 cm(-1) of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C̃ electronic state. PMID:27083725

  2. Growth of MgB2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapour Deposition Using B2H6 as a boron Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 朱亚彬; 刘震; 周岳亮; 张芹; 陈正豪; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting MgB2 thin films were grown on single crystal Al2O3 (0001) by chemical vapour deposition using B2H6 as a boron source. MgB2 film was then accomplished by annealing the boron precursor films in the presence of high-purity magnesium bulk at 890℃ in vacuum. The as-grown MgB2 films are smooth and c-axis-oriented.The films exhibit a zero-resistance transition of about 38K with a narrow transition width of 0.2 K. Magnetic hysteresis measurements yield the critical current density of 1.9 × 107 A/cm2 at 10 K in zero field.

  3. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1-B2 transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J. Staun [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jorgensen, J.-E. [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Gerward, L., E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachbowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kanchana, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Svane, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First experimental determination of bulk modulus of CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First observation of B1-B2 transformation in CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density functional calculations in remarkably good agreement with experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations extended to B2 phase, including B1-B2 transition. - Abstract: The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77 GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B{sub 0} = 156(3) GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B{sub 0} Prime = 4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B{sub 0} = 158.1 GPa and B{sub 0} Prime = 3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65-70 GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is {Delta}V/V = -10.9(3)%. These data compare well with the calculated transition pressure P{sub tr} = 68 GPa and {Delta}V/V = -10.8%. Experimentally, the transition is found to be rather sluggish.

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cu2NiO(B2O5) and Cu2MgO(B2O5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transport reaction synthesis technique has been used to prepare single crystals of two pyroborate compounds having the formulas Cu2NiO(B2O5) and Cu2MgO(B2O5). The two compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c. Cu2NiO(B2O5): a=3.2003(10), b=14.775(3), c=9.097(3), β=93.28(4), V=429.4(2) A3, Z=4; and Cu2MgO(B2O5): a=3.2401(6), b=14.790(2), c=9.147(2), β=94.88(2), V=436.7(2) A3, Z=4. The structures of Cu2NiO(B2O5) and Cu2MgO(B2O5) were, respectively, refined from 804 and 1000 independent reflections to the final residuals R1=0.0366, wR2=0.0911 and R1=0.0231, wR2=0.0644. Both compounds exhibit a chevron-like structure built up of ribbons, made of edge-connected copper and nickel-oxygen polyhedra, running along the (1 0 0) direction. These ribbons are connected from one another via oxygen atoms and the cohesion of the three-dimensional network is ensured by [B2O5] entities. Cu in part occupies the position for Ni or Mg, so that the compounds actually are solid solution compounds. Ni or Mg atoms are octahedrally coordinated by oxygen, while the two pure Cu sites show [4] and [4+1] coordination, for Cu(1) and Cu(2), respectively. The ELNES B-K edge spectra for the two compounds support that the borate group present is [B2O5

  5. B2B电子商务协作模型研究%Research on B2B Electronic Business Collaboration Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双庆; 程代杰; 何玲

    2003-01-01

    B2B is an important application form in electronic business, it provides the methods to do business activities through Internet among companies. But the heterogeneous of the information systems between companies makes it difficult in interoperating between them. In this paper, a B2B electronic business collaboration model is proposed, solving the collaboration between heterogeneous business systems by defining the business irformation ontology and describing the hierarchy in business collaboration process.

  6. Analysis of practical use of modern internet technology as a mean of marketing communications in the field of B2B and B2C

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.M. Melnyk; D.V. Korinсhenko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of modern Internet technologies as the tool of marketing communication on the example of B2B and B2C areas of companies. The main objectives are: to explore modern tools and technology of Internet communications; to identify their kinds; to analyze the main features of the Internet communications complex (tools and technologies), using selected companies; to conduct a performance evaluation of the use of Internet communica...

  7. Overlapping B2B and Family Business Marketing : A Study about Family and B2B Firms Exhibiting at Bilsport Performance and Custom Motor Show

    OpenAIRE

    Kervaire Orellana, Brian André; DeLeon, Eber Andres

    2009-01-01

    Background: Family Businesses’ way of doing marketing has similarities with B2B marketing. Usuallyfamily firms focus on what they have traditionally done well and diversify in related areas using their knowledge of how to perform in certain markets with certain customers and by offering certain productsand services. In order to do this, it is important for family firms, as for firms operating in B2Bmarkets, to create and keep good relationships with their stakeholders, so that at the end thei...

  8. Approximate solutions for the skyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Ponciano, J A; Fanchiotti, H; Canal-Garcia, C A

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Skyrme model in the hedgehog ansatz and study the analytical properties of the solitonic solution. In view of the lack of a closed form solution to the problem, we work on approximate analytical solutions. We show that Pade approximants are well suited to continue analytically the asymptotic representation obtained in terms of a power series expansion near the origin, obtaining explicit approximate solutions for the Skyrme equations. We improve the approximations by applying the 2-point Pade approximant procedure whereby the exact behaviour at spatial infinity is incorporated. An even better convergence to the exact solution is obtained by introducing a modified form for the approximants. The new representations share the same analytical properties with the exact solution at both small and large values of the radial variable r.

  9. The Smoothed Approximate Linear Program

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, V V; Moallemi, C C

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel linear program for the approximation of the dynamic programming cost-to-go function in high-dimensional stochastic control problems. LP approaches to approximate DP have typically relied on a natural `projection' of a well studied linear program for exact dynamic programming. Such programs restrict attention to approximations that are lower bounds to the optimal cost-to-go function. Our program--the `smoothed approximate linear program'--is distinct from such approaches and relaxes the restriction to lower bounding approximations in an appropriate fashion while remaining computationally tractable. Doing so appears to have several advantages: First, we demonstrate substantially superior bounds on the quality of approximation to the optimal cost-to-go function afforded by our approach. Second, experiments with our approach on a challenging problem (the game of Tetris) show that the approach outperforms the existing LP approach (which has previously been shown to be competitive with several AD...

  10. Approximate Grammar for Information Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V; Reddy, B. Ravi Sekar; Sangal, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of Approximate grammar and how it can be used to extract information from a documemt. As the structure of informational strings cannot be defined well in a document, we cannot use the conventional grammar rules to represent the information. Hence, the need arises to design an approximate grammar that can be used effectively to accomplish the task of Information extraction. Approximate grammars are a novel step in this direction. The rules of an approximat...

  11. BDD Minimization for Approximate Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Soeken, Mathias; Grosse, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Drechsler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    We present Approximate BDD Minimization (ABM) as a problem that has application in approximate computing. Given a BDD representation of a multi-output Boolean function, ABM asks whether there exists another function that has a smaller BDD representation but meets a threshold w.r.t. an error metric. We present operators to derive approximated functions and present algorithms to exactly compute the error metrics directly on the BDD representation. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the app...

  12. Densification and dielectric properties of SrO–Al2O3–B2O3 ceramic bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Doaa A Abdel Aziz; Shama E Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    The influence of SrO (0.0–5.0 wt%) on partial substitution of alpha alumina (corundum) in ceramic composition (95 Al2O3–5B2O3) have been studied by co-precipitated process and their phase composition, microstructure, microchemistry and microwave dielectric properties were studied. Phase composition was revealed by XRD, while microstructure andmicrochemistry were investigated by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). The dielectric properties by means of dielectric constant (r), quality factor ( × ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) were measured in the microwave frequency region using a network analyser by the resonance method. The addition of B2O3 and SrO significantly reduced the sintering temperature of alumina ceramic bodies to 1600°C with optimum density (∼ 4 g/cm3) as compared with pure alumina powders recycled from Al dross (3.55 g/cm3 sintered at 1700°C). The sintered ceramic bodies show different ranges for the dielectric properties. Dielectric constant exists between 24 and 29, quality factor ( × ) is ranging between 15,236 and 22,020 GHz with a slight increase than those recorded with commercial alumina (10,000 – 20,000 GHz) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) in the –69 to –83 ppm/°C range. The addition of SrO up to 5 wt% leads to a maximum (r) value (29) due to relatively higher ionic polarizability of Sr2+ than that of the Al3+ and B3+ ions. On the other hand, changing chemical and phase composition with the formation of platelets of Sr-hexaluminate phase (SrAl12O19) results in maximizing value of ( × ) up to 22,020 GHz at ≈ 8 GHz and large negative charge of (f) to –83 ppm/°C.

  13. Microhardness and microstructure evolution of TiB2 reinforced Inconel 625/TiB2 composite produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Bi, Guijun; Nai, Sharon; Sun, Chen-nan; Wei, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, micron-size TiB2 particles were utilized to reinforce Inconel 625 produced by selective laser melting. Exceptional microhardness 600-700 HV0.3 of the composite was obtained. In further investigation, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625/TiB2 composite can be significantly influenced by addition of TiB2 particles during SLM. It was found that the long directional columnar grains observed from SLM-processed Inconel 625 were totally changed to fine dendritic matrix due to the addition of TiB2 particles. Moreover, with laser energy density (LED) of 1200 J/m, a Ti, Mo rich interface around TiB2 particles with fine thickness can be observed by FESEM and EDS. The microstructure evolution can be determined by different laser energy density (LED): under 1200 J/m, γ phase in dendrite grains; under 600 J/m, γ phase in combination of dendritic and acicular grains; under 400 J/m, γ phase acicular grains. Under optimized LED 1200 J/m, the dynamic nanohardness (8.62 GPa) and elastic modulus (167 GPa) of SLM-processed Inconel 625/TiB2 composite are higher compared with those of SLM-processed Inconel 625 (3.97 GPa and 135 GPa, respectively).

