Sample records for b2 b3 approximation

  1. Short syntheses of enantiopure calystegine B-2, B-3, and B-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert


    Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps.......Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps....

  2. The deaf and the dumb: the biology of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3. (United States)

    Citri, Ami; Skaria, Kochupurakkal Bose; Yarden, Yosef


    ErbB-2 (also called HER2/neu) and ErbB-3 are closely related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1), but unlike EGFR, ErbB-2 is a ligandless receptor, whereas ErbB-3 lacks tyrosine kinase activity. Hence, both ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 are active only in the context of ErbB heterodimers, and ErbB-2. ErbB-3 heterodimers, which are driven by neuregulin ligands, are the most prevalent and potent complexes. These stringently controlled heterodimers are repeatedly employed throughout embryonic development and dictate the establishment of several cell lineages through mesenchyme-epithelial inductive processes and the interactions of neurons with muscle, glia, and Schwann cells. Likewise, the potent combination of signaling pathways engaged by the heterodimers drives an aggressive phenotype of tumors of secretory epithelia, including breast and lung cancers. This review highlights recent structural insights into the mechanism of ligand-induced heterodimer formation, and concentrates on signaling pathways employed by ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 in normal and in malignant cells.

  3. Volatile magnesium octahydrotriborate complexes as potential CVD precursors to MgB2. Synthesis and characterization of Mg(B3H8)2 and its etherates. (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Yang, Yu; Abelson, John R; Girolami, Gregory S


    The solid-state reaction of MgBr2 and NaB3H8 at 20 degrees C, followed by sublimation at 80 degrees C and 0.05 Torr, affords Mg(B3H8)2 as a white solid. Similar reactions with MgBr2(Et2O) and MgBr2(Me2O)1.5 afford the crystalline ether adducts Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2, respectively. In contrast, reactions of MgBr2 with NaB3H8, the presence of excess solvent result in the formation of nonvolatile, probably ionic, magnesium compounds of the type [MgLx][B3H8]2. The adducts Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2 are the first crystallographically characterized magnesium complexes of the B3H8- ligand; in both structures, the magnesium center adopts a distorted cis-octahedral geometry with two bidentate B3H8 groups and two Et2O ligands. Owing to their volatility, Mg(B3H8)2(Et2O)2 and Mg(B3H8)2(Me2O)2 are potential precursors for the deposition of MgB2 thin films, although preliminary efforts to employ them as chemical vapor deposition sources produce boron-rich MgBx films instead, with x approximately 7. Finally, the synthesis and structure of Cp2Mg(thf) are described: this mono-thf adduct of Cp2Mg bears two eta5-Cp groups, unlike other Lewis base adducts of Cp2Mg, which contain one eta5-Cp group and one eta1- or eta2-Cp group.

  4. Tratamiento de las fracturas periprotésicas de fémur Vancouver B2 y B3. [Treatment of Vancouver B2 and B3 perisprosthetic fractures of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Garabano


    Full Text Available Introducción Las fracturas periprotésicas femorales luego de un reemplazo total de cadera son cada vez más prevalentes. Cuando estas asientan sobre un tallo flojo (B2 o con déficit de capital óseo (B3, según la clasificación de Vancouver, el tratamiento es la revisión del tallo femoral. Material y métodos Se analizó retrospectivamente a 22 pacientes, 9 fracturas tipo B2 y 13 tipo B3 de la clasificación de Vancouver. El promedio del seguimiento fue de 48 meses. Se utilizaron tallos largos cementados junto con aloinjerto óseo impactado, tablas corticales, tallos largos no cementados de fijación distal y endoprótesis no convencionales, según el caso. Resultados Se observó la curación y la remodelación de la fractura en todos los pacientes. Las complicaciones fueron 2 (9% luxaciones, 1 (4,5% infección, 1 (4,5% fractura de calcar, 1 (4,5% aflojamiento de cotilo y 2 (9% decesos. Conclusiones Las fracturas posoperatorias periprotésicas de fémur tipo B2 y B3 requieren recambio del tallo femoral, si bien existe una tendencia actual a utilizar tallos no cementados, en esta serie, dada la superposición de tratamientos, según cada subtipo de fractura, no obtuvimos diferencias entre el uso de tallos cementados junto con injerto y tallos no cementados. En casos de grave déficit de capital óseo, las endoprótesis no convencionales ofrecen una opción terapéutica para pacientes con baja demanda funcional. La clasificación de Vancouver es un instrumento útil para evaluar y decidir el tratamiento.

  5. ErbB2 and ErbB3 regulate amputation-induced proliferation and migration during vertebrate regeneration. (United States)

    Rojas-Muñoz, Agustin; Rajadhyksha, Shibani; Gilmour, Darren; van Bebber, Frauke; Antos, Christopher; Rodríguez Esteban, Concepción; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos


    Epimorphic regeneration is a unique and complex instance of postembryonic growth observed in certain metazoans that is usually triggered by severe injury [Akimenko et al., 2003; Alvarado and Tsonis, 2006; Brockes, 1997; Endo et al., 2004]. Cell division and migration are two fundamental biological processes required for supplying replacement cells during regeneration [Endo et al., 2004; Slack, 2007]. However, the connection between the early stimuli generated after injury and the signals regulating proliferation and migration during regeneration remain largely unknown. Here we show that the oncogenes ErbB2 and ErbB3, two members of the EGFR family, are essential for mounting a successful regeneration response in vertebrates. Importantly, amputation-induced progenitor proliferation and migration are significantly reduced upon genetic and/or chemical modulation of ErbB function. Moreover, we also found that NRG1 and PI3K functionally interact with ErbB2 and ErbB3 during regeneration and interfering with their function also abrogates the capacity of progenitor cells to regenerate lost structures upon amputation. Our findings suggest that ErbB, PI3K and NRG1 are components of a permissive switch for migration and proliferation continuously acting across the amputated fin from early stages of vertebrate regeneration onwards that regulate the expression of the transcription factors lef1 and msxB.

  6. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P... (United States)


    ..., S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, - 5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P, -5B5/P, -5B6/P, -5B7/P, -5B8/P, -5B9/P, -5B1/2P... Docket Operations office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The... CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, - 5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P, -5B5/P,......

  7. Simulation of homology models for the extracellular domains (ECD) of ErbB3, ErbB4 and the ErbB2-ErbB3 complex in their active conformations. (United States)

    Franco-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe; Ramos, Javier; Cruz, Victor L; Martínez-Salazar, Javier


    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are associated with a number of biological processes and are becoming increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets against cancer. In this work, we provide models based on homology for the extracellular domains (ECD) of ErbB3 and ErbB4 in their active conformations, including a Heregulin ligand, followed by further refinement of the models by molecular dynamics simulations at atomistic scale. We compare the results with a model built for ErbB2 based on crystallographic information and analyze the common features observed among members of the family, namely, the periscope movement of the dimerization arm and the hinge displacement of domain IV. Finally, we refine a model for the interaction of the ECDs corresponding to a ErbB2-ErbB3 heterodimer, which is widely recognized to have a high impact in cancer development.

  8. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis. (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou


    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

  9. Combined use of extensively porous coated femoral components with onlay cortical strut allografts in revision of Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao-bo; YAN Shi-gui; WU Li-dong; HE Rong-xin; WANG Xiang-hua; DAI Xue-song


    Background Periprosthetic femoral fractures following total hip arthroplasty are getting more prevalent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of combined use of uncemented extensively porous coated femoral components with onlay cortical strut allografts in revision of Vancouver type B2 and B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures.Methods Thirteen hips after total hip arthroplasty in 13 patients who suffered a Vancouver B2 or B3 periprosthetic fracture were treated with an uncemented extensively porous coated femoral component combined with onlay cortical strut allografts.Each patient was assigned a Harris hip score,and a visual analog scale(VAS)score for pain and satisfaction.Radiographs were examined for component stability,fracture site and allograft-host union and allograft reconstruction.Results At an average of 5.3-year follow-up,no patient required repeat revision.The average Harris hip score was(71.8±6.3)points,the pain VAS score was(16.6±4.3)points,and the patient satisfaction VAS score was(81.5±5.7)points.Radiographic examination showed no detectable loosening of the prostheses,and 12 cases were presented fixation by osseointegration and the other one was stable fibrous ingrown fixation.All fractures united for(5.2±1.4)months in average.And all onlay strut allografts united to host bone for about(11.5±2.6)months.Conclusions Combined use of uncemented,long stemmed,extensively porous coated implant with cortical onlay strut allografts can achieve good clinic results and high rate of union for both fracture site and allograft-host bone junction.This technique could be used routinely to augment fixation and healing of Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures.

  10. Exposure assessment to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 through consumption of gluten-free foodstuffs intended for people affected by celiac disease. (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa


    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins. The sample consisted of 154 gluten-free products analyzed according to method UNI EN 14352:2005. Results showed a heterogeneous contamination by fumoninisin B1, B2 and B3, although below limits of Commission Regulation No 1126/2007 and consistent with other European literature data. Exposure to fumonisins was evaluated for different age groups. In some cases exposure to fumonisins could not be ignored since the total intake could exceed EFSA Provisional Maximum Tolerable Intake up to 150%. Therefore, in the light of an overall contamination by fumonisins the total dietary exposure could be underrated not only in people affected by celiac disease, but also in non-celiac population.

  11. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys (United States)

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.


    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  12. Association of the deleted DAZ gene copy related to gr/gr and b2/b3 deletions with spermatogenic impairment%gr/gr和b2/b3缺失中不同DAZ拷贝缺失与精子发生障碍的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚民; 李权; 宋乐彬; 张嘉宜; 杨杰; 宋宁宏


    目的:研究AZFc区gr/gr和b2/b3缺失中DAZ基因拷贝缺失对中国男性精子发生障碍的影响.方法:试验组纳入121例不同程度生精障碍的不育男性,对照组选择了95例健康男性且均符合《WHO人类精液检查与处理实验室手册》第5版标准,通过常规PCR和PCR-RFLP以及Y染色体特异性序列标签位点(STS),分析AZFc区不同类型gr/gr和b2/b3缺失中DAZ基因拷贝缺失与男性精子发生障碍的关系. 结果:对照组中共观察到13例(13.68%) gr/gr缺失和1例(1.05%) b2/b3缺失,试验组中发现15例(12.40%) gr/gr缺失及6例(4.96%) b2/b3缺失.DAZ特异性单核苷酸变异位点(SNV)分析显示对照组中有3例(3.16%) gr/gr-DAZ1/DAZ2缺失和10例(10.53%) gr/gr-DAZ3/DAZ4缺失以及1例(1.05%) b2/b3-DAZ3/DAZ4缺失,试验组中有11例(9.09%) gr/gr-DAZ1/DAZ2缺失和4例(3.31%) gr/gr-DAZ3/DAZ4缺失以及6例(4.96%) b2/b3-DAZ1/DAZ2缺失. 结论:中国男性Y染色体AZFc部分缺失(gr/gr、b2/b3缺失)在正常生精者和不同程度的生精障碍患者中均存在,且差异无统计学意义,不能作为精子发生障碍的危险因素.但gr/铲和b2/b3缺失中不同类型的DAZ拷贝子缺失对男性精子发生的影响不同,DAZ1/DAZ2缺失与男性生精功能障碍相关,可能是导致男性不育的危险因素,而DAZ3/DAZ4缺失似乎对生精的影响很小或不起作用.

  13. Tratamiento de las fracturas periprotésicas de cadera tipos B2 y B3 con tallos no cementados de fijación distal. [Treatment of types B2 and B3 periprosthetic hip fractures with distal fixation cementless stem].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pereira


    Full Text Available Introducción: La fractura periprotésica se encuentra en tercer lugar como causa mas frecuente de revisión de cadera por detrás del aflojamiento aséptico y la infección. Aquellas que se presentan asociadas a un tallo flojo (B2 o a un déficit de capital óseo (B3, deben ser tratadas con la revisión femoral. Materiales y Método: Se estudiaron retrospectivamente 38 pacientes con fracturas periprotésicas de fémur B2 y B3 tratadas con tallos no cementados de fijación distal sin injerto óseo ni placas de osteosíntesis. El tiempo de seguimiento promedio fue de 2.5 años (rango, 1.5 a10. Resultados: El puntaje promedio alcanzado en el HHS fue de 69 puntos (rango, 57-91. En todos los casos (100% se logró la consolidación ósea. La sobrevida libre de revisión fue del 94.8%. Las complicaciones fueron; 1 (2.6% hundimiento del tallo mayor a 5mm, 1 (2.6% luxación, 2 (5.2% infecciones , 1 (2.6% hematoma de la herida. Conclusiones: La técnica de revisión con tallos no cementados de fijación distal sin el aporte de injerto óseo  ha demostrados ser un método eficaz para el tratamiento de las fracturas periprotésicas de  cadera B2 y B3.

  14. Expression of the EGF receptor family members ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 in germinal zones of the developing brain and in neurosphere cultures containing CNS stem cells. (United States)

    Kornblum, H I; Yanni, D S; Easterday, M C; Seroogy, K B


    The epidermal growth factor receptor family consists of four related tyrosine kinases: the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R or ErbB), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. These receptors are capable of extensive cross-activation upon the binding of their ligands - the EGF family of peptides for EGF-R and the neuregulins for ErbB3 and ErbB4. Since EGF-R is expressed by proliferating cells in the central nervous system (CNS), including multipotent CNS stem cells, we examined the expression of ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in the germinal epithelia of the developing rat brain using in situ hybridization. ErbB2 and ErbB4 mRNAs were widely distributed within the germinal zones as early as E12. However, as development proceeded, ErbB2 mRNA was mainly present within the layers of cells immediately adjacent to the ventricular surface - the ventricular zone, while ErbB4 mRNA was predominantly expressed by subventricular zone cells, in the regions where these specialized germinal epithelia were present. ErbB3 mRNA distribution within germinal epithelia was more restricted, primarily confined to the diencephalon and rostral midbrain. Cultured neurospheres, which contain CNS stem cells, expressed ErbB2, ErbB4 and, to a lesser extent, ErbB3 protein as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. This expression declined during following differentiation. Heregulin-beta1, a neuregulin, had no effect on the proliferative capacity of neurospheres. Overall, our results indicate that ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 may play important and distinct roles in the genesis of the CNS. However, our in vitro data do not support a role for neuregulins in proliferation, per se, of CNS stem cells.

  15. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander


    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  16. Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins /B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/B antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalb Suzanne R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, extremely toxic proteins which can induce respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care or death. Treatment for botulism includes administration of antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication; therefore, rapid determination of human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory reported on Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based activity method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We also demonstrated that antibody-capture is effective for purification and concentration of BoNTs from complex matrices such as clinical samples. However, some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the enzymatic activity of BoNT, so the choice of antibody for toxin extraction is critical. Results In this work, we evaluated 24 anti-BoNT/B monoclonal antibodies (mAbs for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5 and to extract those toxins. Among the mAbs, there were significant differences in ability to extract BoNT/B subtypes and inhibitory effect on BoNT catalytic activity. Some of the mAbs tested enhanced the in vitro light chain activity of BoNT/B, suggesting that BoNT/B may undergo conformational change upon binding some mAbs. Conclusions In addition to determining in vitro inhibition abilities of a panel of mAbs against BoNT/B1-/B5, this work has determined B12.2 and 2B18.2 to be the best mAbs for sample preparation before Endopep-MS. These mAb characterizations also have the potential to assist with mechanistic studies of BoNT/B protection and treatment, which is important for studying alternative therapeutics for botulism.

  17. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    .sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...... of the viruses identified mutations adapting H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT,.DELTA.HVR1 (1a/2a), J8/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVR1 (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T2718G,T716OC,.DELTA.HVR1 (3a/2a) and J4/JFH 1.sub.T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVR1 (1b/2a) to the HVR1 deletion.......The present inventors used the previously developed H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT (1a/2a), J4/JFH .sub.1T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVRI (1b/2a), J6/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVRI (2a/2a), J8/JFH 1.sub..DELTA.HVRI (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T27i8G,.tau.7i6oc (3a/2a), SA13/JFH 1.sub.C34O5G,A3696G (5a/2a) and HK6a/JFH 1T...

  18. The structure, stability, and infrared spectrum of B 2N, B 2N +, B 2N -, BO, B 2O and B 2N 2. (United States)

    Martin, J. M. L.; François, J. P.; Gijbels, R.


    The structure, infrared spectrum, and heat of formation of B 2N, B 2N -, BO, and B 2O have been studied ab initio. B 2N is very stable; B 2O even more so. B 2N, B 2N -, B 2O, and probably B 2N + have symmetric linear ground-state structures; for B 2O, an asymmetric linear structure lies about 12 kcal/mol above the ground state. B 2N +, B 2N - and B 2O have intense asymmetric stretching frequencies, predicted near 870, 1590 and 1400 cm -1, respectively. Our predicted harmonic frequencies and isotopic shifts for B 2O confirm the recent experimental identification by Andrews and Burkholder. Absorptions at 1889.5 and 1998.5 cm -1 in noble-gas trapped boron nitride vapor belong the BNB and BNBN ( 3Π), respectively; a tentative assignment of 882.5 cm -1 to BNB + is proposed. Total atomization energies Σ De (Σ D0) are computed (accuracy ±2 kcal/mol) as: BO 193.1 (190.4), B 2O 292.5 (288.7), B 2N 225.0 (250.3) kcal/mol. The ionization potential and electron affinity of B 2N are predicted to be 8.62±0.1 and 3.34±0.1 eV. The MP4-level additivity approximations involved in G1 theory results in errors on the order of 1 kcal/mol in the Σ De values.

  19. ErbB3/HER3 intracellular domain is competent to bind ATP and catalyze autophosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fumin; Telesco, Shannon E.; Liu, Yingting; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN); (UPENN-MED)


    ErbB3/HER3 is one of four members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER) or ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family. ErbB3 binds neuregulins via its extracellular region and signals primarily by heterodimerizing with ErbB2/HER2/Neu. A recently appreciated role for ErbB3 in resistance of tumor cells to EGFR/ErbB2-targeted therapeutics has made it a focus of attention. However, efforts to inactivate ErbB3 therapeutically in parallel with other ErbB receptors are challenging because its intracellular kinase domain is thought to be an inactive pseudokinase that lacks several key conserved (and catalytically important) residues - including the catalytic base aspartate. We report here that, despite these sequence alterations, ErbB3 retains sufficient kinase activity to robustly trans-autophosphorylate its intracellular region - although it is substantially less active than EGFR and does not phosphorylate exogenous peptides. The ErbB3 kinase domain binds ATP with a K{sub d} of approximately 1.1 {micro}M. We describe a crystal structure of ErbB3 kinase bound to an ATP analogue, which resembles the inactive EGFR and ErbB4 kinase domains (but with a shortened {alpha}C-helix). Whereas mutations that destabilize this configuration activate EGFR and ErbB4 (and promote EGFR-dependent lung cancers), a similar mutation conversely inactivates ErbB3. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations, we delineate a reaction pathway for ErbB3-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer that does not require the conserved catalytic base and can be catalyzed by the 'inactive-like'configuration observed crystallographically. These findings suggest that ErbB3 kinase activity within receptor dimers may be crucial for signaling and could represent an important therapeutic target.

  20. B2B marketing


    Pospíšilová, Lucie


    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  1. Lattice dynamical and thermodynamical properties of ReB2, RuB2, and OsB2 compounds in the ReB2 structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Deligoz; K. Colakoglu; Y. O. Ciftci


    Structural and lattice dynamical properties of ReB2,RuB2,and OsB2 in the ReB2 structure are studied in the framework of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation.The present results show that these compounds are dynamically stable for the considered structure.The temperature-dependent behaviors of thermodynamical properties such as internal energy,free energy,entropy,and heat capacity are also preented. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. The Convergence of (i1i),(b2,1k0) and (i1i).(b3,1k0)%(i1i)*(b12k0)及(i1i)*(b31k0)在π*V(1)中的收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对连通有限型谱X,y,存在Adams谱序列{Es,tr,dr},满足(1)dr:Es,t,r→Es+r,t+r-1,r是谱序列的微分, (2)Es,t,2≌Exts,t,A(H*X,H*y),(3)收敛到[∑t-sY,X].当X分别是球谱S,Moore谱M,Toda-smith谱V(1)时,(πt-X)p分别是S,M,V(1)的稳定同伦群.利用Adams 谱序列,证明了(i1i)*(62,1k0)及(i1i)*(b3,1k0)是永久循环但不是边缘,因此收敛到π*V(1)中的非零元,其中P为奇索数,q=2p-2.

  3. Structural optimization and physical properties of TcB3 and MoB3 at high-pressure: First-principles (United States)

    Ying, Chun; Bai, Xiaowan; Du, Yungang; Zhao, Erjun; Lin, Lin; Hou, Qingyu


    The thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic properties of TcB3 and MoB3 are systematically investigated at high-pressure by first-principles within density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies are negative for TcB3 with considered structures under the pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa. Triboride hP4-TcB3 (i.e., TcB3 in hP4-OsB3 type structure) has the lowest formation enthalpy of -1.44 eV under ambient condition. The largest shear modulus of 240 GPa and smallest Poisson’s ratio of 0.20 for oP16-TcB3 are comparable to those of 267 GPa and 0.15 for ReB2. The calculated elastic constants show that MB3 (M=Tc and Mo) are mechanically stable at ambient conditions, except for mP8-MoB3. The estimated high hardness of 33.4 and 33.1 GPa for oP16-TcB3 and hP4-TcB3, respectively, are reported for the first time. The calculated lattice parameters for MoB3 are in good agreement with the previously theoretical and experimental studies. Below 13 GPa, hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3 are thermodynamically more favorable than MoB3 in other structures. A pressure-induced phase transition is predicted at 13 GPa from hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3 to hP4-MoB3. Above 13 GPa, hP4-MoB3 becomes the thermodynamically most stable phase among MoB3 in considered structures. All compounds with considered structures are metallic, and the electronic structures of MB3 are governed by a strong hybridization between M-4d and B-2p states. The strong and directional covalent bonding between M-4d and B-2p as well as the strong interlayer interactions of boron layers are correlated to the high hardness of 38.0 and 38.4 GPa for hP16-MoB3 and hR24-MoB3, respectively.

  4. Structures and chemical bonding of B3O3 (-/0) and B3O3H(-/0): A combined photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theory study. (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Juan; Tian, Wen-Juan; Ou, Ting; Xu, Hong-Guang; Feng, Gang; Xu, Xi-Ling; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Zheng, Wei-Jun


    We present a combined photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theory study on the structural and electronic properties and chemical bonding of B3O3 (-/0) and B3O3H(-/0) clusters. The concerted experimental and theoretical data show that the global-minimum structures of B3O3 and B3O3H neutrals are very different from those of their anionic counterparts. The B3O3 (-) anion is characterized to possess a V-shaped OB-B-BO chain with overall C2 v symmetry (1A), in which the central B atom interacts with two equivalent boronyl (B≡O) terminals via B-B single bonds as well as with one O atom via a B=O double bond. The B3O3H(-) anion has a Cs (2A) structure, containing an asymmetric OB-B-OBO zig-zag chain and a terminal H atom interacting with the central B atom. In contrast, the C2 v (1a) global minimum of B3O3 neutral contains a rhombic B2O2 ring with one B atom bonded to a BO terminal and that of neutral B3O3H (2a) is also of C2 v symmetry, which is readily constructed from C2 v (1a) by attaching a H atom to the opposite side of the BO group. The H atom in B3O3H(-/0) (2A and 2a) prefers to interact terminally with a B atom, rather than with O. Chemical bonding analyses reveal a three-center four-electron (3c-4e) π hyperbond in the B3O3H(-) (2A) cluster and a four-center four-electron (4c-4e) π bond (that is, the so-called o-bond) in B3O3 (1a) and B3O3H (2a) neutral clusters.

  5. 18 CFR 3b.3 - Notice requirements. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements. 3b.3 Section 3b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF...

  6. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Negrete


    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  7. Role of the DNA methyltransferase variant DNMT3b3 in DNA methylation. (United States)

    Weisenberger, Daniel J; Velicescu, Mihaela; Cheng, Jonathan C; Gonzales, Felicidad A; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A


    Several alternatively spliced variants of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3b have been described. Here, we identified new murine Dnmt3b mRNA isoforms and found that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells expressed only Dnmt3b transcripts that contained exons 10 and 11, whereas the Dnmt3b transcripts in somatic cells lacked these exons, suggesting that this region is important for embryonic development. DNMT3b2 and 3b3 were the major isoforms expressed in human cell lines and the mRNA levels of these isoforms closely correlated with their protein levels. Although DNMT3b3 may be catalytically inactive, it still may be biologically important because D4Z4 and satellites 2 and 3 repeat sequences, all known DNMT3b target sequences, were methylated in cells that predominantly expressed DNMT3b3. Treatment of cells with the mechanism-based inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) caused a complete depletion of DNMT1, 3a, 3b1, and 3b2 proteins. Human DNMT3b3 and the murine Dnmt3b3-like isoform, Dnmt3b6, were also depleted although less efficiently, suggesting that DNMT3b3 also may be capable of DNA binding. Moreover, de novo methylation of D4Z4 in T24 cancer cells after 5-Aza-CdR treatment only occurred when DNMT3b3 was expressed, reinforcing its role as a contributing factor of DNA methylation. The expression of either DNMT3b2 or 3b3, however, was not sufficient to explain the abnormal methylation of DNMT3b target sequences in human cancers, which may therefore be dependent on factors that affect DNMT3b targeting. Methylation analyses of immunodeficiency, chromosomal instabilities, and facial abnormalities cells revealed that an Alu repeat sequence was highly methylated, suggesting that Alu sequences are not DNMT3b targets.

  8. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market


    Kaynova Tatyana V.


    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  9. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g) (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.


    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  10. 32 CFR 242b.3 - Notice. (United States)


    ... SCIENCES § 242b.3 Notice. (a) Notice of all meetings of the Board shall be sent by the Secretary to each...-four hours before the meeting, shall be sufficient notice of any meeting. The recital by the Secretary...) Public announcement of meetings shall conform to the Public Meeting Procedures of the Board of...

  11. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, E E; Prsa, A; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Laskar, J; Kutz, D W; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G


    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most com...

  12. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  14. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  15. Superconductivity in dense MgB2 wires. (United States)

    Canfield, P C; Finnemore, D K; Bud'ko, S L; Ostenson, J E; Lapertot, G; Cunningham, C E; Petrovic, C


    MgB2 becomes superconducting just below 40 K. Whereas porous polycrystalline samples of MgB2 can be synthesized from boron powders, in this Letter we demonstrate that dense wires of MgB2 can be prepared by exposing boron filaments to Mg vapor. The resulting wires have a diameter of 160 microm, are better than 80% dense, and manifest the full chi = -1/4pi shielding in the superconducting state. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements indicate that MgB2 is a highly conducting metal in the normal state with rho(40 K) = 0.38 microOmega cm. By using this value, an electronic mean-free path, l approximately 600 A can be estimated, indicating that MgB2 wires are well within the clean limit. Tc, Hc2(T), and Jc data indicate that MgB2 manifests comparable or better superconducting properties in dense wire form than it manifests as a sintered pellet.

  16. The N-terminal region of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) plays an essential role in regulating its plasma membrane trafficking. (United States)

    Chun, Se-Eun; Thakkar, Nilay; Oh, Yunseok; Park, Ji Eun; Han, Songhee; Ryoo, Gongmi; Hahn, Hyunggu; Maeng, Sang Hyun; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Wooin


    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a major influx transporter mediating the hepatic uptake of various endogenous substrates as well as clinically important drugs such as statins and anticancer drugs. However, molecular mechanisms controlling the membrane trafficking of OATP1B3 have been largely unknown. Several reports recently indicated the presence of a distinct, cancer-type OATP1B3 variant lacking the N-terminal 28 amino acids compared to OATP1B3 expressed in non-malignant hepatocytes. Interestingly, the cancer-type OATP1B3 variant is located predominantly in the cytoplasm, implicating the involvement of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 in its membrane trafficking. In the current study, we set out to experimentally validate the importance of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 and to identify responsible sequence motif(s) in that region. A number of truncation or point mutants of OATP1B3 were transiently expressed in HEK293T, HCT-8 or MDCK II cells and their expression in cytoplasmic and surface membrane fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Our results indicated that the N-terminal sequence of OATP1B3, in particular, at the amino acid positions between 12 and 28, may be indispensable in its membrane trafficking. Moreover, our results using a fusion construct indicated that the first 50 amino acids of OATP1B3 are sufficient for its membrane localization. The importance of the N-terminal region in membranous localization was shared among the other OATP1B subfamily members, OATP1B1 and rat Oatp1b2. Our efforts to identify the responsible amino acid(s) or structure motif(s) in the N-terminal region did not pinpoint individual amino acids or motifs with putative secondary structures. Our current findings however demonstrate that the N-terminal region is important for the membrane localization of the OATP1B subfamily members and should facilitate future investigations of the mechanisms involved in the regulation and membrane trafficking of

  17. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ChongJun; ZHONG WeiZhuo; LIU YouWen


    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements. A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device. The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution. The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  18. Dendrite crystal morphology evolution mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Existence of [B3-O6]3- hexagonal ring growth unit in melt solution of β-BaB2O4 crystal was proved by the results of high temperature Raman measurements.A morphology evolution process of β-BaB2O4 crys-tal was observed by a high temperature in-situ observation device.The crystal morphology varied with the supersaturation of growth melt solution.The mechanism of β-BaB2O4 crystal morphology evolution was analyzed through the growth unit model.

  19. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, M.D.; Fuller, V.L.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram;


    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze...

  20. Distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye


    Full Text Available Single crystals of distrontium lithium beryllium triborate, Sr2LiBeB3O8, were obtained by spontaneous nucleation from a high-temperature melt. In the Sr2Li[BeB3O8] structure, [BeB2O7]6− rings, made up from one BeO4 tetrahedron and two BO3 triangles, are connected to each other by [BO3] triangles to form the smallest repeat unit {[BeB3O8]8−} and then form chains along the b axis. The Sr2+ cations are seven- or eight-coordinated and Li+ cations are tetra-coordinated and lie between the chains.

  1. 12 CFR 264b.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 264b.2 Section 264b.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... such. (c) Gift means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by,...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  3. Regulation of ErbB2 localization and function in breast cancer cells by ERM proteins (United States)

    Asp, Nagham; Kvalvaag, Audun; Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha


    The ERM protein family is implicated in processes such as signal transduction, protein trafficking, cell proliferation and migration. Consequently, dysregulation of ERM proteins has been described to correlate with carcinogenesis of different cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a novel functional interaction between ERM proteins and the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer cells. We show that the ERM proteins ezrin and radixin are associated with ErbB2 receptors at the plasma membrane, and depletion or functional inhibition of ERM proteins destabilizes the interaction of ErbB2 with ErbB3, Hsp90 and Ebp50. Accompanied by the dissociation of this protein complex, binding of ErbB2 to the ubiquitin-ligase c-Cbl is increased, and ErbB2 becomes dephosphorylated, ubiquitinated and internalized. Furthermore, signaling via Akt- and Erk-mediated pathways is impaired upon ERM inhibition. Finally, interference with ERM functionality leads to receptor degradation and reduced cellular levels of ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors in breast cancer cells. PMID:27029001

  4. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (United States)


    ...) Definitions. For purposes of section 4216(b)(2) and this section: (1) Actual sale price. “Actual sale price... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(b)-3 Constructive sale price; special rule for...

  5. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher


    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities in terms of the ratio d / d_min where d_min is the dimension of the smallest nontrivial representation of G. As an application, we bound the extent to which a function f : G -> H can be an approximate homomorphism where H is another finite group. We show that if H's representations are significantly smaller than G's, no such f can be much more homomorphic than a random function. We interpret these results as showing that if G is quasirandom, that is, if d_min is large, then G cannot be embedded in a small number of dimensi...

  6. Main: B2GMAUX28 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B2GMAUX28 S000325 7-Sep-2000 (last modified) seki B2; DNase I protected sequence fo...und in the soybean (G.m.) auxin responsive gene, Aux28, promoter; Located between -310 and -301; Contains a ...TGACGACA sequence which is similar to TGACGT/C sequence found in Ocs, CaMV35S and histone H3 promoter; Contains as-1 motif; auxin; Aux28; as-1; soybean (Glycine max) CTTGTCGTCA ...

  7. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Masrour; E K Hlil; M Hamedoun; A Benyoussef; O Mounkachi; H El Moussaoui


    The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the ferromagnetic state between two adjacent Mn atoms. Magnetic moment considered to lie along the (001) axes are computed. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic energies of MnB2 systems are obtained. Obtained data from ab-initio calculations are used as input for the high-temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters. The exchange interactions between the magnetic atoms Mn–Mn in MnB2 are established by using the mean field theory. The HTSEs of the magnetic susceptibility with the magnetic moments in MnB2 (Mn) through Ising model is given. The critical temperature C (K) is obtained by HTSEs applied to the magnetic susceptibility series combined with the Padé approximant method. The critical exponent associated with the magnetic susceptibility is deduced as well.

  8. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  9. Doping-induced superconductivity of ZrB2 and HfB2 (United States)

    Barbero, N.; Shiroka, T.; Delley, B.; Grant, T.; Machado, A. Â. J. Â. S.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.-R.; Mesot, J.


    Unlike the widely studied s -type two-gap superconductor MgB2, the chemically similar compounds ZrB2 and HfB2 do not superconduct above 1 K. Yet it has been shown that small amounts of self or extrinsic doping (in particular with vanadium), can induce superconductivity in these materials. Based on results of different macroscopic and microscopic measurements, including magnetometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), resistivity, and muon-spin rotation (μ+SR ), we present a comparative study of Zr0.96V0.04B2 and Hf0.97V0.03B2 . Their key magnetic and superconducting features are determined and the results are considered within the theoretical framework of multiband superconductivity proposed for MgB2. Detailed Fermi surface (FS) and electronic structure calculations reveal the difference between MgB2 and transition-metal diborides.

  10. EphrinB3 blocks EphB3 dependence receptor functions to prevent cell death following traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Theus, M H; Ricard, J; Glass, S J; Travieso, L G; Liebl, D J


    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, have a variety of roles in the developing and adult central nervous system that require direct cell-cell interactions; including regulating axon path finding, cell proliferation, migration and synaptic plasticity. Recently, we identified a novel pro-survival role for ephrins in the adult subventricular zone, where ephrinB3 blocks Eph-mediated cell death during adult neurogenesis. Here, we examined whether EphB3 mediates cell death in the adult forebrain following traumatic brain injury and whether ephrinB3 infusion could limit this effect. We show that EphB3 co-labels with microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neurons in the adult cortex and is closely associated with ephrinB3 ligand, which is reduced following controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In the complete absence of EphB3 (EphB3(-/-)), we observed reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and functional improvements in motor deficits after CCI injury as compared with wild-type and ephrinB3(-/-) mice. We also demonstrated that EphB3 exhibits dependence receptor characteristics as it is cleaved by caspases and induces cell death, which is not observed in the presence of ephrinB3. Following trauma, infusion of pre-clustered ephrinB3-Fc molecules (eB3-Fc) into the contralateral ventricle reduced cortical infarct volume and TUNEL staining in the cortex, dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampus of wild-type and ephrinB3(-/-) mice, but not EphB3(-/-) mice. Similarly, application of eB3-Fc improved motor functions after CCI injury. We conclude that EphB3 mediates cell death in the adult cortex through a novel dependence receptor-mediated cell death mechanism in the injured adult cortex and is attenuated following ephrinB3 stimulation.

  11. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  12. MgB2 superconducting whiskers synthesized by using the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition. (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Zhuang, Chenggang; Gao, Jingyun; Shan, Xudong; Zhang, Jingmin; Liao, Zhimin; Xu, Hongjun; Yu, Dapeng; Feng, Qingrong


    In this work, MgB(2) whiskers were fabricated on a copper substrate by using the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition, which was one of the most effective ways to make high quality pure MgB(2) films, with the possible growth mechanism discussed. The whiskers are hexagonal and conelike and grow along the [0001] direction with a single-crystal structure. The onset transition temperature is approximately 39 K, which is among the best in the published nanostructure MgB(2) papers. Fabrication of nanoscale MgB(2) whiskers provides the fundamental understanding of the effect of dimensionality and size on superconductivity.

  13. EGF receptor inhibitors increase ErbB3 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther; Kim, Jiyoung; Holst, Mikkel Roland;


    that, when inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, increased activation of ErbB3 via MET, or by re-localization of ErbB3 mediates cell survival. Here we show further evidence that members of the ErbB receptor family facilitate resistance......The potential benefits of drugs directly targeting the ErbB receptors for cancer therapy have led to an extensive development within this field. However, the clinical effects of ErbB receptor-targeting drugs in cancer treatment are limited due to a high frequency of resistance. It has been reported...... to EGFR inhibitor treatment in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. We found that gefitinib treatment increased ErbB3 expression, both at protein and mRNA levels. ErbB3 expression was upregulated not only by gefitinib but also by a panel of different EGFR inhibitors, suggesting that inhibition...