  14. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) Losartan has cardioprotective effects during ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits reperfusion arrhythmias -effects that go beyond the benefits of lowering blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are intricately...... connected and some of the cardioprotective effects of Losartan are abolished by blocking the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) signaling. In this study, we investigated the ability of six clinically available ARBs to specifically bind and activate the B2R. First, we investigated their ability to activate...... phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in COS-7 cells transiently expressing the B2R. We found that only Losartan activated the B2R, working as a partial agonist compared to the endogenous ligand bradykinin. This effect was blocked by the B2R antagonist HOE 140. A competitive binding analysis revealed that Losartan does...

  15. MgB 2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, X. X.; Pogrebnyakov, A. V.; Xu, S. Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E. C.; Zhuang, C. G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D. R.; Redwing, J. M.; Liu, Z. K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D. G.; Weng, X. J.; Dickey, E. C.; Chen, Y. B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X. Q.; Cybart, S. A.; Dynes, R. C.

    2007-06-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk Tc due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2. The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high Hc2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions.

  16. MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T c due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB2. The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H c2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB2 Josephson junctions

  17. B2B电子商务使用的研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞远超

    2011-01-01

    B2B电子商务是一种伴随着互联网技术发展起来的新型商务模式.本文从B2B电子商务的概念、B2B电子商务模式、企业对B2B电子商务的使用三个方面对以往研究B2B电子商务的文献进行整理和回顾。并在简要评价的基础上,并对下一步B2B电子商务的研究趋势进行了展望.

  18. erbB-2 autophosphorylation is required for mitogenic action and high-affinity substrate coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segatto, O; Lonardo, F; Helin, K;

    1992-01-01

    this EGFR/erbB-2 chimera, erbB-2 kinase activity is regulated by EGF binding. An EGFR/erbB-2 mutant bearing multiple Tyr----Phe substitutions at erbB-2 autophosphorylation sites (EGFR/erbB-2 5P) displayed markedly reduced phosphotyrosine content following EGF stimulation in comparison with the non......-mutated chimera. When expressed in NR6 cells, the EGFR/erbB-2 5P mutant was unable to deliver a sizeable mitogenic signal when activated by EGF at physiological levels. In intact cells, the 5P mutant was still able to stimulate phosphorylation of the gamma isozyme of phospholipase C (PLC-gamma), a prototype erb...

  19. A new therapeutic antibody masks ErbB2 to its partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Ali; Hynes, Nancy E

    2004-04-01

    In cancer cells, the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase can be activated in two ways: by overexpression or by ligand-mediated stimulation of another ErbB receptor. The ErbB2-targeting antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) is used for treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients whose tumors overexpress ErbB2. A new structural study in this issue of Cancer Cell reveals how targeting ErbB2 with another antibody, pertuzumab (Omnitarg), prevents ligand-induced dimerization of ErbB2 with the other ErbB receptors. Pertuzumab's novel mode of action might offer additional therapeutic opportunities for treatment of tumors expressing ligand-activated ErbB2. PMID:15093533

  20. Origin of thickness dependent spin reorientation transition of B2 type FeCo alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongyoo [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Hong, Jisang [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-07

    We have investigated the origin of thickness dependent spin reorientation transition (SRT) of B2 type FeCo alloy using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. It has been reported that FeCo alloy films on various substrates show a SRT from perpendicular to in-plane magnetization at an approximate thickness of 15 monolayers (MLs). The enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in bulk FeCo is attributed to a tetragonal distortion. However, we have found that the tetragonal distortion tends to suppress the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) energy at increasing film thickness in two-dimensional structure. In contrast, the magnitude of the shape anisotropy energy increases at increasing FeCo film thickness. Interestingly, the shape anisotropy overcomes the MCA and the SRT, from perpendicular anisotropy to in-plane magnetization, which occurs at a thickness of 15 ML. Consequently, we are able to clearly understand the physical mechanism of the thickness dependent SRT in terms of the competing reactions of these two counteracting contributions.

  1. Vacuum arc plasma generation and thin film deposition from a TiB2 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the utilization of TiB2 cathodes for thin film deposition in a DC vacuum arc system. We present a route for attaining a stable, reproducible, and fully ionized plasma flux of Ti and B by removal of the external magnetic field, which leads to dissipation of the vacuum arc discharge and an increased active surface area of the cathode. Applying a magnetic field resulted in instability and cracking, consistent with the previous reports. Plasma analysis shows average energies of 115 and 26 eV, average ion charge states of 2.1 and 1.1 for Ti and B, respectively, and a plasma ion composition of approximately 50% Ti and 50% B. This is consistent with measured resulting film composition from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting a negligible contribution of neutrals and macroparticles to the film growth. Also, despite the observations of macroparticle generation, the film surface is very smooth. These results are of importance for the utilization of cathodic arc as a method for synthesis of metal borides

  2. Synthetic phosphopeptide immunogens yield activation-specific antibodies to the c-erbB-2 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, R. J.; Druker, B J; T. M. Roberts; Stiles, C D

    1992-01-01

    We inoculated rabbits with synthetic phosphopeptides, duplicating a major autophosphorylation site of the c-erbB-2 protooncogene product. The rabbits produced antisera that, after reverse immunoaffinity purification, selectively recognize the erbB-2 protein in its enzymatically active configuration. These anti-phosphopeptide antisera identify a subset of erbB-2-positive human cell lines wherein the protein is constitutively active as a tyrosine kinase. Synthetic phosphopeptides incorporating ...

  3. 聪慧地拓展B2B的空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凡生

    2007-01-01

    信息阻滞造成的浪费,是B2B(企业间商业机会)的浪费,但也正意味着B2B商务的机会。我相信,哪儿浪费最大,哪儿就能挣到钱,所以慧聪一直在千方百计地拓展B2B。

  4. 建立真正的B2B市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GlennRamsdell

    2001-01-01

    两年前,B2B市场几乎还没有出现,人们连这方面的想法也没有。如今,成千上万的人要在网上建立B2B业务,而且几乎每天都有新的B2B交易问世,其中牵涉的不乏全球性大企业。

  5. 关于电子商务B2B分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昊祺

    2012-01-01

      本文结合笔者多年实践工作经验,针对电子商务B2B模式进行详细阐述,首先从B2B模式的含义以及发展现状入手,探讨了B2B各项分类以及功能体现,与大家共同探讨。

  6. Single Peak Solitons for the Boussinesq-Like B(2,2 Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq-like B(2,2 equation utt+(u2xx−(u2xxxx=0, which exhibits single peak solitons, is investigated. Peakons, cuspons and smooth soliton solutions are obtained by setting the B(2,2 equation under inhomogeneous boundary condition. Asymptotic behavior and numerical simulations are provided for these three types of single peak soliton solutions of the B(2,2 equation.

  7. Single Peak Solitons for the Boussinesq-Like B(2,2) Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Shumin Li; Aiyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq-like B(2,2) equation utt+(u2)xx−(u2)xxxx=0, which exhibits single peak solitons, is investigated. Peakons, cuspons and smooth soliton solutions are obtained by setting the B(2,2) equation under inhomogeneous boundary condition. Asymptotic behavior and numerical simulations are provided for these three types of single peak soliton solutions of the B(2,2) equation.

  8. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Tram Thu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Berger, Christian [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Stang, Espen [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Madshus, Inger Helene, E-mail: i.h.madshus@medisin.uio.no [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-02-01

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ► A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ► Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ► Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ► ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  9. Assay of charge of Mg in MgB2 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XPS studies of polycrystalline MgB2 sample have shown that the charge state of Mg is less than 2(+). We have performed TB-LMTO calculation for average charge of Mg 3s orbital in MgB2 and MgF2. We found that average charge of Mg3s orbital is 0.8 in MgB2 in conformity with XPS result. (author)

  10. Penetration depth measurements in HoNi2B2C: competition between superconducting and magnetic order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of the magnetic penetration depth in single crystals of HoNi2B2C down to 100 mK using a tunnel-diode-based, self-inductive technique at 28 MHz. We observe a sharp decrease in the RF penetration depth λ(T) at the superconducting transition near 9 K. A pronounced shoulder appears at approximately 8 K, followed by dramatic increases in λ(T) at 5.7 and 5.2 K. These increases correspond approximately to the onsets of previously reported magnetic structures. Just below the 5.2 K peak, λ(T) drops abruptly, suggesting a reentrant superconducting state. Below 3 K, λ(T) increases gradually to a broad maximum near 1 K, then decreases again. In addition, three previously unreported, smaller transitions are observed between 1.7 and 2.5 K. It appears that the c-axis helical phase inhibits the increase in the density of Cooper pairs, but does not destroy superconductivity. Magnetization data of HoNi2B2C are also presented for comparison

  11. B2C电子商务服务质量评价研究%Research on Evaluation of Service Quality for B2C E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国洪; 施钟贤

    2013-01-01

    After more than ten years of development, China's network shopping has begun to enter the relative mature stage. Because the current B2C mode of the electronic commerce development is particularly rapid and its market share increase year by year, e-commerce will become the core of the future development and the focus of theoretical research. Related research shows that traditional service quality evaluation models represented by SERVQUAL model for e-commerce service quality evaluation are lack of adequate reliability, so the evaluation research for B2C e-commerce service quality has to be further deepened. This article focuses on the current research on B2C e-commerce service quality. The characteristics and existing problems in these studies are summarized and the future development direction of the B2C e-commerce service quality research is pointed out , in order to improve the service quality and provide reference and help for B2C e-commerce enterprises.%经过十余年的发展,中国的网络购物已经开始步入相对成熟的阶段,当前以B2C模式的电子商务发展尤为迅速,市场份额逐年提高,必将成为未来电子商务发展的核心及理论研究的重点。相关研究表明,以SERVQUAL模型为代表的传统服务质量评价模型对于电子商务服务质量的评价缺乏足够的信度,因此对于B2C电子商务服务质量的评价研究也就有待进一步深化。本文对当前涉及B2C电子商务服务质量的相关研究进行了重点介绍,总结了这些研究的特点以及存在的问题,指出了今后B2C电子商务服务质量的研究需要发展的方向,以期为B2C电子商务企业提高服务质量提供借鉴和帮助。

  12. Acid Leaching of SHS Produced MgO/TiB2

    OpenAIRE

    Lok, Jonathan Y.

    2006-01-01

    The stoichiometric Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) thermite reaction involving magnesium oxide (MgO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and boron oxide (B2O3) forms titanium diboride (TiB2) and MgO as final products. Selective acid leaching is used to remove the MgO leaving high purity TiB2 powder. The SHS method to produce TiB2 is attractive because of the relatively low temperature required to initiate the reaction, fast reaction time, and product purity. This study investigates th...

  13. Positive cooperativity between the thrombin and bradykinin B2 receptors enhances arachidonic acid release

    OpenAIRE

    Hecquet, Claudie; Biyashev, Dauren; Tan, Fulong; Erdös, Ervin G.

    2005-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) or kallikreins activate B2 receptors (R) which couple Gαi and Gαq proteins to release arachidonic acid (AA) and elevate [Ca2+]i. Thrombin cleaves the protease-activated-receptor-1 (PAR1) that couples Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13 proteins. In CHO cells stably transfected with human B2R, thrombin liberated little AA, but it significantly potentiated AA release by B2R agonists. We explored mechanisms of cooperativity between constitutively expressed PAR1 and B2R. We also examined human e...

  14. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  15. Study of preparation of TiB2 by TiC in Al melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiB2 particles are prepared by TiC in Al melts and the characteristics of them are studied. It is found that TiC particles are unstable when boron exists in Al melts with high temperature and will transform to TiB2 and Al4C3. Most of the synthesized TiB2 particles are regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. The diameter of the undersurfaces of these prisms is ranging from 200 nm to 1 μm and the height is ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm. It is considered that controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB2 is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB2 particles. - Highlights: ► TiC can easily transform into TiB2 in Al melts. ► TiB2 formed by TiC will grow into regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. ► Controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB2 is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB2 particles.

  16. Properties of MgB2 films deposited on single crystal Ag layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MgB2 thin film can be fabricated on single crystal Ag(1 1 1) face. • As the thickness of Ag layer increases, the Tc and Jc of MgB2 decreases. When the Ag layer is 20 nm thick, the reduction of Tc is about 2 K. • Single crystal Ag layer is better than polycrystalline Ag layer in MgB2 deposition. • May enable development of MgB2 SNS junctions with single crystal Ag in the future. - Abstract: We have recently developed a method to deposit MgB2 thin films on single crystal Ag layers, and found that thin Ag layers reduced the the superconductivity of MgB2 not much, which may be a possible material to fabricate MgB2 SNS Josephson junctions. The single crystal Ag layers were deposited on (0 0 0 1) SiC substrates, and then the MgB2 thin films were deposited on the Ag layers. All the measurements included the XRD, M–T and M–H curves. The transition temperature of MgB2 films decreases from 39 K to 37 K, while the thickness of Ag layers grows from 0 to 20 nm, and the critical current density at 4.2 K decreases from 1.76 MA/cm2 to 1.24 MA/cm2, too

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF TiB2 COATING ADHERENCE BY A MULTI-PASS SCRATCH TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR TOTIK; ERSIN ARSLAN; IHSAN EFEOGLU; IRFAN KAYMAZ

    2009-01-01

    TiB2 films deposited using various deposition techniques are used to increase the wear lifetime of industrial components. The performance of TiB2 films is dependent on the coating–substrate adhesion. In this study, the fatigue behavior of TiB2 films was investigated using the multi-mode scratch method. Films of TiB2 were deposited on silicon wafers and AISI M2 steel substrates at different frequencies by pulsed-dc closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (CFUBMS). The microstructures of t...

  18. Chemically vapor-deposited ZrB2 as a selective solar absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coatings of ZrB2 and TiB2 for photothermal solar absorber applications were prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. Oxidation tests suggest a maximum temperature limit for air exposure of 600 K for TiB2 and 800 K for ZrB2. Both materials exhibit innate spectral selectivity with an emittance at 375 K ranging from 0.06 to 0.09, a solar absorptance for ZrB2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 and a solar absorptance for TiB2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.59. ZrB2 has better solar selectivity and more desirable oxidation behavior than TiB2. A 0.071 μm antireflection coating of Si3N4 deposited onto the ZrB2 coating leads to an increase in absorptance from 0.77 to 0.93, while the emittance remains unchanged. (Auth.)

  19. 关注B2B服务的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    12月7日,飞马旅参与主办的首届中国B2B服务峰会存上海举行。说起来B2B业务大家并不陌生。基本上属于公司间业务基本上都属于这个范畴。B2B服务与B2B一般业务最大的区别在哪儿呢?

  20. B2B企业市场调研的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺华

    2013-01-01

    什么是B2B企业?简单来讲,B2B就是企业与企业之间的各类商务活动,不与消费者直接进行的商务活动都可以归为B2B,向企业而非消费者出售产品或服务的企业称为B2B企业,

  1. B2B:登峰造极VS暮气沉沉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 顾卓

    2007-01-01

    @@ 说到中国的制造业就不得不说到中国的B2B,说到B2B就不得不说阿里巴巴.这个在马云带领下的B2B网站现在已成为公认的B2B老大,"打着灯笼也找不到竞争对手"的话也并非一时脑热的脱口而出.

  2. 从“雅蜂模式”谈B2B网站联盟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅

    2007-01-01

    在今年刚结束的首届“中国B2B联盟大会暨高峰论坛”上,中国首家全英文的国际贸易B2B垂直搜索引擎Yaphon雅蜂网正式宣告“雅蜂B2B网站联盟”成立,本文基于“雅蜂模式”探讨了B2B网站的联盟策略。

  3. Superconducting MgB2 flowers: growth mechanism and their superconducting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Won Kyung; Ranot, Mahipal; Lee, Ji Yeong; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Jae Hak; Oh, Young Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kang, Won Nam

    2016-04-01

    We report for the first time the growth and the systematic study of the growth mechanism for flower-like MgB2 structures fabricated on the substrates for solid-state electronics by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The MgB2 flower has a width of 30 μm and a height of 10 μm. The superconductivity of MgB2 flowers was confirmed by a magnetization measurement, and the transition temperature is 39 K, which is comparable with high-quality bulk samples. The excellent current-carrying capability was demonstrated by MgB2 flowers. To understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of MgB2 flowers a very systematic study was performed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and atom probe (AP) microscopy. The HRTEM revealed that the seed grain of a MgB2 flower has a [101¯0] direction, and the flower is composed of micro-columnar MgB2 grains having pyramidal tips and which are grown along the (0001) plane. A clear understanding of the growth mechanism for MgB2 flowers could lead to the growth of other low-dimensional MgB2 structures for superconducting electronic devices.

  4. Social Media Challenges for B2B Organizations : A case study of a large manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Greger; Nilsson, Markus

    2011-01-01

    When looking at the engagement of social media in general we see that business-to-business (B2B) companies have a significantly lower day-to-day usage compared to business-to-consumer (B2C) companies even though there are more B2B companies present in the social media space. By studying a B2B company in the midst of implementing social media in their efforts to enhance their marketing capabilities we want to know if there are any specific reasons for these facts. When studying the company we ...

  5. XPS studies of MgB2 superconductor for charge state of Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have been carried out on polycrystalline MgB2 pellets. Characteristic Mg-2p and B-Is spectra have been analysed for extracting binding energies. There are evidences of MgB2 and formation of traces of metallic Mg, MgO and B2O3. Binding energy of Mg in MgB2 reveals its charge state to be less than 2(+) indicative of partial and not full charge transfer from Mg to B. (author)

  6. The calculation of active Raman modes of -quartz crystal via density functional theory based on B3LYP Hamiltonian in 6–311+G(2d) basis set

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Talebian; E Talebian; A Abdi

    2012-05-01

    We obtained an approximation of the force field of -quartz crystal using a new idea of applying density functional theory [J Purton, R Jones, C R A Catlow and M Leslie, Phys. Chem. Minerals 19, 392 (1993)]. Our calculations were based on B3LYP Hamiltonian [A N Lazarev and A P Mirgorodsky, Phys. Chem. Minerals 18, 231 (1991)] in 6−311+G(2d) basis set for H16Si7O6 cluster and included a unit cell of the lattice. The advantage of our method is the increase in the speed of calculations and the better adaption of simulation results with the experimental data.

  7. Beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...

  8. Matrix-Free Approximate Equilibration

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Andrew M.; Murray, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The condition number of a diagonally scaled matrix, for appropriately chosen scaling matrices, is often less than that of the original. Equilibration scales a matrix so that the scaled matrix's row and column norms are equal. Scaling can be approximate. We develop approximate equilibration algorithms for nonsymmetric and symmetric matrices having signed elements that access a matrix only by matrix-vector products.

  9. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  10. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  11. N-variable rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures

  12. Electrospark deposition of Al2O3–TiB2/Ni composite-phase surface coatings on Cu–Cr–Zr alloy electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve electrode life during the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel plates, an Al2O3–TiB2 composite coating was synthesized on the surfaces of spot-welding electrodes through an electrospark deposition process. The microstructure, elemental composition, phase structure, and mechanical properties of the coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and microhardness testing. It was found that extensive cracking occurred in the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating and at the coating–electrode interface. When the Al2O3–TiB2 coating was deposited on electrodes precoated with Ni, the number of defects decreased significantly. Further, delamination did not occur, and fewer cracks were formed. The average hardness of the multilayered Al2O3–TiB2/Ni coating was approximately 2200 HV and higher than that of the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating (1100 HV.