  14. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)


    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  15. Superconductivity in MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In January of 2001 the superconductivity of the compound MgB2 with a critical temperature Tc of up to 39 K was discovered. This Tc is the highest in all intermetallic compound and alloy superconductors. MgB2 has a simple structure and its manufacturing capital cost is lower, therefore it could become a practical superconductor in the future. The recent progress is reviewed here which covers the progress in electronic structure, high Tc mechanism, superconducting parameters (Debye temperature, specific heat coefficient of electron, critical fields, coherent length, penetration depth, energy gap, critical current and relaxation rate of flux). Moreover the issue on power transmission is discussed.

  16. Improved critical current density of MgB2--carbon nanotubes composite. (United States)

    Shekhar, Chandra; Giri, Rajiv; Malik, S K; Srivastav, O N


    In the present study, we report a systematic study of doping/admixing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in different concentrations in MgB2. The composite material corresponding to MgB2-x at.% CNTs (35 at.% > or = x > or = 0 at.%) have been prepared by solid-state reaction at ambient pressure. All the samples in the present investigation have been subjected to structural/microstructural characterization employing XRD, Scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The magnetization measurements were performed by Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and electrical transport measurements have been done by the four-probe technique. The microstructural investigations reveal the formation of MgB2-carbon nanotube composites. A CNT connecting the MgB2 grains may enhance critical current density due to its size (approximately 5-20 nm diameter) compatible with coherence length of MgB2 (approximately 5-6 nm) and ballistic transport current carrying capability along the tube axis. The transport critical current density (Jct) of MgB2 samples with varying CNTs concentration have been found to vary significantly e.g., Jct of the MgB2 sample with 10 at.% CNT addition is approximately 2.3 x 10(3) A/cm2 and its value for MgB2 sample without CNT addition is approximately 7.2 x 102 A/cm2 at 20 K. In order to study the flux pinning effect of CNTs doping/ admixing in MgB2, the evaluation of intragrain critical current density (JJ) has been carried out through magnetic measurements on the fine powdered version of the as synthesized samples. The optimum result on Jc is obtained for 10 at.% CNTs admixed MgB2 sample at 5 K, the Jc reaches approximately 5.2 x 10(6) A/cm2 in self field, -1.6 x 10(6) A/cm2 at 1 T, approximately 2.9 x 10(5) A/cm2 at 2.6 T, and approximately 3.9 x 10(4) A/cm2 at 4 T. The high value of intragrain Jc in 10 at.% CNTs admixed MgB2 superconductor has been attributed to the incorporation of CNTs into the crystal matrix of

  17. Quark structure of the X(3872) and χb(3P) resonances (United States)

    Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.


    We discuss the nature of the χb(3P) and X(3872) mesons. Are the χb(3P)'s standard bb¯ mesons or bb¯ states with a significative continuum component? Is the X(3872) a cc¯ state with continuum coupling effects or a meson-meson molecule? To do that, we compare quark model and unquenched quark model results for the mass barycenter and splittings of the χb(3P) multiplet. Future and more precise experimental results will discriminate between the two interpretations. In the case of the X(3872), we interpret it as a cc¯ core plus higher Fock components due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum, and thus we think that it is compatible with the meson χc1(2P), with JPC=1++. The JPC=1++ quantum numbers are in agreement with the experimental results found by the LHCb collaboration. In our view, the X(3872)'s mass is lower than the quark model's predictions because of self-energy shifts. We also provide an estimation of the open charm/bottom strong decay modes of the X(3872) and χb(3P) mesons, such as X(3872)→DD¯* and χb2(3P)→BB¯, and radiative transitions.

  18. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit

  19. Inhibition of ErbB3 by a monoclonal antibody that locks the extracellular domain in an inactive configuration. (United States)

    Lee, Sangwon; Greenlee, Etienne B; Amick, Joseph R; Ligon, Gwenda F; Lillquist, Jay S; Natoli, Edward J; Hadari, Yaron; Alvarado, Diego; Schlessinger, Joseph


    ErbB3 (HER3) is a member of the EGF receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which, unlike the other three family members, contains a pseudo kinase in place of a tyrosine kinase domain. In cancer, ErbB3 activation is driven by a ligand-dependent mechanism through the formation of heterodimers with EGFR, ErbB2, or ErbB4 or via a ligand-independent process through heterodimerization with ErbB2 overexpressed in breast tumors or other cancers. Here we describe the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody KTN3379, currently in clinical development in human cancer patients, in complex with the ErbB3 extracellular domain. The structure reveals a unique allosteric mechanism for inhibition of ligand-dependent or ligand-independent ErbB3-driven cancers by binding to an epitope that locks ErbB3 in an inactive conformation. Given the similarities in the mechanism of ErbB receptor family activation, these findings could facilitate structure-based design of antibodies that inhibit EGFR and ErbB4 by an allosteric mechanism.

  20. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal; S K Sikka


    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated (F) and the experimental specific heat data. The c is found to be 24.7 K.

  1. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers (United States)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.


    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  2. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-224 B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1) As of FY...10 Track to Budget 11 Cost and Funding 13 Low Rate Initial Production 19 Foreign Military Sales 20 Nuclear Costs 20 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense

  3. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2 (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.


    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  4. Metabolic products of microorganisms. 249. Tetracenomycins B3 and D3, key intermediates of the elloramycin and tetracenomycin C biosynthesis. (United States)

    Rohr, J; Eick, S; Zeeck, A; Reuschenbach, P; Zähner, H; Fiedler, H P


    Tetracenomycins B3 and D3, besides tetracenomycin D (D1), were produced by a blocked mutant of the elloramycin producer Streptomyces olivaceus TU 2353. The compounds were isolated as red powders, and their structures were elucidated by comparing their physicochemical data with those of the known tetracenomycins A2, B1, B2, D and E. Tetracenomycin B3 (2), the main compound, and tetracenomycin D (3) were antibiotically inactive against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas tetracenomycin D3 (1) showed a moderate activity against Bacillus subtilis and Arthrobacter aurescens. Tetracenomycin B3 (2) is the key intermediate where the biosynthesis of the elloramycins branches off from the line leading to tetracenomycin C (5) as the final product of the tetracenomycin biosynthesis branch.

  5. Ambient temperature cured TiB2 cathode coating for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖延清; 李庆余; 杨建红; 李劼


    The concept of ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was put forward, and the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was prepared successfully. Differing from the previous TiB2 cathode coating solidified approximately at 200 ℃,the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating can be solidified at room temperature, so the heating equipment is not necessary, which simplifies the preparation process and facilitates the industrial application of TiB2 cathode coating. Many kinds of resin and curing agent were investigated. On the above-mentioned basis, the ambient temperature curable TiB2 cathode coating was prepared with furan resin 5 500 mixed with complex resins B as carbon binder and DXG1 as curing agent in 24 h. The results show that the properties of prepared coating are excellent, the electrical resistivity is 29.8 μΩ*m, the compressive strength is 33.6 MPa, which are all better than the relevant properties of partially graphitized cathode carbon block for aluminum electrolysis prescribed by the GB 8744-88. SEM morphologies show that the section morphology of the TiB2 coating is unaltered during the electrolysis test, the TiB2 coating can be used in aluminum electrolysis industry to save energy and prolong the life of aluminum electrolysis cell.

  6. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J


    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  7. Detection of amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N)

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Comito, C; Müller, H S P; Schilke, P; Ott, J; Thorwirth, S; Hieret, C


    Amino acids are building blocks of proteins and therefore key ingredients for the origin of life. The simplest amino acid, glycine, has long been searched for in the interstellar medium but has not been unambiguously detected so far. Since the search for glycine has turned out to be extremely difficult, we aimed at detecting a chemically related species (possibly a direct precursor), amino acetonitrile. With the IRAM 30m telescope we carried out a complete line survey of the hot core regions Sgr B2(N) and (M) in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed our 30m line survey in the LTE approximation and modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously. We identified spectral features at the frequencies predicted for amino acetonitrile lines having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. We also used the VLA to look for cold, extended emission from amino acetonitrile. We detected amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N) in our 30m telescope line survey and conducted co...

  8. Coxsackievirus B3 infection and its mutation in Keshan disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Qun Ren; Xiang-Jun Li; Guang-Sheng Li; Zhi-Tao Zhao; Bo Sun; Fei Sun


    AIM: To investigate coxsackievirus B3 infection and its gene mutation in Keshan disease.METHODS: The expression of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA was detected in autopsy specimens of acute (12 cases), sub-acute(27 cases) and chronic (15 cases) Keshan disease by in situ hybridization. In sub-acute Keshan disease specimens, 3 cases with positive result by in situ hybridization were selected RT-PCR analysis. The DNA segments were then sequenced.RESULTS: Coxsackievirus B3 RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of myocardiocyte. The positive rate was 83% in acute, 67% in sub-acute and 80% in chronic Keshan disease.In the conservative region of Coxsackievirus B3 genome,there was a mutation in 234 (C-T) compared to the noncardiovirulent strain, CVB3/0.CONCLUSION: Coxsackievirus B3 RNA can survive and replicate in heart muscle of Keshan disease, which may play an important role in the occurrence of Keshan disease. The possible mechanism of occurrence of Keshan disease is associated with point a mutation in Coxsackievirus B3 genome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU


    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  10. Producing composite materials based on ZrB2, ZrB2-SiC (United States)

    Mirovoi, Yu A.; Burlachenko, A. G.; Buyakova, S. P.; Sevostiyanova, I. N.; Kulkov, S. N.


    The effect of mechanical treatment by planetary ball milling on the properties of hot pressed ZrB2 - SiC ceramics was studied. It has been shown that material densification after mechanical treatment is finished at initial stages of sintering process. Addition of SiC causes a substantial increase in density of the sample to 99% of the theoretical powder containing 20% of silicon carbide, in comparison with samples ZrB2 density not exceeding 76%. It has been shown that all defects which were accumulated during mechanical treatment anneal in hot pressure process and there are no any changes of CDD values in sintered ceramics.

  11. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode ν6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u) absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode ν10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  12. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE RongXing; ZHU ChaoYuan; CHIN Chih-Hao; LIN Sheng-Hsien


    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode v6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u)absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode v10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  13. Coherent phonon decay and the boron isotope effect for MgB2. (United States)

    Alarco, Jose A; Talbot, Peter C; Mackinnon, Ian D R


    Ab initio DFT calculations for the phonon dispersion (PD) and the phonon density of states (PDOS) of the two isotopic forms ((10)B and (11)B) of MgB2 demonstrate that use of a reduced symmetry super-lattice provides an improved approximation to the dynamical, phonon-distorted P6/mmm crystal structure. Construction of phonon frequency plots using calculated values for these isotopic forms gives linear trends with integer multiples of a base frequency that change in slope in a manner consistent with the isotope effect (IE). Spectral parameters inferred from this method are similar to that determined experimentally for the pure isotopic forms of MgB2. Comparison with AlB2 demonstrates that a coherent phonon decay down to acoustic modes is not possible for this metal. Coherent acoustic phonon decay may be an important contributor to superconductivity for MgB2.

  14. An independent occurrence of the chimeric P450 enzyme CYP337B3 of Helicoverpa armigera confers cypermethrin resistance in Pakistan. (United States)

    Rasool, Akhtar; Joußen, Nicole; Lorenz, Sybille; Ellinger, Renate; Schneider, Bernd; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Heckel, David G


    The increasing resistance level of insect pest species is a major concern to agriculture worldwide. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important pest species due to being highly polyphagous, geographically widespread, and resistant towards many chemical classes of insecticides. We previously described the mechanism of fenvalerate resistance in Australian populations conferred by the chimeric cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP337B3, which arose by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B1 and CYP337B2. Here, we show that this mechanism is also present in the cypermethrin-resistant FSD strain from Pakistan. The Pakistani and the Australian CYP337B3 alleles differ by 18 synonymous and three nonsynonymous SNPs and additionally in the length and sequence of the intron. Nevertheless, the activity of both CYP337B3 proteins is comparable. We demonstrate that CYP337B3 is capable of metabolizing cypermethrin (trans- and especially cis-isomers) to the main metabolite 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, which exhibits no intrinsic toxicity towards susceptible larvae. In a bioassay, CYP337B3 confers a 7-fold resistance towards cypermethrin in FSD larvae compared to susceptible larvae from the Australian TWB strain lacking CYP337B3. Linkage analysis shows that presence of CYP337B3 accounts for most of the cypermethrin resistance in the FSD strain; up-regulation of other P450s in FSD plays no detectable role in resistance. The presence or absence of CYP337B3 can be easily detected by a simple PCR screen, providing a powerful tool to rapidly distinguish resistant from susceptible individuals in the field and to determine the geographical distribution of this resistance gene. Our results suggest that CYP337B3 evolved twice independently by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B2 and two different CYP337B1 alleles.

  15. The ErbB-3 Binding Protein ebp1 inhibits the growth of ACC-M cells%ErbB-3结合蛋白-ebp1对ACC-M细胞生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余优成; 张志愿; 陈万涛; 周晓健; 潘红芽; 张萍; 徐骎; 叶冬霞



  16. Buck-Buck- Boost Regulatr (B3R) (United States)

    Mourra, Olivier; Fernandez, Arturo; Landstroem, Sven; Tonicello, Ferdinando


    In a satellite, the main function of a Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) is to manage the energy coming from several power sources (usually solar arrays and battery) and to deliver it continuously to the users in an appropriate form during the overall mission. The objective of this paper is to present an electronic switching DC-DC converter called Buck-Buck-Boost Regulator (B3R) that could be used as a modular and recurrent solution in a PCU for regulated or un- regulated 28Vsatellite power bus classes. The power conversion stages of the B3R topology are first described. Then theoretical equations and practical tests illustrate how the converter operates in term of power conversion, control loops performances and efficiency. The paper finally provides some examples of single point failure tolerant implementation using the B3R.

  17. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Salah Daoud; Kamel Loucif; Nadhira Bloud; Noudjoud Lebgaa; Laarbi Belagraa


    In this paper we present the results obtained from first-principles calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the strucural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide, using the pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP-PW) based on density functional theory within the Teter and Pade exchange-correlation functional form of the local density approximation (LDA). The lattice parameter, molecular and crystal densities, near-neighbour distances, independent elastic constant, bulk modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and energy bandgaps of (B3) BP under high pressure are presented. The results showed a phase transition pressure from the zinc blende to rock-salt phase at around 1.56 Mbar, which is in good agreement with the theoretical data reported in the literature.

  18. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C? (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  19. MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Rowell, J.M.


    Recent advances in the realization and understanding of MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs are surveyed. High quality MgB2 junctions with suitable tunnel barriers have been realized based on both oriented and epitaxial thin MgB2 films. Multiband transport properties, such as the existence of two energ

  20. 32 CFR 242b.2 - Meetings of the Board. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meetings of the Board. 242b.2 Section 242b.2... THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.2 Meetings of the Board. (a) Regular meetings. (1) The Board shall hold at... determined by the Board, meetings shall be held at the offices of the University, 4301 Jones Bridge...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  2. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  3. 75 FR 34062 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model... (United States)


    ... do not conform to the approved design. The actions specified by this proposed AD are intended to prevent the distributor slide valve jamming in its sleeve, leading to reduced controllability of the... main and tail rotor servo-controls do not conform to the approved design. This results in a...

  4. 75 FR 65222 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model... (United States)


    ... tail rotor servo- controls do not conform to the approved design. The actions specified by this AD are intended to prevent the distributor slide valve jamming in its sleeve, leading to reduced controllability... conform to the approved design. The actions specified by the NPRM are intended to prevent the...

  5. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3... (United States)


    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These standards are promulgated for the guidance of... performed during or soon after an acute respiratory illness. (ii) For the FEV1 and FVC, use of a nose clip... 100 ml, whichever is greater. As individuals with obstructive disease or rapid decline in...

  6. 76 FR 28637 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters (United States)


    ... United States. These ASBs specify disassembly of the damping system, replacing the Belleville springs (cup springs) and the self-locking nut, and aligning the shaft damping system of the APC starter.... That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 21, 2010 (75 FR 79988). That NPRM...

  7. 75 FR 22508 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E... (United States)


    ... power supply wiring resulting in an uncommanded squib firing, which cuts the hoist cable, constitutes an... squib firing, resulting in the cable being cut.'' A short circuit in the hoist motor brush power supply... cut the hoist cable. A short circuit in the hoist motor brush power supply wiring resulting in...

  8. 75 FR 79988 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters (United States)


    ... inspection of the alignment and torque of the Aircraft Parts Corporation (APC) (currently UNISON) starter... ] Belleville springs (cup springs) and the self-locking nut, and aligning the shaft damping system of the...

  9. 76 FR 70046 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and... (United States)


    ... pilot of a Model AS350 helicopter felt vibrations in the anti-torque pedal in flight, resulting in a... Eurocopter Model AS350 helicopter felt slight vibrations in the pedal unit in flight. A few minutes later, the vibration level increased and the pilot carried out a precautionary autorotation landing....

  10. Spectroscopic evidence against Rh 4d itinerant ferromagnetism in CeRh3B2 (United States)

    Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Kaindl, G.; Laubschat, C.; Krone, W.; Wortmann, G.


    Valence-band photoemission and IIII-edge x-ray absorption studies were performed on RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, and Pr) compounds in order to explore the origin of the anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature of CeRh3B2. From the low density of Rh 4d states at EF and the approximate trivalency of Ce, itinerant magnetism in the Rh 4d band can be excluded. Instead, the magnetism is proposed to originate from Ce moments, enhanced by 4f hybridization with Rh d orbitals.

  11. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Superconducting Nanocrystalline MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu


    Full Text Available Magnesium diboride (MgB2 is considered a promising material for practical application in superconducting devices, with a transition temperature near 40 K. In the present paper, nanocrystalline MgB2 with an average particle size of approximately 70 nm is synthesized by reacting LiBH4 with MgH2 at temperatures as low as 450°C. This synthesis approach successfully bypasses the usage of either elemental boron or toxic diborane gas. The superconductivity of the nanostructures is confirmed by magnetization measurements, showing a superconducting critical temperature of 38.7 K.

  12. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.


    . The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... Applications of our general framework include those from number theory (classical, complex, p-adic and formal power series) and dynamical systems (iterated function schemes, rational maps and Kleinian groups)....

  13. Mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2 ceramic influenced by ZrB2 additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓; 傅正义; 辜萍; 王为民; 袁润章


    Since some transition metal diborides have the same crystal structure with TiB2, which can react with TiB2 to form solid solution by adequate technique. With ZrB2 used as additive, the TiB2-ZrB2 solid solution was prepared by hot pressing. The effects of additive content on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. The microstructure analyzing were employed by EPMA, SEM and TEM. It is shown that TiB2 can partly form solid solution with ZrB2 and redound to gain uniform grains, which h results in the increase of mechanical properties.

  14. Enterocin B3A-B3B produced by LAB collected from infant faeces: potential utilization in the food industry for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm management. (United States)

    Al-Seraih, Alaa; Belguesmia, Yanath; Baah, John; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel


    Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B produces the bacteriocin B3A-B3B with activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringens, but apparently not against fungi or Gram-negative bacteria, except for Salmonella Newport. B3A-B3B enterocin has two different nucleotides but similar amino acid composition to the class IIb MR10A-MR10B enterocin. B3A-B3B consists of two peptides of predicted molecular mass of 5176.31 Da (B3A) and 5182.21 Da (B3B). Importantly, B3A-B3B impeded biofilm formation of the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes 162 grown on stainless steel. The antimicrobial treatment of stainless steel with nisin (1 or 16 mg ml(-1)) decreased the cell numbers by about 2 log CFU ml(-1), thereby impeding the biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes 162 or its nisin-resistant derivative strain L. monocytogenes 162R. Furthermore, the combination of nisin and B3A-B3B enterocin reduced the MIC required to inhibit this pathogen grown in planktonic or biofilm cultures.

  15. Thermodynamic and transport properties of superconducting Mg10B2. (United States)

    Finnemore, D K; Ostenson, J E; Bud'ko, S L; Lapertot, G; Canfield, P C


    Transport and thermodynamic properties of a sintered pellet of the newly discovered MgB2 superconductor have been measured to determine the characteristic critical magnetic fields and critical current densities. Both resistive transition and magnetization data give similar values of the upper critical field, Hc2, with magnetization data giving dHc2/dT = 0.44 T/K at the transition temperature of Tc = 40.2 K. Close to the transition temperature, magnetization curves are thermodynamically reversible, but at low temperatures the trapped flux can be on the order of 1 T. The value of dHc/dT at Tc is estimated to be about 12 mT/K, a value similar to classical superconductors like Sn. Hence, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter kappa approximately 26. Estimates of the critical supercurrent density, Jc, using hysteresis loops and the Bean model, give critical current densities on the order of 10(5) A/cm2. Hence the supercurrent coupling through the grain boundaries is comparable to intermetallics like Nb3Sn.

  16. Anisotropy of superconducting MgB2 as seen in electron spin resonance and magnetization data. (United States)

    Simon, F; Jánossy, A; Fehér, T; Murányi, F; Garaj, S; Forró, L; Petrovic, C; Bud'ko, S L; Lapertot, G; Kogan, V G; Canfield, P C


    We observed the conduction electron spin resonance (CESR) in fine powders of MgB2 both in the superconducting and normal states. The Pauli susceptibility is chi(s) = 2.0 x 10(-5) emu/mole in the temperature range of 450 to 600 K. The spin relaxation rate has an anomalous temperature dependence. The CESR measured below T(c) at several frequencies suggests that MgB2 is a strongly anisotropic superconductor with the upper critical field, H(c2), ranging between 2 and 16 T. The high-field reversible magnetization data of a randomly oriented powder sample are well described assuming that MgB2 is an anisotropic superconductor with H(ab)(c2)/H(c)(c2) approximately 6-9.

  17. Combustion Synthesis of TiC-TiB2-Based Cermets from Elemental Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu


    Full Text Available TiC-TiB2-based cermets with Ni binder were fabricated using combustion synthesis assisted by pseudohot isostatic pressing by heating the compacted powder mixture to approximately 700°C. The effects of composition on microstructure and hardness of the synthesized samples were investigated. The samples exhibited finer microstructure and higher hardness as TiC/TiB2 volume ratio increased and as Ni increased up to 30 vol%. A relatively high hardness value of 1950 HV was obtained for TiC-TiB2-Ni(52.5/17.5/30 vol%. However, the transverse rupture strength and the modulus of elasticity values were not very high. This may be due to weak bonding strength of the interface between hard phases and Ni binder and/or insufficient densification of the samples.

  18. Substitution of Mn for Mg in MgB_2* (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael D.; Johnston, David C.; Miller, Lance L.; Hill, Julienne M.


    The study of solid solutions in which the Mg in MgB2 is partially replaced by magnetic 3d or 4f atoms can potentially reveal important information on the superconducting state of MgB_2. As an end-member of the hypothetical Mg_1-xMn_xB2 system, MnB2 is isostructural with MgB2 and is an antiferromagnet below TN = 760 K which becomes canted at 157 K. A previous study by Moritomo et al.[1] examined the structure and properties of multi-phase samples with 0.01J. Phys. Soc. Japan b70, 1889 (2001).; “Effects of transition metal doping in MgB2 superconductor", Y. Moritomo at al. arXiv:cond-mat/0104568.

  19. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing


    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini


    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  20. Boron isotope effect in superconducting MgB2. (United States)

    Bud'ko, S L; Lapertot, G; Petrovic, C; Cunningham, C E; Anderson, N; Canfield, P C


    We report the preparation method of and boron isotope effect for MgB2, a new binary intermetallic superconductor with a remarkably high superconducting transition temperature T(c)(10B) = 40.2 K. Measurements of both temperature dependent magnetization and specific heat reveal a 1.0 K shift in T(c) between Mg11B2 and Mg10B2. Whereas such a high transition temperature might imply exotic coupling mechanisms, the boron isotope effect in MgB2 is consistent with the material being a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.



    Slanič, Matej


    V diplomski nalogi opredelimo vlogo B2B portalov in pomen elektronskega poslovanja. B2B portale smo razvrstili glede na različne kriterije in predstavili različne modele trgovanja na njih. Velik del pozornosti smo posvetili tudi strateškemu načrtovanju B2B poslovanja in vključevanju podjetij na B2B portale, dotaknili pa smo se tudi vizije elektronskega poslovanja. Osrednji del naloge obsega predstavitev gradnje specifičnega portala ter z njo povezane oblikovne in tehnološke rešitv...

  2. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H


    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  3. From E2g to other modes: effects of pressure on electron-phonon interaction in MgB2. (United States)

    Singh, Prabhakar P


    We study the effects of pressure on the electron-phonon interaction in MgB2 using density-functional-based methods. Our results show that the superconductivity in MgB2 vanishes by 100 GPa, and then reappears at higher pressures. In particular, we find a superconducting transition temperature Tc approximately 2 K for mu*=0.1 at a pressure of 137 GPa.

  4. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of a B3 thymoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Petrini

    Full Text Available Molecular pathology of thymomas is poorly understood. Genomic aberrations are frequently identified in tumors but no extensive sequencing has been reported in thymomas. Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels. A 55-year-old Caucasian female underwent complete resection of a stage IVA B3 thymoma. RNA and DNA were extracted from a snap frozen tumor sample with a fraction of cancer cells over 80%. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization using Agilent platform, transcriptome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina and whole genome sequencing using Complete Genomics Inc platform. Whole genome sequencing determined, in tumor and normal, the sequence of both alleles in more than 95% of the reference genome (NCBI Build 37. Copy number (CN aberrations were comparable with those previously described for B3 thymomas, with CN gain of chromosome 1q, 5, 7 and X and CN loss of 3p, 6, 11q42.2-qter and q13. One translocation t(11;X was identified by whole genome sequencing and confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Ten single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 2 insertion/deletions (INDELs were identified; these mutations resulted in non-synonymous amino acid changes or affected splicing sites. The lack of common cancer-associated mutations in this patient suggests that thymomas may evolve through mechanisms distinctive from other tumor types, and supports the rationale for additional high-throughput sequencing screens to better understand the somatic genetic architecture of thymoma.

  5. Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W


    It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn

  6. Anisotropies of the lower and upper critical fields in MgB2 single crystals. (United States)

    Lyard, L; Szabó, P; Klein, T; Marcus, J; Marcenat, C; Kim, K H; Kang, B W; Lee, H S; Lee, S I


    The temperature dependence of the upper (H(c2)) and lower (H(c1)) critical fields has been deduced from Hall probe magnetization measurements of high quality MgB2 single crystals along the two main crystallographic directions. We show that Gamma(H(c2))=H(c2 axially ab)/H(c2 axially c) and Gamma(H(c1))=H(c1 axially c)/H(c1 axially ab) differ significantly at low temperature (being approximately 5 and approximately 1, respectively) and have opposite temperature dependencies. We suggest that MgB2 can be described by a single field dependent anisotropy parameter gamma(H) (=lambda(c)/lambda(ab)=xi(ab)/xi(c)) that increases from Gamma(H(c1)) at low field to Gamma(H(c2)) at high field.

  7. Multiband model for tunneling in MgB2 junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O.K.


    A theoretical model for quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in multiband superconductors is developed and applied to MgB2-based junctions. The gap functions in different bands in MgB2 are obtained from an extended Eliashberg formalism, using the results of band structure calculations. The temperat

  8. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan


    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  9. B2B myynnin johtaminen ravintola-alalla


    Pajari, Katja


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten ravintola-alan yrityksissä johdetaan B2B myyntiä. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa, miten yrityksissä panostetaan B2B myyntiin ja sen johtamiseen sekä millä tavoin yritysmyyntiä johdetaan. Tutkimus pohjautuu opinnäytetyön tietoperustaan, jossa käsitellään B2B myyntiprosessia ja myynnin johtamista. Työssä käsitellään B2B myyntiä ja selvitetään myyntiprosessin eri vaiheita. Aihe on rajattu koskemaan nimenomaan johtamisen näkökulmaa B2B myynni...

  10. Pulse Plating of Copper-ZrB2 Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming GUO; Min ZHANG; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG


    Copper-zirconium diboride (ZrB2) composite coatings were fabricated using pulse plating technique to acquire a new type of EDM (electro-discharge machining) electrode material. The effects of pulse parameters, i.e., the average current density, the frequency and the duty cycle, on the incorporation of ZrB2 particles in the copper matrix were investigated. The amountof codeposited ZrB2 particles had a maximum at average current density of 3 A/dm2 and increased with decreasing duty cycle as well as current frequency of the pulse current used for deposition. The hardness of the coatings increased with increasing ZrB2 percentage, whereas the incorporation of ZrB2 particles had little effect on the resistivity of the composites.

  11. Evidence for two-band superconductivity from break-junction tunneling on MgB2. (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Zasadzinski, J F; Gray, K E; Hinks, D G


    Superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions have been fabricated on MgB2 that display Josephson and quasiparticle currents. These junctions exhibit a gap magnitude, Delta approximately 2.5 meV, that is considerably smaller than the BCS value, but which clearly and reproducibly closes near the bulk T(c). In conjunction with fits of the conductance spectra, these results are interpreted as direct evidence of two-band superconductivity.

  12. First-Principles Calculations of Elastic Constants of Superconducting MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-Zhong; CHEN Xiang-Rong; ZHU Jun; CAI Ling-Cang; GAO Jie


    @@ The five independent elastic constants of superconducting MgB2 are obtained using the first-principles plane wave method with the new relativistic analytic pseudopotential of the Hartwigsen-Goedecker-Hutter (HGH) scheme in the frame of local density approximation. The dependences of bulk modulus on temperature and pressure are also obtained. It is suggested that the HGH-type pseudopotentials are successful in investigating the ground-state mechanical properties of any solids.

  13. Protection of a live Pasteurella multocida B:3,4 vaccine against haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi


    Full Text Available Cross protection conferred by a live Pasteurella multocida B:3,4 vaccine to infection by P. multocida B:2, the haemorrhagis septicaemia causing bacteria in cattle was investigated. Intranasal aerogenic immunization and subcutaneous injection of the live vaccine were applied to groups I and II of 5 Bali cattle respectively. Another group (III of 5 cattle were vaccinated with standard oli adjuvant killed vaccine intramuscularly. Cattle were observed for clinical signs and body temperatures were measured. Sera were collected monthly for 12 month and kept at -200C for further testing by ELISA. No adverse sign was observed at cattle of groups I and II after vaccination with the live vaccine. Both intranasal and subcutaneous vaccination of live vaccine showed a similar serological response which started at month-5, peaked at month-(6-7 after vaccination and still sustained at the level above positive cut-off (88 ELISA Unit at the end of observation month-12. Cattle vaccinated with killed adjuvanted vaccine responded earlier, peaked at 5-6 month after vaccination and declined steadily till the end of investigation. At 6 and 12 months after vaccination catlle were challenged with P. multocida B:2. All vaccinated cattle challenged at 6 months (C-1 and 12 (C-2 months after vaccination survived and showed no clinical signs. Body temperatures of all vaccinated cattle were normal and ranged from 38.10C to 39.10C and 38.50C to 39.50C for cattle chalenged at C-1 and C-2 respectively. However, there was 1 cattle of group I at C-1 showed an initial increase of body temperature to 400C and decreased to normal at 42 hours after challenge. One catlle of group II had a body temperature of 40.70C detected at 5 hours post C-2 and reached a normal temperature at hour-11. Both unvaccinated cattle at C-1 and C-2 died and had body temperatures of 41.40C and 41.10C respectively at the time of death. This investigation shows that live vaccine P. multocida B:3,4 is safe and

  14. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis


    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  15. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.


    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  16. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2 (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  17. Thermal vacuum integrated system test at B-2 (United States)

    Kudlac, M. T.; Weaver, H. F.; Cmar, M. D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3 × 10-4 Pa (1 × 10-6 torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (139°R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2 at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber's cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  18. Influence of chitosan nanoparticle-mediated C-erbB-2 gene silencing on invasion and apoptosis of Hep-2 cells. (United States)

    Liu, W R; Cao, L R; Zuo, G J


    We aimed to measure the invasion ability of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells after treatment with C-erbB-2-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-chitosan nanoparticles, and assess the applied value of chitosan nanoparticle-mediated C-erbB-2 interference in inhibiting laryngeal cancer invasion and metastasis. Nanoparticles of approximately 100 nm, comprising C-erbB-2 siRNA packaged with chitosan, were prepared and used to treat Hep-2 cells. Silencing of C-erbB-2 was detected by western blot and polymerase chain reaction. Cell invasion and apoptosis were estimated by transwell assay and flow cytometry, respectively. C-erbB-2-siRNA-chitosan nanoparticles significantly down-regulated C-erbB-2 expression in Hep-2 cells (P Chitosan nanoparticle-mediated C-erbB-2 gene interference can inhibit the invasion of laryngeal cancer cells and induce their apoptosis.

  19. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre


    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server


    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  1. Preparation of MgB2 Superconducting Materials%MgB2超导材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.


    High-pressure X-ray diffraction in ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4 powders and single crystals has been studied using synchrotron radiation as well as conventional X-rays. The experimental results are supported by calculations using density functional theory. ScB2, YB4 and HoB4 are hard materials (bulk...... modulus 180-200GPa), while TiB2 may be classified as superhard (bulk modulus about 260GPa). We report here first experimental and theoretical determinations of the bulk modulus for HoB4 (195(5) and 198.2GPa, respectively), and first experimental values of the bulk modulus for ScB2 (196(2)GPa) and YB4 (185...

  3. Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kayvan Etebari; Leila Matindoost


    A high-dose of vitamin B3 in silkworm diet interrupts larval feeding and normal growth. High mortality of larvae occurs during molting and they cannot complete this process normally. Also the larvae exhibit nicotinamide hypervitaminosis symptoms such as immobility, dyspepsia, darkening of the skin, inability to excrete normally, exerting brownish fluid from anus and swelling of rectal muscles. Maximum larval weights in 1, 2 and 3 g/l treatments were 2.9, 1.6 and 1.2 g respectively, while maximum larval weight in the control was 5.6 g. Larval stage compared to control had increased 18, 26 and 31 days respectively. The concentration increase of uric acid in haemolymph demonstrates the hyperuricemia, while other measured biochemical compounds show significant decrease; sodium and potassium did not change significantly.

  4. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire (United States)

    Cantu, Sherrie


    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  5. Ultrasonic Properties of the MgB2 Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ri-Cheng; JIN Chang-Qing; LI Shao-Chun; WANG Ru-Ju; LI Feng-Ying; LIU Zhen-Xing; ZHU Jia-Lin


    The sound velocities of longitudinal and shear waves are measured on a polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor with Tc of 39 K. The specimen used in the experiments is pressed and heated using the MgB2 powder. The elastic moduli, Debye temperature and specific heat at room temperature are obtained based on sound velocity data. The results indicate that the velocities are much higher than those in the usual materials, while elastic constants remain reasonably soft, which may be due to the high transition temperature of the MgB2 superconductor.

  6. B2B virksomheders brug af sociale medier


    Persdatter Gotfredsen, Karoline


    Purpose: The aim of this master thesis is to explore how B2B firms perceive their own usage of social media to establish and strengthen successful relational exchanges. Approach: In-depth interviews were carried out with three key informants responsible for social media marketing at large B2B firms. The findings from the three interviews were then analysed case-by-case and finally a cross case analysis was conducted. Findings: In relation to the market B2B firms mainly see social media...

  7. B2B营销的权威

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    现在很流行的一个词就是B2B营销,那么到底什么叫B2B营销呢?雷·赖特所著的《组织间营销》(英文全名Business—to—Business Marketing:AStep-by-Step Guide)可以回答你的问题,它可谓是全面了解B2B营销所涉及的各个层面的权威书籍。

  8. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis


    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  9. Theory of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Achieser, N I


    A pioneer of many modern developments in approximation theory, N. I. Achieser designed this graduate-level text from the standpoint of functional analysis. The first two chapters address approximation problems in linear normalized spaces and the ideas of P. L. Tchebysheff. Chapter III examines the elements of harmonic analysis, and Chapter IV, integral transcendental functions of the exponential type. The final two chapters explore the best harmonic approximation of functions and Wiener's theorem on approximation. Professor Achieser concludes this exemplary text with an extensive section of pr

  10. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.


    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-2 - Closer connection exception. (United States)


    ...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-2 Closer connection...) Tax home—(1) Definition. For purposes of section 7701 (b) and the regulations under that section,...

  12. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashwati Sen; D K Aswal; Ajay Singh; T V Chandrasekhar Rao; K P Muthe; J C Vyas; L C Gupta; S K Gupta; V C Sahni


    The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been determined using magnetization data. The current–voltage characteristics recorded under an applied magnetic field revealed the existence of vortex glass transition. The surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that MgB2 is sensitive to atmospheric degradation.

  13. Attempts at doping indium in MgB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude


    Indium (In) doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-liquid phase reaction in Ar. After reaction at 800 °C, less than 1 at.% Mg was replaced by In in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its lattice parameters and only a slight decrease of its superconducting transition...... in both the doped and undoped samples....

  14. Branding of electricity in B2B markets


    Rolanda Simenaite 1986


    Branding has gained an important role in the B2B (business-to-business) market. Liberation of the energy markets in recent years has increased competition and branding could create a competitive advantage. This thesis analyzes the branding of electricity in a business-to-business context. In depth, this thesis explores the supplier of electricity brand importance for business customers in both Icelandic and Lithuanian B2B markets. The focus of the thesis is to research how much brands matter ...