  13. Chebyshev polynomial approximation to approximate partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Cerrato, Mario

    2008-01-01

    This pa per suggests a simple method based on Chebyshev approximation at Chebyshev nodes to approximate partial differential equations. The methodology simply consists in determining the value function by using a set of nodes and basis functions. We provide two examples. Pricing an European option and determining the best policy for chatting down a machinery. The suggested method is flexible, easy to program and efficient. It is also applicable in other fields, providing efficient solutions t...

  14. Review of magnetic features observed in (A,A')Ni2B2C solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nickel-borocarbides ANi2B2C [A=Y, Ln (lanthanide), An(actinide)], crystallizing in the body-centred tetragonal LuNi2B2C-type structure, are classified according to the existence or coexistence of superconducting and antiferromagnetic states (AF). The magnetic features observed in polycrystalline (A,A')Ni2B2C solid solutions, adopting the same crystal structure, are reviewed and discussed. Published data on the magnetism in (A,Ln)Ni2B2C systems (ANi2B2C nonmagnetic, A=Y,La,Lu) indicate a gradual rise in the threshold content, x(m), in (Y1-xLnx)Ni2B2C (Ln=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) for the establishment of AF states. (A,A')Ni2B2C systems with magnetic end compounds show gradual variation in magnetic features when A and A' are both heavy Ln. The behaviour of (A,A')Ni2B2C systems of light A (Pr or U) and heavy A' (Dy or Tm) depends on the magnetic structures of the end compounds. In intermediate compositions, incomplete moment compensation in (Pr,Dy)Ni2B2C decreases TN, while different moment directions in the end compounds in (U,Dy)Ni2B2C lead to a directional frustration of ordered moments. Such a frustration in (U,Tm)Ni2B2C is related to different magnetic structures of the end compounds

  15. Close association of B2 bradykinin receptors with P2Y2 ATP receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Sayo; Shimazaki, Ayaka; Mitoma, Junya; Nakagawa, Tetsuto; Abe, Maya; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Hideyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that couple with Gαq/11, B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor (B2R) and ATP/UTP receptor P2Y2 (P2Y2R), are ubiquitously expressed and responsible for vascular tone, inflammation, and pain. We analysed the cellular signalling of P2Y2Rs in cells that express B2Rs. B2R desensitization induced by BK or B2R internalization-inducing glycans cross-desensitized the P2Y2R response to ATP/UTP. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from P2Y2R-AcGFP to B2R-DsRed was detected in the cells and on the cell surfaces, showing the close association of these GPCRs. BK- and ATP-induced cross-internalization of P2Y2R and B2R, respectively, was shown in a β-galactosidase complementation assay using P2Y2R or B2R fused to the H31R substituted α donor peptide of a β-galactosidase reporter enzyme (P2Y2R-α or B2R-α) with coexpression of the FYVE domain of endofin, an early endosome protein, fused to the M15 acceptor deletion mutant of β-galactosidase (the ω peptide, FYVE-ω). Arrestin recruitment to the GPCRs by cross-activation was also shown with the similar way. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that B2R and P2Y2R were closely associated in the cotransfected cells. These results indicate that B2R couples with P2Y2R and that these GPCRs act together to fine-tune cellular responsiveness. The collaboration between these receptors may permit rapid onset and turning off of biological events. PMID:25713410

  16. Thermochemistry of organic reactions in microporous oxides by atomistic simulations: benchmarking against periodic B3LYP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleken, Francesca; Svelle, Stian; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Olsbye, Unni; Arstad, Bjørnar; Swang, Ole

    2010-07-15

    The methylation of ethene by methyl chloride and methanol in the microporous materials SAPO-34 and SSZ-13 has been studied using different periodic atomistic modeling approaches based on density functional theory. The RPBE functional, which earlier has been used successfully in studies of surface reactions on metals, fails to yield a qualitatively correct description of the transition states under study. Employing B3LYP as functional gives results in line with experimental data: (1) Methanol is adsorbed more strongly than methyl chloride to the acid site. (2) The activation energies for the methylation of ethene are slightly lower for SSZ-13. Furthermore, the B3LYP activation energies are lower for methyl chloride than for methanol. PMID:20557090

  17. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, E E; Torres, G; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Kurtz, D W; Laskar, J; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G

    2015-01-01

    Astronomers commonly quote the properties of celestial objects in units of parameters for the Sun, Jupiter, or the Earth. The resolution presented here was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy and passed by the XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts a set of nominal solar, terrestrial, and jovian conversion constants for stellar and (exo)planetary astronomy which are defined to be exact SI values. While the nominal constants are based on current best estimates (CBEs; which have uncertainties, are not secularly constant, and are updated regularly using new observations), they should be interpreted as standard values and not as CBEs. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts five solar conversion constants (nominal solar radius, nominal total solar irradiance, nominal solar luminosity, nominal solar effective temperature, and nominal solar mass parameter) and six planetary conversion constants (nominal terrestrial equatorial ra...

  18. Magnetic and structural characteristics of the Nd2(Co,Fe)7B3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd2Co7-xFexB3 alloys have been synthesized and studied at temperatures from 4 to 1100 K at fields up to 90 kOe. The structure and magnetic properties vary significantly with changing Fe content. The main phase is observed to be of hexagonal symmetry for x4 it is multiphase, the major phase having tetragonal symmetry. The Tc increases from 330 to 885 K when x varies from 0 to 3, then decreases from 885 to 577 K when x increases from 3 to 7. The saturation magnetization is 8μB/fu at 4.2 K, for Nd2Co7B3; it increases with increasing Fe content. The alloys exhibit a conical (04) magnetocrystalline anisotropy at 295 K. They all exhibit conical magnetic anisotropy at 77 K

  19. Growth of lithium triborate LiB3O5 monocrystals and their thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrystals of LiB3O5 peritectic compound were produced by the method of growth from solution in melt. It is ascertained that crystals correspond to rhombic syngony, Pna21 space group, cell parameters a=8.456 (3), b=7.383 (3), c=5.135 (2) A. The presence of strong anisotropy of linear thermal expansion coefficient along crystallographic directions is observed. It is noted that α value decreases as temperature grows at t>300 deg C which points to different temperature dependence of different phonon modes in LiB3O5. Changes which occur in this crystal during thermal treatment are studied by the method of IR-spectroscopy. It is shown that lithium triborate interact with atmospheric air at t>500 deg C

  20. X-ray photoemission study of MgB2 films synthesized from in-situ annealed MgB2/Mg multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting MgB2 films were obtained by in-situ annealing of precursor multilayers deposited at low substrate temperature by sputtering from a MgB2 stoichiometric target and by thermal evaporation of pure Mg. After an in-situ annealing at 500-600 C, the films showed a zero resistance critical temperature up to 31 K. The as-obtained MgB2 films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES). The electronic structure was studied by monitoring the B 1s, Mg 2p, O 1s core-levels and the Mg KL2L3 Auger line. For comparison, the electronic structure of an MgB2 commercial superconducting sputtering target, of a not-annealed precursor film and of a sample obtained by direct sputtering from the MgB2 target have also been investigated. Electron spectroscopy showed that in the superconducting systems the Mg KL2L3 Auger line kinetic energy position is always higher by about 0.9 eV with respect to the energy position of the same Auger line measured in the non-superconducting samples. (orig.)

  1. Major Persistent 5′ Terminally Deleted Coxsackievirus B3 Populations in Human Endomyocardial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Alexis; Nguyen, Yohan; Wehbe, Michel; Renois, Fanny; Fornes, Paul; Bani-Sadr, Firouze; Metz, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing analysis of the enterovirus 5′ noncoding region in cardiac biopsies from a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Results displayed a mix of deleted and full-length coxsackievirus B3, characterized by a low viral RNA load (8.102 copies/μg of nucleic acids) and a low viral RNA positive-sense to RNA negative-sense ratio of 4.8. PMID:27434549

  2. B3 and B9 huts at the Bronze Age settlement of Mursia (Pantelleria)

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Cantisani

    2015-01-01

    The hut B3 and B9, located on the southwestern edge of Sector B of the prehistoric settlement of Mursia, identify frequent structural changes inside the residential unit. The huts are characterized by architectural components and floor plans typical of the early phase of this part of the settlement and show clear traces of continuous occupation in spite of the architectural rearrangement. The reconstruction of the stratigraphic sequence, the analysis of the formation processes of the material...

  3. Radiation effects in LiB3O5 nonlinear crystals under eletron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results on defect accumulation in LiB3O5 crystals under electron beam irradiation are presented. A conclusion has been made about the role of radiation-induced defects in the accumulation of electric charges in LBO crystals under destructive electron irradiation due to electric breakdown. The processes considered can simulate defect formation in a crystaltransformer based on LBO affected by powerful laser pulses

  4. Human infections caused by Brevibacterium casei, formerly CDC groups B-1 and B-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Steigerwalt, A G; Hollis, D G; Weyant, R S; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W; M Daneshvar; J. M. Brown; Brenner, D J

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one clinical strains of CDC coryneform groups B-1 and B-3 were compared biochemically, by analysis of cell wall sugars, amino acids, and cellular fatty acids, and by DNA relatedness to the type strains of Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium epidermidis, and Brevibacterium linens. Twenty-two strains were shown to be B. casei, while five other strains formed a phenotypically inseparable genomospecies in the same genus. The remaining isolates were genetically heterogeneous, and most are p...

  5. Biosynthesis of hydrolytic enzymes of UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out on 12 UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 which synthesize from 18 to 105% more hydrolytic enzymes (proteinases, amylases, cellulases and lipases) than the wild strain. After 5 years' storage of the mutants, a 26-fold increase in amylase biosynthesis was observed for a G7 UV-mutant. This mutant showed also other phenotypic differences. The increased ability of mutant G7 to synthesize amylases was controlled by the maltose-substrate induction. (author)

  6. Stable and metastable optical absorption of LiB3O5 nonlinear crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the study on stable and metastable optical absorption of the LBO crystals by excitation with electron pulse beam of nanosecond duration are presented. It is shown that the nature of the LBO stable and metastable optical absorption may be connected with optical transition from the local level of the hole O-centrum to the LBO B3 levels. It is of great practical importance for understanding the mechanism of the LBO radiation-optical stability

  7. Magneto-optics of Pr3+ in LiB3O5 glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetooptical properties and optical absorption for a new oxide matrix of LiB3O5 activated by praseodymium have been studied for the first time. Absorption Faraday effect (FE) and magnetic circular dichroism were measured. Effective transition wave length λ = 217 nm, making major contribution to FE, was obtained. It is shown that magnetooptical activity of f-d transition is an order higher than that of 3H4 → 3P2 f-f transition

  8. The efficiency of Flory approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)

  9. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures is...... investigated. The nested optimization problem is re-formulated to accommodate the use of an approximate displacement vector and the design sensitivities are derived accordingly. It is shown that relatively rough approximations are acceptable since the errors are taken into account in the sensitivity analysis...

  10. B3A: Prompting Cooperation Among Rational Participants in P2P Bulk File Sharing Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing systems assume that their users download files in proportion to their sharing. Unfortunately, users are unlikely to do so without an incentive mechanism. Previous solutions to the problem required some types of centralized control, which strays from the spirit of P2P to provide long-term incentives. This paper presents the balance-based bandwidth allocation, B3A, an incentive framework to inspire participants to share files. In the B3A framework, each peer keeps the differences between the amount of data it has received from each peer and the amount it has sent to that one. When receiving simultaneous requests from various peers, the peer prefers to allocate its limited upload bandwidth to those peers with larger differences. Therefore, the downloading bandwidth perceived by a peer is positively related to its contributions to others, consequently stimulating it to share more files. The B3A framework is fully decentralized, scalable, and secure.

  11. Inner shell excitation spectroscopy of transient molecules: HBS, HBO, and H3B3O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, L. E.; Hitchcock, A. P.

    1999-08-01

    Inner shell electron energy spectroscopy (ISEELS) was used to study HBS, HBO, and H3B3O3, reactive, transient species generated in situ. The reaction of H2S with crystalline boron in a quartz tube was used to produce thioborine (HBS) at ˜1100 °C, and borine (HBO) at ˜1200 °C. The reaction of H2O vapor with crystalline boron in a quartz tube at ˜1200 °C was used to produce boroxine (H3B3O3). These species were identified from their inner shell excitation spectra and mass spectrometry. The B 1s, S 2s, and S 2p ISEEL spectra of HBS, and the B 1s and O 1s spectra of HBO and H3B3O3 are reported and analyzed with the help of GSCF3 ab initio calculations. A reaction scheme is proposed for the generation of HBO from the reaction of H2S and boron in a heated quartz tube.

  12. Dynamics of optical degradation on LiB3O5-crystal surfaces during SFG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the phenomenon of optical degradation of LiB3O5 single crystal surfaces during sum-frequency generation (SFG) of UV-light (λ=355 nm) by a focused Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (f=20 kHz, τ1064=10 ns, anti P1064=1.5 W). The investigations were performed on timescales >100 h and UV-intensities below the light induced damage threshold of the crystals. The degradations were studied with optical and analytical methods. As a result we found a steady deposition of foreign material on the output crystal surface in the illuminated area. Here, XPS uncovered several foreign elements as Na,S,Si,Ca, C beside B and O depending on the composition of the ambient atmosphere during SFG. The temporal development of the degradation could be observed by measuring the beam profile behind the crystal. The beam divergence increased as a function of the deposition height, which led to a complex intensity profile in the far-field. Further illuminating lead to a catastrophic break-down of the surface and the beam profile. This is due to thermal damage originating from the UV-absorption of the deposited material. Three models for the deposition process are discussed: a) diffusion out of the LiB3O5-subsurface, b) deposition of atoms of the ambient atmosphere, c) chemical reactions of LiB3O5, water, and boric acid

  13. Procyanidin B3 prevents articular cartilage degeneration and heterotopic cartilage formation in a mouse surgical osteoarthritis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailati Aini

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease in the elderly due to an imbalance in cartilage degradation and synthesis. Heterotopic ossification (HO occurs when ectopic masses of endochondral bone form within the soft tissues around the joints and is triggered by inflammation of the soft tissues. Procyanidin B3 (B3 is a procyanidin dimer that is widely studied due to its high abundance in the human diet and antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the role of B3 isolated from grape seeds in the maintenance of chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We observed that B3 inhibited H(2O(2-induced apoptosis in primary chondrocytes, suppressed H(2O(2- or IL-1ß-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS production, and prevented IL-1ß-induced suppression of chondrocyte differentiation marker gene expression in primary chondrocytes. Moreover, B3 treatment enhanced the early differentiation of ATDC5 cells. To examine whether B3 prevents cartilage destruction in vivo, OA was surgically induced in C57BL/6J mice followed by oral administration of B3 or vehicle control. Daily oral B3 administration protected articular cartilage from OA and prevented chondrocyte apoptosis in surgically-induced OA joints. Furthermore, B3 administration prevented heterotopic cartilage formation near the surgical region. iNOS protein expression was enhanced in the synovial tissues and the pseudocapsule around the surgical region in OA mice fed a control diet, but was reduced in mice that received B3. Together, these data indicated that in the OA model, B3 prevented OA progression and heterotopic cartilage formation, at least in a part through the suppression of iNOS. These results support the potential therapeutic benefits of B3 for treatment of human OA and heterotopic ossification.

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lender, Holders and Borrowers of Adverse Decisions Where the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Farmer Program Primary Loan Servicing Actions) B Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-3 Exhibit B-3 to Subpart...

  15. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nam, H.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Cyclins B1 and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin B1 and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour

  16. Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    -MS/MS survey of fumonisins in retail raisins. In 10 of 21 brands collected in Denmark, Germany, and The Netherlands, fumonisins B-2 and B-4 were detected at levels up to 13 and 1.3 mu g/kg, respectively. Only fumonisin B-2 has been detected in wine, so the presence of fumonisin B-4 in raisins suggests that the...

  17. EphB2 in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Vulnerability to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Han, Ying; Chen, Chen; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen-Hao; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The ephrin B2 (EphB2) receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is associated with synaptic development and maturation. It has recently been implicated in cognitive deficits and anxiety. However, still unknown is the involvement of EphB2 in the vulnerability to stress. In the present study, we observed decreases in EphB2 levels and their downstream molecules in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat stress. The activation of EphB2 receptors with EphrinB1-Fc in the mPFC produced stress-resistant and antidepressant-like behavioral effects in susceptible mice that lasted for at least 10 days. EphB2 receptor knockdown by short-hairpin RNA in the mPFC increased the susceptibility to stress and induced depressive-like behaviors in a subthreshold chronic social defeat stress paradigm. These behavioral effects were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin and membrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and the expression of some synaptic proteins in the mPFC. We also found that EphB2 regulated stress-induced spine remodeling in the mPFC. Altogether, these results indicate that EphB2 is a critical regulator of stress vulnerability and might be a potential target for the treatment of depression. PMID:27103064

  18. Antibacterial Peptide CecropinB2 Production via Various Host and Construct Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shiang Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecropin is a cationic antibacterial peptide composed of 35–39 residues. This peptide has been identified as possessing strong antibacterial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, and it has been claimed that some types of the cecropin family of peptides are capable of killing cancer cells. In this study, the host effect of cloning antibacterial peptide cecropinB2 was investigated. Three different host expression systems were chosen, i.e., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia pastoris. Two gene constructs, cecropinB2 (cecB2 and intein-cecropinB2 (INT-cecB2, were applied. Signal peptide and propeptide from Armigeres subalbatus were also attached to the gene construct. The results showed that the best host for cloning cecropinB2 was P. pastoris SMD1168 harboring the gene of pGAPzαC-prepro-cecB2 via Western blot confirmation. The cecropinB2 that was purified using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography resin showed strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative strains, including the multi-drug-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii.

  19. Pair-Breaking Critical Current Density of Two-Band Superconductor MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.N. Askerzade

    2005-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the pair-breaking critical current density of MgB2, jd(T), is studied using a two-band Ginzburg-Landau theory. The results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data for the superconducting magnesium diboride MgB2.

  20. Conceptualizing B2C Businesses as a New Category of Services

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Pandya; Nikhilesh Dholakia

    2005-01-01

    Conceptualizing B2C businesses as an innovative class of technology-infused services yields insights into the factors that may lead to success or failure of such businesses. Drawing from services’ marketing literature and recent thinking on Internet service metrics, this paper presents a framework for analyzing B2C businesses.