  15. CIAE Signs Contract on B1/B2 Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CIAE signed Contract on Design,Commissioning and Technology Service for B1/B2 Project of Birine Reactor with CZEC in December,2015.The B1/B2 project which was won over by CZEC is PhaseⅠand PhaseⅡof an Algeria project which aimed to upgrade and rebuild Algeria Birine Nuclear Research Center.According to the contract with total fund amounting to 110million Yuan,CIAE will provide

  16. Phonon dispersion and electron-phonon coupling in MgB2 and AlB2. (United States)

    Bohnen, K P; Heid, R; Renker, B


    We present a first principles investigation of the lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling of the superconductor MgB2 and the isostructural AlB2 within the framework of density functional perturbation theory using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. Complete phonon dispersion curves and Eliashberg functions alpha2F are calculated for both systems. The main differences are related to high frequency in-plane boron vibrations, which are strongly softened in MgB2 and exhibit an exceptionally strong electron-phonon coupling. We also report on Raman measurements, which support the theoretical findings. Implications for the superconducting transition temperature are briefly discussed.

  17. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2 (United States)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke


    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  18. Studies of the influence of vitamin B1, B2 and B3 on the interaction between lysionotin and BSA%维生素B1、B2B3对石吊兰素与BSA结合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国文; 胡玉婷



  19. Weak Ferromagnetism below 41 K and Structural Transition at 395 K in CeIr3B2 Single Crystal (United States)

    Kubota, Kazuhiro; Matsuoka, Eiichi; Funasako, Yusuke; Mochida, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ohta, Hitoshi; Onimaru, Takahiro; Takabatake, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi


    We report on the discovery of ferromagnetic behavior below TC = 41 K in CeIr3B2 single crystals by means of magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. The ferromagnetic transition temperature is unusually high despite the lack of magnetic elements except Ce, which is the second highest transition temperature recorded after CeRh3B2 (TC˜ 120 K). The ferromagnetic ordered moment is estimated to be μs˜ 0.04 μB/Ce at 1.8 K, which lies in the c-plane of a monoclinic crystal structure. A structural phase transition from monoclinic to hexagonal occurs approximately at 395 K upon heating. The similarity and difference in physical properties between CeIr3B2 and CeRh3B2 are discussed.

  20. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB2 films on niobium substrates (United States)

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.; Yang, Can; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Feng, Qingrong; Liu, Kexin


    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB2 films on metal substrates is needed. In this work, high quality MgB2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩ at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. The fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB2 films are presented.

  1. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole


    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  2. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu


    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  3. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus


    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  4. B-B bond activation and NHC ring-expansion reactions of diboron(4) compounds, and accurate molecular structures of B2(NMe2)4, B2eg2, B2neop2 and B2pin2. (United States)

    Eck, Martin; Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Eichhorn, Antonius; Berthel, Johannes H J; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Paul, Ursula S D; Schneider, Heidi; Friedrich, Alexandra; Kleeberg, Christian; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B


    In this detailed study we report on the structures of the widely employed diboron(4) compounds bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron (B2neop2), as well as bis(ethylene glycolato)diboron (B2eg2) and tetrakis(dimethylamino)diboron (B2(NMe2)4), and their reactivity, along with that of bis(catecholato)diboron (B2cat2) with backbone saturated and backbone unsaturared N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of different steric demand. Depending on the nature of the diboron(4) compound and the NHC used, Lewis-acid/Lewis-base adducts or NHC ring-expansion products stemming from B-B and C-N bond activation have been observed. The corresponding NHC adducts and NHC ring-expanded products were isolated and characterised via solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In general, we observed B-B bond and C-N bond activation at low temperature for B2eg2, at room temperature for B2neop2 and at higher temperature for B2cat2. The reactivity strongly depends on steric effects of the NHCs and the diboron(4) compounds, as well as on the corresponding Lewis-basicity and Lewis-acidity. Our results provide profound insight into the chemistry of these diboron(4) reagents with the nowadays ubiquitous NHCs, the stability of the corresponding NHC adducts and on B-B bond activation using Lewis-bases in general. We demonstrate that B-B bond activation may be triggered even at temperatures as low as -40 °C to -30 °C without any metal species involved. For example, the reactions of B2eg2 with sterically less demanding NHCs such as Me2Im(Me) and iPr2Im in solution led to the corresponding ring-expanded products at low temperatures. Furthermore, boronium [L2B(OR)2](+) and borenium [LB(OR)2](+) cations have been observed from the reaction of the bis-borate B2eg3 with the NHCs iPr2Im and Me2Im(Me), which led to the conclusion that the activation of bis-borates with NHCs (or Lewis-bases in general) might be a facile and simple route to access such species.

  5. Mechanical Spectroscopy of MgB2 Containing Sic / Spektroskopia Mechaniczna MgB2 Zawierającego Sic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.


    Full Text Available The compound magnesium diboride (MgB2 has been well-known since the 1950s; however, its superconducting properties were unknown. Intrinsic characteristics of MgB2 make this material a promising candidate for technological applications, although the low value of the irreversibility field and the decrease in critical current density with the increase in the magnetic field considerably reduce its utility. The present work aimed to study the effect of carbon-based doping on anelastic properties of MgB2 as measured by mechanical spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by using the powder-intube method. The samples were made with 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.% of silicon carbide (SiC. The results reveal complex mechanical loss spectra caused by the interaction between point defects and surface defects in the crystalline lattice of MgB2.

  6. Possible antiferromagnetic interactions in NdRh 3B 2 and CeRh 3B 2 (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Kohara, T.; Kitaoka, Y.; Asayama, K.


    The magnetic phase transition and spin arrangement in the ordered phase of NdRh3B2 and CeRh3B2 have been studied by measurements of magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity of the isostructural compounds RRh3B2 ( R: La, Ce, Nd, Gd). The existence of small antiferromagnetic interactions between R ions ( R = Nd, Ce) on the neighbouring ferromagnetic chains along the c-axis has been suggested. This model gives another aspect to explain the origin of the anomalous magnetism of CeRh3B2 such as the small value of magnetic moment in the ordered state and the curious behaviour of susceptibility. The magnitude of the effective moment of Ce has been estimated for the consumption of magnetic entropy of the Ce compound.

  7. Ab initio investigation of the electronic and geometric structure of magnesium diboride, MgB2. (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides


    Employing multireference variational (MRCI) and coupled cluster (CC) methods combined with quadruple-zeta quality correlation-consistent basis set, we have studied 36 states of the magnesium diboride (MgB(2)) molecule as well as 17 states of the experimentally unknown diatomic MgB. For all states of MgB(2), we report geometries, atomization energies, and dipole moments, while for the first 5 states, potential energy profiles have been also constructed. The ground state is formally of (1)A(1) V-shaped symmetry with an atomization energy of 108.1(109) kcal/mol at the MRCI(MRCI + Davidson correction) level. The first excited state ((3)B(1)) is less than 1 kcal/mol above the X(1)A(1) state, with the next state of linear Mg-B-B geometry (b(3)Sigma(-)) located 10 kcal/mol higher. In all states, bent or linear, the bonding is complicated and unconventional because of the extraordinary bonding agility of the boron atom(s).

  8. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.


    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  9. Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis and Caspase-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Cell death can be classified into two categories: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic pathway can beeither caspase-dependent or caspase-independent. Caspase-independent cytopathic effect (CPE) has beendescribed. In order to evaluate the pattern of HeLa cell death induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)and whether apoptosis involves caspase activation, we co-cultivated HeLa cells with CVB3 and detectedthe cytopathic changes, the alteration of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 gene plus caspase-3activity, as well as analyzing DNA fragmentation before and after caspase-3 activity inhibition. Accordingto the results, we propose that CVB3 may induce apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, the latter appearingmuch earlier. Caspase-3 is activated at the levels of both transcription and translation, and procaspase-3 isproteolytically cleaved, thus leading to the continuous increasing of both caspase-3 precursor protein and itssubunit. However, besides CPE, apoptosis induced by CVB3 is not a direct consequence of the activationof caspase-3, or caspase-3 is not the only effector molecule in apoptotic cell death, for caspase-3 inhibitorcan not decrease DNA fragmentation. Some other biochemical mechanisms may participate in the process,whose role weakens the effect of inhibiting caspase-3 activity.

  10. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting MgB2 and MgB2 + MgO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janhavi P Joshi; Subhasis Sarangi; A K Sood; Dilip Pal; S V Bhat


    Non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing ∼ 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field c1 is observed indicating a non- wave superconductivity. However, the phase reversal of the NRMA signal which could suggest wave symmetry is also not observed. In the MgB2 + MgO sample, much larger low field dependent absorption is observed indicating the presence of intergranular weak links. The hysteretic behavior of NRMA is compared and contrasted in the two samples. In the pure MgB2 sample, a large hysteresis is observed between the forward and the reverse scans of the magnetic field indicating strong pinning of flux lines. This hysteresis saturates a few degrees below c while in the MgB2 + MgO sample, a much slower increase of hysteresis with decreasing temperature is observed, a signature of weaker pinning.

  11. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling


    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  12. Approximating Stationary Statistical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming WANG


    It is well-known that physical laws for large chaotic dynamical systems are revealed statistically. Many times these statistical properties of the system must be approximated numerically. The main contribution of this manuscript is to provide simple and natural criterions on numerical methods (temporal and spatial discretization) that are able to capture the stationary statistical properties of the underlying dissipative chaotic dynamical systems asymptotically. The result on temporal approximation is a recent finding of the author, and the result on spatial approximation is a new one. Applications to the infinite Prandtl number model for convection and the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model are also discussed.

  13. Ab initio investigation of collective charge excitations in MgB2. (United States)

    Ku, Wei; Pickett, W E; Scalettar, R T; Eguiluz, A G


    A sharp collective charge excitation is predicted in MgB2 at approximately 2.5 eV for q perpendicular to the boron layers, based on an all-electron analysis of the dynamical density response within time-dependent density functional theory. This novel excitation, consisting of coherent charge fluctuation between Mg and B sheets, induces an abrupt plasma edge in the experimentally observable reflectivity. The existence of this mode reflects the unique electronic structure of MgB2 that is also responsible for strong electron-phonon coupling. By contrast, the acoustic plasmon, recently suggested to explain the high T(c), is not realized when realistic transition strengths are incorporated.

  14. Optical properties of c-axis oriented superconducting MgB2 films. (United States)

    Tu, J J; Carr, G L; Perebeinos, V; Homes, C C; Strongin, M; Allen, P B; Kang, W N; Choi, E M; Kim, H J; Lee, S I


    Temperature dependent optical conductivities and dc resistivity of c-axis oriented superconducting (T(c) = 39.6 K) MgB2 films (approximately 450 nm) have been measured. The normal state ab-plane optical conductivities can be described by the Drude model with a temperature independent Drude plasma frequency of omega(p,D) = 13 600+/-100 cm(-1) or 1.68+/-0.01 eV. The normal state resistivity is fitted by the Bloch-Grüneisen formula with an electron-phonon coupling constant lambda(tr) = 0.13+/-0.02. The optical conductivity spectra below T(c) of these films suggest that MgB2 is a multigap superconductor.

  15. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane (United States)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.


    The core structure and Peierls stress of , , and dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the {110} and {110} slip systems. However, for {110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  16. Trans-1O,12,not cis-9,trans-11,conjugated linoleic acid decreases ErbB3 expression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Jin Cho; Woo Kyoung Kim; Jae In Jung; Eun Ji Kim; Soon Sung Lim; Dae Young Kwon; Jung Han Yoon Park


    AIM: To examine whether trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10c12)or cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9 t11) inhibits heregulin (H RG)-β-stimulated cell growth and HRG-β-ErbB3 signaling in HT-29 cells.METHODS: We cultured HT-29 cells in the absence or presence of the CLA isomers and/or the ErbB3 ligand HRG-β. MTT assay, [3H]thymidine incorporation, Annexin V staining, RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation,and in vitro kinase assay were performed.RESULTS: HRG-β increased cell growth, but did not prevent t10c12-induced growth inhibition. T10c12 inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells, whereas c9t11 had no effect. T10c12 decreased the levels of ErbB1,ErbB2, and ErbB3 proteins and transcripts in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cgt11 had no effect. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot studies revealed that t10c12 inhibited HRG-β-stimulated phosphorylation of ErbB3, recruitment of the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to ErbB3, ErbB3-associated PI3K activities, and phosphorylation ofAkt. However, c9t11 had no effect on phospho Akt levels.Neither t10c12 nor c9t11 had any effect on HRG-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the inhibition of HT-29 cell growth by t10c12 may be induced via its modulation of ErbB3 signaling leading to inhibition of Akt activation.

  17. Approximation of irrationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica


    Full Text Available The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF, and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA to approximate irrationals.

  18. Approximations in Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.


    Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations....... One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found...... by the inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....

  19. The Karlqvist approximation revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C


    The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.

  20. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M


    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  1. Approximation and supposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin


    Full Text Available Approximation and supposition This article compares exponents of approximation (expressions like Russian около, примерно, приблизительно, более, свыше and the words expressing supposition (for example Russian скорее всего, наверное, возможно. These words are often confused in research, in particular researchers often mention exponents of supposition in case of exponents of approximation. Such approach arouses some objections. The author intends to demonstrate in this article a notional difference between approximation and supposition, therefore the difference between exponents of these two notions. This difference could be described by specifying different attitude of approximation and supposition to the notion of knowledge. Supposition implies speaker’s ignorance of the exact number, while approximation does not mean such ignorance. The article offers examples proving this point of view.

  2. Approximate kernel competitive learning. (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang


    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 3EK2B-3FNFB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  4. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.


    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  5. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server


    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  6. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery......, service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between...

  7. Superconducting properties of MgB2 from first principles. (United States)

    Floris, A; Profeta, G; Lathiotakis, N N; Lüders, M; Marques, M A L; Franchini, C; Gross, E K U; Continenza, A; Massidda, S


    Solid MgB(2) has rather interesting and technologically important properties, such as a very high superconducting transition temperature. Focusing on this compound, we report the first nontrivial application of a novel density-functional-type theory for superconductors, recently proposed by the authors. Without invoking any adjustable parameters, we obtain the transition temperature, the gaps, and the specific heat of MgB(2) in very good agreement with experiment. Moreover, our calculations show how the Coulomb interaction acts differently on sigma and pi states, thereby stabilizing the observed superconducting phase.

  8. Superconductivity of metallic boron in MgB2. (United States)

    Kortus, J; Mazin, I I; Belashchenko, K D; Antropov, V P; Boyer, L L


    Boron in MgB2 forms stacks of honeycomb layers with magnesium as a space filler. Band structure calculations indicate that Mg is substantially ionized, and the bands at the Fermi level derive mainly from B orbitals. Strong bonding with an ionic component and considerable metallic density of states yield a sizable electron-phonon coupling. Together with high phonon frequencies, which we estimate via zone-center frozen phonon calculations to be between 300 and 700 cm(-1), this produces a high critical temperature, consistent with recent experiments. Thus MgB2 can be viewed as an analog of the long sought, but still hypothetical, superconducting metallic hydrogen.

  9. Is Lithium Sulfide a MgB2-like Superconductor?


    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O. P.


    Lithium Sulfide, Li2S, is an anti-fluorite semiconductor with a band-gap of 3.865 eV. It also has exactly the same valence electron count, Ne, and atomic number, Z, as magnesium diboride, MgB2. Both have almost the same formula weight. This qualifies Li2S as a magnesium-diboride like material. Li2S passes the same computational material specific test for superconductivity as MgB2. Using our recently developed symmetry rules for searching for superconductors, we predict that Li2S, with electro...

  10. Risk Analysis and Consumer Protection in B2C Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-zheng; SHI Qi-liang; Gary Millar; Ruhul A. Sarker


    Recent studies have shown that the perceived lack of security is a major obstacle to the wider acceptance of e-commerce. To overcome this barrier, businesses need to implement comprehensive consumer protection systems that protect consumers during every stage of the purchasing process. This paper used the consumer behaviour model as the basis for analysing risks in Bussiness-to-Consumer (B2C) transactions. Four categories of risks were identified: information, agreement, payment and delivery risk. By combining these risk categories with the three dimensions of management, technology and legislation, a comprehensive B2C consumer protection framework is developed.

  11. Isostructural Transition of MgB2 Under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Ling; WU Qi; ZHAN Zai-Ji; WANG Wen-Kui; WANG Wen-Kui; T.Kikegawa


    The high-pressure behaviour of the superconductor MgB2 with a hexagonal structure has been investigated by the in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction method under pressures up to 42.2 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. An abrupt decrease of about 7% in the unit cell volume of this material occurs in the pressure range of 26.3-30.2 GPa. A split of the Raman spectrum was also observed. The jump of the compression curve and Raman spectrum are ascribed to an isostructural transition in MgB2 at a pressure of 30.2 GPa.

  12. Customized E-Learning for B2B Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thomasma


    Full Text Available Business-to-Business (B2B companies have customers that are primarily other corporations. These companies have unique problems in workplace training. They must train their customers and their customers’ employees. A B2B company may operate with only a few dozen employees, but they may need to help thousands of customers learn how to make best use of their product or service. Discussions with industry executives suggest an ideal training solution might include a number of features that are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1TT5B-3DBHB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  14. 拟南芥B3转录因子基因超家族%Research progress of Arabidopsis B3 transcription factor gene superfamily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光宇; 叶玲飞; 陈信波


    B3类转录因子基因组成了植物所特有的B3基因超家族,按照其结构和功能的特征可将其进一步分为LAV(LEAFY COTYLEDON2 [LEC2]-ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3]-VAL)、RF(AUXINRESPONSE FACTOR)、RAV(RELATED TO ABI3 and VPl)和REM(REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEM)等4个家族.B3基因超家族主要存在于裸子植物、苔藓和绿藻类植物中,并在植物逆境胁迫响应和生长发育过程中起着极其重要的作用.目前已在拟南芥中发现了118个B3类转录因子,本文综述了拟南芥中B3转录因子基因超家族的系统发育和功能鉴定方面的研究进展.%The B3 transcription factor genes form a plant-specific B3 gene superfamily and can be further classified into four families:LAV (LEAFY COTYLEDON2 [LEC2]-ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3]-VAL),ARF (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR),RAV (RELATED TO ABI3 and VP1) and REM (REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEM) family.The B3 transcription factor genes exist mainly in gymnosperms,mosses and green algae and play extremely important roles in plant stress responses and plant growth and development.In Arabidopsis,118 B3 superfamily transcription factor genes have been identified.This review aims to overview the research progress of the phylogenetical and functional characterization of the B3 gene superfamily in Arabidopsis.

  15. Monotone Boolean approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.


    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  16. Multiband model for penetration depth in MgB2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, A.A.; Brinkman, A.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Jepsen, O.


    The results of first-principles calculations of the electronic structure and the electron-phonon interaction in MgB2 are used to study theoretically the temperature dependence and anisotropy of the magnetic-field penetration depth. The effects of impurity scattering are essential for a proper descri

  17. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.


    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  18. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Behzad Mehdikhani; Gholam Hossein Borhani; Saeed Reza Bakhshi; Hamid Reza Baharvandi


    The TaC–TaB2 composition was sintered by spark plasma (SPS) at 1900–2100°C and applied pressure of 30 MPa. TaC and 2–3 wt% B4C were used as starting powders. Densification process, phase evolution, microstructure and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicated that the TaC–TaB2 composition could be SPS to 97% of theoretical density in 10 min at 2100°C. Addition of B4C leads to an increase in the density sample from 76 to 97%. B4C nano-powder resists grain growth even at high temperature 2100°C. The formation of TaB2/carbon at TaC grain boundaries helps in pinning the grain boundary and inhibiting grain growth. The phase formation was associated with carbon and boron diffusion from the starting particles B4C to form TaB2 phases. TaC grain sizes decreased with increase in B4C concentration. Samples with 2.0 wt% B4C composition had highest flexure strength up to 520 MPa. The effect of B4C addition on hardness measured by microhardness has been studied. Hardness of samples containing 3.0 wt% B4C was 16.99 GPa.

  19. Supporting B2B Business Documents in XML Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hyoungdo


    While XML web services become recognized as a solution to business-to-business transactions, there are many problems that should be solved. For example, it is not easy to manipulate business documents of existing standards such as RosettaNet and UN/EDIFACT EDI, traditionally regarded as an important resource for managing B2B relationships. As a starting point for the complete implementation of B2B web services, this paper deals with how to support B2B business documents in XML web services. In the first phase, basic requirements for driving XML web services by business documents are introduced. As a solution, this paper presents how to express B2B business documents in WSDL, a core standard for XML web services. This kind of approach facilitates the reuse of existing business documents and enhances interoperability between implemented web services. Furthermore, it suggests how to link with other conceptual modeling frameworks such as ebXML/UMM, built on a rich heritage of electronic business experience.

  20. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.


    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  1. Superconductivity in MgB2: Clean or Dirty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazin, I.I.; Andersen, O.K.; Jepsen, O.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Golubov, A.A.; Kuz'menko, A.B.; Marel, van der D.


    A large number of experimental facts and theoretical arguments favor a two-gap model for superconductivity in MgB2. However, this model predicts strong suppression of the critical temperature by interband impurity scattering and, presumably, a strong correlation between the critical temperature and

  2. Oxidation of ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC Ceramics With Tungsten Additions (Preprint) (United States)


    Electrochemical Society . PAO Case Number: 88 ABW-2008-1143; Clearance Date: 26 Nov 2008. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT The effect of tungsten...18 For submission to proceedings of the 214th meeting of the Electrochemical Society Oxidation of ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC Ceramics with Tungsten...TaSi2 that form a protective SiO2-rich oxide scale at temperatures 1 For submission to proceedings of the 214th meeting of the Electrochemical Society above

  3. On Convex Quadratic Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.


    In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of

  4. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Local spline approximants


    Norton, Andrew H.


    Local spline approximants offer a means for constructing finite difference formulae for numerical solution of PDEs. These formulae seem particularly well suited to situations in which the use of conventional formulae leads to non-linear computational instability of the time integration. This is explained in terms of frequency responses of the FDF.

  6. Specific heat of single crystal MgB2: a two-band superconductor with two different anisotropies. (United States)

    Bouquet, F; Wang, Y; Sheikin, I; Plackowski, T; Junod, A; Lee, S; Tajima, S


    Heat-capacity measurements of a 39 microg MgB2 single crystal in fields up to 14 T and below 3 K allow the determination of the low-temperature linear term of the specific heat, its field dependence, and its anisotropy. Our results are compatible with two-band superconductivity, the band carrying the smaller gap being isotropic, that carrying the larger gap having an anisotropy of approximately 5. Three different upper critical fields are thus needed to describe the superconducting state of MgB2.

  7. Transport and superconducting properties of RNi2B2C (R=Y,nLu) single crystals (United States)

    Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Parasiris, A.; Naugle, D. G.; Canfield, P. C.; Cho, B. K.


    The in-plane resistivity, in-plane absolute thermopower, and upper critical field measurements are reported for single-crystal samples of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C superconductors. The in-plane resistivity shows metallic behavior and varies approximately linearly with temperature near room temperature (RT) but shows nearly quadratic behavior in temperature at low temperatures. The YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C single-crystal samples exhibit large transverse magnetoresistance (~6-8 % at 45 kOe) in the ab plane. The absolute thermopower S(T) is negative from RT to the superconducting transition temperature Tc. Its magnitude at RT is a few times of the value for a typical good metal. S(T) is approximately linear in temperature between ~150 K and RT. Extrapolation to T=0 gives large intercepts (few μV/K) for both samples suggesting the presence of a much larger 'knee' than would be expected from electron-phonon interaction renormalization effects. The upper critical fields for H parallel and perpendicular to the c axis and the superconducting parameters derived from it do not show any anisotropy for the YNi2B2C single-crystal samples in agreement with magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements, but a small anisotropy is observed for the LuNi2B2C single crystals. The analysis shows that these are moderately strong-coupling type-II superconductors (similar to the A-15 compounds) with a value of the electron-phonon coupling parameter λ(0) approximately equal to 1.2 for YNi2B2C and 1.0 for LuNi2B2C, the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length ξ(0) approximately equal to 70 Å, and Hc2(0)~60-70 kOe. The temperature dependence of the upper critical field shows a positive curvature near Tc in disagreement with the Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) theory but in agreement with a recent solution of the Gor'kov equation using a basis formed by Landau levels (Bahcall); however, the data show a severe disagreement between the observed low-temperature behavior of Hc2(T) and that

  8. On the luminescence of Ti4+ In Mg5SnB2O10 and Mg3ZrB2O8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, W.L.; Blasse, G.


    The following new compounds are reported: Mg5TiB2O10 (ludwigite structure), Mg5SnB2O10 (orthopinakiolite structure) and Mg3ZrB2O8 (warwickite structure). The luminescences of the systems Mg5(Sn,Tl)B2O10 and Mg3(Zr,Ti)B2O8 were measured. The results are discussed in terms of delocalization in cluster

  9. Evaluating surface energy budgets simulated by SiB3 at three different climate-ecosystem tower sites%SiB3对不同下垫面的模拟试验与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玲梅; 卢立新; 邢伟坡; 张立新; Ian Baker; 张庚军; 左菁颖


    首先介绍简单生物圈模式版本3( Simple Biosphere Model 3,SiB3)相比SiB2的改进之处以及相应的参数化方案.为了检验SiB3模式能否模拟不同下垫面的地气之间水分和能量交换,本文在全球选择3个代表高、中、低纬度的典型实验站点(青藏高原安多站点、亚马逊流域的Km34站点和美国中西部的WLEF站点),利用SiB3进行模拟分析和实验验证.研究结果表明,SiB3能够较好地模拟出不同下垫面的地表感热通量、潜热通量和净辐射通量随时间的变化率以及变化趋势,模式模拟值和测量值的相关系数达到0.80左右.但与实测相比,SiB3模拟的感热通量值仍偏高.在安多站点,模式模拟的地表土壤水分比较干燥,且模拟的地表温度较测量值偏高.%In this paper, three climate - ecosystem representative sites have been selected to run SiB3 to evaluate its performance, including Anduo on Tibetan Plateau, Km34 flux tower site in Amazon Basin, and WLEF tower in midwest of United States. Among these three sites, Anduo has a typical arid and semi-arid climate with high-plain grassland, Km34 tower site is in tropical rainforest, and WLEF tower site has temperate continental climate with mixed forest. Our work demonstrates that the net radiations, sensible heat fluxes, latent heat fluxes, and land-surface skin temperatures are reasonably simulated especially for Tibetan Plateau and Amazon, where the correlations between modeled and observed values are generally above 0. 80. The simulated sensible heat fluxes have persistent positive biases of 40. 1 73. 9 and 53. 5 w/ m2, compared to the measurements at all three sites. At Anduo site, the simulated soil moisture is too dry, and SiB3 has some difficulties in reproducing the observed soil water variations with depth.

  10. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  11. Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and Debye temperature of (B3) boron–bismuth compound under pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Daoud; N Bioud; N Lebgaa


    Pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP–PW) based on density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) within the Teter and Pade exchangecorrelation functional form of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) is applied to study the effect of pressure on the elastic and piezoelectric properties of the (B3) boron–bismuth compound. The phase transition, the independent elastic stiffness constants, the bulk modulus, the direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients, the longitudinal, transverse, and average sound velocities, and finally the Debye temperature under pressure are studied. The results obtained are generally lower than the available theoretical data (experimental data are not available) reported in the literature.

  12. Implications of reflectance measurements on the mechanism for superconductivity in MgB2. (United States)

    Marsiglio, F


    Recent optical studies in c-axis oriented superconducting MgB2 films indicate that the electron-phonon coupling is weak. We reinforce this conclusion by examining the raw reflectance data; its frequency dependence is incompatible with strong electron-phonon scattering. This is further strengthened by analysis of the real part of the conductivity, and by the temperature dependence of the effective Drude scattering rate. Using a realistic electron-phonon spectral shape, we find lambda(tr) approximately 0.15. To the extent that lambda(tr) approximately lambda, this disagrees sharply with model calculations, and is far too low to provide the means for T(c) = 39 K. A simple model is constructed with coupling to a high frequency excitation, which is consistent with both the low frequency optical data and the high T(c).

  13. Temperature and field dependence of the anisotropy of MgB2. (United States)

    Angst, M; Puzniak, R; Wisniewski, A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J; Roos, J; Keller, H


    The anisotropy gamma of the superconducting state of high quality single crystals of MgB2 was determined, using torque magnetometry with two different methods. The anisotropy of the upper critical field was found to be temperature dependent, decreasing from gamma approximately 6 at 15 K to 2.8 at 35 K. Reversible torque data near T(c) reveal a field dependent anisotropy, increasing nearly linearly from gamma approximately equal to 2 in zero field to 3.7 in 10 kOe. The unusual temperature dependence is a true bulk property and can be explained by nonlocal effects of anisotropic pairing and/or the k--> dependence of the effective mass tensor.

  14. Topics in Metric Approximation (United States)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  15. Calculation of lattice dynamics, elastic and dielectric properties of γ-BiB3O6 and δ-BiB3O6 (United States)

    Pavlovskii, M. S.; Shinkorenko, A. S.; Zinenko, V. I.


    The crystal lattice vibration frequencies, densities of phonon states, elastic moduli, and high-frequency permittivities have been calculated in terms of the density functional theory method for two polymorphs γ-BiB3O6 and δ-BiB3O6. Based on the calculated densities of phonon states, the temperature dependences of the free energies of two considered bismuth triborate modifications have been constructed, and the temperature of the phase transition between these modifications has been determined (1100 K). The structure of a possible nonpolar praphase of δ-BiB3O6 has been proposed. The polarization of δ-BiB3O6 has been estimated as 131 μC/cm2.

  16. High-resolution photoemission study of MgB2. (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, T; Souma, S; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J


    We have performed high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy on MgB2 and observed opening of a superconducting gap with a narrow coherent peak. We found that the superconducting gap is s like with the gap value ( Delta) of 4.5+/-0.3 meV at 15 K. The temperature dependence (15-40 K) of the gap value follows well the BCS form, suggesting that 2Delta/k(B)T(c) at T = 0 is about 3. No pseudogap behavior is observed in the normal state. The present results strongly suggest that MgB2 is categorized into a phonon-mediated BCS superconductor in the weak-coupling regime.

  17. Evidence for two superconducting gaps in MgB2. (United States)

    Chen, X K; Konstantinovic, M J; Irwin, J C; Lawrie, D D; Franck, J P


    We have measured the Raman spectra of polycrystalline MgB2 from 25 to 1200 cm(-1). A superconductivity-induced redistribution in the electronic Raman continuum was observed. Two pair-breaking peaks appear in the spectra, suggesting the presence of two superconducting gaps. The measured spectra were analyzed using a quasi-two-dimensional model in which two s-wave superconducting gaps open on two sheets of Fermi surface. For the gap values we have obtained Delta(1) = 22 cm(-1) ( 2.7 meV) and Delta(2) = 50 cm(-1) ( 6.2 meV). Our results suggest that a conventional phonon-mediated pairing mechanism occurs in the planar boron sigma bands and is responsible for the superconductivity of MgB2.

  18. Attempts at doping indium in MgB2 (United States)

    Grivel, J.-C.


    Indium (In) doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-liquid phase reaction in Ar. After reaction at 800 °C, less than 1 at.% Mg was replaced by In in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its lattice parameters and only a slight decrease of its superconducting transition temperature. For all studied In concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of InMg was evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are decreased in the samples containing In. The flux pinning mechanism can be described by surface pinning in both the doped and undoped samples.

  19. Permanent magnet with MgB2 bulk superconductor (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji


    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB2) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (cryocoolers, making MgB2 bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  20. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine


    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...... and is independent of specific implementation technologies. In the next stage of the research the emerging reference model will be extended to create an assessment model for analysing the maturity level of a given company in a specific supply chain....

  1. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task...... and the crowd, motivation of the crowd, and actual activities in reaching the crowd. Managing the input from the crowd is regarded as a later stage in the overall innovation management but also as a focal point in the arguments for improving B2B crowdsourcing. In crowd selection processes this paper aims...

  2. Heterostructures of Bi-4334 and MgB2 superconductors (United States)

    Padmavathi, M.; Singh, R.


    We report the studies on hetero structures of Bi-4334 and MgB2 superconductors. The two superconductors were arranged in the form of bulk multilayers using hydraulic pressure system. X-ray diffraction pattern and dc magnetization studies confirm the presence of both superconducting phases in this try-layer hetero structured sample. The d.c magnetization shows the superconducting onset at 77K and 39K for Bi-4334 and MgB2 phases respectively. Critical current density (Jc) is calculated from hysteresis loop of the sample in both in-plane field and out of plane field configurations. Inverted anisotropy in Jc is observed due to enhancement of ab-plane properties because of multilayer growth process. Morphology of the samples at surface and interface of two superconducting layers is discussed in view of Field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Superconductivity in MgB2 irradiated with energetic protons (United States)

    Sandu, Viorel; Craciun, Liviu; Ionescu, Alina Marinela; Aldica, Gheorghe; Miu, Lucica; Kuncser, Andrei


    A series of MgB2 samples were irradiated with protons of 11.3 and 13.2 MeV. Magnetization data shows an insignificant reduction of the critical temperatures but a continuous decrease of the Meissner fraction with increasing fluence or energy. All samples show a consistent improvement of the critical current density compared to the virgin sample and an increase of the pinning energy at high fields as resulted from relaxation data.

  4. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition (United States)


    business (B2B) e- commerce refers to transactions between businesses conducted electronically over the Internet, intranets, extranets, or private...types of electronic marketplace participation: 1) Sell-side, 2) Buy- side, 3) Exchanges, and 4) Collaborative commerce . In sell-side commerce , there...types are collectively referred to as company-centric electronic commerce , because they address a single company buying or selling needs. Exchanges

  5. Inbound-markkinoinnin opas pienille B2B-asiantuntijayrityksille


    Halonen, Tuija


    Digitalisaatio on muuttanut asiakkaiden ostokäyttäytymistä, minkä vuoksi myös markkinoinnin on muututtava. Asiakaslähtöinen inbound-markkinointi on vetovoimainen vaihtoehto perinteiselle yksisuuntaiselle markkinoinnille, jonka teho on laskussa. Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli rakentaa opas, joka auttaa pieniä suomalaisia B2B-asiantuntijayrityksiä suunnittelemaan ja toteuttamaan toimivaa ja kustannustehokasta inbound-markkinointia. Teoreettisen viitekehyksen pohjal...

  6. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors


    Gal Peled; Roman Yasinov; Nir Karasikov


    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operat...

  7. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2



    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from this a qualitative explanation for the anomalously high Curie temperature of the compound is proposed. Furthermore, the spin density is found to be highly nonspherical.

  8. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2 (United States)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.; Skriver, H. L.; Sjöström, Jörgen


    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from this a qualitative explanation for the anomalously high Curie temperature of the compound is proposed. Furthermore, the spin density is found to be highly nonspherical.

  9. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. L. Sun; J. S. Zhang; D. R. Lu; J. J. Qiu


    We present our observations toward Sgr B2 region in = 1−0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and C17O using 13.7-m Delingha millimeter telescope with newly installed 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver. From the integrated line intensity, we derive the abundance ratio of C18O/C17O with a mean value of 3.11 ± 0.10, which is consistent with the previous results.

  10. High critical current density and enhanced irreversibility field in superconducting MgB2 thin films. (United States)

    Eom, C B; Lee, M K; Choi, J H; Belenky, L J; Song, X; Cooley, L D; Naus, M T; Patnaik, S; Jiang, J; Rikel, M; Polyanskii, A; Gurevich, A; Cai, X Y; Bu, S D; Babcock, S E; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C; Rogado, N; Regan, K A; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Inumaru, K; Haas, M K; Cava, R J


    The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride offers the possibility of a new class of low-cost, high-performance superconducting materials for magnets and electronic applications. This compound has twice the transition temperature of Nb3Sn and four times that of Nb-Ti alloy, and the vital prerequisite of strongly linked current flow has already been demonstrated. One possible drawback, however, is that the magnetic field at which superconductivity is destroyed is modest. Furthermore, the field which limits the range of practical applications-the irreversibility field H*(T)-is approximately 7 T at liquid helium temperature (4.2 K), significantly lower than about 10 T for Nb-Ti (ref. 6) and approximately 20 T for Nb3Sn (ref. 7). Here we show that MgB2 thin films that are alloyed with oxygen can exhibit a much steeper temperature dependence of H*(T) than is observed in bulk materials, yielding an H* value at 4.2 K greater than 14 T. In addition, very high critical current densities at 4.2 K are achieved: 1 MA cm-2 at 1 T and 105 A cm-2 at 10 T. These results demonstrate that MgB2 has potential for high-field superconducting applications.

  11. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making.

  12. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure (United States)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  13. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun


    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  14. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  15. Activation of macrophages by an exopolysaccharide isolated from Antarctic Psychrobacter sp. B-3 (United States)

    Yu, Leiye; Sun, Guojie; Wei, Jingfang; Wang, Yingze; Du, Chao; Li, Jiang


    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated and purified from an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium B-3, identified as Psychrobacter sp., and the activation of RAW264.7 cells by B-3 EPS was investigated. The results show that B-3 EPS, over a certain concentration range, promoted cell viability, nitric oxide production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α secretion, and phagocytic ability. Furthermore, TAK-242, an inhibitor of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) significantly reduced nitric oxide production by these cells after stimulation with B-3 EPS. Moreover, B-3 EPS induced p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation in these cells. In conclusion, B-3 EPS might have activated RAW264.7 cells by combining with TLR4 on cell surface and triggering activation of NF-κB signaling pathways, implying that this EPS could activate macrophages and regulate initial immune response.