  1. Effects of Hf doping on magnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetisation and upper critical field measurements of hafnium doped MgB2 are presented. There is an increase in upper critical field and enhancement of critical current density in hafnium doped MgB2. The irreversibility line extracted from Jc shows an upward shift. The enhancement has been more than that by neon ion irradiation. (author)

  2. Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binary intermetallic MgB2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods. (rapid communication)

  3. 17 CFR 270.24b-2 - Filing copies of sales literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing copies of sales literature. 270.24b-2 Section 270.24b-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... literature. Copies of material filed with the Commission for the sole purpose of complying with section...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  5. D1((2)B2g) to D0((2)Au) Fluorescence from the Matrix-Isolated Perylene Cation Following Laser Excitation into the D5(2)B3g) and D2 ((2)B3g) Electronic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Stone, Bradley M.; Joblin, Christine; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra of the perylene cation, pumped by direct laser excitation via the D(sub 2)((2)B(sub 3g)) (left arrow) D(sub 0)((2)A(sub u)) and D(sub 5)(2)B(sub 3g)) (left arrow) D(sub 0)((2)A(sub u)) transitions, are presented. Direct excitation into the D5 or D2 states is followed by rapid non-radiative relaxation to D1 that, in turn,relaxes radiatively. Excitation spectroscopy across the D(sub 2)((2)B(sub 3g)) (left arrow) D(sub 0)((2)A(sub u)) transition near 730 nm shows that site splitting plays little or no role in determining the spectral substructure in the ion spectra. Tentative assignments for ground state vibrational frequencies are made by comparison of spectral intervals with calculated normal mode frequencies.

  6. MgB2 multifilamentary tapes: microstructure, chemical composition and superconducting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birajdar, B.; Braccini, V.; Tumino, A.; Wenzel, T.; Eibl, O.; Grasso, G.

    2006-09-01

    Multifilamentary Ni-sheathed Cu-stabilized MgB2 tapes with a critical current density of 2.0 × 105 A cm-2 (at 20 K and 1 T) were prepared by a powder in tube technique, using pre-reacted MgB2 powders. The microstructure and chemical composition of the superconducting core and the MgB2-Ni interface were studied using SEM, EPMA and TEM. A quick, reliable and standard-less method of B quantification using SEM-EDX is established for the analysis of MgB2 wires and tapes. Carbon-contamination-free sample preparation was crucial for the analysis of boron. The typical size of MgB2 colonies, i.e. the arrangement of several well connected grains, in the MgB2 filaments was between 1 and 6 µm. The colonies are structurally well connected to each other, although sub-micrometre-sized voids are present. The B to Mg mole fraction ratio in the MgB2 colonies was found to be close to two and the O mole fraction is less than 1 at.%. The typical size of the MgB2 grains in the colonies is about 0.5-1 µm however, numerous grains of size 30-200 nm are also present. MgO precipitates of the size of 15-70 nm were found in the MgB2 grains. Long straight dislocations with a density of 1 × 1010 cm-2 are observed. Non-superconducting layers which appear as oxide layers in SEM and TEM samples were found on the surface of the MgB2 colonies and yield poor connectivity between the colonies. It is expected that these layers yield a significant reduction of the critical current density Jc. A 10 µm wide intermetallic reaction layer of B, Mg and Ni is formed at the MgB2-Ni interface. Reduction of the MgB2 grain size by milling of starting MgB2 powder and elimination of non-superconducting layers around MgB2 colonies could further enhance the critical current density because of improved pinning and connectivity between colonies.

  7. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  8. Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzi, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These approximate maximizers work simultaneously for all intricacies. We also establish some properties of arbitrary approximate maximizers, in particular the existence of a threshold in the size of subsystems of approximate maximizers: most smaller subsystems are almost equidistributed, most larger subsystems determine the full system. The main ideas are a random construction of almost maximizers with a high statistical symmetry and the consideration of entropy profiles, i.e., the average entropies of sub-systems of a given size. ...

  9. Metrical Diophantine approximation for quaternions

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The metrical theory of Diophantine approximation for quaternions is developed using recent results in the general theory. In particular, Quaternionic analogues of the classical theorems of Khintchine, Jarnik and Jarnik-Besicovitch are established.

  10. Metrical Diophantine approximation for quaternions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Maurice; Everitt, Brent

    2014-11-01

    Analogues of the classical theorems of Khintchine, Jarnik and Jarnik-Besicovitch in the metrical theory of Diophantine approximation are established for quaternions by applying results on the measure of general `lim sup' sets.

  11. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of In Situ TiB2-7055 Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN dong; LE Yong-kang; BAI Liang; MA Nai-heng; LI Xian-feng; WANG Hao-wei

    2006-01-01

    In order to fabricate a kind of high strength particulate reinforced aluminum-matrix composites, the high strength aluminum alloy 7055 was selected as a matrix. Composites reinforced with varying amounts of TiB2 particles were synthesized using the in situ method, and their mechanical properties and microstructure were analyzed. It is found that the in situ TiB2 particles sized from 50 to 400 nm uniformly disperse in the matrix. With the weight fraction of TiB2 particles increasing, the elastic modulus as well as the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength increase, while the ductility decrease. The improvement of strength could be attributed to good bonding between TiB2 and the matrix, and also the TiB2 particles act as a barrier to dislocation.

  12. Possible coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order in NdPt2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Dhar; A D Chinchure; E Alleno; C Godart; L C Gupta; R Nagarajan

    2002-05-01

    Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been one of the exciting aspects of the quaternary borocarbide superconductors. So far, RNi2B2C (R=Tm, Er, Ho and Dy) are the only known magnetic superconductors in this family. Here, we present our resistivity, magnetization and heat capacity studies on NdPt2B2C (nominal composition, NdPt1.5Au0.6B2C and NdPt2.1B2.4C1.2). We find superconductivity in both samples with c,onset∼ 3 K. Bulk magnetic order is found to occur below 1.7 K. We suggest that NdPt2B2C is a possible magnetic superconductor.

  13. C-erbB-2 expression and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staal, O.; Sullivan, S.; Wingren, S.; Skoog, L.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Nordenskjoeld, B. [Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Carstensen, J.M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Frozen tissue from primary tumours of 152 premenopausal breast cancer patients, who participated in a trial comparing radiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, CMF), was analysed for c-erbB-2 protein expression, measured by flow cytometry. The relative risk of distant recurrence or death in the chemotherapy group as compared with the radiotherapy group was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-7.8) for patients whose tumours showed high c-erbB-2 levels and 0.87 (95% CI 0.43-1.7) for those with tumours with low levels of c-erbB-2 protein. Patients with highly proliferative tumours that did not overexpress c-erbB-2 benefited most, in terms of survival, from CMF. In addition, we found an increased risk of locoregional recurrence for tumours overexpressing c-erbB-2 when radiotherapy was replaced by chemotherapy. (author).

  14. Phase formation in the BaB2O4-BaF2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, T. B.; Fedorov, P. P.; Kokh, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that the BaB2O4-BaF2 system is quasi-binary with the following eutectics coordinates: 760°C, 59 mol % BaF2, 41 mol % BaB2O4. Due to the intense pyrohydrolysis during the growth of β-BaB2O4 crystals from the 55.6 mol % BaB2O4-44.4 mol % BaF2 composition, the Ba5B4O11 compound is formed in the system. This process leads to the cocrystallization of the β-BaB2O4 and Ba5B4O11 phases and impedes the formation of high-quality crystals.

  15. Consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Dmytro Demirskyi

    2015-01-01

    The in situ synthesis/consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering (SPS) is reported. The microstructure–property relations were determined for composites with the B4C-TaB2 eutectic composition as functions of TaB2 content, and TaB2-TaB2 interlamellar spacing. A clear maximum in fracture toughness was identified (∼4.5 MPa m1/2) for eutectic composites with interlamellar spacing between 0.9 and 1.1 μm. The composites with the hypereutectic composition of 40 mol.% TaB...

  16. Composite Cu/Fe/MgB2 superconducting wires and MgB2/YSZ/Hastelloy coated conductors for ac and dc applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the results of a study of MgB2 multifilamentary conductors and coated conductors from the point of view of their future dc and ac applications. The correlation between the slope of the irreversibility line induced by neutron irradiation defects and in situ structural imperfections and the critical temperature and critical current density is discussed with respect to the conductor performance and applicability. We debate the possible origin of the observed anomalous decrease of ac susceptibility at 50 K in copper clad in situ powder-in-tube MgB2 wires. Different conductor preparation methods and conductor architectures, and attainable critical current densities are presented. Some numerical results on critical currents, thermal stability and ac losses of future MgB2 multifilamentary and coated conductors with magnetic cladding of their filaments are also discussed

  17. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Veness, Joel; Ng, Kee Siong; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To deve...

  18. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...

  19. Approximate factorization with source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Chyu, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of three methodologies with a view to that which offers the best approximate factorization error. While two of these methods are found to lead to more efficient algorithms in cases where factors which do not contain source terms can be diagonalized, the third method used generates the lowest approximate factorization error. This method may be preferred when the norms of source terms are large, and transient solutions are of interest.

  20. Chebyshev approximation for multivariate functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhorukova, Nadezda; Ugon, Julien; Yost, David

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we derive optimality conditions (Chebyshev approximation) for multivariate functions. The theory of Chebyshev (uniform) approximation for univariate functions is very elegant. The optimality conditions are based on the notion of alternance (maximal deviation points with alternating deviation signs). It is not very straightforward, however, how to extend the notion of alternance to the case of multivariate functions. There have been several attempts to extend the theory of Cheby...

  1. Analytic Approximations for Spread Options

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Aanand Venkatramanan

    2007-01-01

    Even in the simple case that two price processes follow correlated geometric Brownian motions with constant volatility no analytic formula for the price of a standard European spread option has been derived, except when the strike is zero in which case the option becomes an exchange option. This paper expresses the price of a spread option as the price of a compound exchange option and hence derives a new analytic approximation for its price and hedge ratios. This approximation has several ad...