  16. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C


    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  17. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila


    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  18. B2幅面的数码印刷机市场%The B2 Digital Press Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Tribute


    @@ B2幅面单张纸数码印刷机看起来可能是印刷机制造商的圣杯.在20世纪90年代,Indigo定期在各个印刷展览会上推出未来B2幅面印刷机的样机.问题是,Indigo(未并入惠普以前)始终没能为印刷机开发出一个成像引擎.这样的话,展出的只是问题而不是解决方案.大多数单张纸数码印刷机的最大成像宽度可以达到14英寸(约35cm).

  19. Order-Disorder Transition and Phase Separation in the MgB2 Metallic Sublattice Induced by Al Doping. (United States)

    Brutti, S; Gigli, G


    MgB2 is a superconductor constituted by alternating Mg and B planar layers: doping of both the sublattices has been observed experimentally to destroy the outstanding superconductive properties of this simple material. In this study we present the investigation by first principles methods at atomistic scale of the phase separation induced by aluminum doping in the MgB2 lattice. The calculations were performed by Density Functional Theory in generalized gradient approximation and pseudopotentials. Orthorhombic oP36 supercells derived by the primitive hR3 MgB2 cell were built in order to simulate the aluminum-magnesium substitution in the 0-50% composition range. The computational results explained the occurrence of a phase separation in the Mg1-xAlxB2 system. The miscibility gap is predicted to be induced by an order-disorder transition in the metallic sublattice at high Al concentration. Indeed at 1000 K aluminum substitution takes place on random Mg sites for concentration up to 17% of the total metallic sites, whereas at Al content larger than 31% the substitution is energetically more favorable on alternated metallic layers (Mg undoped planes alternate with Mg-Al layers). The formation of this Al-rich phase lead at 50% doping to the formation of the double omega Mg1/2Al1/2B2 ordered lattice. From 17 to 31% the two phases, the disordered Mg1-xAlxB2 (x MgB2 occurs in parallel with the collapse of the superconductive properties of the material.

  20. Approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Sunnåker

    Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.

  1. S-Approximation: A New Approach to Algebraic Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hooshmandasl


    Full Text Available We intend to study a new class of algebraic approximations, called S-approximations, and their properties. We have shown that S-approximations can be used for applied problems which cannot be modeled by inclusion based approximations. Also, in this work, we studied a subclass of S-approximations, called Sℳ-approximations, and showed that this subclass preserves most of the properties of inclusion based approximations but is not necessarily inclusionbased. The paper concludes by studying some basic operations on S-approximations and counting the number of S-min functions.

  2. CSSs in a sample of B2 radio sources of intermediate strength

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, D J; Spencer, R E; Mantovani, F; Salter, C J; Jeyakumar, S


    We present radio observations of 19 candidate compact steep-spectrum (CSS) objects selected from a well-defined, complete sample of 52 B2 radio sources of intermediate strength. These observations were made with the VLA A-array at 4.835 GHz. The radio structures of the entire sample are summarised and the brightness asymmetries within the compact sources are compared with those of the more extended ones, as well as with those in the 3CRR sample and the CSSs from the B3-VLA sample. About 25 per cent of the CSS sources exhibit large brightness asymmetries, with a flux density ratio for the opposing lobes of $>$5, possibly due to interaction of the jets with infalling material. The corresponding percentage for the larger-sized objects is only about 5 per cent. We also investigate possible dependence of the flux density asymmetry of the lobes on redshift, since this might be affected by more interactions and mergers in the past. No such dependence is found. A few individual objects of interest are discussed in th...

  3. Superconductivity in MgB2: clean or dirty? (United States)

    Mazin, I I; Andersen, O K; Jepsen, O; Dolgov, O V; Kortus, J; Golubov, A A; Kuz'menko, A B; Van Der Marel, D


    A large number of experimental facts and theoretical arguments favor a two-gap model for superconductivity in MgB2. However, this model predicts strong suppression of the critical temperature by interband impurity scattering and, presumably, a strong correlation between the critical temperature and the residual resistivity. No such correlation has been observed. We argue that this fact can be understood if the band disparity of the electronic structure is taken into account, not only in the superconducting state, but also in normal transport.

  4. Phonon dispersion and lifetimes in MgB2. (United States)

    Shukla, Abhay; Calandra, Matteo; D'Astuto, Matteo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Bellin, Christophe; Krisch, Michael; Karpinski, J; Kazakov, S M; Jun, J; Daghero, D; Parlinski, K


    We measure phonon dispersion and linewidth in a single crystal of MgB2 along the Gamma-A, Gamma-M, and A-L directions using inelastic x-ray scattering. We use density functional theory to compute the effect of both electron-phonon coupling and anharmonicity on the linewidth, obtaining excellent agreement with experiment. Anomalous broadening of the E(2g) phonon mode is found all along Gamma-A. The dominant contribution to the linewidth is always the electron-phonon coupling.

  5. Two-band superconductivity in MgB2. (United States)

    Iavarone, M; Karapetrov, G; Koshelev, A E; Kwok, W K; Crabtree, G W; Hinks, D G; Kang, W N; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Lee, S I


    The study of the anisotropic superconductor MgB2 using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveals two distinct energy gaps at Delta(1)=2.3 meV and Delta(2)=7.1 meV at 4.2 K. Different spectral weights of the partial superconducting density of states are a reflection of different tunneling directions in this multiband system. Temperature evolution of the tunneling spectra follows the BCS scenario [Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 552 (1959)

  6. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan


    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  7. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Bhide; R M Kadam; M D Sastry; Ajay Singh; Shashwati Sen; Manmeet Kaur; D K Aswal; S K Gupta; V C Sahni


    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave absorption has been found to obey a $\\sqrt{H}$ dependence with two different slopes, which indicated a transition from strongly pinned lattice to flux flow regime.

  8. Ephrin-B2 and EphB2 regulation of astrocyte-meningeal fibroblast interactions in response to spinal cord lesions in adult rats. (United States)

    Bundesen, Liza Q; Scheel, Tracy Aber; Bregman, Barbara S; Kromer, Lawrence F


    The present study provides the first evidence that signaling occurs between B-ephrins and EphB receptors in the adult CNS in response to injury. Specifically, our combined histological and biochemical data indicate that two members of the B-class of ephrins and Eph receptors, ephrin-B2 and EphB2, are expressed by astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts, respectively, in the adult spinal cord. In response to thoracic spinal cord transection lesions, ephrin-B2 and EphB2 protein levels exhibit an initial decrease (1 d after lesion), followed by a significant increase by day 14. Immunohistochemical data indicate that ephrin-B2 is expressed by reactive CNS astrocytes, and EphB2 is present on fibroblasts invading the lesion site from the adjacent meninges. During the first 3 d after injury, there is intermingling of ephrin-B2-expressing reactive astrocytes at the lesion surface with EphB2-containing fibroblasts that is concurrent with bidirectional activation (phosphorylation) of ephrin-B2 and EphB2. By 7 d, both cell types are establishing restricted cellular domains containing dense networks of cells and interweaving processes. This astroglial-meningeal fibroblast scar is fully developed by day 14 when there is strict segregation of ephrin-B2-expressing astrocytes from EphB2-positive meningeal fibroblasts. These morphological changes are concomitant with a simultaneous decrease in ephrin-B2 and EphB2 activation. These observations provide strong evidence that cell contact-mediated bidirectional signaling between ephrin-B2 on reactive astrocytes and EphB2 on meningeal fibroblasts is an early event in the cellular cascades that result in the development of the glial scar and the exclusion of meningeal fibroblasts from the injured spinal cord.

  9. Correlation of needle core biopsy with excision histology in screen-detected B3 lesions: the Merrion Breast Screening Unit experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B D


    AIMS: Needle core biopsy (NCB) is a widely-used technique for non-operative evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions. Although most NCBs are B2 (benign) or B5 (malignant), some fall into the B3 category of "uncertain malignant potential". This study aims to categorise the lesions prompting a B3 NCB in the Merrion Breast Screening Unit, and establish the incidence of malignancy on subsequent excision biopsy. METHODS: Patients attending the Merrion Breast Screening Unit in Dublin between 2000 and 2008 who had a B3 NCB were identified. The NCB pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnosis correlated with excision histology; the latter was classified as benign, atypical or malignant. Lesion-specific positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy were derived. RESULTS: 141 patients with a B3 NCB were identified. The most frequent lesions on NCB were radial scar (RS; n = 57), atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation (AIDEP; n = 25) and papillary lesion (n = 24). The final diagnosis was malignant in 22 patients (16%), atypical in 40 (28%) and benign in 79 (56%). Two of the patients with a malignant diagnosis had invasive carcinoma. The lesion-specific PPVs were: lobular neoplasia 50%, AIDEP 32%, columnar cell lesion with atypia 12.5%, RS 12.3%, papillary lesion 8.3%, suspected phyllodes tumour 7.7%, and spindle cell lesion 0%. Atypia on RS NCB predicted an atypical or malignant excision diagnosis, but atypia on papillary lesion NCB did not. CONCLUSIONS: One-sixth of B3 NCBs in this series proved to be malignant on excision. The PPV for malignancy varied according to lesion type.

  10. 17 CFR 270.24b-3 - Sales literature deemed filed. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales literature deemed filed. 270.24b-3 Section 270.24b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION.... Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter or other sales literature addressed to or...

  11. Multilayer MgB2 superconducting quantum interference filter magnetometers (United States)

    Galan, Elias; Melbourne, Thomas; Davidson, Bruce A.; Xi, X. X.; Chen, Ke


    We report two types of all-MgB2 superconductive quantum interference filter (SQIF) magnetometers that can measure absolute magnetic fields with high sensitivity. In one configuration, the SQIFs were made of 20 multilayer nonplanar all-MgB2 superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 3.6 μm2. These devices are sensitive to magnetic fields parallel to the substrate and show a single antipeak from 3 to 16 K with a maximum transfer function of ˜16 V/T at 3 K and a field noise of ˜110 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 10 K. In a second configuration, the SQIFs were made with 16 planar SQUIDs connected in parallel with loop areas ranging in size from 4 μm2 to 25 μm2 and are sensitive to the magnetic fields perpendicular to the substrate. The planar SQIF shows a single antipeak from 10 to 22 K with a maximum transfer function of 7800 V/T at 10 K and a field noise of ˜70 pT/Hz1/2 above 100 Hz at 20 K.

  12. Low-noise THz MgB2 Josephson mixer (United States)

    Cunnane, Daniel; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, Boris S.


    The potential applications for high frequency operation of the Josephson effect in MgB2 include THz mixers, direct detectors, and digital circuits. Here we report on MgB2 weak links which exhibit the Josephson behavior up to almost 2 THz and using them for low-noise heterodyne detection of THz radiation. The devices are made from epitaxial film grown in the c-axis direction by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition method. The current in the junctions travels parallel to the surface of the film, thus making possible a large contribution of the quasi-two-dimensional σ-gap in transport across the weak link. These devices are connected to a planar spiral antenna with a dielectric substrate lens to facilitate coupling to free-space radiation for use as a detector. The IcRn product of the junction is 5.25 mV, giving confirmation of a large gap parameter. The sensitivity of the mixer was measured from 0.6 THz to 1.9 THz. At a bath temperature of over 20 K, a mixer noise temperature less than 2000 K (DSB) was measured near 0.6 THz.

  13. Preparation of highly preferred orientation TiB2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the preparation of titanium diboride (TiB2) coatings on the graphite substrate by continuous current plating (CCP) and pulse current plating (PIC) electrochemical techniques in fluoride electrolytes (LiF-NaF-KF)containing K2TiF6 and KBF4 as the electrochemically-active components at 700℃. Thick leveled and uniform coatings were obtained and were composed of relatively pure TiB2. The effect of the experimental parameters on the microstructure of the coatings was studied. The results showed the electrodeposition with PIC produced coatings with better quality, when compared with those obtained by CCP, under the conditions of the current density i = 0.6 A/cm2, frequency = 100 Hz, and ton/toff = 4/1. XRD analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of coatings is (110) plane, which is in accordance with the prediction of the two-dimensional crystal nuclei theory. The effect of a ratio of ton/toff and frequency on the crystal size, texture coefficient and microstress was also investigated.

  14. Vortex Lattice Transition Dynamics in MgB2 (United States)

    Rastovski, C.; Das, P.; Schlesinger, K.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Gannon, W. J.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.


    We present small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in MgB2 with H c. This material has three different VL phases, all with triangular symmetry but oriented differently with respect to the crystalline axes. Furthermore, a high degree of metastability between the VL phases of MgB2 has been observed as the sample is cooled or heated across the equilibrium phase transitions. Here we present detailed studies of how the metastable (MS) VL phases transition to the ground state (GS), either driven by small changes of the DC magnetic field or by a transverse AC field. Our results show that the MS VL is not due to vortex pinning, and results are inconsistent with predictions based on the Bean model. Instead, we speculate that a ``jamming'' of counter rotated VL domains is responsible for the VL metastability. This is further supported by a power law dependence of the GS VL domain population upon the number of applied AC cycles. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-FG02-10ER46783.

  15. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Genetic loss of SH2B3 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Hadler, Michael; Rigo, Isaura; LeDuc, Charles A.; Kelly, Kara; Jalas, Chaim; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Paganin, Maddalena; Basso, Giuseppe; Tong, Wei; Chung, Wendy K.


    The SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling with a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors. Here, we report the identification of germline homozygous SH2B3 mutations in 2 siblings affected with developmental delay and autoimmunity, one in whom B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed. Mechanistically, loss of SH2B3 increases Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, promotes lymphoid cell proliferation, and accelerates leukemia development in a mouse model of NOTCH1-induced ALL. Moreover, extended mutation analysis showed homozygous somatic mutations in SH2B3 in 2 of 167 ALLs analyzed. Overall, these results demonstrate a Knudson tumor suppressor role for SH2B3 in the pathogenesis of ALL and highlight a possible link between genetic predisposition factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and leukemogenesis. PMID:23908464

  17. The rat ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor produced in plants is immunogenic in mice and confers protective immunity against ErbB2(+) mammary cancer. (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Quaglino, Elena; Arata, Lucia; Riccardo, Federica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Vallino, Marta; Cavallo, Federica; Noris, Emanuela


    The rat ErbB2 (rErbB2) protein is a 185-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor-related proteins (ErbB) of receptor tyrosine kinases. Overexpression and mutations of ErbB proteins lead to several malignancies including breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder and ovary carcinomas. ErbB2 is immunogenic and is an ideal candidate for cancer immunotherapy. We investigated the possibility of expressing the extracellular (EC) domain of rErbB2 (653 amino acids, aa) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, testing the influence of the 23 aa transmembrane (TM) sequence on protein accumulation. Synthetic variants of the rErbB2 gene portion encoding the EC domain, optimized with a human codon usage and either linked to the full TM domain (rErbB2_TM, 676 aa), to a portion of it (rErbB2-pTM, 662 aa), or deprived of it (rErbB2_noTM, 653 aa) were cloned in the pEAQ-HT expression vector as 6X His tag fusions. All rErbB2 variants (72-74.5 kDa) were transiently expressed, but the TM was detrimental for rErbB2 EC accumulation. rERbB2_noTM was the most expressed protein; it was solubilized and purified with Nickel affinity resin. When crude soluble extracts expressing rErbB2_noTM were administered to BALB/c mice, specific rErbB2 immune responses were triggered. A potent antitumour activity was induced when vaccinated mice were challenged with syngeneic transplantable ErbB2(+) mammary carcinoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of expression of rErbB2 in plants and of its efficacy in inducing a protective antitumour immune response, opening interesting perspectives for further immunological testing.

  18. Interação entre Hb B2 e Hb S Interaction between Hb B2 and Hb S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ferreira


    Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias e talassemias constituem as afecções genéticas mais comuns, apresentando-se, na maioria dos casos, em heterozigose. Diante da diversidade de hemoglobinas variantes encontrada na população brasileira, metodologias específicas e complementares para um diagnóstico laboratorial preciso, capaz de elucidar possíveis interações entre estas variantes genéticas, são necessárias. Este relato de caso descreve a interação entre hemoglobina B2 e a hemoglobina S em um indivíduo do sexo feminino, caucasoide, proveniente da região Sudeste do Brasil, identificada por meio de técnicas eletroforéticas em diferentes pH, cromatografia líquida de alta performance e PCR- RFLP. Visto que a hemoglobina B2 coelui com a hemoglobina S na análise cromatográfica e dificilmente é visualizada em eletroforese pH alcalino, devido à sua baixa concentração, justifica-se a necessidade da associação de testes laboratoriais, inclusive moleculares, na rotina do diagnóstico de hemoglobinas para a correta identificação do perfil de hemoglobinas do indivíduo e real frequência na população brasileira. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter.Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias are the most common genetic diseases, and in most cases, present as heterozygous. Due to the diversity of hemoglobin variants, specific and complementary methodologies are necessary for a precise laboratorial diagnosis, able to elucidate possible interactions between genetic polymorphisms. This case report describes an interaction between hemoglobin B2 and hemoglobin S in a Caucasian woman from the southeastern region of Brazil. This interaction was identified by electrophoresis in different pHs, high performance liquid chromatography and PCR-RFLP. As hemoglobin B2 is eluted in the same window as hemoglobin S in automatic HPLC systems and is hardly seen in alkaline electrophoresis due to its low concentration, the association must be confirmed using additional laboratorial

  19. The Microwave Sintering Technology and Its Application in the Synthesis of ZrB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhiyong; LI Lin; PENG Xiaoyan


    The principles and features of microwave sintering, the application in refractories and synthesis methods of ZrB2 are reviewed. The synthesis results of ZrB2 by thermit deoxidate method show that production price of ZrB2 can be effectively lowered through microwave synthesis. It will expand the application of ZrB2 in refractories.

  20. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Bader, M.; Boele, L.C.L.; Kleij, D. van der


    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B2 (B2R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B2R (B2R-/- mice

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  2. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan


    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  3. Combustion Synthesis of TiB2 Ceramics Powder from B2O3-TiO2-Mg System in Air Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jinyun; WANG Weimin; FU Zhengyi; SUN Hui


    TiB2 ceramics powder was synthesized from B2O3-TiO2-Mg system. The effects of TiB2 addition as diluent on the combustion synthesis process were investigated. The results of thermodynamic calculation and experiments show that the increase of TiB2 content ranging from 0 to 20wt% can reduce the adiabatic temperature Tad from 3100 K to 2896 K and combustion temperature Tc from 2139 K to 1621 K respectively. The particle size and half width of the particle distribution are also increased with the addition of TiB2 increasing from 0 to 20wt%. The combustion product is a mixture of TiB2, MgO, and other intermediate phases. The leached product contains mainly TiB2, TiO2 and TiN, and its oxygen content is 7.77wt%.

  4. Cross section of the impact single ionization of B2+ by H+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Dan-Dan; Qi Yue-Ying; Hu Ya-Hua; Ning Li-Na


    The ionization process of B2+ by H+ impact is studied using the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) method and the modified free electron peak approximation (M-FEPA),respectively.Total,single-,and doubledifferential cross sections from ls and 2s orbitals are presented for the energy range from 10 keV/u to 10 MeV/u.Comparison between the results from the two methods demonstrates that the total and single-differential cross sections for the high-energy incident projectile case can be well evaluated using the simple M-FEPA model.Moreover,the M-FEPA model reproduces the essential features of the binary-encounter (BE) bump in the double-differential cross sections.Thus,the BE ionization mechanism is discussed in detail by adopting the M-FEPA model.In particular,the double-and single-differential cross sections from the 2s orbital show a high-energy hip,which is different from those from the 1 s orbital.Based on Ref.[1],the Compton profiles of B2+ for ls and 2s orbitals are given,and the hips in DDCS and SDCS from the 2s orbital are explained.

  5. Sulla razionalità delle 3-varietà di Fano con B_2 almeno 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alzati


    Full Text Available Complex, smooth, projective Fano varieties were classified by Iskovskih when B2 =1 (B2 is the second Betti number and by Mori and Mukai when B2  is at least 2. When B2 =1 it is known if such varieties are rational (unirational or not; in this paper we solve this problem when B2  greater or equal 2.

  6. Structural and thermodynamic properties of AlB2 compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiao-Lin; Liu Ke; Chen Xiang-Rong; Zhu Jun


    We employ a first-principles plane wave method with the relativistic analytic pseudopotential of Hartwigsen,Goedecker and Hutter (HGH) scheme in the frame of DFT to calculate the equilibrium lattice parameters and the thermodynamic properties of AlB2 compound with hcp structure. The obtained lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental data and those calculated by others. Through the quasi-harmonic Dcbye model, obtained successfully are the dependences of the normalized lattice parameters a/a0 and c/c0 on pressure P, the normalized primitive cell volume V/Vo on pressure P, the variation of the thermal expansion α with pressure P and temperature T, as well as the Debye temperature θD and the heat capacity CV on pressure P and temperature T.

  7. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy in MgB2. (United States)

    Karapetrov, G; Iavarone, M; Kwok, W K; Crabtree, G W; Hinks, D G


    We present scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the surface of superconducting MgB2 with a critical temperature of 39 K. In zero magnetic field the conductance spectra can be analyzed in terms of the standard BCS theory with a smearing parameter gamma. The value of the superconducting gap is 5 meV at 4.2 K, with no experimentally significant variation across the surface of the sample. The temperature dependence of the gap follows the BCS form, fully consistent with phonon-mediated superconductivity in this novel superconductor. The application of a magnetic field induces strong pair breaking as seen in the conductance spectra in fields up to 6 T.

  8. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma


    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  9. Enhanced MgB2 Superconductivity Under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振兴; 靳常青; 游江洋; 李绍春; 朱嘉林; 禹日成; 李风英; 苏少奎


    We report on in situ high-pressure studies up to 1.0 GPa on the MgB2 superconductor which was high-pressure synthesized. The as-prepared sample is of high quality in terms of sharp superconducting transition (Tc) at 39K from the magnetic measurements. The in situ high-pressure measurements were carried out using a Be-Cu piston-cylinder-type instrument with mixed oil as the pressure transmitting medium which warrants a quasihydrostatic pressure environment at low temperature. The superconducting transitions were measured using the electrical conductance method. It is found that Tc increases by more than 1 K with pressure in the low-pressure range, before the Tc value decreases with the further increase of the pressure.

  10. Vortex lattice transitions in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Levett; C D Dewhurst; D McK Paul


    We have performed extensive small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffraction studies of the vortex lattice in single crystal YNi2B2C for $B||c$. High-resolution SANS, combined with a field-oscillation vortex lattice preparation technique, allows us to separate Bragg scattered intensities from two orthogonal domains and accurately determine the unit cell angle, . The data suggest that upon increasing field there is a finite transition width where both low- and high-field distorted hexagonal vortex lattice phases, mutually rotated by 45°, coexist. The smooth variation of diffracted intensity from each phase through the transition corresponds to a redistribution of populations between the two types of domains.

  11. Semantic ETL into i2b2 with Eureka! (United States)

    Post, Andrew R; Krc, Tahsin; Rathod, Himanshu; Agravat, Sanjay; Mansour, Michel; Torian, William; Saltz, Joel H


    Clinical phenotyping is an emerging research information systems capability. Research uses of electronic health record (EHR) data may require the ability to identify clinical co-morbidities and complications. Such phenotypes may not be represented directly as discrete data elements, but rather as frequency, sequential and temporal patterns in billing and clinical data. These patterns' complexity suggests the need for a robust yet flexible extract, transform and load (ETL) process that can compute them. This capability should be accessible to investigators with limited ability to engage an IT department in data management. We have developed such a system, Eureka! Clinical Analytics. It extracts data from an Excel spreadsheet, computes a broad set of phenotypes of common interest, and loads both raw and computed data into an i2b2 project. A web-based user interface allows executing and monitoring ETL processes. Eureka! is deployed at our institution and is available for deployment in the cloud.

  12. Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan


    Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.

  13. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Peled


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operational robustness. This paper reviews the design of high precision motion solutions based on L1B2 ultrasonic motors—from the basic motor structure to the complete motion solution architecture, including motor drive and control, material considerations and performance envelope. The performance is demonstrated, via constructed motion stages, to exhibit fast move and settle, a repeatability window of tens of nanometers, lifetime into the tens of millions of operational cycles, and compatibility with clean room and aerospace environments. Example stages and modules for semiconductor, aerospace, electro-optical and biomedical applications are presented. The described semiconductor and aerospace solutions are powered by Nanomotion HR type motors, driven by a sine wave up to 80 V/mm rms, having a driving frequency of 39.6 kHz, providing a maximum force up to 4 N per driving element (at 5 W power consumption per element and a maximum linear velocity above 300 mm/s. The described electro-optical modules are powered by small Nanomotion Edge motors driven by voltages up to 11 V AC, providing stall forces up to 0.35 N (power consumption up to 0.75 W and maximum linear velocity above 200 mm/s.

  14. Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films. (United States)

    Kaindl, Robert A; Carnahan, Marc A; Orenstein, Joseph; Chemla, Daniel S; Christen, Hans M; Zhai, Hong-Ying; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lowndes, Doug H


    We report the first study of the optical conductivity of MgB2 covering the range of its lowest-energy superconducting gap. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is utilized to determine the complex, frequency-dependent conductivity sigma(omega) of thin films. The imaginary part reveals an inductive response due to the emergence of the superconducting condensate. The real part exhibits a strong depletion of oscillator strength near 5 meV resulting from the opening of a superconducting energy gap. The gap ratio of 2Delta0/k(B)TC approximately 1.9 is well below the weak-coupling value, pointing to complex behavior in this novel superconductor.

  15. de Haas-van Alphen effect in single crystal MgB2. (United States)

    Yelland, E A; Cooper, J R; Carrington, A; Hussey, N E; Meeson, P J; Lee, S; Yamamoto, A; Tajima, S


    We report observations of quantum oscillations in single crystals of the high temperature superconductor MgB2. Three de Haas-van Alphen frequencies are clearly resolved. Comparison with band structure calculations strongly suggests that two of these come from a single warped Fermi surface tube along the c direction, and that the third arises from cylindrical sections of an in-plane honeycomb network. The measured values of the effective mass range from (0.44-0.68)m(e). By comparing these to calculated band masses, we find that the electron-phonon coupling strength lambda is a factor of approximately 3 larger for the c-axis tube orbits than for the in-plane network orbit, in accord with recent microscopic calculations.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetism of Fe2(OH)[B2O4(OH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurayoshi, Yotaro; Hara, Shigeo; Sato, Hirohiko


    The structure and magnetism of Fe2(OH)[B2O4(OH)] are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction reveals a characteristic structure containing two crystallographically independent zigzag-ladder chains of magnetic Fe2+ ions. Magnetization measurements reveal a phase transition at 85 K, below which a weak...... spontaneous magnetization (approximate to 0.15 μB/Fe) appears. Below 85 K, magnetization increases with decreasing temperature down to 70 K, below which it decreases and approaches a constant value at low temperature. The Mossbauer spectrum at room temperature is composed of two paramagnetic doublets...... corresponding to the two crystallographic Fe2+ sites. Below 85 K, each doublet undergoes further splitting because of the magnetic hyperfine fields. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine field is qualitatively different for the two distinguishable Fe2+ sites. This is responsible for the anomalous...

  17. Magnetic phase diagram of ErNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Toft, K.N.; Abrahamsen, A.B.;


    an analysis of bulk magnetization and zero-field neutron diffraction data. The model accounts for most of the observed features but fails to explain the occurrence of a small component Qdelta approximate to -0.005b* observed close to H-c2 when the field is applied along [110]. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All......The magnetic phase diagram of the superconductor ErNi2B2C (T-c = 11 K and T-N = 6 K) has been studied by neutron diffraction as a function of temperature and magnetic field applied along the symmetry directions [010], [110] and [001] of the tetragonal crystal structure. A series of commensurate...... magnetic structures, consistent with a transversely polarized spin-density wave with modulation vectors Q = n/ma* (0.55 less than or equal to n/m

  18. Evolution of the B3 DNA binding superfamily: new insights into REM family gene diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisson A C Romanel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF, abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3, high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI, related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV and reproductive meristem (REM. The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa sativa, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens,the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri and the red algae Cyanidioschyzon melorae provided an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of this superfamily. METHODOLOGY: In order to better understand the origin and the diversification of B3 domains in plants, we combined comparative phylogenetic analysis with exon/intron structure and duplication events. In addition, we investigated the conservation and divergence of the B3 domain during the origin and evolution of each family. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that showed that the B3 containing genes have undergone extensive duplication events, and that the REM family B3 domain has a highly diverged DNA binding. Our results also indicate that the founding member of the B3 gene family is likely to be similar to the ABI3/HSI genes found in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Among the B3 families, ABI3, HSI, RAV and ARF are most structurally conserved, whereas the REM family has experienced a rapid divergence. These results are discussed in light of their functional and evolutionary roles in plant development.

  19. EphrinB3 restricts endogenous neural stem cell migration after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Mier, Jose; Gajavelli, Shyam; Turbic, Alisa; Bullock, Ross; Turnley, Ann M; Liebl, Daniel J


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We have previously shown that ephrinB3 is expressed in tissues surrounding these regions, including the overlying corpus callosum (CC), and is reduced after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Our current study takes advantage of ephrinB3 knockout mice to examine the influences of ephrinB3 on neuroblast migration into CC and cortex tissues after CCI injury. Both injury and/or ephrinB3 deficiency led to increased neuroblast numbers and enhanced migration outside the SVZ/RMS zones. Application of soluble ephrinB3-Fc molecules reduced neuroblast migration into the CC after injury and limited neuroblast chain migration in cultured SVZ explants. Our findings suggest that ephrinB3 expression in tissues surrounding neurogenic regions functions to restrict neuroblast migration outside the RMS by limiting chain migration.

  20. 柯萨奇B3病毒单克隆抗体的制备及鉴定%Preparation and identification of Coxsackie virus B3 monoclonal antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 朱德生; 闫晓莉; 向润娥


    用柯萨奇B3病毒免疫Balb/c小鼠.取脾细胞与Sp2/0细胞进行融合及细胞培养.用间接免疫荧光法筛选阳性细胞.并用ELISA法等行Ig类及亚类的鉴定.结果:经融合、筛选、克隆化后共获得26株稳定分泌特异性McAb的杂交瘤细胞,其中3株分泌McAb为IgG1类,2株为IgG2b类,4株为IgG2a类,17株为IgG3类.26种McAb中除少数杂交瘤株的McAb能与同组不同型发生交叉反应及McAb 2B2与Polio Ⅰ型、McAb1H10与CVA4有交叉反应外,其余的McAb仅与本型的病毒起反应.提示CVB3-McAb具有高度的特异性及均一性,可广泛应用于基础医学及临床医学研究.

  1. Physical properties of ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system in electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wei; Lo Veng-Cheong; Bai Bao-Dong


    Based on the differential operator technique, a transverse Ising model (TIM) in the effective-field theory is developed to study the physical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system. The effects of an external electric field on the polarization, susceptibility and pyroelectric coefficient of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system are discussed in detail. The susceptibility of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system decreases with the increase of the electric field, implying that the polarization is weak.

  2. Effect of TiB2 content on resistance to sodium penetration of TiB2/C cathode composites for aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劼; 方静; 李庆余; 赖延清


    TiB2/C cathode composites with various contents of TiB2 were prepared and their characterizations were observed and compared. The expansion of samples due to sodium and bath penetration was tested with a modified laboratory Rapoport apparatus and the appearances of the cut sections of specimens after electrolysis were studied.The results show that the mass of TiB2/C cathode composites with mass fraction of TiB2 less than 70 % appreciably increases, but that of the composites with mass fraction of TiB2 more than 70% decreases slightly after being baked.The resistance to sodium and bath penetration of TiB2/C cathode composites increases with the increase of TiB2 content, especially in the composites with high TiB2 content. TiB2/C cathode composites have high resistance to the penetration of sodium and bath as well as good wettability by molten aluminum, and keep integrality and have little change of appearance after electrolysis, which indicates that TiB2/C cathode composites can be used as inert wettable cathode for aluminum electrolysis.

  3. Bond deformation paths and electronic instabilities of ultraincompressible transition metal diborides: Case study of OsB2 and IrB2 (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.


    The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

  4. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence. (United States)

    Lescat, Mathilde; Reibel, Florence; Pintard, Coralie; Dion, Sara; Glodt, Jérémy; Gateau, Cecile; Launay, Adrien; Ledda, Alice; Cruveiller, Stephane; Cruvellier, Stephane; Tourret, Jérôme; Tenaillon, Olivier


    The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  5. Inhibition of ErbB-2 Mitogenic and Transforming Activity by RALT, a Mitogen-Induced Signal Transducer Which Binds to the ErbB-2 Kinase Domain† (United States)

    Fiorentino, Loredana; Pertica, Chiara; Fiorini, Monia; Talora, Claudio; Crescenzi, Marco; Castellani, Loriana; Alemà, Stefano; Benedetti, Piero; Segatto, Oreste


    The product of rat gene 33 was identified as an ErbB-2-interacting protein in a two-hybrid screen employing the ErbB-2 juxtamembrane and kinase domains as bait. This interaction was reproduced in vitro with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein spanning positions 282 to 395 of the 459-residue gene 33 protein. Activation of ErbB-2 catalytic function was required for ErbB-2–gene 33 physical interaction in living cells, whereas ErbB-2 autophosphorylation was dispensable. Expression of gene 33 protein was absent in growth-arrested NIH 3T3 fibroblasts but was induced within 60 to 90 min of serum stimulation or activation of the ErbB-2 kinase and decreased sharply upon entry into S phase. New differentiation factor stimulation of mitogen-deprived mammary epithelial cells also caused accumulation of gene 33 protein, which could be found in a complex with ErbB-2. Overexpression of gene 33 protein in mouse fibroblasts inhibited (i) cell proliferation driven by ErbB-2 but not by serum, (ii) cell transformation induced by ErbB-2 but not by Ras or Src, and (iii) sustained activation of ERK 1 and 2 by ErbB-2 but not by serum. The gene 33 protein may convey inhibitory signals downstream to ErbB-2 by virtue of its association with SH3-containing proteins, including GRB-2, which was found to associate with gene 33 protein in living cells. These data indicate that the gene 33 protein is a feedback inhibitor of ErbB-2 mitogenic function and a suppressor of ErbB-2 oncogenic activity. We propose that the gene 33 protein be renamed with the acronym RALT (receptor-associated late transducer). PMID:11003669

  6. Inhibition of ErbB-2 mitogenic and transforming activity by RALT, a mitogen-induced signal transducer which binds to the ErbB-2 kinase domain. (United States)

    Fiorentino, L; Pertica, C; Fiorini, M; Talora, C; Crescenzi, M; Castellani, L; Alemà, S; Benedetti, P; Segatto, O


    The product of rat gene 33 was identified as an ErbB-2-interacting protein in a two-hybrid screen employing the ErbB-2 juxtamembrane and kinase domains as bait. This interaction was reproduced in vitro with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein spanning positions 282 to 395 of the 459-residue gene 33 protein. Activation of ErbB-2 catalytic function was required for ErbB-2-gene 33 physical interaction in living cells, whereas ErbB-2 autophosphorylation was dispensable. Expression of gene 33 protein was absent in growth-arrested NIH 3T3 fibroblasts but was induced within 60 to 90 min of serum stimulation or activation of the ErbB-2 kinase and decreased sharply upon entry into S phase. New differentiation factor stimulation of mitogen-deprived mammary epithelial cells also caused accumulation of gene 33 protein, which could be found in a complex with ErbB-2. Overexpression of gene 33 protein in mouse fibroblasts inhibited (i) cell proliferation driven by ErbB-2 but not by serum, (ii) cell transformation induced by ErbB-2 but not by Ras or Src, and (iii) sustained activation of ERK 1 and 2 by ErbB-2 but not by serum. The gene 33 protein may convey inhibitory signals downstream to ErbB-2 by virtue of its association with SH3-containing proteins, including GRB-2, which was found to associate with gene 33 protein in living cells. These data indicate that the gene 33 protein is a feedback inhibitor of ErbB-2 mitogenic function and a suppressor of ErbB-2 oncogenic activity. We propose that the gene 33 protein be renamed with the acronym RALT (receptor-associated late transducer).

  7. Photo-activated psoralen binds the ErbB2 catalytic kinase domain, blocking ErbB2 signaling and triggering tumor cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenle Xia

    Full Text Available Photo-activation of psoralen with UVA irradiation, referred to as PUVA, is used in the treatment of proliferative skin disorders. The anti-proliferative effects of PUVA have been largely attributed to psoralen intercalation of DNA, which upon UV treatment, triggers the formation of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL that inhibit transcription and DNA replication. Here, we show that PUVA exerts antitumor effects in models of human breast cancer that overexpress the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene, through a new mechanism. Independent of ICL formation, the antitumor effects of PUVA in ErbB2+ breast cancer models can instead be mediated through inhibition of ErbB2 activation and signaling. Using a mass spectroscopy-based approach, we show for the first time that photo-activated 8MOP (8-methoxypsoralen interacts with the ErbB2 catalytic autokinase domain. Furthermore, PUVA can reverse therapeutic resistance to lapatinib and other ErbB2 targeted therapies, including resistance mediated via expression of a phosphorylated, truncated form of ErbB2 (p85(ErbB2 that is preferentially expressed in tumor cell nuclei. Current ErbB2 targeted therapies, small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies, do not block the phosphorylated, activated state of p85(ErbB2. Here we show that PUVA reduced p85(ErbB2 phosphorylation leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, in addition to its effects on DNA and the formation of ICL, PUVA represents a novel ErbB2 targeted therapy for the treatment of ErbB2+ breast cancers, including those that have developed resistance to other ErbB2 targeted therapies.

  8. Study of the Isothermal Oxidation Process and Phase Transformations in B2-(Ni,PtAl/RENE-N5 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cáceres-Díaz


    Full Text Available Changes in composition, crystal structure and phase transformations of B2-(Ni,PtAl coatings upon isothermal oxidation experiments (natural and scale free oxidation at 1100 °C, as a function of time beyond their martensitic transformation, are reported. Specifically, the analysis of lattice parameter and composition are performed to identify changes in the B2-(Ni,PtAl phase upon the chemically-driven L10-(Ni,PtAl and L12-(Ni,Pt3Al transformations. The B2-(Ni,PtAl phase was found to disorder and transform the martensite during the heat treatments for both oxidation experiments at approximately 36.3 and 40.9 at. % of Al, 47.7 and 42.9 at. % of Ni, 6.2 and 8.5 at. % of Pt, 4.2 and 2.9 at. % of Cr and 4.4 and 3.8 at. % of Co. The lattice constant and the long-range order parameter of the B2-(Ni,PtAl phase decreased linearly as a function of the elemental content irrespective of the nature of the oxidation experiments.

  9. Electronic Structure of CeRh3B2: A Large f-f Direct Mixing System (United States)

    Takegahara, Katsuhiko; Harima, Hisatomo; Kasuya, Tadao


    The standard self-consistent APW band calculations for LaRh3B2 and CeRh3B2, which crystallize in the hexagonal CeCo3B2 type structure, have been done using the local density approximation. Among the 4f states, the magnetic quantum number lz{=}0 state has the large mixing with the conduction bands and thus is the ground state of the crystal field. For CeRh3B2, the band calculation, in which the orbital degeneracy of 4f states is lifted by introducing the lz dependent pseudo-potential, is also done for the ferromagnetic alignment of the 4f state with lz{=}0. Results show that, due to the large (ffσ), this 4f state has strong dispersion along the c-direction creating 4f holes on the \\varGamma-M-K plane in the Brillouin zone. This 4f hole formation is the origin of the anomalous magnetic properties and various anomalous properties are explained consistently on this model.

  10. Microstructure and properties of TiB2-TiB reinforced titanium matrix composite coating by laser cladding (United States)

    Lin, Yinghua; Yao, Jianhua; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Wang, Liang


    TiB2 particle and TiB short fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite coatings were prepared utilizing in situ synthesized technique by laser cladding on the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy. Through the experiment, it was found that the surface of the single-track coatings appeared in the depression, but it can be improved by laser track overlapping. With the increase of laser power density, the amount of TiB short fiber was increased, and the distribution of TiB2 and TiB became more uniform from the top to bottom. The micro-hardness of TiB2/TiB coating showed a gradient decreasing trend, and the average micro-hardness of the coatings was two-fold higher than that of the substrate. Due to the strengthening effect of TiB2 particle and TiB short fiber, the wear volume loss of the center of the coating was approximately 30% less than that of the Ti-6Al-4V substrate, and the wear mechanism of the coating was mild fatigue particle detachment.

  11. High-temperature vaporization of B2O3(l) under reducing conditions. (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S; Myers, Dwight L


    The vaporization of B(2)O(3) in a reducing environment leads to the formation of both B(2)O(3)(g) and B(2)O(2)(g). Whereas the formation of B(2)O(3)(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B(2)O(2)(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B(2)O(3)(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that, after heating, B(s) and B(2)O(3)(l) appeared to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B(2)O(2)(g). To circumvent this problem, the activity of boron was fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe(2)B. Both second- and third-law enthalpies of formation were measured for B(2)O(2)(g) and B(2)O(3)(g). From these values, the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K were calculated to be -479.9 ± 25.7 kJ/mol for B(2)O(2)(g) and -833.4 ± 13.1 kJ/mol for B(2)O(3)(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B(2)O(2)(g) and B(2)O(3)(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and showed good agreement with the experimental values.

  12. Cardiac-specific over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 induces pro-survival pathways and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Sysa-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that ErbB2 signaling has a critical role in cardiomyocyte physiology, based mainly on findings that blocking ErbB2 for cancer therapy is toxic to cardiac cells. However, consequences of high levels of ErbB2 activity in the heart have not been previously explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated consequences of cardiac-restricted over-expression of ErbB2 in two novel lines of transgenic mice. Both lines develop striking concentric cardiac hypertrophy, without heart failure or decreased life span. ErbB2 transgenic mice display electrocardiographic characteristics similar to those found in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, with susceptibility to adrenergic-induced arrhythmias. The hypertrophic hearts, which are 2-3 times larger than those of control littermates, express increased atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain mRNA, consistent with a hypertrophic phenotype. Cardiomyocytes in these hearts are significantly larger than wild type cardiomyocytes, with enlarged nuclei and distinctive myocardial disarray. Interestingly, the over-expression of ErbB2 induces a concurrent up-regulation of multiple proteins associated with this signaling pathway, including EGFR, ErbB3, ErbB4, PI3K subunits p110 and p85, bcl-2 and multiple protective heat shock proteins. Additionally, ErbB2 up-regulation leads to an anti-apoptotic shift in the ratio of bcl-xS/xL in the heart. Finally, ErbB2 over-expression results in increased activation of the translation machinery involving S6, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. The dependence of this hypertrophic phenotype on ErbB family signaling is confirmed by reduction in heart mass and cardiomyocyte size, and inactivation of pro-hypertrophic signaling in transgenic animals treated with the ErbB1/2 inhibitor, lapatinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies are the first to demonstrate that increased ErbB2 over-expression in the heart can activate protective signaling

  13. Linear optical properties of γ-modification of bismuth borate BiB3O6 (United States)

    Melnikova, S. V.; Isaenko, L. I.


    The refractive index dispersion of the γ-BiB3O6 crystal in the wavelength range 0.43-0.81 μm has been measured. It has been shown that the principal refractive indices n 1, n 2, and n 3 are on average higher than those of α-BiB3O6, but are slightly lower than those of δ-BiB3O6. The temperature dependences of the rotation angle φ( T) of the optical indicatrix and birefringence Δ n 2( T) = ( n 1 - n 3)( T) have been studied in the temperature range 100-963 K. It has been shown that the γ-BiB3O6 crystal is stable in this temperature region.

  14. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations (United States)

    Lawson, JOhn W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.


    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 are candidate materials for applications in extreme environments because of their high melting point, good mechanical properties and reasonable oxidation resistance. Unlike many ceramics, these materials have high thermal conductivity which can be advantageous, for example, to reduce thermal shock. Recently, we developed Tersoff style interatomic potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  15. Nonlinear Approximation Using Gaussian Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Hangelbroek, Thomas


    It is well-known that non-linear approximation has an advantage over linear schemes in the sense that it provides comparable approximation rates to those of the linear schemes, but to a larger class of approximands. This was established for spline approximations and for wavelet approximations, and more recently for homogeneous radial basis function (surface spline) approximations. However, no such results are known for the Gaussian function. The crux of the difficulty lies in the necessity to vary the tension parameter in the Gaussian function spatially according to local information about the approximand: error analysis of Gaussian approximation schemes with varying tension are, by and large, an elusive target for approximators. We introduce and analyze in this paper a new algorithm for approximating functions using translates of Gaussian functions with varying tension parameters. Our scheme is sophisticated to a degree that it employs even locally Gaussians with varying tensions, and that it resolves local ...

  16. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Roxana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2 presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK guidelines were used as reference. Methods Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2 and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. Results The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0% MembErbB-2 prevalence by IHC in our cohort. We identified NuclErbB-2 positivity as a significant independent predictor of worse OS in patients with MembErbB-2 overexpression. NuclErbB-2 was also a biomarker of lower OS in tumors that overexpress MembErbB-2 and lack steroid hormone receptors. Conclusions We revealed a novel role for NuclErbB-2 as an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in MembErbB-2-positive breast tumors. Our work indicates that patients presenting NuclErbB-2 may need new therapeutic strategies involving specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear migration.

  17. Experiences and Future Expectations towards Online Courses--An Empirical Study of the B2C-and B2B-Segments (United States)

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra


    This article explores the future potential for the development of online courses. The findings are based on an empirical study with 3 sample groups: (1) B2C segment in Germany, (2) B2C segment in the United States, and (3) B2B segment (international). In the first step the status quo of the use of e-learning in general and online courses in…

  18. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G


    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  19. Crystal Growth of CsB3O5 from NaF Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nonlinear optical CsB3O5 single crystals have been grown successfully using NaF as a flux. The primary CsB3O5-NaF quasi-binary system has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. There is a single eutectic point, and the eutectic composition corresponds to 40mol% NaF with the temperature of 690.5 ℃ in CsB3O5-NaF system. Volatility of the CsB3O5-NaF system along the liquidus has been measured, and the volatiles of the solution were collected and detected by XRD method. Growth of CsB3Os crystals was carried out by different composition of NaF in CsB3O5-NaF system, and the growth parameters were discussed. Simultaneously, the properties of grown crystals from NaF flux were characterized by transmission spectrum and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Application of the Schwinger multichannel formulation to electron-impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+) state of CO (United States)

    Weatherford, Charles A.; Huo, Winifred M.


    The Chi 1Sigma - b 3Sigma(+) transition of CO is described using the Schwinger multichannel method in the two-state approximation, in an energy range from threshold to 20 eV. The resonance structure is analyzed by performing a partial-wave decomposition and the resonance positions are established based on the typical discontinuous behavior in the K-matrix elements as well as the pi radian change in the partial-wave eigenphases. The resonance behavior is related to the concept of core-excited resonances and the 'grandparent' model of resonances. The results are related to the formation of the negative ion by carrying out bound-state calculations on the (5 sigma)(3 s sigma)-squared core-excited Rydberg state of CO(-), and the position is found to agree well with the low-energy resonance positions.

  1. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.


    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  2. Herschel observations of deuterated water towards Sgr B2(M)

    CERN Document Server

    Comito, Claudia; Rolffs, Rainer; Lis, D C; Belloche, A; Bergin, E A; Phillips, T G; Bell, T A; Crockett, N R; Wang, S; Blake, G A; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Latter, W D; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Mueller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Olberg, M; Szczerba, R; Larsson, B; Liseau, R; Lin, R H; Samoska, L A; Schlecht, E


    Observations of HDO are an important complement for studies of water, because they give strong constraints on the formation processes -- grain surfaces versus energetic process in the gas phase, e.g. in shocks. The HIFI observations of multiple transitions of HDO in Sgr~B2(M) presented here allow the determination of the HDO abundance throughout the envelope, which has not been possible before with ground-based observations only. The abundance structure has been modeled with the spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, which also takes radiative pumping by continuum emission from dust into account. The modeling reveals that the abundance of HDO rises steeply with temperature from a low abundance ($2.5\\times 10^{-11}$) in the outer envelope at temperatures below 100~K through a medium abundance ($1.5\\times 10^{-9}$) in the inner envelope/outer core, at temperatures between 100 and 200~K, and finally a high abundance ($3.5\\times 10^{-9}$) at temperatures above 200~K in the hot core.

  3. Advanced Modelling and Functional Characterization of B2 Bradykinin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Khan


    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (giant hives is an autosomal dominant malady characterized by repetitive episodes of probably life-threatening angioedema due to a partial deficiency of C1 inhibitor. B2 Bradykinin Receptor's (BKRB2 amino acid sequence is deposited within UniProt under accession number P30411. The Physicochemical properties of BKRB2 sequence are determined by using ProtParam. BKRB2's secondary structure was predicted through PROTEUS. Pfam domain was used for functional characterization of BKRB2. PSI-BLAST was used to find homologs of known structure. Modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints, either uses distance geometry or optimization techniques to satisfy spatial restraints performed by MODELLER. The quality of the generated model was evaluated with PROCHECK by Ramachandran plot analysis. Validation of the generated models was further performed by WHAT IF. ProSA was used for the analysis of Z-scores and energy plots. The 3D structures of the modeled proteins were analyzed using UCSF Chimera. Clustal Omega is used for multiple sequence alignment that uses seeded guide trees and HMM profile-profile techniques to generate alignments.

  4. Phonon linewidths in YNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Pintschovius; F Weber; W Reichardt; A Kreyssig; R Heid; D Reznik; O Stockert; K Hradil


    Phonons in a metal interact with conduction electrons which give rise to a finite linewidth. In the normal state, this leads to a Lorentzian shape of the phonon line. Density functional theory is able to predict the phonon linewidths as a function of wave vector for each branch of the phonon dispersion. An experimental verification of such predictions is feasible only for compounds with very strong electron–phonon coupling. YN2B2C was chosen as a test example because it is a conventional superconductor with a fairly high c (15.2 K). Inelastic neutron scattering experiments did largely confirm the theoretical predictions. Moreover, they revealed a strong temperature dependence of the linewidths of some phonons with particularly strong electron–phonon coupling which can as yet only qualitatively be accounted for by theory. For such phonons, marked changes of the phonon frequencies and linewidths were observed from room temperature down to 15 K. Further changes were observed on entering into the superconducting state. These changes can, however, not be described simply by a change of the phonon linewidth.

  5. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Gaitonde; P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal


    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated, $D(E_F)$ and the experimental specific heat data. The $T_c$ is found to be 37 K. We use a parametrized description of the calculated band structure to obtain the = 0 K values of the London penetration depth and the superconducting coherence length. The penetration depth calculated by us is too small and the coherence length too large as compared to the experimentally determined values of these quantities. This indicates the limitations of a theory that relies only on electronic structure calculations in describing the superconducting state in this material and implies that impurity effects as well as mass renormalization effects need to be included.

  6. Scheme to prepare the MgB2 superconducting multilayer films%MgB2超导多层膜的制备方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗子江; 杨健; 王继红



  7. Study on Logistics Distribution Centers for B2C Online Shopping%B2C网购物流配送中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凌燕; 尹军琪


    分析了我国B2C网购物流配送的现状,对其特点和难点作了分析,并提出了相应的B2C网购物流配送中心设计解决方案.%The paper analyzes the current status of the logistics and distribution operations for B2C online shopping in China, analyzes its characteristics and existing issues, and puts forth solutions for the design of logistics and distribution centers for B2C online shopping.

  8. Customer Behavior Analysis under B2C Environment%B2C环境下的客户行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking the background of B2C e-commerce transactions, this paper starts from the objective of customer behavior analysis, proposes the process of customer behavior analysis based on B2C e-commerce environment, analyzes the customer's consumer psychology and behavior under B2C environment, and points out the customer retention strategy. This paper has a reference to B2C website.%本文以B2C电子商务交易过程为背景,从客户行为分析的目标出发,提出了基于B2C电子商务环境下的客户行为分析过程,并对B2C环境下的客户消费心理和行为进行了分析,提出了B2C环境下的客户保留策略,这对B2C网站具有借鉴意义.

  9. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry


    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  10. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N


    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  11. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Brian A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. Methods We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Results Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.

  12. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B. (United States)

    Wise, R; Morrison, D


    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1VL8B-2UVDB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  14. 17 CFR 240.13b2-1 - Falsification of accounting records. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Falsification of accounting records. 240.13b2-1 Section 240.13b2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Reports § 240.13b2-1 Falsification of accounting records. No person shall directly or...

  15. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-2 - Illustration of the provisions of subpart D. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of subpart D. 1.668(b)-2 Section 1.668(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.668(b)-2 Illustration of the provisions of subpart...

  16. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4: Experimental and theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waśkowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Staun Olsen, J.


    High-pressure X-ray diffraction in ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4 powders and single crystals has been studied using synchrotron radiation as well as conventional X-rays. The experimental results are supported by calculations using density functional theory. ScB2, YB4 and HoB4 are hard materials (bulk...... modulus 180–200 GPa), while TiB2 may be classified as superhard (bulk modulus about 260 GPa). We report here first experimental and theoretical determinations of the bulk modulus for HoB4 (195(5) and 198.2 GPa, respectively), and first experimental values of the bulk modulus for ScB2 (196(2) GPa) and YB4...

  17. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Unique Fermi surfaces with quasi-one-dimensional character in CeRh3B2 and LaRh3B2 (United States)

    Okubo, T.; Yamada, M.; Thamizhavel, A.; Kirita, S.; Inada, Y.; Settai, R.; Harima, H.; Takegahara, K.; Galatanu, A.; Yamamoto, E.; Onuki, Y.


    We have carried out de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments on a ferromagnet CeRh3B2 with an extremely high Curie temperature T_{\\mathrm {C}} \\simeq 120 K and a non-4f reference compound LaRh3B2. The dHvA data of LaRh3B2 are well explained by the results of energy band calculations. The topology of the Fermi surfaces in CeRh3B2 is found to be very similar to that of LaRh3B2, possessing wavy but flat Fermi surfaces in the basal plane. Observation of a quasi-one-dimensional electronic state is the first such case in a rare earth compound.

  18. Vortex phase diagram studies in the weakly pinned single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jaiswal-Nagar; D Pal; M R Eskildsen; P C Canfield; H Takeya; S Ramakrishnan; A K Grover


    We present a study of magnetization measurements performed on the single crystals of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. For both the compounds, we find flux jumps in magnetisation values in the respective field regions, where the structural transitions in the flux line lattice symmetry have been reported in these systems via the small angle neutron scattering experiments. The magnetisation hysteresis loops and the AC susceptibility measurements show pronounced peak effect as well as second magnetisation peak anomaly for both YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C. Based on these results, a vortex phase diagram has been constructed for YNi2B2C for $H \\Arrowvert c$ depicting different glassy phases of the vortex matter.

  19. Doping effects of ZrC and ZrB2 in the powder-in-tube processed MgB2 tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei


    We have investigated the effects of ZrC and ZrB2 doping on the superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube processed MgB2/Fe tapes. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), transport and magnetic measurements. We confirmed the following quite different roles of ZrC and ZrB2 in MgB2.ZrC doping was found to decrease the transport critical current density (Jc) at 4.2 K, while the critical temperature (Tc) kept constant. In contrast, the Jc values in magnetic fields were enhanced greatly by the ZrB2 addition, which resulted in a decrease in Tc by only 0.5 K. The reason for different effects of two dopants is also discussed.

  20. New High-Pressure Gallium Borate Ga2B3O7(OH) with Photocatalytic Activity. (United States)

    Vitzthum, Daniela; Schauperl, Michael; Strabler, Christof M; Brüggeller, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R; Griesser, Ulrich J; Huppertz, Hubert


    The new high-pressure gallium borate Ga2B3O7(OH) was synthesized in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 10.5 GPa and 700 °C. For the system Ga-B-O-H, it is only the second known compound next to Ga9B18O33(OH)15·H3B3O6·H3BO3. The crystal structure of Ga2B3O7(OH) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature. Ga2B3O7(OH) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmce (Z = 8) with the lattice parameters a = 1050.7(2) pm, b = 743.6(2) pm, c = 1077.3(2) pm, and V = 0.8417(3) nm(3). Vibrational spectroscopic methods (Raman and IR) were performed to confirm the presence of the hydroxyl group. Furthermore, the band gap of Ga2B3O7(OH) was estimated via quantum-mechanical density functional theory calculations. These results led to the assumption that our gallium borate could be a suitable substance to split water photocatalytically, which was tested experimentally.

  1. Identification, cloning, and expression of L-amino acid oxidase from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3. (United States)

    Yu, Zhiliang; Zhou, Ning; Qiao, Hua; Qiu, Juanping


    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting more attentions due to its broad and important biological functions. Recently, an LAAO-producing marine microorganism (strain B3) was isolated from the intertidal zone of Dinghai sea area, China. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular identifications together with phylogenetic analysis congruously suggested that it belonged to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, it was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3. Its capability of LAAO production was crossly confirmed by measuring the products of H2O2, a-keto acids, and NH4+ in oxidization reaction. Two rounds of PCR were performed to gain the entire B3-LAAO gene sequence of 1608 bps in length encoding for 535 amino acid residues. This deduced amino acid sequence showed 60 kDa of the calculated molecular mass, supporting the SDS-PAGE result. Like most of flavoproteins, B3-LAAO also contained two conserved typical motifs, GG-motif and βαβ-dinucleotide-binding domain motif. On the other hand, its unique substrate spectra and sequence information suggested that B3-LAAO was a novel LAAO. Our results revealed that it could be functionally expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using vectors, pET28b(+) and pET20b(+). However, compared with the native LAAO, the expression level of the recombinant one was relatively low, most probably due to the formation of inclusion bodies. Several solutions are currently being conducted in our lab to increase its expression level.

  2. Extreme differences in SLCO1B3 functional polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. (United States)

    Nagy, Agnes; Szalai, Renata; Magyari, Lili; Bene, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Melegh, Bela


    Variants in SLCO1B3 transporter are linked to disposition and uptake of drugs and show high degree of heterogeneity between populations. A total of 467 Roma and 448 Hungarian subjects were genotyped for SLCO1B3 c.334T>G and c.1683-5676A>G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of SLCO1B3 334GG (41.54% vs. 8.04%, pRomas and Hungarians. A significantly increased prevalence was found in SLCO1B3 1683-5676G allele frequency in Hungarians compared to the Roma population (15.07% vs. 3.43%, p≤0.001). The frequency of SLCO1B3 334G allele was significantly increased in Roma population compared to Hungarians (70.56% vs. 52.23%, p=0.001). The LD values between the examined SNPs were 80 and 90 in Roma and in Hungarian samples, respectively. Our results highlight notable pharmacogenetic differences between Roma and Hungarian populations, which may have therapeutic implications.

  3. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuesheng; ZOU Qingsong


    We construct a tree wavelet approximation by using a constructive greedy scheme(CGS). We define a function class which contains the functions whose piecewise polynomial approximations generated by the CGS have a prescribed global convergence rate and establish embedding properties of this class. We provide sufficient conditions on a tree index set and on bi-orthogonal wavelet bases which ensure optimal order of convergence for the wavelet approximations encoded on the tree index set using the bi-orthogonal wavelet bases. We then show that if we use the tree index set associated with the partition generated by the CGS to encode a wavelet approximation, it gives optimal order of convergence.

  4. Characterization and Evaluation of TiB2-AlN Composites for Armor Applications (United States)


    titanium diboride (TiB2) and aluminum nitride (AlN) of varying compositions were consolidated by hot pressing. The compositions examined were 30-vol% TiB2...ceramic composite of titanium diboride (TiB2) and aluminum nitride (AlN) was chosen to be evaluated. TiB2 has been reported (3) to have high...showed some oxygen, which could be surface contamination , and sulfur impurities. 5 Figure 1. XRD spectrum of TiB2 powder. Figure 2

  5. ErbB2 signaling at the crossing between heart failure and cancer


    Vermeulen, Zarha; Segers, Vincent F.M.; De Keulenaer, Gilles W.


    The dual role of ErbB2 (or HER-2) in tumor growth and in physiological adaptive reactions of the heart positions ErbB2 at the intersection between cancer and chronic heart failure. Accordingly, ErbB2-targeted inhibitory therapy of cancer may lead to ventricular dysfunction, and activation of ErbB2 for heart failure therapy may induce malignancy. The molecular processes leading to the activation of ErbB2 in tumors and cardiac cells are, however, fundamentally different from each other. Thus, i...

  6. Distorted Wave Effects of the 1b3g Orbital in Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景康; 李桂琴; 黄建东; 王芳; 宁传刚; 卢杰; 何垚; 王晓东; 张亦安; 高虹; 王岩; 郑延友


    We study the unexpected distorted wave effects of the 1b3g orbital in ethylene using a high resolution binary (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer, at an impact energy of 800 eV plus the binding energy (8 - 22 eV) with symmetric non-coplanar kinematics. The experimental momentum profile of the 1bag orbital is obtained and compared with the data previously measured at an impact energy of 1200eV plus the binding energy. Also, the experimental momentum profles of the 1b3g orbital are compared with the theoretical momentum distributions calculated by using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The experimental momentum profiles of the 1b3g orbital of ethylene at different impact energies show that the cross section of the orbital below the momentum p~l a.u. is higher for lower impact energies.

  7. Evidence for strong-coupling s-wave superconductivity in MgB2: (11)B NMR Study. (United States)

    Kotegawa, H; Ishida, K; Kitaoka, Y; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J


    We have investigated a gap structure in a newly discovered superconductor, MgB2, through measurement of the (11)B nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, (11)(1/T(1)). (11)(1/T(1)) is proportional to the temperature (T) in the normal state, and decreases exponentially in the superconducting (SC) state, revealing a tiny coherence peak just below T(c). The T dependence of 1/T(1) in the SC state can be accounted for by an s-wave SC model with a large gap size of 2Delta/k(B)T(c) approximately 5 which suggests it is in a strong-coupling regime.

  8. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Halevy, A; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L


    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by more than three times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-3 - Existence of relationship in case of adjustment by way of deficiency assessment. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Existence of relationship in case of adjustment by way of deficiency assessment. 1.1311(b)-3 Section 1.1311(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Between Years and Special Limitations § 1.1311(b)-3 Existence of relationship in case of adjustment by...

  10. Efficient generation of B2m-null pigs via injection of zygote with TALENs (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Du, Yinan; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lulu; Li, Jian; Wang, Fengchao; Huang, Zhengen; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong


    Donor major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules are the main targets of the host immune response after organ allotransplantation. Whether and how MHC I-deficiency of pig donor tissues affects rejection after xenotransplantation has not been assessed. Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) is indispensable for the assembly of MHC I receptors and therefore provides an effective target to disrupt cell surface MHC I expression. Here, we report the one-step generation of mutant pigs with targeted disruptions in B2m by injection of porcine zygotes with B2m exon 2-specific TALENs. After germline transmission of mutant B2m alleles, we obtained F1 pigs with biallelic B2m frameshift mutations. F1 pigs lacked detectable B2M expression in tissues derived from the three germ layers, and their lymphocytes were devoid of MHC I surface receptors. Skin grafts from B2M deficient pigs exhibited remarkably prolonged survival on xenogeneic wounds compared to tissues of non-mutant littermates. Mutant founder pigs with bi-allelic disruption in B2m and B2M deficient F1 offspring did not display visible abnormalities, suggesting that pigs are tolerant to B2M deficiency. In summary, we show the efficient generation of pigs with germline mutations in B2m, and demonstrate a beneficial effect of donor MHC I-deficiency on xenotransplantation. PMID:27982048

  11. Global renal gene expression profiling analysis in B2-kinin receptor null mice: impact of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran A Jaffa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN, the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, is clinically manifested by albuminuria and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of DN are still incompletely defined. To address the involvement of bradykinin B(2-receptors (B(2R in DN, we used a genome wide approach to study the effects of diabetes on differential renal gene expression profile in wild type and B(2R knockout (B(2R(-/- mice. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and plasma glucose levels and albumin excretion rate (AER were measured at predetermined times throughout the 23 week study period. Longitudinal analysis of AER indicated that diabetic B(2R(-/-D null mice had a significantly decreased AER levels compared to wild type B(2R(+/+D mice (P = 0.0005. Results from the global microarray study comparing gene expression profiles among four groups of mice respectively: (B(2R(+/+C, B(2R(+/+D, B(2R(-/-C and B(2R(-/-D highlighted the role of several altered pathological pathways in response to disruption of B(2R and to the diabetic state that included: endothelial injury, oxidative stress, insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammatory process with a marked alteration in the pro-apoptotic genes. The findings of the present study provide a global genomics view of biomarkers that highlight the mechanisms and putative pathways involved in DN.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (especially Gram-negative bacteria with multiple resistance against almost all available antibiotics is a growing medical problem. No novel drugs targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been developed in recent years. In this context, there has been greatly renewed interest to cyclic lipodecapeptides polymyxins. Polymyxins exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, they are specific and highly potent against Gramnegative bacteria, but have potential nephrotoxic side effects. So polymyxins are attractive lead compounds to develop analogues with improved microbiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polymyxin interactions with its cell targets is a prerequisite for the purposeful improvement of its therapeutic properties. The primary cell target of a polymyxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The binding site of polymyxin on LPS has been supposed to be Kdo2-lipid A fragment. Methods. For all molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation experiments the YASARA suite of programs was used. Complex of antimicrobial peptide polymyxin В3 (PmB3 with Kdo2-lipid A portion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide was constructed by rigid docking with flexible side chains of the peptide. By alanine scanning of polymyxin В3 bound to LPS followed by simulated annealing minimization of the complexes in explicit water environment, the molecular aspects of PmB3-LPS binding have been studied by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 298 K and pH 7.0. The AMBER03 force field was used with a 1.05 nm force cutoff. To treat long range electrostatic interactions the Particle Mesh Ewald algorithm was used. Results. Ala-mutations of polymyxin’s residues Dab1, Dab3, Dab5, Dab8 and Dab9 in the PmB3-LPS complex caused sustained structural changes resulting in the notable loss in stability of

  13. Uniform approximation by (quantum) polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drucker, A.; de Wolf, R.


    We show that quantum algorithms can be used to re-prove a classical theorem in approximation theory, Jackson's Theorem, which gives a nearly-optimal quantitative version of Weierstrass's Theorem on uniform approximation of continuous functions by polynomials. We provide two proofs, based respectivel

  14. Diophantine approximation and automorphic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Anish; Nevo, Amos


    The present paper establishes qunatitative estimates on the rate of diophantine approximation in homogeneous varieties of semisimple algebraic groups. The estimates established generalize and improve previous ones, and are sharp in a number of cases. We show that the rate of diophantine approximation is controlled by the spectrum of the automorphic representation, and is thus subject to the generalised Ramanujan conjectures.

  15. Beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.


    We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...

  16. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge


    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...

  17. Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.


    In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general...

  18. BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+: The novel single-emitting-component phosphors for near UV-white LEDs (United States)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie


    Nowadays much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials with low-cost, high stability and excellent luminescent properties. In this paper, a new kind of luminescent material BPO4@B2O3 was prepared by using a facile method. The as-obtained samples contain numerous BPO4 nanoparticles enclosed by amorphous and crystalline B2O3 homogeneously, which exhibits a broad emission band ranging from 380 to 700 nm under near-UV irradiation. More importantly, it is worth noting that the BPO4@B2O3 phosphor exhibits the excellent thermal quenching property, which endows it with a promising prospect as phosphors for high power white LEDs. To further promote its application as white light phosphors, Eu3+ ions were doped into the BPO4@B2O3 samples and prepared the (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ phosphors with chromaticity coordinates (0.3022, 0.3122). The corresponding packaging of LEDs indicates that both BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ can be considered as the promising phosphors for WLEDs.

  19. Magnetic and Transport Studies in LaxGd1-xRh3B2 and CexGd1-xRh3B2 (United States)

    Vaidya, Ulhas; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A. K.


    The nonmagnetic rare earth ternary boride LaRh3B2, a hexagonal system of space group P6/mmm with CeCo3B2 type structure, is known to superconduct below Tc(0)˜ 2.7 K. When doped with Gd the Tc(0) reduces and no superconductivity is observed above 1.2 K with more than 15% (atomic) doping. The alloys, La0.8Gd0.2Rh3B2 and La0.6Gd0.4Rh3B2 show a jump at ˜ 70 K and rapid rise in magnetization below 10 K. However, no peaks are observed in at these temperatures in AC susceptibility which would have indicated magnetic ordering of the system. It is worth noting that GdRh3B2 orders ferromagnetically at ˜ 93 K. We shall present results of our investigations, above 2 K, in magnetic and transport properties of polycrystalline specimens LaxGd1-xRh3B2 (0 CeRh3B2 is a ferromagnet with Tc ˜ 115 K. The results of Gd doping in this reveal the survival of antiferromagnetic coupling between Ce and Gd spins.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties investigation of in situ TiB2 and ZrB2 reinforced Al-4Cu composites (United States)

    Lutfi Anis, Ahmad; Ramli, Rosmamuhammadani; Darham, Widyani; Zakaria, Azlan; Talari, Mahesh Kumar


    Conventional Al-Cu alloys exhibit coarse grain structure leading to inferior mechanical properties in as-cast condition. Expensive thermo-mechanical treatments are needed to improve microstructure and corresponding mechanical properties. In situ Al-based composites were developed to improve mechanical properties by dispersion strengthening and grain refinement obtained by the presence of particulates in the melt during solidification. In this work Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites were prepared by liquid casting method. XRD, electron microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on suitably sectioned and metallographically prepared surfaces to investigate the phase distribution, hardness and tensile properties. It was found that the reinforcement particles were segregated along the grain boundaries of Al dendrites. Tensile fracture morphology for both Al-4Cu - 3TiB2 and Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 were analyzed and compared to determine the fracture propagation mechanism in the composites. Al-4Cu-3ZrB2 in situ composites displayed higher strength and hardness compared to Al-4Cu-3TiB2 which could be ascribed to the stronger interfacial bonding between the Al dendrites and ZrB2 particulates as evidenced from fractographs.

  1. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.


    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  2. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.


    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  3. Global approximation of convex functions

    CERN Document Server

    Azagra, D


    We show that for every (not necessarily bounded) open convex subset $U$ of $\\R^n$, every (not necessarily Lipschitz or strongly) convex function $f:U\\to\\R$ can be approximated by real analytic convex functions, uniformly on all of $U$. In doing so we provide a technique which transfers results on uniform approximation on bounded sets to results on uniform approximation on unbounded sets, in such a way that not only convexity and $C^k$ smoothness, but also local Lipschitz constants, minimizers, order, and strict or strong convexity, are preserved. This transfer method is quite general and it can also be used to obtain new results on approximation of convex functions defined on Riemannian manifolds or Banach spaces. We also provide a characterization of the class of convex functions which can be uniformly approximated on $\\R^n$ by strongly convex functions.

  4. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Wyroba, Elzbieta [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Cierniewski, Czeslaw S., E-mail: [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)


    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells. - Highlights: ► LPS stimulates generation of secretory vesicles containing SerpinB2. ► SerpinB2 concentrates in TGN46 positive vesicles close to the plasma membrane. ► Brefeldin A inhibits secretion of SerpinB2. ► The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43 kDa.

  5. Measurement of the chi(b) (3 P) mass and of the relative rate of chi(b1) (1 P) and chi(b2) (1 P) production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. -M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Lespinasse, M.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sanchez, A. Martin; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Romero, D. A. Roa; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.


    The production of chi(b) mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of root s = 7 and 8 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1). The chi(b) mesons are identified through their decays to Upsilon(

  6. B2C电子商务市场的逆向物流分析%Analysis on Reverse Logistic in B2C Electronic Commerce Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田; 牟援朝



  7. A report on how foreign trade enterprises use B2B platform%外贸B2B平台使用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 为帮助外贸企业更好地选择外贸B2B平台所提供的服务,用好外贸B2B平台,提高使用效果,2010年5月,我们针对全国的外贸企业进行了网络抽样调查,根据调查结果形成此外贸B2B平台使用调查报告.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DR8B-3DMSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DR8B-3DMSA 1DR8 3DMS B A --------------------------MKVAVLPGDGIGP...D>3DMS A 3DMSA AVEKAYGGKKKIH ...entryChain> 3DMS A 3DMSA TKVYGPDV...90 SER CA 526 3DMS A 3DMSA...ine>PHE CA 324 3DMS A 3DMSA

  9. Anisotropic crystal of the δ-BiB3O6 investigated by vibrational spectroscopy (United States)

    Strikina, E. A.; Krylov, A. S.; Oreshonkov, A. S.; Vtyurin, A. N.; Maximova, A.


    The vibrational spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the structure the BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal. Based on the experimental results, the total set of phonons mode of the polarized Raman spectra was proposed. To verify the obtained experimental data have been performed theoretical calculation in software package LADY.

  10. 22 CFR 9b.3 - Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by foreign media... OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.3 Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations. In order to obtain a Department of State press building pass, correspondents employed by...

  11. Vibrational thermodynamics of Fe90Zr7B3 nanocrystalline alloy from nuclear inelastic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankov, S.; Miglierini, M.; Chumakov, A. I.


    Recently we determined the iron-partial density of vibrational states (DOS) of nanocrystalline Fe(90)Zr(7)B(3) (Nanoperm), synthesized by crystallization of an amorphous precursor, for various stages of nanocrystallization separating the DOS of the nanograins from that of the interfaces [S. Stank...

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 3EK2B-3FNFD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. Role of Erbin in ErbB2-dependent breast tumor growth. (United States)

    Tao, Yanmei; Shen, Chengyong; Luo, Shiwen; Traoré, Wilfried; Marchetto, Sylvie; Santoni, Marie-Josée; Xu, Linlin; Wu, Biao; Shi, Chao; Mei, Jinghong; Bates, Ryan; Liu, Xihui; Zhao, Kai; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Borg, Jean-Paul; Mei, Lin


    ErbB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is overexpressed in around 25% of breast cancers. In addition to forming a heterodimer with other ErbB receptors in response to ligand stimulation, ErbB2 can be activated in a ligand-independent manner. We report here that Erbin, an ErbB2-interacting protein that was thought to act as an antitumor factor, is specifically expressed in mammary luminal epithelial cells and facilitates ErbB2-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Disruption of their interaction decreases ErbB2-dependent proliferation, and deletion of the PDZ domain in Erbin hinders ErbB2-dependent tumor development in MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, Erbin forms a complex with ErbB2, promotes its interaction with the chaperon protein HSP90, and thus prevents its degradation. Finally, ErbB2 and Erbin expression correlates in human breast tumor tissues. Together, these observations establish Erbin as an ErbB2 regulator for breast tumor formation and progression.