  2. Optical spectroscopy and decoherence studies of Y b3 + :YAG at 968 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Thomas; Thiel, C. W.; Cone, R. L.; Sun, Y.; Faraon, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 7/2 2F ↔ 5/2 2F optical transitions of Y b3 + doped into Y3A l5O12 (YAG) were studied for potential quantum information and photonic signal processing applications. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy located the energy levels of the ground >7/2 2F and excited 5/2 2F manifolds, allowing inconsistencies between previous assignments of crystal field splittings in the literature to be resolved. These measurements reveal an unusually large splitting between the first and second levels in both the ground and excited multiplets, potentially providing for reduced sensitivity to thermally induced decoherence and spin-lattice relaxation. Spectral hole burning through two-level saturation was observed, determining the excited state lifetime to be 860 μs and resolving ambiguities in previous fluorescence measurements that were caused by the large radiation trapping effects in this material. Optical decoherence measurements using two-pulse photon echoes gave a homogeneous linewidth of 18 kHz for an applied magnetic field of 1 T, narrowing to 5 kHz at 2.5 T. The observed decoherence was described by spectral diffusion attributed to Y b3 +- Y b3 + magnetic dipole interactions. Laser absorption determined an inhomogeneous linewidth of 3.6 GHz for this transition in this 0.05%-doped crystal, which is narrower than for any other rare-earth-ion transition previously studied in the YAG host. The temperature dependence of the transition energy and linewidth of the lowest 7/2 2F to lowest 5/2 2F transition centered at 968.571 nm measured from 4 K to 300 K was well described by phonon scattering at higher temperatures, with an additional anomalous linear temperature-dependent broadening at temperatures below 80 K. Two magnetically inequivalent subgroups of Y b3 + ions were identified when a magnetic field was applied along the axis, as expected for the D2 sites in the cubic symmetry crystal, with ground and excited state effective g -values of gg=3.40 (3.34) and ge=1.04 (2

  3. Identification of point defects responsible for laser-induced ultraviolet absorption in LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, W.; Garces, Nelson Y.; Chirila, M. M.; Halliburton, Larry E.

    2003-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to identify and characterize point defects in lithium triborate (LiB3O5) crystals grown for nonlinear optical applications. As-grown crystals contain oxygen vacancies and lithium vacancies (as well as trace amounts of transition-metal ions in a few samples). Exposing a crystal to ionizing radiation at 77 K produces "free" electrons and holes. These electrons are trapped at the pre-existing oxygen vacancies and give rise to an EPR signal with a large hyperfine from one 11B nucleus. The corresponding holes become self-trapped on oxygen ions as a result of the significant lattice relaxation of a nearest-neighbor fourfold-bonded boron ion. This gives rise to an EPR signal with a smaller 11B hyperfine pattern due to the oxygen"s threefold bonded boron neighbor. Warming the crystal to approximately 130 K destroys the self-trapped hole centers that were initially formed, and allows a second holelike signal to be observed (which in turn decays between 150 and 200 K). The structure of the second hole center is very similar to the self-trapped hole center and a neighboring lithium vacancy makes this latter center more thermally stable. The EPR spectra from Ni+ and Cu2+ ions are also reported.

  4. Human bradykinin B(2) receptor is activated by kallikrein and other serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, C; Tan, F; Marcic, B M; Erdös, E G

    2000-10-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and kallidin (Lys-BK), liberated from kininogens by kallikreins, are ligands of the BK B(2) receptor. We investigated whether kallikreins, besides releasing peptide agonist, could also activate the receptor directly. We studied the effect of porcine and human recombinant tissue kallikrein and plasma kallikrein on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization and [(3)H]arachidonic acid release from cultured cells stably transfected to express human BK B(2) receptor (CHO/B(2), MDCK/B(2), HEK/B(2)), and endothelial cells were used as control cells. As with BK, the actions of kallikrein were blocked by the B(2) antagonist, HOE 140. Kallikrein was inactive on cells lacking B(2) receptor. Kallikrein and BK desensitized the receptor homologously but there was no cross-desensitization. Furthermore, 50 nM human cathepsin G and 50 nM trypsin also activated the receptor; this also was blocked by HOE 140. Experiments excluded a putative kinin release by proteases. [(3)H]AA release by BK was reduced by 40% by added kininase I (carboxypeptidase M); however, receptor activation by tissue kallikrein, trypsin, or cathepsin G was not affected. Prokallikrein and inhibited kallikrein were inactive, suggesting cleavage of a peptide bond in the receptor. Kallikreins were active on mutated B(2) receptor missing the 19 N-terminal amino acids, suggesting a type of activation different from that of thrombin receptor. Paradoxically, tissue kallikreins decreased the [(3)H]BK binding to the receptor with a low K(D) (3 nM) and inhibited it 78%. Thus, kallikreins and some other proteases activate human BK B(2) receptor directly, independent of BK release. The BK B(2) receptor may belong to a new group of serine protease-activated receptors. PMID:10999954

  5. Kallikreins when activating bradykinin B2 receptor induce its redistribution on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Claudie; Becker, Robert P; Tan, Fulong; Erdös, Ervin G

    2002-12-01

    The bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor (R) is directly activated by kallikreins and other serine proteases independent of BK release. Both the Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) proteins are involved, shown by the release of arachidonic acid and [Ca2+]i elevation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the receptor and the lack of heterogeneous desensitization of the human B2R by the BK and kallikrein emphasize among others the differences between activation by the proteases and the peptide. To characterize further the mechanism thereby kallikreins activate and desensitize the B2R we investigated the distribution of the human B2R tagged with the green fluorescent protein (B2-GFP(Ct)) on the plasma membrane of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We visualized the movement of B2-GFP(Ct) R with confocal fluorescence microscopy after activation by BK or a by serine protease. Continued exposure of the cells to BK led to B2R internalization within 15-20 min. Porcine pancreatic and human recombinant tissue kallikreins induced a rapid definite redistribution of receptors on the plasma membrane within 5 min, prior to internalization. These effects of kallikrein were blocked by the B2R antagonist HOE 140 and by the kallikrein inhibitor, aprotinin. The B2R was also activated by endoproteinases LysC and ArgC and trypsin, but these enzymes did not induce redistribution, only internalization. In control experiments, kallikrein had no effect on cells transfected to stably express the angiotensin-converting enzyme-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Thus, kallikreins when activating the BK B2R also trigger its redistribution on plasma membrane. PMID:12489794

  6. The NbB2-phase revisited: Homogeneity range, defect structure, superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of superconductivity below 40 K in MgB2 has motivated new investigations on similar compounds, especially on binary diborides. The great majority of these compounds represent the AlB2-type structure (P6/mmm space group, number 191) and comprise line compounds. However, among those, NbB2 and TaB2 are reported to present a significant homogeneity region, a value of 12 at.% being reported for the case of NbB2. In this work we have evaluated the homogeneity range of the NbB2-phase through detailed microstructural characterization of as-cast, as-cast + heat-treated and solid state sintered Nb-B alloys. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed to assess the defect mechanism responsible for accommodating the non-ideal NbB2 stoichiometries (ideal = 66.7 at.% B). The results clearly showed that the width of the homogeneity range of this phase is nearly 5 at.%, extending from 65 at.% B (NbB1.86) up to 70 at.% B (NbB2.34). Rietveld refinement of the neutron intensity diffraction data indicated a random distribution of vacancies in the Nb-subnet for hyperstoichiometric NbB2. The occurrence of a possible Nb-vacancy ordered supercell was evaluated; however, a simple AlB2-type is observed throughout the entire homogeneity range. The superconducting properties of selected alloys were checked via magnetic measurements. The Nb-deficient samples were found to contain traces of a superconducting phase with T c ∼ 3.5 K

  7. First-principles study on the structural, cohesive and electronic properties of rhombohedral Mo2B5 as compared with hexagonal MoB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method using the generalized gradient approximation (FLAPW-GGA) has been applied to provide comparison and contrast for Mo borides with various structural types: rhombohedral Mo2B5 versus hexagonal MoB2. The equilibrium lattice parameters, energies of formations, total and partial densities of states, electronic density distributions and the theoretical shapes of boron K-edge X-ray emission spectra are obtained and compared to available data

  8. Ab-initio investigation of the covalent bond energies in the metallic covalent superconductor MgB2 and in AlB2

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Gabriel; Fahnle, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    The contributions of the covalent bond energies of various atom pairs to the cohesive energy of MgB2 and AlB2 are analysed with a variant of our recently developed energy-partitioning scheme for the density-functional total energy. The covalent bond energies are strongest for the intralayer B-B pairs. In contrast to the general belief, there is also a considerable covalent bonding between the layers, mediated by the metal atom. The bond energies between the various atom pairs are analysed in ...

  9. Social Media within a B2B context : A qualitative study about how industrial corporations can use social media to maintain B2B relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Andersén, Sophia; Bengtsson, Annie; Gilén, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The last thirty years there has been a dramatic change in relationship marketing. The use of computers connected to the Internet at work places has increased over time and social media is widely used in marketing strategies. Social media is a new phenomenon to communicate with each other, it enables market information based on individual consumer’s experiences. Therefore managers are seeking a way to incorporate social media into their strategies, but this is more common within B2C than B2B. ...

  10. Some SEO Skills for Foreign Trade Enterprise' s B2C Website%实用外贸B2C网站SEO优化技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆华

    2012-01-01

    B2C网站是未来外贸企业开展业务的一个方向,而SEO优化是企业B2C网站能否运营成功的基础.列举了一些SEO优化的实用技巧,主要包括:如何选择域名、如何设计网站框架、网站内容如何设计、网站搜索功能如何优化以及如何添加网站的外部链接等.

  11. A B2 SINE insertion in the Comt1 gene (Comt1 B2i ) results in an overexpressing, behavior modifying allele present in classical inbred mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kember, R L; Fernandes, C.; Tunbridge, E.M.; Liu, L; Payá-Cano, J L; M. J. Parsons; Schalkwyk, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme for dopamine catabolism and COMT is a candidate gene for human psychiatric disorders. In mouse it is located on chromosome 16 in a large genomic region of extremely low variation among the classical inbred strains, with no confirmed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J within a 600-kB window. We found a B2 SINE in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Comt1 which is present in C57BL/6J (Comt1 B2i ) and oth...

  12. Adoption of the B2SAFE EUDAT replication service by the EPOS community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, Claudio; Fares, Massimo; Fiameni, Giuseppe; Michelini, Alberto; Danecek, Peter; Wittenburg, Peter

    2014-05-01

    B2SAFE is the EUDAT service for moving and replicating data between sites and storage systems for different purposes. The goal of B2SAFE is to keep the data from a repository safe by replicating it across different geographical and administrative zones according to a set of well-defined policies. It is also a way to store large volumes of data permanently at those sites which are providing powerful on-demand data analysis facilities. In particular, B2SAFE operates on the domain of registered data where data objects are referable via persistent identifiers (PIDs). B2SAFE is more than just copying data because the PIDs must be carefully managed when data objects are moved or replicated. The EUDAT B2SAFE Service offers functionality to replicate datasets across different data centres in a safe and efficient way while maintaining all information required to easily find and query information about the replica locations. The information about the replica locations and other important information is stored in PID records, each managed in separate administrative domains. The B2SAFE Service is implemented as an iRODS module providing a set of iRODS rules or policies to interface with the EPIC handle API and uses the iRODS middleware to replicate datasets from a source data (or community) centre to a destination data centre. The definition of the dataset(s) to replicate is flexible and up to the communities using the B2SAFE service. While the B2SAFE is internally using the EPIC handle API, communities have the choice to use any PID system they prefer to assign PIDs to their digital objects. A reference to one or more EUDAT B2SAFE PIDs is returned by the B2SAFE service when a dataset is replicated. The presentation will introduce the problem space of B2SAFE, presents the achievements that have been made during the last year for enabling communities to make use of the B2SAFE service, demonstrates a EPOS use cases, outlines the commonalities and differences between the policies

  13. Endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is stimulated by cleavage of its C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Bruun, Silas; Grandal, Michael Vibo;

    2007-01-01

    protein (CFP) to the N- and C-terminus of ErbB2, respectively (YFP-ErbB2-CFP). After geldanamycin stimulation YFP-ErbB2-CFP became cleaved in nonapoptotic cells in a proteasome-dependent manner, and a markedly larger relative amount of cleaved YFP-ErbB2-CFP was observed in early endosomes than in the...

  14. Signatures of spin-glass behaviour in PrIr2B2 and heavy fermion behaviour in PrIr2B2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupam; Anand, V K; Hossain, Z; Adroja, D T; Geibel, C

    2011-09-21

    The magnetic and transport properties of PrIr(2)B(2) and PrIr(2)B(2)C have been investigated by dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. PrIr(2)B(2) forms in CaRh(2)B(2)-type orthorhombic crystal structure (space group Fddd). At low fields the dc magnetic susceptibility of PrIr(2)B(2) exhibits a sharp anomaly near 46 K which is followed by an abrupt increase below 10 K with a peak at 6 K, and split-up in ZFC and FC data below 46 K. In contrast, the specific heat exhibits only a broad Schottky type hump near 9 K which indicates that there is no long range magnetic order in this compound. The thermo-remanent magnetization is found to decay very slowly with a mean relaxation time τ = 3917 s. An ac magnetic susceptibility measurement also observes two sharp anomalies; the peak positions strongly depend on the frequency and shift towards high temperature with an increase in frequency, obeying the Vogel-Fulcher law as expected for a canonical spin-glass system. The two spin-glass transitions occur at freezing temperatures T(f1) = 36 K and T(f2) = 3.5 K with shifts in the freezing temperatures per decade of frequency δT(f1) = 0.044 and δT(f2) = 0.09. An analysis of the frequency dependence of the transition temperature with critical slowing down, τ(max)/τ(0) = [(T(f)-T(SG))/T(SG)](-zν), gives τ(0) = 10(-7) s and exponent zν = 8, and the Vogel-Fulcher law gives an activation energy of 84 K for T(f1) and 27.5 K for T(f2). While zν = 8 is typical for spin-glass system, the characteristic relaxation time τ(0) = 10(-7) s is very large and comparable to that of superspin-glass systems. An addition of C in PrIr(2)B(2) leads to PrIr(2)B(2)C which forms in LuNi(2)B(2)C-type tetragonal structure (space group I4/mmm) and remains paramagnetic down to 2 K. The specific heat data show a broad Schottky type anomaly, which could be fairly reproduced with CEF analysis which suggests that the ground state is a

  15. Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.

  16. Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Kutyniok, Gitta; Lim, Wang-Q

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations of such functions. Recently, cartoon-like images were introduced in 2D and 3D as a suitable model class, and approximation properties were measured by considering the decay rate of the $L^2$ error of the best $N$-term approximation. Shearlet systems are to date the only representation system, which provide optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported sh...

  17. Relativistic regular approximations revisited: An infinite-order relativistic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the regular approximation is presented as the neglect of the energy dependence of the exact Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Expansion of the normalization terms leads immediately to the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and first-order regular approximation (FORA) Hamiltonians as the zeroth- and first-order terms of the expansion. The expansion may be taken to infinite order by using an un-normalized Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation, which results in the ZORA Hamiltonian and a non-unit metric. This infinite-order regular approximation, IORA, has eigenvalues which differ from the Dirac eigenvalues by order E3/c4 for a hydrogen-like system, which is a considerable improvement over the ZORA eigenvalues, and similar to the non-variational FORA energies. A further perturbation analysis yields a third-order correction to the IORA energies, TIORA. Results are presented for several systems including the neutral U atom. The IORA eigenvalues for all but the 1s spinor of the neutral system are superior even to the scaled ZORA energies, which are exact for the hydrogenic system. The third-order correction reduces the IORA error for the inner orbitals to a very small fraction of the Dirac eigenvalue. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. The bradykinin B2 receptor induces multiple cellular responses leading to the proliferation of human renal carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK) acts as a potent growth factor for normal kidney cells, but there have been few studies on the role of BK in renal cell carcinomas. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BK also acts as a mitogen in kidney carcinomas, and explored the effects of BK in human renal carcinoma A498 cells. The presence of mRNAs for BK B1 and BK B2 receptors in A498 cells was demonstrated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. To study BK signaling pathways, we employed fluorescent measurements of intracellular Ca2+, measured changes in extracellular pH as a reflection of Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) with a Cytosensor microphysiometer, and assessed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by Western blotting. Exposure to 100 nM of BK resulted in the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+, caused a ≥30% increase in NHE activity, and a ≥300% increase in ERK phosphorylation. All BK signals were blocked by HOE140, a BK B2 receptor antagonist, but not by a B1 receptor antagonist. Inhibitor studies suggest that BK-induced ERK activation requires phospholipase C and protein kinase C activities, and is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. The amiloride analog 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA) blocked short-term NHE activation and inhibited ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that NHE is critical for ERK activation by BK. BK induced an approximately 40% increase in the proliferation of A498 cells as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake. This effect was blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059, and was dependent on NHE activity. We conclude that BK exerts mitogenic effects in A498 cells via the BK B2 receptor activation of growth-associated NHE and ERK

  19. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF C-erbB-2 IN THE TISSUES OF LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the expression and clinical significance of C-erbB-2 in the tissue of lung cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the protein expression of C-erbB-2 in lung cancer tissue. Results The positive expression rate of C-erbB-2 protein in 38 cases of lung cancer was 53.3% (21/38),which was higher than those in lung benign control group (P<0. 001). The significant correlation were found between the protein level and tumor stage(r= +0. 64,P<0.02). The order was stage Ⅳ>stage Ⅲ >stage Ⅱ >stage Ⅰ . There was no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 in various histological types of lung cancer (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion The positive expression rates of C-erbB-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer group than those in benign control group. There is significant correlation between C-erbB-2 expression and lung cancer stage. There is no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 and histological types of lung cancer.

  20. Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juan; Tanouye, Mark A

    2006-02-01

    Gap junction proteins mediate electrical synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, flies carrying null mutations in the shakB locus, such as shakB2, have behavioral and electrophysiological defects in the giant fiber (GF) system neurocircuit consistent with a loss of transmission at electrical synapses. The shakB2 mutation also affects seizure susceptibility. Mutant flies are especially seizure-resistant and have a high threshold to evoked seizures. In addition, in some double mutant combinations with "epilepsy" mutations, shakB2 appears to act as a seizure-suppressor mutation: shakB2 restores seizure susceptibility to the wild-type range in the double mutant. In double mutant combinations, shakB2 completely suppresses seizures caused by slamdance (sda), knockdown (kdn), and jitterbug (jbug) mutations. Seizures caused by easily shocked (eas) and technical knockout (tko) mutations are partially suppressed by shakB2. Seizures caused by bang-sensitive (bas2) and bang-senseless (bss1, bss2 alleles) mutations are not suppressed by shakB2. These results show the use of Drosophila as a model system for studying the kinds of genetic interactions responsible for seizure susceptibility, bringing us closer to unraveling the complexity of seizure disorders in humans. PMID:16192342