  14. Secretion of SerpinB2 from endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli. (United States)

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S


    Due to the lack of an N-terminal signal peptide, SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) accumulates in cells and only a small percentage of it is secreted. The extracellular concentration of SerpinB2 significantly increases during inflammation. In the present study we investigated the mechanism with which SerpinB2 can be secreted from endothelial cells activated with LPS. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of SerpinB2 by double immunogold labeling followed by a high resolution electron microscopy analysis. We found that SerpinB2 gathers in the vesicular structures and in the endothelial cell periphery. These vesicles stained positive for the trans-Golgi network marker TGN46, which is consistent with their formation by the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and Golgi-dependent pathways. SerpinB2 was delivered to the plasma membrane, apparently together with TGN46 in the same vesicles, which after fusion with the membranes released cargo. Secretion of SerpinB2 was partially inhibited by brefeldin A. The secreted SerpinB2 was predominantly in its nonglycosylated 43kDa form as evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Our data suggest that increased expression of SerpinB2 by an inflammatory stimulus is sufficient to generate structures that resemble secretory vesicles. These vesicles may represent the mechanism by which high local concentrations of SerpinB2 are released at inflammation sites from endothelial cells.

  15. Preparation and Microstructure of Porous ZrB2 Ceramics Using Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Huiping; LI Junguo; SHEN Qiang; ZHANG Lianmeng


    Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and boron carbide (B4C) were added to ZrB2 raw powders to prepare ZrB2 porous ceramics by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS). The reactions between ZrO2 and B4C which produce ZrB2 and gas (such as CO and B2O3) result in pore formation. X-Ray Diffraction results indicated that the products phase was ZrB2 and the reaction was completed after the RSPS process. The porosity could be controlled by changing the ratio of synthesized ZrB2 to raw ZrB2 powders. The porosity of porous ceramics with 20 wt% and 40 wt% synthsized ZrB2 are 0.185 and 0.222, respectivly. And dense ZrB2-SiC ceramic with a porosity of 0.057 was prepared under the same conditions for comparison. The pores were homogeneously distributed within the microstructure of the porous ceramics. The results indicate a promising method for preparing porous ZrB2-based ceramics.

  16. 微小核糖核酸-148a调控胰腺癌细胞中ErbB3的表达%Expression of ErbB3 in pancreatic cancer cell line regulated by microRNA-148a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧; 姚玮艳; 陈熹; 张辰宇; 王亚雷


    Objective To look for and confirm the downstream regulated gene of microRNA (miRNA)-148a in pancreatic cancer cell line.Methods The target gene regulated by miRNA-148a was predicted through bio-informatics analysis.The plasmid containing desired gene and with luciferase 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) reporter was constructed.Pancreatic cancer cells BXPC-3 were transfected with analogs and inhibitors of miRNA-148a by liposomes.The activity of luciferase was measured to determine whether miRNA-148a directly connected with desired gene.The expression level of miRNA-148a was changed in BXPC-3 cells,and the changes of target gene v-verb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (awian) (ErbB3) expression were detected by Western blot at protein level.The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results There was a conservative binding site of ErbB3 with miRNA-148a detected by bio-informatics analysis,miRNA-148a directly combined with ErbB3 and the activity of luciferase decreased to (25.00+47.00) % of the negative control (F=4.66,P< 0.01).After miRNA-148a overexpression,the gray value of ErbB3 expression in BXPC-3 cells decreased to (26.16±4.69)% of control group (F=6.563,P<0.05).Conclusion miRNA-148a directly targeted and regulated the expression of ErbB3 in pancreatic cancer cell line BXPC-3.%目的 在胰腺癌细胞中寻找并验证微小核糖核酸(miRNA)-148a的下游调控基因.方法 运用生物信息学方法预测miRNA-148a调控的目的基因,构建含目的基因的3’端非翻译区(3'-UTR)的荧光素酶报告质粒,用脂质体转染miRNA-148a类似物和抑制剂进入胰腺癌细胞BXPC-3,检测荧光素酶活性,确定miRNA-148a是否直接与靶基因3’-UTR结合.同时改变胰腺癌细胞BXPC-3中miRNA-148a表达水平,用Western免疫印迹法在蛋白水平检测靶基因ErbB3表达的变化.统计学处理采用单因素方差分析.结果 生物信息学发现ErbB3和miRNA-148a上有一个保守的结合靶位点.miRNA-148

  17. Reserch and Progress in MgB2 Matrix Superconductive Material%MgB2基超导材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 刘心宇; 曾中明



  18. 关于B2B服务品牌忠诚度的研究%A research on brand loyalty of B2B service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令明; 耿禧则


    The research on brand loyalty has been confined to the product brand in the past. This paper applied brand loyalty theory to B2B service brand. Through empirical research, this paper reflected the effect of the brand recognition and brand image to action loyalty and attitude loyalty, and put forward some suggestions for the B2B service brand management%对于品牌忠诚度的研究,过去一直局限于产品品牌上。本文将品牌忠诚度理论运用于B2B服务品牌,通过实证调查,研究品牌认知度与品牌形象对态度忠诚度和行动忠诚度的影响作用,并据此为B2B服务品牌的成功管理提出建议。

  19. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C ˜ 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants (United States)

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.


    The C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X ˜ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C ˜ state below 1600 cm-1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C ˜ electronic state.

  20. Development and Application of Interatomic Potentials for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC): ZrB2 and HfB2 (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray; Bauschlicher


    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 are characterized by high melting point, good strength, and reasonable oxidation resistance. These materials are of interest for use as sharp leading edges for hypersonic vehicles among other applications. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. We present a Tersoff style parameterization of such potentials for ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. Parameters are fit to data generated from ab initio calculations. The accuracy of the potentials is assessed against further ab initio data. As a first non ]trivial application, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the thermal conductivity of single crystals and the thermal resistance of high symmetry grain boundaries.

  1. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C̃ (1)B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants. (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A; Field, Robert W


    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X̃ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C̃ state below 1600 cm(-1) of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C̃ electronic state.

  2. Growth of MgB2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapour Deposition Using B2H6 as a boron Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 朱亚彬; 刘震; 周岳亮; 张芹; 陈正豪; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢


    Superconducting MgB2 thin films were grown on single crystal Al2O3 (0001) by chemical vapour deposition using B2H6 as a boron source. MgB2 film was then accomplished by annealing the boron precursor films in the presence of high-purity magnesium bulk at 890℃ in vacuum. The as-grown MgB2 films are smooth and c-axis-oriented.The films exhibit a zero-resistance transition of about 38K with a narrow transition width of 0.2 K. Magnetic hysteresis measurements yield the critical current density of 1.9 × 107 A/cm2 at 10 K in zero field.

  3. Ephrin B2 is involved in Porphyromonas gingivalis infection-enhanced adhesion of THP-1 to human umbilical vein endothelial cells%肝配蛋白B2在牙龈卟啉单胞菌诱导单核细胞黏附人脐静脉内皮细胞中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞; 宋洁; 徐杨; 吴娟; 孙卫斌; 李宽钰


    Objective To investigate the mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis(Pg) infection-mediated enhancement of adhesion between monocytes THP-1 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) by detecting the effect of erythropoietin producing hepatomocellular receptor interacting protein B2(Ephrin B2) and its receptors on the adhesion.Methods PgATCC33277 was cultured in an anaerobic jar,and THP-1 cells were infected with various concentrations of Pg at multiplicity of infection(MOI) of 1:100 for 8 and 24 h,respectively.The expression of Ephrin B2 receptor of THP-1 cells was detected.After removal of the free Pg,THP-1 cells were cocultured with HUVEC(overexpress of EphrinB2 or not) for 24 h to detect the expression of Ephrin B2 of HUVEC cells after additional cultivation for 23 h.Results The adhesion of THP-1 cells post infection by Pg to HUVEC was enhanced.The mRNA levels of Ephrin B2 receptors,including EphB3(5.169±0.152,P=0.005),EphB4(11.040± 1.195,P=0.001),and EphA4(4.976± 0.122,P=0.001) expressed by THP-1,and Ephrin B2(8.938±0.962,P=0.008) expressed by HUVEC were significantly elevated 24 h post infection of Pg.Over expression of Ephrin B2 in HUVEC promoted the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVEC.Conclusions Ephrin B2 and its receptors are involved in Pg infection mediated enhancement of the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVEC cells,suggesting that Ephrin B2 participates in the development of atherosclerosis.%目的 检测肝配蛋白B2 (erythropoietin producing hepatomocellular receptor interacting protein B2,Ephrin B2)及其受体在单核细胞THP-1黏附人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cell,HUVEC)中的作用,揭示牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,Pg)感染增强THP-1黏附HUVEC的分子机制.方法 应用厌氧罐培养Pg,以感染复数1∶100感染人单核细胞株THP-1,感染8和24 h后,收集部分样品分别用于检测THP-1细胞Ephrin B2及其受体表达水平的变化;其余样品与转染空载体或过表达Ephrin B2

  4. Identification, Cloning, and Expression of L-Amino Acid Oxidase from Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Yu


    Full Text Available L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO is attracting more attentions due to its broad and important biological functions. Recently, an LAAO-producing marine microorganism (strain B3 was isolated from the intertidal zone of Dinghai sea area, China. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular identifications together with phylogenetic analysis congruously suggested that it belonged to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, it was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. B3. Its capability of LAAO production was crossly confirmed by measuring the products of H2O2, a-keto acids, and NH4+ in oxidization reaction. Two rounds of PCR were performed to gain the entire B3-LAAO gene sequence of 1608 bps in length encoding for 535 amino acid residues. This deduced amino acid sequence showed 60 kDa of the calculated molecular mass, supporting the SDS-PAGE result. Like most of flavoproteins, B3-LAAO also contained two conserved typical motifs, GG-motif and βαβ-dinucleotide-binding domain motif. On the other hand, its unique substrate spectra and sequence information suggested that B3-LAAO was a novel LAAO. Our results revealed that it could be functionally expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 using vectors, pET28b(+ and pET20b(+. However, compared with the native LAAO, the expression level of the recombinant one was relatively low, most probably due to the formation of inclusion bodies. Several solutions are currently being conducted in our lab to increase its expression level.

  5. B2B电子商务协作模型研究%Research on B2B Electronic Business Collaboration Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双庆; 程代杰; 何玲


    B2B is an important application form in electronic business, it provides the methods to do business activities through Internet among companies. But the heterogeneous of the information systems between companies makes it difficult in interoperating between them. In this paper, a B2B electronic business collaboration model is proposed, solving the collaboration between heterogeneous business systems by defining the business irformation ontology and describing the hierarchy in business collaboration process.

  6. Oxidation Resistance of ZrB2-SiC Multilayer Ceramics%ZrB2–SiC多层陶瓷的抗氧化性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左凤娟; 成来飞; 张立同


    ZrB2-SiC multilayer ceramic was prepared by a coneventional ceramic tape casting technology. The density was measured using the Archimede method. The microstructure of samples was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The oxidation resistance ofZrB2-SiC multilayer ceramics was also determined. The results indicate that for the product sintered at 1 950 ℃, the relative density is 99.7%. During the oxidation process of this material, the low melting phase is firstly volatilized, and then the oxidation layer is formed, which can diminish the further oxidation. The oxidation resistance of ZrB2-SiC multilayer ceramic was better than that of ZrB2-SiC monolithic ceramics.%用传统陶瓷的流延工艺制备ZrB2–SiC多层陶瓷。用Archimedes法测定ZrB2–SiC多层陶瓷的相对密度。用扫描电子显微镜观察其显微结构,并进行循环抗氧化性能评价。结果表明:ZrB2–SiC多层陶瓷在1 950℃烧结的致密度达到99.7%,材料的抗氧化过程主要可分为两个阶段:第一阶段低熔点相的挥发,出现质量损失;第二阶段氧化层的形成,降低进一步氧化速率。抗氧化性能较ZrB2–SiC复相陶瓷有很大提高。

  7. Advance in Research of TiB2 Materials%TiB2材料的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏; 李俊寿; 赵芳; 张颖


    TiB2材料作为一种新型先进材料,由于具有强度高、硬度高、耐磨损、耐腐蚀、熔点高、蒸气压低、导电性良好等优点而被广泛研究.介绍了TiB2材料的晶体结构与性质及其制备方法,包括直接合成法、碳热法、镁热法、溶胶-凝胶法、化学气相沉积法等,并分析总结了TiB2材料的致密化、涂层、复相陶瓷、微纳米结构等应用研究热点.其中,将两种或多种方法结合起来制备TiB2,已成为降低成本、减少污染、优化性能的重要途径.%As advanced materials, TiB2 materials have been widely studied because of their good properties,such as high strength,high hardness, wear resistance,corrosion resistance,high melting point,low vapor pressure,good electrical conductivity and so on. The crystal structural properties and preparation methods of TiB2 materials are introduced, such as direct synthesis, carbon thermal method, magnesium thermal method, sol-gel method, chemical vapor deposition method and so oa The reviews on densification, coating,multiphase ceramics and micro-nano structure of TiB2 materials are given as the research hotspots. Combining with two or more methods to synthesize TiB2 has been an important way of cost down, pollution reduction and performance optimization

  8. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.


    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  9. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos


    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  10. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough


    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  11. Approximate common divisors via lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry


    We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^(beta^2) to N^(beta^((m+1)/m)), under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^sqrt(n) approximation algorithm for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented our algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests. Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of noisy multivariate polynomial interpolation, and we ...

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans cyclin B3 is required for multiple mitotic processes including alleviation of a spindle checkpoint-dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M R Deyter


    Full Text Available The master regulators of the cell cycle are cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks, which influence the function of a myriad of proteins via phosphorylation. Mitotic Cdk1 is activated by A-type, as well as B1- and B2-type, cyclins. However, the role of a third, conserved cyclin B family member, cyclin B3, is less well defined. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans CYB-3 has essential and distinct functions from cyclin B1 and B2 in the early embryo. CYB-3 is required for the timely execution of a number of cell cycle events including completion of the MII meiotic division of the oocyte nucleus, pronuclear migration, centrosome maturation, mitotic chromosome condensation and congression, and, most strikingly, progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Our experiments reveal that the extended metaphase delay in CYB-3-depleted embryos is dependent on an intact spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC and results in salient defects in the architecture of holocentric metaphase chromosomes. Furthermore, genetically increasing or decreasing dynein activity results in the respective suppression or enhancement of CYB-3-dependent defects in cell cycle progression. Altogether, these data reveal that CYB-3 plays a unique, essential role in the cell cycle including promoting mitotic dynein functionality and alleviation of a SAC-dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation.

  13. The Third Party Logistics Partner Selection of B2C E-Commerce Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei


    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet, e-commerce enterprises in China is at an alarming rate of sustainable development, the B2C e-commerce in the online shopping market accounted for a large proportion, with the rapid change of the market and customer needs to establish a flexible distribution service is one of the many e-commerce companies need to solve. Using self logistics capital occupancy bigger; the logistics alliance, with the risk of internal information disclosure; and on the third party logistics, not only capital and manpower can be effectively used, helps enterprises to strengthen the core business. Therefore, it is very important to choose the appropriate third party logistics providers to reduce operating costs and improve the market influence. This paper analyses the existing problems in the third party logistics, the establishment of a more complete index system, according to the actual situation of the suppliers, using the improved AHP method and the entropy coefficient method to get the comprehensive weight, finally get the approximation method to meet the business requirements of the logistics service providers use the ideal, for commercial enterprises to third party logistics service provider selection and puts forward some available models.

  14. Vitamin B2-sensitised photooxidation of the ophthalmic drugs Timolol and Pindolol: kinetics and mechanism. (United States)

    Criado, Susana; García, Norman A


    The kinetics and mechanistic aspects of the riboflavin-photosensitised oxidation of the topically administrable ophthalmic drugs Timolol (Tim) and Pindolol (Pin) were investigated in water-MeOH (9:1, v/v) solution employing light of wavelength > 400 nm. riboflavin, belonging to the vitamin B(2) complex, is a known human endogenous photosensitiser. The irradiation of riboflavin in the presence of ophthalmic drugs triggers a complex picture of competitive reactions which produces the photodegradation of both the drugs and the pigment itself. The mechanism was elucidated employing stationary photolysis, polarographic detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis. Ophthalmic drugs quench riboflavin-excited singlet and triplet states. From the quenching of excited triplet riboflavin, the semireduced form of the pigment is generated, through an electron transfer process from the drug, with the subsequent production of superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) by reaction with dissolved molecular oxygen. Through the interaction of dissolved oxygen with excited triplet riboflavin, the species singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g))) is also generated to a lesser extent. Both O(2)(*-) and O(2)((1)Delta(g)) induce photodegradation of ophthalmic drugs, Tim being approximately 3-fold more easily photooxidisable than Pin, as estimated by oxygen consumption experiments.

  15. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 test facility-Thermal vacuum and propellant test facility (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen; Weaver, Harold; Cmar, Mark


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  16. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  17. Reliable Function Approximation and Estimation (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0293 Reliable Function Approximation and Estimation Rachel Ward UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN 101 EAST 27TH STREET STE 4308...orthogonal polynomial bases from a minimal number of pointwise function evaluations. Based on a model of weighted sparsity which we in- troduced, we...Institution name University of Texas at Austin Grant/Contract Title The full title of the funded effort. (YIP): Reliable function approximation and estimation

  18. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.


    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  19. Research Progress of Doping in MgB2 Superconducting Material%MgB2超导材料掺杂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付尧; 张松; 吴燕平; 邓朝勇



  20. Research on B2C Buying Online Mode%基于B2C的网络团购模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Purchasing online trade is seen more and more frequently in our country since the beginning of 21st century, and a large quantity of B2C websites for purchasing online have appeared. The factors influencing purchasing online are bargaining space, buyer expectation, competitive situation and so on. All of these factors play a decisive role for B2C purchasing online mode. Summing up the development of various purchasing online modes, eight B2C purchasing online modes can be divided from the three latitudes of sponsors, diversity of products and the number of buyers.%我国从21世纪以来网络团购交易越来越频繁,出现了大批的B2C网络团购网站。影响网络团购的因素有议价空间、买方预期、竞争状况等,这些因素对于B2C网络团购模式都有决定性的作用,总结多种团购模式发现,较为稳定的八种B2C网络团购模式都可从发起者、产品的多样性及卖家数量三个维度来进行划分。

  1. Study of TiB2 Ceramics via SHS/PHIP%SHS/PHIP法合成TiB2陶瓷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 张幸红; 曲伟; 韩杰才



  2. Microhardness and microstructure evolution of TiB2 reinforced Inconel 625/TiB2 composite produced by selective laser melting (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Bi, Guijun; Nai, Sharon; Sun, Chen-nan; Wei, Jun


    In this study, micron-size TiB2 particles were utilized to reinforce Inconel 625 produced by selective laser melting. Exceptional microhardness 600-700 HV0.3 of the composite was obtained. In further investigation, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625/TiB2 composite can be significantly influenced by addition of TiB2 particles during SLM. It was found that the long directional columnar grains observed from SLM-processed Inconel 625 were totally changed to fine dendritic matrix due to the addition of TiB2 particles. Moreover, with laser energy density (LED) of 1200 J/m, a Ti, Mo rich interface around TiB2 particles with fine thickness can be observed by FESEM and EDS. The microstructure evolution can be determined by different laser energy density (LED): under 1200 J/m, γ phase in dendrite grains; under 600 J/m, γ phase in combination of dendritic and acicular grains; under 400 J/m, γ phase acicular grains. Under optimized LED 1200 J/m, the dynamic nanohardness (8.62 GPa) and elastic modulus (167 GPa) of SLM-processed Inconel 625/TiB2 composite are higher compared with those of SLM-processed Inconel 625 (3.97 GPa and 135 GPa, respectively).

  3. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.


    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  4. Critical current density and flux pinning in Zr0.96V0.04B2 superconductor with AlB2 structure (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Renosto, S. T.; dos Santos, C. A. M.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.; Albino Aguiar, J.


    We have investigated the critical current density (Jc) and the flux pinning behavior in Zr0.96V0.04B2 superconductor with an AlB2 structure. V substitutions in Zr sites of non-superconducting ZrB2 system lead to superconductivity, and the 4% V-substituted Zr0.96V0.04B2 compounds show the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of ˜8.7 K. The magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops for the Zr0.96V0.04B2 demonstrate type-II superconducting behavior in a broad temperature range, and the Jc is estimated from the M-H loops using the Bean model. The analysis of the double-logarithmic Jc(H) plots indicates the dominance of collective pinning in Zr0.96V0.04B2, and that Jc(H) and magnetic field dependences of the flux pinning force density (Fp) are well fitted by the double exponential model which takes into account the existence of two superconducting gaps.

  5. Electronic structure of alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 single crystal: DFT approach (United States)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Auluck, S.


    The electronic band structure, total and angular momentum resolved projected density of states for NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 are calculated using the all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) method. The calculations are performed within four exchange correlations namely; local density approximation (LDA), general gradient approximation (PBE-GGA), Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EVGGA) and the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ). Calculations suggest that NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 is a direct wide band gap semiconductor. The exchange correlations potentials exhibit significant influence on the value of the energy gap being about 4.82 eV (LDA), 5.16 eV (GGA), 6.20 (EVGGA) and 7.20 eV (mBJ). The mBJ approach succeed by large amount in bringing the calculated energy gap closer to the experimental one (7.28 eV). The angular momentum resolved projected density of states shows the existence of a strong hybridization between the various orbitals. In additional we have calculated the electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes namely (1 0 1) and (0 0 -1) to visualized the chemical bonding characters.

  6. HER2/ErbB2 receptor signaling in rat and human prolactinoma cells: strategy for targeted prolactinoma therapy. (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hidenori; Cooper, Odelia; Mizutani, Jun; Tong, Yunguang; Ren, Song-Guang; Bannykh, Serguei; Melmed, Shlomo


    Dopamine agonist resistance or intolerance is encountered in approximately 20% of prolactinoma patients. Because human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is overexpressed in prolactinomas and ErbB receptor ligands regulate prolactin (PRL) gene expression, we tested the role of HER2/ErbB2 in prolactinoma hormone regulation and adenoma cell proliferation to assess the rationale for targeting this receptor for prolactinoma therapy. As we showed prolactinoma HER2 overexpression, we generated constitutively active HER2-stable GH3 cell transfectants (HER2CA). PRL mRNA levels were induced approximately 250-fold and PRL secretion was enhanced 100-fold in HER2CA cells, which also exhibited increased proliferation. Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB1 and HER2, blocked receptor signaling, and suppressed PRL expression more than gefitinib, a TKI of EGFR/ErbB1. Lapatinib also suppressed colony formation in soft agar more than gefitinib. Oral lapatinib treatment caused tumor shrinkage and serum PRL suppression both in HER2CA transfectant-inoculated Wistar-Furth rats and in estrogen-induced Fischer344 rat prolactinomas. In cultured human cells derived from resected prolactinoma tissue, lapatinib suppressed both PRL mRNA expression and secretion. These results demonstrate that prolactinoma HER2 potently induces PRL and regulates experimental prolactinoma cell proliferation. Because pituitary HER2 signaling is abrogated by TKIs, this receptor could be an effective target for prolactinoma therapy.

  7. Fast creation of dense MgB2 phase in wires made by IMD process (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kopera, L.; Kulich, M.


    Single-core MgB2 wires have been made by internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) into boron process. Heat treatments were performed at variable periods (4-90 min) for two adjusted temperatures 635 °C and 650 °C, with an overshoot of ≈20 °C after 5 min. Critical currents of differently treated MgB2/Ti/GlidCop wires have been measured and related with the MgB2 layers. The fast creation MgB2 compound has been observed after 8 min annealing at both temperatures and showing the critical current maxima. The less uniform MgB2 containing cracks was created for longer annealing periods (≥10 min), which resulted in lowered critical currents and worsened thermal stability. The fast creation of dense MgB2 allows it to utilize a continual and short heat treatment process for high current density wires made by IMD.

  8. Densification and dielectric properties of SrO–Al2O3–B2O3 ceramic bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Doaa A Abdel Aziz; Shama E Ahmed


    The influence of SrO (0.0–5.0 wt%) on partial substitution of alpha alumina (corundum) in ceramic composition (95 Al2O3–5B2O3) have been studied by co-precipitated process and their phase composition, microstructure, microchemistry and microwave dielectric properties were studied. Phase composition was revealed by XRD, while microstructure andmicrochemistry were investigated by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). The dielectric properties by means of dielectric constant (r), quality factor ( × ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) were measured in the microwave frequency region using a network analyser by the resonance method. The addition of B2O3 and SrO significantly reduced the sintering temperature of alumina ceramic bodies to 1600°C with optimum density (∼ 4 g/cm3) as compared with pure alumina powders recycled from Al dross (3.55 g/cm3 sintered at 1700°C). The sintered ceramic bodies show different ranges for the dielectric properties. Dielectric constant exists between 24 and 29, quality factor ( × ) is ranging between 15,236 and 22,020 GHz with a slight increase than those recorded with commercial alumina (10,000 – 20,000 GHz) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) in the –69 to –83 ppm/°C range. The addition of SrO up to 5 wt% leads to a maximum (r) value (29) due to relatively higher ionic polarizability of Sr2+ than that of the Al3+ and B3+ ions. On the other hand, changing chemical and phase composition with the formation of platelets of Sr-hexaluminate phase (SrAl12O19) results in maximizing value of ( × ) up to 22,020 GHz at ≈ 8 GHz and large negative charge of (f) to –83 ppm/°C.

  9. Twisted inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen


    For any real pair i, j geq 0 with i+j=1 let Bad(i, j) denote the set of (i, j)-badly approximable pairs. That is, Bad(i, j) consists of irrational vectors x:=(x_1, x_2) in R^2 for which there exists a positive constant c(x) such that max {||qx_1||^(-i), ||qx_2||^(-j)} > c(x)/q for all q in N. Building on a result of Kurzweil, a new characterization of the set Bad(i, j) in terms of `well-approximable' vectors in the area of `twisted' inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation is established. In addition, it is shown that Bad^x(i, j), the `twisted' inhomogeneous analogue of Bad(i, j), has full Hausdorff dimension 2 when x is chosen from the set Bad(i, j).

  10. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Tram Thu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Berger, Christian [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Stang, Espen [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Madshus, Inger Helene, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)


    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ► A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ► Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ► Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ► ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  11. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade. (United States)

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic


    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers.

  12. Do self-service technologies affect interfirm relationships? A B2B perspective


    Raechel Johns


    While considerable literature examines business-to business (B2B) relationships, the impact of technology on these relationships has lacked attention. IT has impacted the way businesses operate in a B2B context as well as influencing services by altering the way services are delivered. To understand the way in which Internet technology has impacted these B2B services, it is essential to examine its impact not only on business processes but on business relationships too. One technology, enable...

  13. ZrB2-TiB2 composite coating on surface of copper electrode by electrospark deposition%铜电极表面电火花沉积ZrB2-TiB2复相涂层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨李安卓; 董仕节; 罗平; 孙世烜; 杨巍; 刘琪


    采用粉末冶金法制备ZrB2-TiB2复相材料熔敷棒,并通过电火花沉积工艺在铜电极表面制备ZrB2-TiB2复相涂层.通过扫描电镜结合能谱分析研究了涂层的显微结构和元素分布,利用X射线衍射和显微硬度测试对涂层的物相组成与显微硬度进行检测.结果表明:直接熔敷ZrB2-TiB2复相涂层致密性较差,且存在较多裂纹,与基体有明显分层,涂层物相为Cu、ZrB2和TiB2;在预沉积Ni层(Ni层)上后沉积ZrB2-TiB2,所得的多层涂层具有较好的致密性,且涂层与基体间无分层;中间层有Ti、Zr、Cu元素的扩散,说明涂层与基体为冶金结合;ZrB2-TiB2复相涂层硬度为900 HV0.05稍高于多层涂层硬度(800 HV0.05).

  14. A role of nesfatin-1/NucB2 in dehydration-induced anorexia. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Mori, Masatomo; Ueta, Yoichi


    Nesfatin-1/NucB2, an anorexigenic molecule, is expressed mainly in the hypothalamus, particularly in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Nesfatin-1/NucB2 is also expressed in the subfornical organ (SFO). Because the SON and PVN are involved in body fluid regulation, nesfatin-1/NucB2 may be involved in dehydration-induced anorexia. To clarify the effects of endogenous nesfatin-1/NucB2, we studied changes in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA levels in the SFO, SON, and PVN in adult male Wistar rats after exposure to osmotic stimuli by using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Significant increases in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA levels, ∼2- to 3-fold compared with control, were observed in the SFO, SON, and PVN following water deprivation for 48 h, consumption of 2% NaCl hypertonic saline in drinking water for 5 days, and polyethylene glycol-induced hypovolemia. In addition, nesfatin-1/NucB2 expression was increased in response to water deprivation in a time-dependent manner. These changes in nesfatin-1/NucB2 mRNA expression were positively correlated with plasma sodium concentration, plasma osmolality, and total protein levels in all of the examined nuclei. Immunohistochemistry for nesfatin-1/NucB2 revealed that nesfatin-1/NucB2 protein levels were also increased after 48 h of dehydration and attenuated by 24 h of rehydration. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of nesfatin-1/NucB2-neutralizing antibody after 48 h of water deprivation resulted in a significant increase in food intake compared with administration of vehicle alone. These results suggested that nesfatin-1/NucB2 is a crucial peptide in dehydration-induced anorexia.

  15. erbB2 is required for G protein-coupled receptor signaling in the heart


    Negro, Alejandra; Brar, Bhawanjit K.; Gu, Yusu; Peterson, Kirk L.; Vale, Wylie; Lee, Kuo-Fen


    erbB2/Her2, a ligandless receptor kinase, has pleiotropic effects on mammalian development and human disease. The absence of erbB2 signaling in cardiac myocytes results in dilated cardiomyopathy in mice, resembling the cardiotoxic effects observed in a subset of breast cancer patients treated with the anti-Her2 antibody herceptin. Emerging evidence suggests that erbB2 is pivotal for integrating signaling networks involving multiple classes of extracellular signals. However, its role in G prot...

  16. Anomalous magnetism of CeRh3B2 under pressure (United States)

    Shaheen, S. A.; Schilling, J. S.; Klavins, P.; Vining, C. B.; Shelton, R. N.

    Whereas CeRh3B2 possesses the highest magnetic ordering temperature (T sub c approx. = 115K) of any Ce-compound with nonmagnetic constituents, LaRh3B2 becomes superconducting below 2.5K. Recent magnetization measurements under pressure as well as lattice parameter and specific heat studies shed light on the nature of the anomalous magnetic state in CeRh3B2.

  17. B2B marketingová komunikace společnosti John Deere



    The aim of this master's thesis is to evaluate the implementation of the B2B marketing strategy of John Deere on a specific example. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on defining the basics of modern marketing communications. Next it deals with defining the concept of B2B marketing and related strategies. The practical part focuses on the characterisation of the agricultural machinery industry and the slovak agricultural sector. Further it includes the introduction of other B2B marke...

  18. The calculation of active Raman modes of -quartz crystal via density functional theory based on B3LYP Hamiltonian in 6–311+G(2d) basis set

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Talebian; E Talebian; A Abdi


    We obtained an approximation of the force field of -quartz crystal using a new idea of applying density functional theory [J Purton, R Jones, C R A Catlow and M Leslie, Phys. Chem. Minerals 19, 392 (1993)]. Our calculations were based on B3LYP Hamiltonian [A N Lazarev and A P Mirgorodsky, Phys. Chem. Minerals 18, 231 (1991)] in 6−311+G(2d) basis set for H16Si7O6 cluster and included a unit cell of the lattice. The advantage of our method is the increase in the speed of calculations and the better adaption of simulation results with the experimental data.

  19. B2C电子商务服务质量评价研究%Research on Evaluation of Service Quality for B2C E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国洪; 施钟贤


    After more than ten years of development, China's network shopping has begun to enter the relative mature stage. Because the current B2C mode of the electronic commerce development is particularly rapid and its market share increase year by year, e-commerce will become the core of the future development and the focus of theoretical research. Related research shows that traditional service quality evaluation models represented by SERVQUAL model for e-commerce service quality evaluation are lack of adequate reliability, so the evaluation research for B2C e-commerce service quality has to be further deepened. This article focuses on the current research on B2C e-commerce service quality. The characteristics and existing problems in these studies are summarized and the future development direction of the B2C e-commerce service quality research is pointed out , in order to improve the service quality and provide reference and help for B2C e-commerce enterprises.%经过十余年的发展,中国的网络购物已经开始步入相对成熟的阶段,当前以B2C模式的电子商务发展尤为迅速,市场份额逐年提高,必将成为未来电子商务发展的核心及理论研究的重点。相关研究表明,以SERVQUAL模型为代表的传统服务质量评价模型对于电子商务服务质量的评价缺乏足够的信度,因此对于B2C电子商务服务质量的评价研究也就有待进一步深化。本文对当前涉及B2C电子商务服务质量的相关研究进行了重点介绍,总结了这些研究的特点以及存在的问题,指出了今后B2C电子商务服务质量的研究需要发展的方向,以期为B2C电子商务企业提高服务质量提供借鉴和帮助。

  20. A missense mutation in CRYBB2 leads to progressive congenital membranous cataract by impacting the solubility and function of βB2-crystallin. (United States)

    Chen, Weirong; Chen, Xiaoyun; Hu, Zhengmao; Lin, Haotian; Zhou, Fengqi; Luo, Lixia; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhong, Xiaojian; Yang, Ye; Wu, Changrui; Lin, Zhuoling; Ye, Shaobi; Liu, Yizhi


    Congenital cataract is a major cause of visual impairment and childhood blindness. The solubility and stability of crystallin proteins play critical roles in maintaining the optical transparency of the lens during the life span. Previous studies have shown that approximately 8.3%~25% of congenital cataracts are inherited, and mutations in crystallins are the most common. In this study, we attempted to identify the genetic defect in a four-generation family affected with congenital cataracts. The congenital cataract phenotype of this four-generation family was identified as membranous cataract by slit-lamp photography. Mutation screening of the candidate genes detected a heterozygous c.465G → C change in the exon6 of the βB2-crystallin gene (CRYBB2) in all family members affected with cataracts, resulting in the substitution of a highly conserved Tryptophan to Cystine (p.W151C). The mutation was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and found that the transition resulted in the absence of a BslI restriction site in the affected members of the pedigree. The outcome of PolyPhen-2 and SIFT analysis predicted that this W151C mutation would probably damage to the structure and function of βB2-crystallin. Wild type (wt) and W151C mutant βB2-crystallin were expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), and the fluorescence results showed that Wt-βB2-crystallin was evenly distributed throughout the cells, whereas approximately 34.7% of cells transfected with the W151C mutant βB2-crystallin formed intracellular aggregates. Taken together, these data suggest that the missense mutation in CRYBB2 gene leads to progressive congenital membranous cataract by impacting the solubility and function of βB2-crystallin.

  1. A missense mutation in CRYBB2 leads to progressive congenital membranous cataract by impacting the solubility and function of βB2-crystallin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Chen

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a major cause of visual impairment and childhood blindness. The solubility and stability of crystallin proteins play critical roles in maintaining the optical transparency of the lens during the life span. Previous studies have shown that approximately 8.3%~25% of congenital cataracts are inherited, and mutations in crystallins are the most common. In this study, we attempted to identify the genetic defect in a four-generation family affected with congenital cataracts. The congenital cataract phenotype of this four-generation family was identified as membranous cataract by slit-lamp photography. Mutation screening of the candidate genes detected a heterozygous c.465G → C change in the exon6 of the βB2-crystallin gene (CRYBB2 in all family members affected with cataracts, resulting in the substitution of a highly conserved Tryptophan to Cystine (p.W151C. The mutation was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis and found that the transition resulted in the absence of a BslI restriction site in the affected members of the pedigree. The outcome of PolyPhen-2 and SIFT analysis predicted that this W151C mutation would probably damage to the structure and function of βB2-crystallin. Wild type (wt and W151C mutant βB2-crystallin were expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs, and the fluorescence results showed that Wt-βB2-crystallin was evenly distributed throughout the cells, whereas approximately 34.7% of cells transfected with the W151C mutant βB2-crystallin formed intracellular aggregates. Taken together, these data suggest that the missense mutation in CRYBB2 gene leads to progressive congenital membranous cataract by impacting the solubility and function of βB2-crystallin.

  2. MgB2材料在超导科学中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  3. Isotope Effect on Electron-Phonon Coupling in Multiband Superconductor MgB2 (United States)

    Mou, Daixiang; Taufour, Valentin; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Bud'Ko, Serguei; Canfield, Paul; Kaminski, Adam

    We systematically investigate the isotope effect of electron-phonon coupling in multi-band superconductor MgB2 by laser based Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy. The kink structure around 70 meV on two σ bands, which is caused by electron coupling to E2 g phonon mode, is shifted to higher binding energy in Mg10B2 than that in Mg11B2. The measured shifting energy of 3.5 meV is consistent with theoretical calculation based on harmonic phonon in MgB2. Our temperature dependent measurement also indicates the isotope effect of kink structure is not dependent on superconducting transition.

  4. Al-doped MgB2 materials studied using electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Bateni, Ali; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan; Somer, Mehmet


    Undoped and aluminum (Al) doped magnesium diboride (MgB2) samples were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. The microscopic defect structures of Al-doped MgB2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that Mg-vacancies are responsible for defect-induced peculiarities in MgB2. Above a certain level of Al doping, enhanced conductive properties of MgB2 disappear due to filling of vacancies or trapping of Al in Mg-related vacancy sites.

  5. Supercondcuting properties in MgB2/Fe wires prepared by PIT method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guo; FENG Yong; FU Baoquan; LIU Chunfang; JI Ping; ZHANG Pingxiang; ZHOU Lian


    The MgB2 formation was analyzed physically and chemically and the MgB2/Fe wires were fabricated by powder in tube (PIT) technology. The microstructureof MgB2 in wires was studied by the scanning electrical microscope (SEM), whichshows a good connection of grains and the size of MgB2 grain is 1-3μm. The results of Jc measured by the standard four probes method show that Jc value reaches 6.1×104 A/cm2 at 20 K in self field.

  6. Superconducting MgB2 flowers: growth mechanism and their superconducting properties (United States)

    Seong, Won Kyung; Ranot, Mahipal; Lee, Ji Yeong; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Jae Hak; Oh, Young Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kang, Won Nam


    We report for the first time the growth and the systematic study of the growth mechanism for flower-like MgB2 structures fabricated on the substrates for solid-state electronics by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The MgB2 flower has a width of 30 μm and a height of 10 μm. The superconductivity of MgB2 flowers was confirmed by a magnetization measurement, and the transition temperature is 39 K, which is comparable with high-quality bulk samples. The excellent current-carrying capability was demonstrated by MgB2 flowers. To understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of MgB2 flowers a very systematic study was performed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and atom probe (AP) microscopy. The HRTEM revealed that the seed grain of a MgB2 flower has a [101¯0] direction, and the flower is composed of micro-columnar MgB2 grains having pyramidal tips and which are grown along the (0001) plane. A clear understanding of the growth mechanism for MgB2 flowers could lead to the growth of other low-dimensional MgB2 structures for superconducting electronic devices.

  7. Electrochemical Oxidation of Paracetamol Mediated by MgB2 Microparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode


    Mohammed Zidan; Tan Wee Tee; A. Halim Abdullah; Zulkarnain Zainal; Goh Joo Kheng


    A MgB2 microparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (MgB2/GCE) was fabricated by adhering microparticles of MgB2 onto the electrode surface of GCE. It was used as a working electrode for the detection of paracetamol in 0.1 M KH2PO4 aqueous solution during cyclic voltammetry. Use of the MgB2/GCE the oxidation process of paracetamol with a current enhancement significantly by about 2.1 times. The detection limit of this modified electrode was found to be 30 μM. The sensitivity under conditio...

  8. Inhibition of ErbB-2 induces TFF3 downregulation in breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Yue, Lu; Xiang, Jinyu; Shen, Zan; Wang, Zhihao; Yao, Yasai; Zhou, Quan; Ding, Aiping; Qiu, Wensheng


    ErbB-2 gene plays an important role in carcinoma formation whose overexpression was observed in many types of tumors, including breast cancer. Dysregulation of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), which is thought to function in the development and progression of breast cancer, was found to be upregulated in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers and cells. However, a putative interaction between ErbB-2 and TFF3 in breast cancer remains unknown. To determine whether TFF3 has an important role in breast tumor, its levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in 130 cases of breast infiltrating duct carcinoma and 30 cases of normal breast tissue with a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human TFF3. Patients who were positive for ErbB-2 also had high expression levels of TFF3 (p TFF3 by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Compared with the control groups, ErbB-2 mRNA expression was decreased in the Lenti-ShERBB2 infection group, and Western blotting indicated a concordant ErbB-2 protein reduction. On the other hand, TFF3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly downregulated by ErbB-2 silencing in SK-BR-3. These findings are a proof of the foundation for a certain relationships of ErbB-2 and TFF3, which may serve as novel therapeutic markers of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers in the future.

  9. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.


    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  10. Electrospark deposition of Al2O3–TiB2/Ni composite-phase surface coatings on Cu–Cr–Zr alloy electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Luo


    Full Text Available To improve electrode life during the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel plates, an Al2O3–TiB2 composite coating was synthesized on the surfaces of spot-welding electrodes through an electrospark deposition process. The microstructure, elemental composition, phase structure, and mechanical properties of the coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and microhardness testing. It was found that extensive cracking occurred in the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating and at the coating–electrode interface. When the Al2O3–TiB2 coating was deposited on electrodes precoated with Ni, the number of defects decreased significantly. Further, delamination did not occur, and fewer cracks were formed. The average hardness of the multilayered Al2O3–TiB2/Ni coating was approximately 2200 HV and higher than that of the monolithic Al2O3–TiB2 coating (1100 HV.

  11. Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Mömke, Tobias


    We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.

  12. Approximation methods in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Čekanavičius, Vydas


    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  13. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, Joel; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David


    This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To develop our approximation, we introduce a Monte Carlo Tree Search algorithm along with an agent-specific extension of the Context Tree Weighting algorithm. Empirically, we present a set of encouraging results on a number of stochastic, unknown, and partially observable domains.

  14. Concept Approximation between Fuzzy Ontologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fuzzy ontologies are efficient tools to handle fuzzy and uncertain knowledge on the semantic web; but there are heterogeneity problems when gaining interoperability among different fuzzy ontologies. This paper uses concept approximation between fuzzy ontologies based on instances to solve the heterogeneity problems. It firstly proposes an instance selection technology based on instance clustering and weighting to unify the fuzzy interpretation of different ontologies and reduce the number of instances to increase the efficiency. Then the paper resolves the problem of computing the approximations of concepts into the problem of computing the least upper approximations of atom concepts. It optimizes the search strategies by extending atom concept sets and defining the least upper bounds of concepts to reduce the searching space of the problem. An efficient algorithm for searching the least upper bounds of concept is given.

  15. Approximate Sparse Regularized Hyperspectral Unmixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Deng


    Full Text Available Sparse regression based unmixing has been recently proposed to estimate the abundance of materials present in hyperspectral image pixel. In this paper, a novel sparse unmixing optimization model based on approximate sparsity, namely, approximate sparse unmixing (ASU, is firstly proposed to perform the unmixing task for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. And then, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is introduced to tackle the optimization problem. In ASU, approximate sparsity is used as a regularizer for sparse unmixing, which is sparser than l1 regularizer and much easier to be solved than l0 regularizer. Three simulated and one real hyperspectral images were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to l1 regularizer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more effective and accurate for hyperspectral unmixing than state-of-the-art l1 regularizer.

  16. Splitting Behaviour of Implanted MeV Au+ Ions in LiB3O5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke-ming; SHI Bo-rong; Nelson Cue; LU Fei; WANG Feng-xiang; XIE Zhao-xia; SHEN Ding-yu; LIU Yao-gang


    The diffusion behaviour of 1.0 and 2.0 MeV Au+ implanted into LiB3O5 single crystal has been studied by the Rutherford backscattering of 2.1 MeV He ions. Annealing was performed at temperatures of 600, 700, and 800℃each for 30min. The results show that the diffusion behaviour is quite different in two cases. In LiB3O5, the depth distribution of the 1.0 Me V Au is nearly Gaussian and becomes bimodal after annealing at 800℃ for 30 min.But in the case of 2.0 MeV, the depth distribution of as implanted Au+ in LiBsO5 has splitting behaviour. After 800C for 30 min annealing, there is no obvious diffusion observed. The precise interpretation is needed.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ in orthorhombic δ-BiB3O6 crystal (United States)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Malakhovskii, A. V.; Sukhachev, A. L.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Jubera, V.


    Absorption spectra of the Nd3+ ions in an orthorhombic δ-BiB3O6 single crystal were measured in the spectral range 11,000-20,500 cm-1. The f-f transition intensities were analyzed in terms of the Judd-Ofelt theory, and the following parameters of the theory were obtained: Ω2 = 6.35 × 10-20 cm2, Ω4 = 4.86 × 10-20 cm2, and Ω6 = 11.233 × 10-20 cm2. The strengths, spontaneous emission probabilities, branching ratios, spectroscopic quality factor and excited state radiative lifetime were calculated for laser transitions from the 4F3/2 state to 4IJ manifold. Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:δ-BiB3O6 crystal favor lasing at 1.3 μm, where this crystal possesses near non-critical phase matching for second harmonic generation.

  18. Thermochemistry of organic reactions in microporous oxides by atomistic simulations: benchmarking against periodic B3LYP. (United States)

    Bleken, Francesca; Svelle, Stian; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Olsbye, Unni; Arstad, Bjørnar; Swang, Ole


    The methylation of ethene by methyl chloride and methanol in the microporous materials SAPO-34 and SSZ-13 has been studied using different periodic atomistic modeling approaches based on density functional theory. The RPBE functional, which earlier has been used successfully in studies of surface reactions on metals, fails to yield a qualitatively correct description of the transition states under study. Employing B3LYP as functional gives results in line with experimental data: (1) Methanol is adsorbed more strongly than methyl chloride to the acid site. (2) The activation energies for the methylation of ethene are slightly lower for SSZ-13. Furthermore, the B3LYP activation energies are lower for methyl chloride than for methanol.

  19. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mamajek, E E; Torres, G; Harmanec, P; Asplund, M; Bennett, P D; Capitaine, N; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Depagne, E; Folkner, W M; Haberreiter, M; Hekker, S; Hilton, J L; Kostov, V; Kurtz, D W; Laskar, J; Mason, B D; Milone, E F; Montgomery, M M; Richards, M T; Schou, J; Stewart, S G


    Astronomers commonly quote the properties of celestial objects in units of parameters for the Sun, Jupiter, or the Earth. The resolution presented here was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy and passed by the XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts a set of nominal solar, terrestrial, and jovian conversion constants for stellar and (exo)planetary astronomy which are defined to be exact SI values. While the nominal constants are based on current best estimates (CBEs; which have uncertainties, are not secularly constant, and are updated regularly using new observations), they should be interpreted as standard values and not as CBEs. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts five solar conversion constants (nominal solar radius, nominal total solar irradiance, nominal solar luminosity, nominal solar effective temperature, and nominal solar mass parameter) and six planetary conversion constants (nominal terrestrial equatorial ra...

  20. Transfinite Approximation of Hindman's Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Beiglböck, Mathias


    Hindman's Theorem states that in any finite coloring of the integers, there is an infinite set all of whose finite sums belong to the same color. This is much stronger than the corresponding finite form, stating that in any finite coloring of the integers there are arbitrarily long finite sets with the same property. We extend the finite form of Hindman's Theorem to a "transfinite" version for each countable ordinal, and show that Hindman's Theorem is equivalent to the appropriate transfinite approximation holding for every countable ordinal. We then give a proof of Hindman's Theorem by directly proving these transfinite approximations.

  1. B3LYP, BLYP and PBE DFT band structures of the nucleotide base stacks (United States)

    Szekeres, Zs; Bogár, F.; Ladik, J.

    DFT crystal orbital (band structure) calculations have been performed for the nucleotide base stacks of cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine arranged in DNA B geometry. The band structures obtained with PBE, BLYP, and B3LYP functionals are presented and compared to other related experimental and theoretical results. The influence of the quality of the basis set on the fundamental gap values was also investigated using Clementi's double ζ, 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets.

  2. The new investigation of the b3Σ- -a3 Π system of AlH (United States)

    Szajna, Wojciech; Hakalla, Rafał; Kolek, Przemysław; Zachwieja, Mirosław


    The b3Σ- -a3 Π visible system of AlH was observed at high resolution by using a high accuracy, dispersive optical spectroscopy technique. The emission spectrum was excited in an aluminum hollow-cathode lamp with two anodes, filled with a static Ne/NH3 gas mixture. In the 25 , 900 - 26 , 500cm-1 spectral region, the rotational structure of the two overlapped 0-0 and 1-1 bands was clearly observed and precisely measured. In total, 260 transition wavenumbers have been assigned with an estimated accuracy of about 0.005 cm-1. The open rotational structure of the Q branches in both bands has been measured for the first time, and the Λ-doubling in the a3 Π , v = 0 , 1 levels has been described by o , p and q parameters. For example, the values for the v = 0 level are p0 = 1.754 (14) ×10-2cm-1, q0 = 3.264 (28) ×10-3cm-1 and o0 = 9.34 (20) ×10-2cm-1. Moreover, the spin-orbit interaction constants for the a3 Π state have been obtained experimentally as follows: A0 = 40.6040 (42)cm-1 and A1 = 40.419 (59)cm-1. The a3 Π , v = 0 , 1 levels are considered as regular, while for the b3Σ- , v = 0 , 1 levels considerable perturbations in the rotational structure have been observed. Consequently, these states have been represented in a different way in our least-squares treatment: a3 Π state by molecular constants and b3Σ- state by term values. The observed irregularities in the b3Σ- state have been graphically described by plotting experimental minus calculated term values versus quantum number N for the v = 0 level, as well as by plotting reduced term values versus N (N + 1) for the v = 1 level.

  3. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamajek, E. E.; Prsa, A.; Torres, G.


    , are not secularly constant, and are updated regularly using new observations), they should be interpreted as standard values and not as CBEs. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts five solar conversion constants (nominal solar radius, nominal total solar irradiance, nominal solar luminosity, nominal solar effective...... temperature, and nominal solar mass parameter) and six planetary conversion constants (nominal terrestrial equatorial radius, nominal terrestrial polar radius, nominal jovian equatorial radius, nominal jovian polar radius, nominal terrestrial mass parameter, and nominal jovian mass parameter)....

  4. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of orthorhombic BiB3O6 (United States)

    Cherepakhin, A. V.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Zamkov, A. V.


    Dispersion of refraction coefficients of orthorhombic BiB3O6 in the wavelength range between 435.8 and 1060 nm is studied, nonlinear optical coefficients are determined, and phase matching angles, angular and spectral bandwidths for second harmonic generation processes are calculated. δ-BiBO may be suitable for doubling of lasers with a wavelength in the 1.3 μm region as well as the matrix for self-doubling lasing media.

  5. Widely tunable picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6). (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Ghotbi, Masood; Zadeh, Majid E


    Efficient generation of widely tunable picosecond pulses from the visible to near-infrared is demonstrated by optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6). Pumped by the second harmonic of an amplified mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, also generated in BiB(3)O(6), a signal and idler tuning range of 740-1893 nm has been achieved with angle tuning under type I (o?e+e) phase-matching in the optical yz-plane. With 40-ps pump pulses of 420-muJ energy, single-pass signal pulse energies of up to 48.6 muJ have been obtained at total OPA pump to signal and idler conversion efficiency as high as 30%. Significant temperature tuning under type I (o?e+e) noncritical interaction along the optical z-axis is also demonstrated, extending the signal tuning range from 740 nm down to 676 nm and idler tuning range from 1893 nm up to 2497 nm. Using second harmonic generation of the amplified signal pulses, also in BiB(3)O(6),wavelength extension to 370-500 nm has been achieved at 24% conversion efficiency, providing 10-muJ pulses across the tuning range. Optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6) under strong two-photon absorption pumped by 210-muJ pulses at 355 nm is also reported, providing amplified signal pulse energies of 14.2 muJ at OPA conversion efficiency as high as 21% and a spectral coverage across 450-1674 nm.

  6. B3A: Prompting Cooperation Among Rational Participants in P2P Bulk File Sharing Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing systems assume that their users download files in proportion to their sharing. Unfortunately, users are unlikely to do so without an incentive mechanism. Previous solutions to the problem required some types of centralized control, which strays from the spirit of P2P to provide long-term incentives. This paper presents the balance-based bandwidth allocation, B3A, an incentive framework to inspire participants to share files. In the B3A framework, each peer keeps the differences between the amount of data it has received from each peer and the amount it has sent to that one. When receiving simultaneous requests from various peers, the peer prefers to allocate its limited upload bandwidth to those peers with larger differences. Therefore, the downloading bandwidth perceived by a peer is positively related to its contributions to others, consequently stimulating it to share more files. The B3A framework is fully decentralized, scalable, and secure.

  7. Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong


    The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3-B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.

  8. Effects of ZrB2 on substructure and wear properties of laser melted in situ ZrB2p/6061Al composites (United States)

    Zeng, Yida; Chao, Yuhjin; Luo, Zhen; Cai, Yangchuan; Huang, Yongxian


    Aluminum matrix composites reinforced by in situ ZrB2 particles were successfully fabricated from an Al-KBF4-K2ZrF6 system via a direct melt reaction. A laser surface melting strategy is used to improve the surface strength of the in situ ZrB2p/6061Al composite, which includes a series of laser-melted composites with different laser power processed by a 2 kW YAG laser generator. XRD and EDS results demonstrated the existence of ZrB2 nanoparticles in the composite. After laser melting, the penetration depth of the molten pool increases with increasing power density. OM and SEM analysis indicate that the laser melting process yields narrower cellular spacing of the matrix and partly disperses the ZrB2 particle clusters. Compared with laser-melted matrix alloys, the crystal orientations near the melted layers edge of the composite are almost random due to heterogeneous nucleation in the melt and the pinning effect of laser-dispersed ZrB2 nanoparticles at the solidification front. Wear test results show that the laser melted layer performs better at wear resistance than both the substrate and the matrix AA6061 by measuring wear mass loss. Compared with composite samples prepared without laser melting, the wear mass loss of the laser melted composites decreased from 61 to 56 mg under a load of 98 N for 60 min.

  9. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [1]Baraniuk, R. G., DeVore, R. A., Kyriazis, G., Yu, X. M., Near best tree approximation, Adv. Comput. Math.,2002, 16: 357-373.[2]Cohen, A., Dahmen, W., Daubechies, I., DeVore, R., Tree approximation and optimal encoding, Appl. Comput.Harmonic Anal., 2001, 11: 192-226.[3]Dahmen, W., Schneider, R., Xu, Y., Nonlinear functionals of wavelet expansions-adaptive reconstruction and fast evaluation, Numer. Math., 2000, 86: 49-101.[4]DeVore, R. A., Nonlinear approximation, Acta Numer., 1998, 7: 51-150.[5]Davis, G., Mallat, S., Avellaneda, M., Adaptive greedy approximations, Const. Approx., 1997, 13: 57-98.[6]DeVore, R. A., Temlyakov, V. N., Some remarks on greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1996, 5: 173-187.[7]Kashin, B. S., Temlyakov, V. N., Best m-term approximations and the entropy of sets in the space L1, Mat.Zametki (in Russian), 1994, 56: 57-86.[8]Temlyakov, V. N., The best m-term approximation and greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1998, 8:249-265.[9]Temlyakov, V. N., Greedy algorithm and m-term trigonometric approximation, Constr. Approx., 1998, 14:569-587.[10]Hutchinson, J. E., Fractals and self similarity, Indiana. Univ. Math. J., 1981, 30: 713-747.[11]Binev, P., Dahmen, W., DeVore, R. A., Petruchev, P., Approximation classes for adaptive methods, Serdica Math.J., 2002, 28: 1001-1026.[12]Gilbarg, D., Trudinger, N. S., Elliptic Partial Differential Equations of Second Order, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,1983.[13]Ciarlet, P. G., The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, New York: North Holland, 1978.[14]Birman, M. S., Solomiak, M. Z., Piecewise polynomial approximation of functions of the class Wαp, Math. Sb.,1967, 73: 295-317.[15]DeVore, R. A., Lorentz, G. G., Constructive Approximation, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.[16]DeVore, R. A., Popov, V., Interpolation of Besov spaces, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988, 305: 397-414.[17]Devore, R., Jawerth, B., Popov, V., Compression of wavelet decompositions, Amer. J. Math., 1992, 114: 737-785.[18]Storozhenko, E

  10. Rational approximation of vertical segments (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte


    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  11. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.


    This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante

  12. Some results in Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the formal Laurent series over F3. The first paper is on intrinsic Diophantine approximation in the Cantor set in the formal Laurent series over F3. The summary contains a short motivation, the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs, mainly focusing on the ideas involved. The details of the proofs...

  13. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  14. Approximation on the complex sphere


    Alsaud, Huda; Kushpel, Alexander; Levesley, Jeremy


    We develop new elements of harmonic analysis on the complex sphere on the basis of which Bernstein's, Jackson's and Kolmogorov's inequalities are established. We apply these results to get order sharp estimates of $m$-term approximations. The results obtained is a synthesis of new results on classical orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis on manifolds and geometric properties of Euclidean spaces.

  15. WKB Approximation in Noncommutative Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Buric


    Full Text Available We consider the quasi-commutative approximation to a noncommutative geometry defined as a generalization of the moving frame formalism. The relation which exists between noncommutativity and geometry is used to study the properties of the high-frequency waves on the flat background.

  16. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  17. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  18. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions (United States)

    Peralta, Javier


    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  19. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole


    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...

  20. In situ epitaxial MgB2 thin films for superconducting electronics. (United States)

    Zeng, Xianghui; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej V; Kotcharov, Armen; Jones, James E; Xi, X X; Lysczek, Eric M; Redwing, Joan M; Xu, Shengyong; Li, Qi; Lettieri, James; Schlom, Darrell G; Tian, Wei; Pan, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zi-Kui


    The newly discovered 39-K superconductor MgB2 holds great promise for superconducting electronics. Like the conventional superconductor Nb, MgB2 is a phonon-mediated superconductor, with a relatively long coherence length. These properties make the prospect of fabricating reproducible uniform Josephson junctions, the fundamental element of superconducting circuits, much more favourable for MgB2 than for high-temperature superconductors. The higher transition temperature and larger energy gap of MgB2 promise higher operating temperatures and potentially higher speeds than Nb-based integrated circuits. However, success in MgB2 Josephson junctions has been limited because of the lack of an adequate thin-film technology. Because a superconducting integrated circuit uses a multilayer of superconducting, insulating and resistive films, an in situ process in which MgB2 is formed directly on the substrate is desirable. Here we show that this can be achieved by hybrid physical-chemical vapour deposition. The epitaxially grown MgB2 films show a high transition temperature and low resistivity, comparable to the best bulk samples, and their surfaces are smooth. This advance removes a major barrier for superconducting electronics using MgB2.

  1. Combustion Synthesis and Densification of NiAl/TiB2 Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A suitable combustion synthesis and densification process was designed to fabricate dense NiAl/TiB2 composites from Ni-Al-Ti-B system. Combustion synthesis processing and microstructure characteristics of products were studied in detail.The results show that the amount of TiB2 ceramics has a great influence on the combustion synthesis processing and microstructure; with the increase of the amount of TiB2 ceramics, the combustion temperature and combustion velocity increase rapidly.The volume of synthesized products and the grain size of ceramics particle size are also affected by the amount of TiB2 ceramics.TiB2 ceramics fiber can be produced in this synthesis system.The dense NiAl/TiB2 composites with residual porosity of no more than 1% are fabricated by the combustion synthesis and hot pressing,the mechanical properties of the dense NiAl/TiB2 composites increase with increase of the amount of TiB2 ceramics.

  2. 26 CFR 1.6031(b)-2T - REMIC reporting requirements (temporary). [Reserved (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false REMIC reporting requirements (temporary). 1.6031(b)-2T Section 1.6031(b)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... requirements (temporary)....

  3. Magnetism in the system Ce1-xLaxRh3B2 (abstract) (United States)

    Malik, S. K.; Umarji, A. M.; Shenoy, G. K.; Aldred, T. A.; Niarchos, D. G.


    The RRh3B2 (R=La to Gd) compounds form in the hexagonal CeCo3B2-type structure. The La containing compound in this series has been reported to be a superconductor while CeRh3B2 orders magnetically with Ce being in a nearly 3+ state. The magnetic ordering in CeRh3B2 is presumed to arise from the hybridization of nearly localized 4f electrons of Ce with sp conduction electrons or the 4d band of Rh or from the hybridization of the two. We have examined the magnetic behavior of the system Ce1-xLaxRh3B2 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8). All these compounds (except LaRh3B2) also order magnetically. The Curie temperature decreases from about 115 K for pure Ce compound to 2.3 K for Ce0.2La0.8Rh3B2. The magnetic moments per formula unit remains nearly constant for 0B2 for x ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. The La-rich side is being investigated for the occurrence of superconductivity. Details will be published elsewhere.

  4. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-2 - Multiple annuity starting dates. [Reserved (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple annuity starting dates. 1.415(b)-2...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(b)-2 Multiple annuity starting dates....

  5. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Burdusel, M.


    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu–Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations...

  6. A Decompositional Approach to Executing Quality Data Model Algorithms on the i2b2 Platform (United States)

    Mo, Huan; Jiang, Guoqian; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Kiefer, Richard; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Denny, Joshua C.; Thompson, William K.


    The Quality Data Model (QDM) is an established standard for representing electronic clinical quality measures on electronic health record (EHR) repositories. The Informatics for Integrated Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is a widely used platform for implementing clinical data repositories. However, translation from QDM to i2b2 is challenging, since QDM allows for complex queries beyond the capability of single i2b2 messages. We have developed an approach to decompose complex QDM algorithms into workflows of single i2b2 messages, and execute them on the KNIME data analytics platform. Each workflow operation module is composed of parameter lists, a template for the i2b2 message, an mechanism to create parameter updates, and a web service call to i2b2. The communication between workflow modules relies on passing keys ofi2b2 result sets. As a demonstration of validity, we describe the implementation and execution of a type 2 diabetes mellitus phenotype algorithm against an i2b2 data repository. PMID:27570665

  7. 17 CFR 270.24b-2 - Filing copies of sales literature. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing copies of sales literature. 270.24b-2 Section 270.24b-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... literature. Copies of material filed with the Commission for the sole purpose of complying with section...

  8. Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;


    -MS/MS survey of fumonisins in retail raisins. In 10 of 21 brands collected in Denmark, Germany, and The Netherlands, fumonisins B-2 and B-4 were detected at levels up to 13 and 1.3 mu g/kg, respectively. Only fumonisin B-2 has been detected in wine, so the presence of fumonisin B-4 in raisins suggests...

  9. Antibacterial Peptide CecropinB2 Production via Various Host and Construct Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shiang Lai


    Full Text Available Cecropin is a cationic antibacterial peptide composed of 35–39 residues. This peptide has been identified as possessing strong antibacterial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, and it has been claimed that some types of the cecropin family of peptides are capable of killing cancer cells. In this study, the host effect of cloning antibacterial peptide cecropinB2 was investigated. Three different host expression systems were chosen, i.e., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia pastoris. Two gene constructs, cecropinB2 (cecB2 and intein-cecropinB2 (INT-cecB2, were applied. Signal peptide and propeptide from Armigeres subalbatus were also attached to the gene construct. The results showed that the best host for cloning cecropinB2 was P. pastoris SMD1168 harboring the gene of pGAPzαC-prepro-cecB2 via Western blot confirmation. The cecropinB2 that was purified using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography resin showed strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative strains, including the multi-drug-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii.

  10. Optical spectroscopy and decoherence studies of Y b3 + :YAG at 968 nm (United States)

    Böttger, Thomas; Thiel, C. W.; Cone, R. L.; Sun, Y.; Faraon, A.


    The 7/2 2F ↔ 5/2 2F optical transitions of Y b3 + doped into Y3A l5O12 (YAG) were studied for potential quantum information and photonic signal processing applications. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy located the energy levels of the ground >7/2 2F and excited 5/2 2F manifolds, allowing inconsistencies between previous assignments of crystal field splittings in the literature to be resolved. These measurements reveal an unusually large splitting between the first and second levels in both the ground and excited multiplets, potentially providing for reduced sensitivity to thermally induced decoherence and spin-lattice relaxation. Spectral hole burning through two-level saturation was observed, determining the excited state lifetime to be 860 μs and resolving ambiguities in previous fluorescence measurements that were caused by the large radiation trapping effects in this material. Optical decoherence measurements using two-pulse photon echoes gave a homogeneous linewidth of 18 kHz for an applied magnetic field of 1 T, narrowing to 5 kHz at 2.5 T. The observed decoherence was described by spectral diffusion attributed to Y b3 +- Y b3 + magnetic dipole interactions. Laser absorption determined an inhomogeneous linewidth of 3.6 GHz for this transition in this 0.05%-doped crystal, which is narrower than for any other rare-earth-ion transition previously studied in the YAG host. The temperature dependence of the transition energy and linewidth of the lowest 7/2 2F to lowest 5/2 2F transition centered at 968.571 nm measured from 4 K to 300 K was well described by phonon scattering at higher temperatures, with an additional anomalous linear temperature-dependent broadening at temperatures below 80 K. Two magnetically inequivalent subgroups of Y b3 + ions were identified when a magnetic field was applied along the axis, as expected for the D2 sites in the cubic symmetry crystal, with ground and excited state effective g -values of gg=3.40 (3.34) and ge=1.04 (2

  11. Low Rank Approximation in $G_0W_0$ Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Meiyue; Yang, Chao; Liu, Fang; da Jornada, Felipe H; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven G


    The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn--Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in transport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green's function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The $G_0W_0$ approximation is a widely used technique in which the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a non-interacting Green's function ($G_0$) and a screened Coulomb interaction ($W_0$) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating $W_0$ at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cos...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lender, Holders and Borrowers of Adverse Decisions Where the... (United States)


    ... Farmer Program Primary Loan Servicing Actions) B Exhibit B-3 to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-3 Exhibit B-3 to Subpart...

  13. 新型金属间化合物MgB2超导材料%Novel Intermetallic Compound MgB2 Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. B2B电子集市重构中国流通经济%Reconstruction of China's Retail Industry through B2B Marketplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 自2000年4月美国NASDAQ股市狂跌以来,网络股票一直阴雨绵绵.很多DOTCOM公司 将会长期处于高危险的ILMI运行模式中(投资、烧钱、再投资,Invest,Lose Mo ney,Invest).曾几何时,网络股被炒得发烫.今天,从Boo.com公司的破产,I CP、B2C、B2B公司们的纷纷陨落,到B2C的业界翘楚Amazon.com遭到资本市场的棒 喝,曾经牛气冲天的Tom.com网站不得不裁掉近1/4的员工.真是此一时,彼一时 也.

  15. A New Method for Preparing Superconducting MgB2 Films from Diborane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿生; 傅兴华; 张正平; 杨健


    We report on a new preparation method for magnesium diboride (MgB2) films by chemical vapour deposition(CVD) from diborane (B2H6). It is a two-step ex situ approach, with the precursor boron films grown by CVD from B2H6 at 460°C, followed by a post-annealing process in magnesium (Mg) vapour at 830°C. The prepared MgB2 thin films on Al2O3 polycrystalline substrates have an onset transition temperature of 35K and a zeroresistance temperature of about 24K. Well-crystallized MgB2 grains have clearly been observed in the SEM images and confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The advantages of the proposed method are the feasibility to prepare large-area superconducting films and the compatibility with semiconductor technology.

  16. Reactivity of carbides in synthesis of MgB 2 bulks (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji


    The reactivity of various carbides (B4C, Al4C3, SiC, TiC, ZrC, NbC, Mo2C, HfC and WC) with magnesium and boron in synthesis of MgB2 was systematically studied. Decreases in the a-axis length and transition temperature were observed in all the carbide doped MgB2 bulks, reflecting a certain amount of carbon substituted for boron site in MgB2. The reactivity of each carbide estimated by the carbon content in MgB2 was found to be different depending on the chemical stability. Our results suggest that carbon content in MgB2 lattice can be controlled to its optimal doping level by adjusting synthesis conditions and selection of doping reagents.

  17. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of In Situ TiB2-7055 Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN dong; LE Yong-kang; BAI Liang; MA Nai-heng; LI Xian-feng; WANG Hao-wei


    In order to fabricate a kind of high strength particulate reinforced aluminum-matrix composites, the high strength aluminum alloy 7055 was selected as a matrix. Composites reinforced with varying amounts of TiB2 particles were synthesized using the in situ method, and their mechanical properties and microstructure were analyzed. It is found that the in situ TiB2 particles sized from 50 to 400 nm uniformly disperse in the matrix. With the weight fraction of TiB2 particles increasing, the elastic modulus as well as the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength increase, while the ductility decrease. The improvement of strength could be attributed to good bonding between TiB2 and the matrix, and also the TiB2 particles act as a barrier to dislocation.

  18. Possible coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order in NdPt2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Dhar; A D Chinchure; E Alleno; C Godart; L C Gupta; R Nagarajan


    Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been one of the exciting aspects of the quaternary borocarbide superconductors. So far, RNi2B2C (R=Tm, Er, Ho and Dy) are the only known magnetic superconductors in this family. Here, we present our resistivity, magnetization and heat capacity studies on NdPt2B2C (nominal composition, NdPt1.5Au0.6B2C and NdPt2.1B2.4C1.2). We find superconductivity in both samples with c,onset∼ 3 K. Bulk magnetic order is found to occur below 1.7 K. We suggest that NdPt2B2C is a possible magnetic superconductor.

  19. Selective reversible hydrogenation of Mg(B3H8)2/MgH2 to Mg(BH4)2: pathway to reversible borane-based hydrogen storage? (United States)

    Chong, Marina; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Autrey, Tom; Jensen, Craig M


    Mg(B3H8)2·2THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) was prepared by the addition of BH3·THF to Mg/Hg amalgam. Heating a 1:2 molar mixture of Mg(B3H8)2·2THF and MgH2 to 200 °C under 5 MPa H2 for 2 h leads to nearly quantitative conversion to Mg(BH4)2. The differential scanning calorimetry profile of the reaction measured under 5 MPa H2 shows an initial endothermic feature at ∼65 °C for a phase change of the compound followed by a broad exothermic feature that reaches a maximum at 130 °C corresponding to the hydrogenation of Mg(B3H8)2 to Mg(BH4)2. Heating Mg(B3H8)2·2THF to 200 °C under 5 MPa H2 pressure in the absence of MgH2 gives predominantly MgB12H12 as well as significant amounts of MgB10H10 and Mg(BH4)2. Hydrogenation of a mixture of Mg(B3H8)2·2THF and LiH in a 1:4 molar ratio at 130 °C under 5 MPa H2 yields [B12H12](2-) in addition to [BH4](-), while a 1:4 molar ratio of Mg(B3H8)2·2THF and NaH yields [BH4](-) and a new borane, likely [B2H7](-). Hydrogenation of the NaH-containing mixture at 130 °C gives primarily the alternative borane, indicating it is an intermediate in the two-step conversion of the triborane to [BH4](-). The solvent-free triborane Mg(B3H8)2, derived from the low-temperature dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2, also produces Mg(BH4)2, but higher temperature and pressure is required to effect the complete transformation of the Mg(B3H8)2. These results show that the reversible transformation of the triborane depends on the stability of the metal hydride. The more stable the metal hydride, that is, LiH > NaH > MgH2, the lower is the "regeneration" efficiency.

  20. Study on the Transport Properties of Superconductor MgB2%MgB2超导体输运特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪涛; 郑素燕



  1. Some SEO Skills for Foreign Trade Enterprise' s B2C Website%实用外贸B2C网站SEO优化技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten

    This thesis investigates signal processing techniques for wireless communication receivers. The aim is to improve the performance or reduce the computationally complexity of these, where the primary focus area is cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) (and extensions...... complexity can potentially lead to limited power consumption, which translates into longer battery life-time in the handsets. The scope of the thesis is more specifically to investigate approximate (nearoptimal) detection methods that can reduce the computationally complexity significantly compared...... to the optimal one, which usually requires an unacceptable high complexity. Some of the treated approximate methods are based on QL-factorization of the channel matrix. In the work presented in this thesis it is proven how the QL-factorization of frequency-selective channels asymptotically provides the minimum...

  3. Approximate Privacy: Foundations and Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Schapira, Michael


    Increasing use of computers and networks in business, government, recreation, and almost all aspects of daily life has led to a proliferation of online sensitive data about individuals and organizations. Consequently, concern about the privacy of these data has become a top priority, particularly those data that are created and used in electronic commerce. There have been many formulations of privacy and, unfortunately, many negative results about the feasibility of maintaining privacy of sensitive data in realistic networked environments. We formulate communication-complexity-based definitions, both worst-case and average-case, of a problem's privacy-approximation ratio. We use our definitions to investigate the extent to which approximate privacy is achievable in two standard problems: the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem of Yao. For both the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem, we show that not only is perfect privacy impossible or infeasibly costly to achieve...

  4. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I


    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  5. Validity of the Eikonal Approximation


    Kabat, Daniel


    We summarize results on the reliability of the eikonal approximation in obtaining the high energy behavior of a two particle forward scattering amplitude. Reliability depends on the spin of the exchanged field. For scalar fields the eikonal fails at eighth order in perturbation theory, when it misses the leading behavior of the exchange-type diagrams. In a vector theory the eikonal gets the exchange diagrams correctly, but fails by ignoring certain non-exchange graphs which dominate the asymp...

  6. Collisionless magnetic reconnection under anisotropic MHD approximation (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro

    We study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection by using one- and two-dimensional collisionless magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations based on the double adiabatic approximation, which is an important step to bridge the gap between the Petschek-type MHD reconnection model accompanied by a pair of slow shocks and the observational evidence of the rare occasion of in-situ slow shock observation. According to our results, a pair of slow shocks does form in the reconnection layer. The resultant shock waves, however, are quite weak compared with those in an isotropic MHD from the point of view of the plasma compression and the amount of the magnetic energy released across the shock. Once the slow shock forms, the downstream plasma are heated in highly anisotropic manner and a firehose-sense (P_{||}>P_{⊥}) pressure anisotropy arises. The maximum anisotropy is limited by the marginal firehose criterion, 1-(P_{||}-P_{⊥})/B(2) =0. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, the resultant reconnection rate is kept at the same level compared with that in the corresponding ordinary MHD simulations. It is also revealed that the sequential order of propagation of the slow shock and the rotational discontinuity, which appears when the guide field component exists, changes depending on the magnitude of the guide field. Especially, when no guide field exists, the rotational discontinuity degenerates with the contact discontinuity remaining at the position of the initial current sheet, while with the slow shock in the isotropic MHD. Our result implies that the slow shock does not necessarily play an important role in the energy conversion in the reconnection system and is consistent with the satellite observation in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  7. Many Faces of Boussinesq Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Vladimir A


    The \\emph{equations of Boussinesq approximation} (EBA) for an incompressible and inhomogeneous in density fluid are analyzed from a viewpoint of the asymptotic theory. A systematic scaling shows that there is an infinite number of related asymptotic models. We have divided them into three classes: `poor', `reasonable' and `good' Boussinesq approximations. Each model can be characterized by two parameters $q$ and $k$, where $q =1, 2, 3, \\dots$ and $k=0, \\pm 1, \\pm 2,\\dots$. Parameter $q$ is related to the `quality' of approximation, while $k$ gives us an infinite set of possible scales of velocity, time, viscosity, \\emph{etc.} Increasing $q$ improves the quality of a model, but narrows the limits of its applicability. Parameter $k$ allows us to vary the scales of time, velocity and viscosity and gives us the possibility to consider any initial and boundary conditions. In general, we discover and classify a rich variety of possibilities and restrictions, which are hidden behind the routine use of the Boussinesq...

  8. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations. (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos


    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  9. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  10. Corrosion behavior of pristine and added MgB2 in Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (United States)

    Batalu, D.; Bojin, D.; Ghiban, B.; Aldica, G.; Badica, P.


    We have obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), dense samples of MgB2 added with Ho2O3. Starting composition was (MgB2)0.975(HoO1.5)0.025 and we used addition powders with an average particle size below and above 100 nm. For Mg, pristine and added MgB2 samples we measured potentiodynamic polarization curves in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution media at room temperature. MgB2 based composites show corrosion/ degradation effects. This behavior is in principle similar to Mg based alloys in the same media. Our work suggests that the different morphologies and phase compositions of the SPS-ed samples influence the interaction with corrosion medium; hence additions can play an important role in controlling the corrosion rate. Pristine MgB2 show a significant improvement of the corrosion resistance, if compared with Mg. The best corrosion resistance is obtained for pristine MgB2, followed by MgB2 with nano-Ho2O3 and μ-Ho2O3 additions.

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of MgB2 via powder metallurgy processing (United States)

    Birol, Yucel


    Ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed magnesium and boron oxide grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Boron oxide is reduced by Mg and MgO thus formed reacts with the remaining B2O3 to produce Mg3(BO3)2 during ball milling for 30 min. Both B2O3 and Mg3(BO3)2 react with Mg to produce MgB2 upon further ball milling. An annealing treatment can be employed when ball milling is performed for less than 1 h as thermal exposure of the ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends also leads to the formation of MgB2. The above reactions take place between 500 and 700 °C when the Mg/B2O3 powder blend is ball milled for 30 min, and between 450 and 550 °C, after ball milling for 1 h. This is a very attractive route owing to processing temperatures where the volatility of Mg is no longer a problem.

  12. Consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Demirskyi


    Full Text Available The in situ synthesis/consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering (SPS is reported. The microstructure–property relations were determined for composites with the B4C-TaB2 eutectic composition as functions of TaB2 content, and TaB2-TaB2 interlamellar spacing. A clear maximum in fracture toughness was identified (∼4.5 MPa m1/2 for eutectic composites with interlamellar spacing between 0.9 and 1.1 μm. The composites with the hypereutectic composition of 40 mol.% TaB2 obtained by SPS exhibited lower Vickers hardness (25–26 GPa but higher indentation fracture toughness (up to 4.9 MPa m1/2 than eutectic composites with 30–35 mol.% of TaB2.

  13. Identification of novel nuclear localization signal within the ErbB-2 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Qiao CHEN; Xiao Ying CHEN; Yun Yun JIANG; Jing LIU


    ErbB2,a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family,is frequently over-expressed in breast cancer.Proteolysis of the extracellular domain of ErbB2 results in constitutive activation of ErbB2 kinase.Recent study reported that ErbB2 is found in the nucleus.Here,we showed that ErbB2 is imported into the nucleus through a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-mediated mechanism.The NLS sequence KRRQQKIRKYTMRR (aa655-668) contains three clusters of basic amino acids and it is sufficient to target GFP into the nucleus.However,mutation in any basic amino acid cluster of this NLS sequence significantly affects its nuclear localization.Furthermore,it was found that this NLS is essential for the nuclear localization of ErbB2 since the intracellular domain of Erb2 lacking NLS completely abrogates its nuclear translocation.Taken together,our study identified a novel nuclear localization signal and reveals a novel mechanism underlying ErbB2 nuclear trafficking and localization.

  14. Herschel observations of the Sgr B2 cores: Hydrides, warm CO, and cold dust

    CERN Document Server

    Etxaluze, M; Cernicharo, J; Polehampton, E T; Noriega-Crespo, A; Molinari, S; Swinyard, B M; Wu, R; Bally, J


    Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) is one of the most massive and luminous star-forming regions in the Galaxy and shows chemical and physical conditions similar to those in distant extragalactic starbursts. We present large-scale far-IR/submm photometric images and spectroscopic maps taken with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard Herschel. The spectra towards the Sgr B2 star-forming cores, B2(M) and B2(N), are characterized by strong CO line emission, emission lines from high-density tracers (HCN, HCO+, and H2S), [N II] 205 um emission from ionized gas, and absorption lines from hydride molecules (OH+, H2O+, H2O, CH+, CH, SH+, HF, NH, NH2, and NH3). The rotational population diagrams of CO suggest the presence of two gas temperature components: an extended warm component, which is associated with the extended envelope, and a hotter component, which is seen towards the B2(M) and B2(N) cores. As observed in other Galactic Center clouds, the gas temperatures are significantly higher than the dust temperatures inferred f...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To elucidate the expression and clinical significance of C-erbB-2 in the tissue of lung cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the protein expression of C-erbB-2 in lung cancer tissue. Results The positive expression rate of C-erbB-2 protein in 38 cases of lung cancer was 53.3% (21/38),which was higher than those in lung benign control group (P<0. 001). The significant correlation were found between the protein level and tumor stage(r= +0. 64,P<0.02). The order was stage Ⅳ>stage Ⅲ >stage Ⅱ >stage Ⅰ . There was no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 in various histological types of lung cancer (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion The positive expression rates of C-erbB-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer group than those in benign control group. There is significant correlation between C-erbB-2 expression and lung cancer stage. There is no correlation among protein expression of C-erbB-2 and histological types of lung cancer.

  16. 关于B2B服务品牌忠诚度的研究%Research On The B2B Service Brand Loyalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令明; 耿禧则


    对于品牌忠诚度的研究,过去一直局限于产品品牌上。将品牌忠诚度理论运用于B2B服务品牌,通过实证调查,研究品牌认知度与品牌形象对态度忠诚度和行动忠诚度的影响作用,并据此为B2B服务品牌的成功管理提出若干可行性方案。%For brand loyalty of research, the past has been confined to the product brand. This paper brand loyalty theory is applied to B2B service brand. Through the empirical research, the effect of the brand recognition and brand image to action loyalty and attitude loyalty, And put forward some feasible solutions of the B2B service brand management .

  17. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in superconducting ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in an applied magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Katrine Nørgaard

    along [110], the magnetic structure rotates a small angle of 0.5 degrees away from the symmetrydirection. TmNi2B2C: A magnetic field applied in the [100] direction suppresses the zero field magnetic structure QF = (0.094,0.094,0) (TN = 1.6 K), in favor of the Fermi surface nesting structure QN = (0......The field-induced magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in are especially interesting because the field suppresses the superconducting order parameter and therefore the magnetic properties can be studied while varying the strength ofsuperconductivity. ErNi2B2C: For magnetic fields along all...... three symmetry directions, the observed magnetic structures have a period corresponding to the Fermi surface nesting structure. The phase diagrams present all the observed magnetic structures.Two results remain unresolved: 1. When applying the magnetic field along [010], the minority domain (QNB = (0,Q...

  18. Measles in Italy: Co-circulation of B3 variants during 2014. (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Chironna, Maria; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto; Ansaldi, Filippo; Filia, Antonietta; Declich, Silvia; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana


    In 2013, the majority of the WHO/EUR countries reported an annual incidence of >1 case per one million population indicating that the elimination target is far from being met. Thus, there is the urgent need to uncover and analyze chains of measles virus (MV) transmission with the objective to identify vulnerable groups and avoid possible routes of introduction of MV variants in the European population. The analysis of molecular epidemiology of MV B3 strains identified in 2014 has shown that four different variants co-circulated in Italy, including the strain that caused a cruise-line ship outbreak at the beginning of the year.

  19. Environmental survey of the B-3 and Ford's Farm ranges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Waite, D.A.; Gilchrist, R.L.


    The Army has been firing depleted-uranium (DU) projectiles into targets on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. An environmental survey was conducted of two areas known as the B-3 range and the Ford's Farm range to determine the location of DU in their environments. The survey included ground survey measurements and some environmental sampling. Several special studies were also conducted, including analyses of the isotopic composition of uranium in a limited number of samples and a dissolution rate study to estimate the solubility of DU dust in sea and river water.

  20. 2D numerical comparison of trailing edge flaps - UpWind WP1B3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Barlas, T.K.

    This report covers the investigations and comparisons of trailing edge flaps carried out by Delft and Risø. The work is a part of the W1B3 work package of the UpWind EU-project. This report covers only 2D test cases with simple control of the trailing edge flap with the objective of keeping CL......, and the performance of the flaps is investigated. The two different codes from Delft and Risø are compared in the mentioned cases....

  1. B3 Spline Function Method Used in Simulating Flatness and Profile of Cold Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-hong; QI Xiang-dong; LIAN Jia-chuang


    Flatness and profile are important quality indexes of strip. Combining the influence function method to solve the elastic deformation of roll system with the variational method to solve the lateral flow of metal, the flatness and profile of the strip during cold continuous rolling were simulated. The B3 spline function was used to analogize the lateral distribution of strip thickness. The transverse distributions of the exit thickness and the front tension stress for each pass were obtained. Compared with the measured results, it is proved that using the spline function to analogize the lateral distribution of strip thickness can improve the calculation accuracy of flatness and profile largely.

  2. Environmental Survey of the B-3 and Ford’s Farm Ranges, (United States)


    AD-A134 238 ENSIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF THE B-3 AND FORD’S FARM RANGES I (U) BA T E L E MEMORIA INS RICHLAND WASH PACFIC NORTHWEST LABS A SOETZEL ET AL...dam would be a prime location for deposition of any suspended DU transported downstream in Mosquito Creek waters. The third area surveyed, the... prime location for the deposi- tion of any suspended flU in the creek’s water because the road dams the creek 3t this point, allowing any suspended

  3. EphrinB1/EphB3b Coordinate Bidirectional Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Controlling Liver Morphogenesis and Laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayuso, Jordi; Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Fischer, Johanna C;


    and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts...

  4. Superconducting Properties and Microstructure in MgB2 Bulks, Wires and Tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯勇; 阎果; 赵勇; 吴晓京; 周廉; 张平祥


    We prepared a series of MgB2 bulk samples under different temperatures, holding time and increasing rates in temperature by the solid state reaction. The thermodynamic behavior and phase formation in the Mg-B system were studied by using DTA,XRD and SEM. The results indicate that the formation of the MgB2 phase is very fast and the high increasing rate in temperature is necessary to obtain high quality MgB2. In addition, the effects of the Zr-doping in Mg1-xZrxB2 bulk samples fabricated by the solid state reaction at ambient pressure on phase compositions, microstructure and flux pinning behavior were investigated by using XRD, SQUID magnetometer, SEM and TEM. Critical current density Jc can be significantly enhanced by the Zr-doping and the best data are achieved in Mg0.9Zr0.1B2. For this sample, Jc values are remarkably improved to 1.83×106 A/cm2 in self-field and 5.51×105 A/cm2 in 1 T at 20 K. Also, high quality MgB2/Ta/Cu wires and tapes with and without Ti-doping, MgB2/Fe wires and 18 filament MgB2/NbZr/Cu tapes were fabricated by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method at ambient pressure. The phase compositions, microstructure features and flux pinning properties were studied. The results suggest that Fe is thebest metal for these sheaths. MgB2/Fe wires exhibit very high Jc at high temperatures and high fields. Jc values reach as high as 1.43×105 A/cm2 (4.2 K, 4 T) and 3.72×104 A/cm2 (15 K, 4 T).

  5. Nociceptor-expressed ephrin-B2 regulates inflammatory and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullander Klas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background EphB receptors and their ephrin-B ligands play an important role in nervous system development, as well as synapse formation and plasticity in the adult brain. Recent studies show that intrathecal treatment with EphB-receptor activator ephrinB2-Fc induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rat, indicating that ephrin-B2 in small dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and EphB receptors in the spinal cord modulate pain processing. To examine the role of ephrin-B2 in peripheral pain pathways, we deleted ephrin-B2 in Nav1.8+ nociceptive sensory neurons with the Cre-loxP system. Sensory neuron numbers and terminals were examined using neuronal makers. Pain behavior in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain models was assessed in the ephrin-B2 conditional knockout (CKO mice. We also investigated the c-Fos expression and NMDA receptor NR2B phosphorylation in ephrin-B2 CKO mice and littermate controls. Results The ephrin-B2 CKO mice were healthy with no sensory neuron loss. However, pain-related behavior was substantially altered. Although acute pain behavior and motor co-ordination were normal, inflammatory pain was attenuated in ephrin-B2 mutant mice. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was halved. Formalin-induced pain behavior was attenuated in the second phase, and this correlated with diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the dorsal horn. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were significantly reduced in the Seltzer model of neuropathic pain. Conclusions Presynaptic ephrin-B2 expression thus plays an important role in regulating inflammatory pain through the regulation of synaptic plasticity in the dorsal horn and is also involved in the pathogenesis of some types of neuropathic pain.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of SoxB2 gene from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (United States)

    He, Yan; Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli


    The Sox proteins play critical roles during the development of animals, including sex determination and central nervous system development. In this study, the SoxB2 gene was cloned from a mollusk, the Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri), and characterized with respect to phylogeny and tissue distribution. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of C. farreri SoxB2 ( Cf SoxB2) were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, respectively, using a partial cDNA fragment from the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the High Mobility Group (HMG) box. The full-length cDNA sequence of Cf SoxB2 was 2 048 bp and encoded 268 amino acids protein. The genomic sequence was 5 551 bp in length with only one exon. Several conserved elements, such as the TATA-box, GC-box, CAAT-box, GATA-box, and Sox/sry-sex/testis-determining and related HMG box factors, were found in the promoter region. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were carried out to assess the mRNA expression of Cf SoxB 2 in different tissues. SoxB2 was highly expressed in the mantle, moderately in the digestive gland and gill, and weakly expressed in the gonad, kidney and adductor muscle. In male and female gonads at different developmental stages of reproduction, the expression levels of Cf SoxB2 were similar. Considering the specific expression and roles of SoxB 2 in other animals, in particular vertebrates, and the fact that there are many pallial nerves in the mantle, cerebral ganglia in the digestive gland and gill nerves in gill, we propose a possible essential role in nervous tissue function for Sox B 2 in C. farreri.

  7. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus. (United States)

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia


    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus.

  8. Enhancement in the critical current density of C-doped MgB2 wire using a polyacrylic acid dopant. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Won; Joo, Jinho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Chan-Joong; Hong, Gye-Won


    C-doped MgB2 wires were fabricated from a polyacrylic acid (PAA) using a conventional in-situ PIT technique. The effects of the PAA content on the lattice parameter, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) were examined. With increasing PAA content, the amount of MgO in the sample increased but the crystallinity, a-axis lattice parameter, and Tc of MgB2 wires decreased, indicating that the C that decomposed from PAA during heat treatment had substituted for B. All doped samples exhibited a higher Jc than the undoped sample at high magnetic field, and the Jc(B) property improved with increasing PAA content: for the 7 wt% doped sample, the Jc was approximately 3-times higher than that of the pristine sample (1.28 kA/cm2 vs. 3.43 kA/cm2) at 5 K and 6.6 T. The improved Jc(B) of the doped sample was attributed to the decreased grain size, enlarged lattice distortion and increased C doping level.

  9. Captan: transition from 'B2' to 'not likely'. How pesticide registrants affected the EPA Cancer Classification Update. (United States)

    Gordon, Elliot


    On 24 November 2004 EPA changed the cancer classification of captan from a 'probable human carcinogen' (Category B2) to 'not likely' when used according to label directions. The new cancer classification considers captan to be a potential carcinogen at prolonged high doses that cause cytotoxicity and regenerative cell hyperplasia. These high doses of captan are many orders of magnitude above those likely to be consumed in the diet, or encountered by individuals in occupational or residential settings. This revised cancer classification reflects EPA's implementation of their new cancer guidelines. The procedures involved in the reclassification effort were agreed upon with EPA and involved an Independent Transparent Review as it related to four components that formed the basis of the original 1986 B2 classification: mouse tumors; rat tumors; mutagenicity; and structural similarity to other carcinogens. A Peer Review Panel organized and administered by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) met on 2-3 September 2003. The Panel concluded that captan acted through a non-mutagenic threshold mode of action that required prolonged irritation of the duodenal villi as the initial key event. EPA's Cancer Assessment Review Committee (CARC) met on 9 June 2004 and endorsed the Peer Review findings. EPA intended to have the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) consider the basis for this reclassification but found the science was robust and judged that a SAP review was not warranted. Using the revised classification, the margin of exposure is approximately 1,200,000, supporting the 'not likely' characterization.

  10. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment (United States)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.


    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  11. FASN, ErbB2-mediated glycolysis is required for breast cancer cell migration. (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Jiang, Sufang; Fu, Qiang; Smith, Kelly; Tu, Kailing; Li, Hua; Zhao, Yuhua


    Both fatty acid synthase (FASN) and ErbB2 have been shown to promote breast cancer cell migration. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood and there is no reported evidence that directly links glycolysis to breast cancer cell migration. In this study, we investigated the role of FASN, ErbB2-mediated glycolysis in breast cancer cell migration. First, we compared lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) protein levels, glycolysis and cell migration between FASN, ErbB2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 cells and FASN, ErbB2-low-expressing MCF7 cells. Then, SK-BR-3 cells were treated with cerulenin (Cer), an inhibitor of FASN, and ErbB2, LDHA protein levels, glycolysis, and cell migration were detected. Next, we transiently transfected ErbB2 plasmid into MCF7 cells and detected FASN, LDHA protein levels, glycolysis and cell migration. Heregulin-β1 (HRG-β1) is an activator of ErbB2 and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and oxamate (OX) are inhibitors of glycolysis. MCF7 cells were treated with HRG-β1 alone, HRG-β1 plus 2-DG, OX or cerulenin and glycolysis, and cell migration were measured. We found that FASN, ErbB2-high-expressing SK-BR-3 cells displayed higher levels of glycolysis and migration than FASN, ErbB2-low-expressing MCF7 cells. Inhibition of FASN by cerulenin impaired glycolysis and migration in SK-BR-3 cells. Transient overexpression of ErbB2 in MCF7 cells promotes glycolysis and migration. Moreover, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), oxamate (OX), or cerulenin partially reverses heregulin-β1 (HRG-β1)-induced glycolysis and migration in MCF7 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FASN, ErbB2-mediated glycolysis is required for breast cancer cell migration. These novel findings indicate that targeting FASN, ErbB2-mediated glycolysis may be a new approach to reverse breast cancer cell migration.

  12. Hg Substitution Effect on Superconductivity and Crystal Structure of MgB2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Jing Cui; Yong-Liang Chen; Ye Yang; Yong Zhang; Cui-Hua Cheng; Yong Zhao


    Polycrystalline Mg1-xHgxB2 samples with x=0, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% have been synthe- sized by solid-state reaction. Different from the substitu- tion effect of Al, C, Li, etc. on crystal structure of MgB2, Hg substitution for Mg results in an increase of the lattice constant in both a and c directions. The super- conductivity of MgB2 is also suppressed by Hg substi- tution. The observed suppression of super- conductivity by Hg substitution is discussed in terms of the interband impurity scattering effect in two-band superconductors.

  13. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Mi-So [Department of Microbiology, Infection Signaling Network Research Center, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Du-Sub [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek, E-mail: [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University, Yesan 340-800 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: •Pro B2 elevated the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. •LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules was inhibited by Pro B2. •LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by Pro B2. •Pro B2 inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB through IRAK-M. •Pro B2 inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced cytokines via IRAK-M. -- Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development

  14. Glass formation and crystallization of high lead content PbO-B2O3 compositions (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.; Neilson, George F.


    The glass-forming and undercooling ability of PbO-B2O3 melts in the 2PbO.B2O3 to 4PbO.B2O3 composition range were studied. The glass formation propensities were investigated as a function of cooling rate and sample mass. A qualitative investigation of the crystallization process(es) preventing glass formation was made, and it was concluded that under normal circumstances heterogeneous nucleation was the common occurrence. Hence, it was concluded that such compositions are prime candidates for containerless experiments aboard the Space Shuttle.

  15. erbB-2 autophosphorylation is required for mitogenic action and high-affinity substrate coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segatto, O; Lonardo, F; Helin, K;


    -mutated chimera. When expressed in NR6 cells, the EGFR/erbB-2 5P mutant was unable to deliver a sizeable mitogenic signal when activated by EGF at physiological levels. In intact cells, the 5P mutant was still able to stimulate phosphorylation of the gamma isozyme of phospholipase C (PLC-gamma), a prototype erb......B-2 substrate, although with a delayed time course, indicating that the 5P mutation decreased the affinity of the erbB-2 kinase for this substrate. This conclusion was further supported by the inability of the 5P mutant to associate with PLC-gamma in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We infer...

  16. Using service design methods for B2b service brand concept development: Case company


    Molina Escalante, Hugo


    A short time before this study was initiated, a small B2b service company had just began op-erating its business without a brand of it’s own. The company owners were looking to design an innovative brand for their business. The purpose of this thesis was to develop the brand for this service Company in the B2b context, using practical service design and Strategic design research methods. This thesis report represents a framework for developing a B2b service brand using research methods c...

  17. A New Method for the Preparation of MgB2 Superconducting Tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许加迪; 王淑芳; 周岳亮; 戴守愚; 陈正豪; 崔大复; 吕惠宾; 朱亚斌; 何萌; 杨国桢


    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 38 K have been prepared successfully by a two-step method. Boron/Ta tapes were fabricated by electrophoresis followed by a post-annealing process in magnesium vapour. The critical current density is 1.7 × 104 A/cm2 in zero field at 5K. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis reveal a dense flat surface with (101) orientated growth of the MgB2 phase in our MgB2/Ta tapes.

  18. An Empirical Examination of Reverse Auction Appropriateness in B2B Source Selection (United States)


    Measures of Marketing Constructs," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 16, No.2, pp. 64 - 73. Cohn, L. (2000), " B2B : The Hottest Net Bet Yet...AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF REVERSE AUCTION APPROPRIATENESS IN B2B SOURCE SELECTION. 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ HAWKINS TIMOTHY...Examination of Reverse Auction Appropriateness in B2B Source Selection D :7;TZU IUT•ITM STATER,;77TIT A Approved for Puhtic P-•-!,ase Distribution

  19. The Importance of Brand on B2B Markets: Case Study of Hilti


    Konečný, Martin


    The brand is mostly associated with business-to-customer markets and environment. People would first think of such a brand, because we see marketing and advertising of those brands every day. But business-to-business brands are for companies also very important. The overall goal of my thesis would be to find out how the managers of a pure B2B company perceive the importance of brand in the B2B environment where the company operates. Theoretical part will, in the first chapter, characterize B2...

  20. Expression of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 on Dendritic Cells Is Modulated by Toll-Like Receptor Ligation but Is Not Required for T Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice N Mimche

    Full Text Available The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases interact with their ephrin ligands on adjacent cells to facilitate contact-dependent cell communication. Ephrin B ligands are expressed on T cells and have been suggested to act as co-stimulatory molecules during T cell activation. There are no detailed reports of the expression and modulation of EphB receptors on dendritic cells, the main antigen presenting cells that interact with T cells. Here we show that mouse splenic dendritic cells (DC and bone-marrow derived DCs (BMDC express EphB2, a member of the EphB family. EphB2 expression is modulated by ligation of TLR4 and TLR9 and also by interaction with ephrin B ligands. Co-localization of EphB2 with MHC-II is also consistent with a potential role in T cell activation. However, BMDCs derived from EphB2 deficient mice were able to present antigen in the context of MHC-II and produce T cell activating cytokines to the same extent as intact DCs. Collectively our data suggest that EphB2 may contribute to DC responses, but that EphB2 is not required for T cell activation. This result may have arisen because DCs express other members of the EphB receptor family, EphB3, EphB4 and EphB6, all of which can interact with ephrin B ligands, or because EphB2 may be playing a role in another aspect of DC biology such as migration.

  1. Rollout Sampling Approximate Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakakis, Christos


    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a supervised learning problem. This paper proposes variants of an improved policy iteration scheme which addresses the core sampling problem in evaluating a policy through simulation as a multi-armed bandit machine. The resulting algorithm offers comparable performance to the previous algorithm achieved, however, with significantly less computational effort. An order of magnitude improvement is demonstrated experimentally in two standard reinforcement learning domains: inverted pendulum and mountain-car.

  2. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian


    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  3. First principle study on the elastic and thermodynamic properties of TiB2 crystal under high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Lei; Yu Ben-Hai; Huo Hai-Liang; Chen Dong; Sun Hai-Bin


    This paper predicts the elastic and thermodynamic characteristics of T1B2 crystal through the method of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The five independent elastic constants (Cij), the bulk modulus (Bo), the dependence of bulk modulus (Bo) on temperature T and pressure P and the coefficient of thermal expansion (αL) at various temperatures have been evaluated and discussed. According to calculation, the bulk modulus will increase with increasing pressure while decrease with the increasing temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion is consistent with the famous Griineisen's law when the temperature is not too high. The obtained results agree well with the experimental and other theoretical results.

  4. Influence of carbohydrates on the interaction of procyanidin B3 with trypsin. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor


    The biological properties of procyanidins, in particular their inhibition of digestive enzymes, have received much attention in the past few years. Dietary carbohydrates are an environmental factor that is known to affect the interaction of procyanidins with proteins. This work aimed at understanding the effect of ionic food carbohydrates (polygalacturonic acid, arabic gum, pectin, and xanthan gum) on the interaction between procyanidins and trypsin. Physical-chemical techniques such as saturation transfer difference-NMR (STD-NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching, and nephelometry were used to evaluate the interaction process. Using STD-NMR, it was possible to identify the binding of procyanidin B3 to trypsin. The tested carbohydrates prevented the association of procyanidin B3 and trypsin by a competition mechanism in which the ionic character of carbohydrates and their ability to encapsulate procyanidins seem crucial leading to a reduction in STD signal and light scattering and to a recovery of the proteins intrinsic fluorescence. On the basis of these results, it was possible to grade the carbohydrates in their aggregation inhibition ability: XG > PA > AG ≫ PC. These effects may be relevant since the coingestion of procyanidins and ionic carbohydrates are frequent and furthermore since these might negatively affect the antinutritional properties ascribed to procyanidins in the past.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wu; ZHOU Ai-qing; Fu Li-jun; LIANG Ying; TANG Ning


    Objective To explore the role of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor(CAR)in cardiotoxicity infected by coxsackievirus B3. Methods A toxic cellular model was established in vitro by adding myocarditic coxsackievirus B3(CVB3m)into the culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.48 h later, the cardiomyocytes were divided into control, CVB3m, and CAR antibody+CVB3m groups. CVB3m-mediated myocytopathic effect of above three groups was observed after further culturing for 48h. At the same time,the cardiomyocytes'viability of above three groups was assessed by MTT assay. Results The degree of cytopathic effect(CPE)of CAR antibody+CVB3m group was significantly lower than CVB3m group (P<0.01)and there was a significant increase in cell viability in CAR antibody+CVB3m group compared with CVB3m group(P<0.01). No significant difference was found between CAR antibody+CVB3m group and control group. Conclusion CAR antibody possesses a protective effect on CVB3m infected cardiomyoctyes, which indicates that CAR may play an important role in mediating cardiotoxicity infected by CVB3m.

  6. Mechanical, piezoelectric and some thermal properties of (B3) BP under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Some compounds of group III-V semiconductor materials exhibit very good piezoelectric, mechanical, and thermal properties and their use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating specially at GHz frequencies. These materials have been appreciated for a long time due to their high acoustic velocities, which are important parameters for active microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. For this object, first-principles calculations of the anisotropy and the hydrostatic pressure effect on the mechanical, piezoelectric and some thermal properties of the (B3) boron phosphide are presented, using the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The independent elastic and compliance constants, the Reuss modulus, Voigt modulus, and the shear modulus, the Kleinman parameter, the Cauchy and Born coefficients, the elastic modulus, and the Poisson ratio for directions within the important crystallographic planes of this compound under pressure are obtained. The direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients, the longitudinal, transverse, and average sound velocity, the Debye temperature, and the Debye frequency of (B3) boron phosphide under pressure are also presented and compared with available experimental and theoretical data of the literature.

  7. Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, R. A.


    Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for Aα (ζ ),Aβ (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e-μ/θ)F1/2(μ/θ), F1/2'/F1/2, Fcα, and Fcβ. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.

  8. Functional expression of a single-chain antibody to ErbB-2 in plants and cell-free systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benevolo Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant signaling by ErbB-2 (HER 2, Neu, a member of the human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF receptor family, is associated with an aggressive clinical behaviour of carcinomas, particularly breast tumors. Antibodies targeting the ErbB-2 pathway are a preferred therapeutic option for patients with advanced breast cancer, but a worldwide deficit in the manufacturing capacities of mammalian cell bioreactors is foreseen. Methods Herein, we describe a multi-platform approach for the production of recombinant Single chain Fragments of antibody variable regions (ScFvs to ErbB-2 that involves their functional expression in (a bacteria, (b transient as well as stable transgenic tobacco plants, and (c a newly developed cell-free transcription-translation system. Results An ScFv (ScFv800E6 was selected by cloning immunoglobulin sequences from murine hybridomas, and was expressed and fully functional in all the expression platforms, thereby representing the first ScFv to ErbB-2 produced in hosts other than bacteria and yeast. ScFv800E6 was optimized with respect to redox synthesis conditions. Different tags were introduced flanking the ScFv800E6 backbone, with and without spacer arms, including a novel Strep II tag that outperforms conventional streptavidin-based detection systems. ScFv800E6 was resistant to standard chemical radiolabeling procedures (i.e. Chloramine T, displayed a binding ability extremely similar to that of the parental monovalent Fab' fragment, as well as a flow cytometry performance and an equilibrium binding affinity (Ka approximately 2 × 108 M-1 only slightly lower than those of the parental bivalent antibody, suggesting that its binding site is conserved as compared to that of the parental antibody molecule. ScFv800E6 was found to be compatible with routine reagents for immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion ScFv800E6 is a useful reagent for in vitro biochemical and immunodiagnostic applications in oncology

  9. Electronic structure of MgB2 from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. (United States)

    Uchiyama, H; Shen, K M; Lee, S; Damascelli, A; Lu, D H; Feng, D L; Shen, Z-X; Tajima, S


    The first angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results from MgB2 single crystals are reported. Along the GammaK and GammaM directions, we observed three distinct dispersive features approaching the Fermi energy. These can be assigned to the theoretically predicted sigma (B 2p(x,y)) and pi (B 2p(z)) bands. In addition, a small parabolic-like band is detected around the Gamma point, which can be attributed to a surface-derived state. The overall agreement between our results and the band calculations suggests that the electronic structure of MgB2 is of a conventional nature, thus implying that electron correlations are weak and may be of little importance to superconductivity in this system.

  10. Epitaxial growth of MgB2 films at ambient temperature (United States)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Nakagami, Takatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    We grew crystalline MgB2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy at a low substrate temperature of 110 °C under an ultrahigh vacuum of about 10-6 Pa. MgB2 thin films were deposited on the (001) surface of a 4H-SiC substrate with an epitaxial Mg buffer layer. The epitaxial growth was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. MgB2 thin films show a sharp superconducting transition at 27.2 K, with a relatively narrow superconducting transition width ΔTc = 0.9 K. The growth temperature was lower than any in prior reports on superconducting MgB2 thin films. The presence of the epitaxial Mg buffer layer is crucial for reducing the epitaxial temperature.

  11. Observation and Properties of L=1 B_1 and B_2* Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; 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Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G


    Excited B mesons B_1 and B_2* are observed directly for the first time as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*) pi-. The mass of B_1 is measured to be (5720.6 +- 2.4 +- 1.4) MeV/c^2 and the mass difference DeltaM between B_2* and B_1 is (26.2 +- 3.1 +- 0.9) MeV/c^2, giving the mass of the B_2* as (5746.8 +- 2.4 +- 1.7) MeV/c^2. The production rate for B_1 and B_2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9 +- 1.9 +- 3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  12. Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari


    A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AW2B-2VENA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  14. Superior homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in superconducting MgB2 bulk magnets (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Tomita, M.; Kishio, K.


    Homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in radial and circumferential directions of high temperature superconducting bulk magnets, MgB2 (T c ˜38.3 K) and YBa2Cu3O y (T c ˜91.5 K), have been measured. In polycrystalline MgB2 bulks, the circularity of trapped magnetic field in a cylindrical disk is over 97% at 20-32.5 K, while that of YBa2Cu3O y was ˜87% at 77 K. Magnetic field distribution of MgB2 bulk was satisfactorily homogeneous and these measurements suggest MgB2 bulks with highly efficient cryocoolers should be very useful for novel high field permanent magnet applications.

  15. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  16. Anisotropy oxidation of textured ZrB2–MoSi2 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Ji; Ni, De Wei


    Oxidation behavior of hot forged textured ZrB2–20vol% MoSi2 ceramics with platelet ZrB2 grains was investigated at 1500°C for exposure time from 0.5 to 12h. Compared to untextured ceramics, the textured ceramics showed obvious anisotropic oxidation behavior and the surface normal to the hot forging...... pressure demonstrated better oxidation resistance. Such improvement in the oxidation resistance is primarily considered as a higher intrinsic ZrB2 atomic density on the orientated {00l} planes in the textured ceramics. It is expectable that the anisotropic textured ZrB2–MoSi2 ceramics can offer better...

  17. Intestinal colonization with phylogenetic group B2 Escherichia coli related to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Gluud, Lise Lotte


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased numbers of Escherichia coli and, furthermore, specific subtypes of E. coli, such as E. coli of the phylogenetic groups B2 and D have been found in the intestine of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we wanted to evaluate...... on 163 patients with IBD and 89 controls. Among IBD patients, 57 patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) and 95 Crohn's disease (CD). Random-effects meta-analysis showed that IBD patients were more likely to have B2 E. coli intestinal colonization compared with controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95...... to be related to IBD, UC or CD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that intestinal colonization with phylogenetic group B2 E. coli is associated with UC. Due to the design, we are unable to determine if the colonization with B2 E. coli leads to the development of the disease or the disease increases the risk...

  18. Ferromagnetic enhancement in the hexagonal Ce(Rh1-xIrx)3B2 system (United States)

    Hsu, S. W.; Ku, H. C.


    Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and crystallographic measurements have been carried out for the pseudoternary system Ce(Rh1-xIrx)3B2. A single-phase hexagonal CeCo3B2-type structure persists from x=0.0 up to x0.95. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature Tc is enhanced from 115 K for CeRh3B2 to 125 K for Ce(Rh0.8Ir0.2)32, then decreases slowly to 118 K at x=0.5 before decreasing sharply to 69 K at x=0.67, even though the magnetic moment per Ce ion decreases monotonically with increasing Ir substitution. The Tc of 125 K in Ce(Rh0.8Ir0.2)3B2 is the highest magnetic-ordering temperature observed so far for all Ce-based systems with nonmagnetic constituents.

  19. Managing Innovation Through Social Media in B2B SME-Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla; Madsen, Svend Ole; Brink, Tove


    This paper shed light on how social media application can enhance innovation management in SME B2B context. Our study employs a qualitative case study approach with four B2B SMEs for in-depth research in the period from October 2013 to October 2014. The B2B SME managers aim for open business model...... innovation. However, social media application is hindered due to lack of specific local knowledge, lack of knowledge on social media technicalities and bewilderedness on leadership approaches within the social media application. A contribution is hereby made to the B2B SME field, to the academic...... understanding an insight on social media application and open business model innovation....

  20. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.


    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)