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  1. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

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    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  2. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

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    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  3. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  4. Cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not produce long-term changes in glucose metabolism

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    Harrell, L.E.; Davis, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased glucose metabolism is found in Alzheimer's disease associated with a loss of cholinergic neurons. The relationship between the chronic cholinergic denervation produced by medial septal lesions and glucose metabolism was studied using 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose in the rat hippocampal formation. Hippocampal glucose metabolism was increased 1 week after medial septal lesions. Three weeks after lesions, glucose metabolism was profoundly suppressed in all regions. By 3 months, intraregional hippocampal glucose metabolism had returned to control values. Our results demonstrate that chronic cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not result in permanent alterations of metabolic activity

  5. Metabolic engineering toward 1-butanol derivatives in solvent producing clostridia

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    Siemerink, M.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this thesis gives an overview about the history of the acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The responsible solventogenic clostridia with their central metabolism are briefly discussed. Despite the fact that scientific research on the key organisms of the ABE process has

  6. Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report

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    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

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    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  8. Change in energy metabolism of in vitro produced embryos: an alternative to make them more cryoresistant?

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    Luzia Renata Oliveira Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For the development of in vitro produced (IVP as well as in vivo produced bovine embryos, it is extremely important that their energy metabolism works properly because the embryo must be able to metabolize energy substrates that are necessary for producing energy. Lipids play an important role in early embryonic development, acting as source of energy for oocytes and embryos. However, it is known that oocytes and embryos, mainly IVP, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cytoplasm. Although they are extremely important in embryonic development, lipids have been associated with the reduced survival of bovine embryos following cryopreservation. There is evidence that at least four different categories of lipids affect embryo survival after cryopreservation, including triglycerides (TAG, free fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. Thus, many studies are being conducted to improve the resistance of IVP embryos to the cryopreservation process by reducing the concentration or removing the source of serum from the medium or by reducing oocyte/embryo lipids using mechanical or chemical means. Regarding the use of delipidating agents that reduce the uptake and synthesis of fatty acids (FA by cells, substances such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES, forskolin, L-carnitine and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA have been utilized. This review aims to address important issues related to embryonic energy metabolism, the importance of lipid metabolism and its relation to the cryopreservation of IVP bovine embryos by summarizing the latest research in this field.

  9. Metabolic responses to pyruvate kinase deletion in lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum

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    Wittmann Christoph

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate kinase is an important element in flux control of the intermediate metabolism. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and is under allosteric control. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enzyme was regarded as promising target for improved production of lysine, one of the major amino acids in animal nutrition. In pyruvate kinase deficient strains the required equimolar ratio of the two lysine precursors oxaloacetate and pyruvate can be achieved through concerted action of the phosphotransferase system (PTS and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, whereby a reduced amount of carbon may be lost as CO2 due to reduced flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In previous studies, deletion of pyruvate kinase in lysine-producing C. glutamicum, however, did not yield a clear picture and the exact metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Results In this work, deletion of the pyk gene, encoding pyruvate kinase, was carried out in the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr, expressing a feedback resistant aspartokinase, to investigate the cellular response to deletion of this central glycolytic enzyme. Pyk deletion was achieved by allelic replacement, verified by PCR analysis and the lack of in vitro enzyme activity. The deletion mutant showed an overall growth behavior (specific growth rate, glucose uptake rate, biomass yield which was very similar to that of the parent strain, but differed in slightly reduced lysine formation, increased formation of the overflow metabolites dihydroxyacetone and glycerol and in metabolic fluxes around the pyruvate node. The latter involved a flux shift from pyruvate carboxylase (PC to PEPC, by which the cell maintained anaplerotic supply of the TCA cycle. This created a metabolic by-pass from PEP to pyruvate via malic enzyme demonstrating its contribution to metabolic flexibility of C. glutamicum on glucose. Conclusion The metabolic

  10. Use of pantothenate as a metabolic switch increases the genetic stability of farnesene producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Sandoval, Celeste M; Ayson, Marites; Moss, Nathan; Lieu, Bonny; Jackson, Peter; Gaucher, Sara P; Horning, Tizita; Dahl, Robert H; Denery, Judith R; Abbott, Derek A; Meadows, Adam L

    2014-09-01

    We observed that removing pantothenate (vitamin B5), a precursor to co-enzyme A, from the growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to produce β-farnesene reduced the strain׳s farnesene flux by 70%, but increased its viability, growth rate and biomass yield. Conversely, the growth rate and biomass yield of wild-type yeast were reduced. Cultivation in media lacking pantothenate eliminates the growth advantage of low-producing mutants, leading to improved production upon scale-up to lab-scale bioreactor testing. An omics investigation revealed that when exogenous pantothenate levels are limited, acyl-CoA metabolites decrease, β-oxidation decreases from unexpectedly high levels in the farnesene producer, and sterol and fatty acid synthesis likely limits the growth rate of the wild-type strain. Thus pantothenate supplementation can be utilized as a "metabolic switch" for tuning the synthesis rates of molecules relying on CoA intermediates and aid the economic scale-up of strains producing acyl-CoA derived molecules to manufacturing facilities. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

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    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  12. Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

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    Yoon-Jung Moon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 has been shown to produce H2 when using CO, formate, or starch as a growth substrate. This strain can also utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor for heterotrophic growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, the proteome of T. onnurineus NA1 cells grown under sulfur culture conditions was quantified and compared with those grown under H2-evolving substrate culture conditions. Using label-free nano-UPLC-MSE-based comparative proteomic analysis, approximately 38.4% of the total identified proteome (589 proteins was found to be significantly up-regulated (≥1.5-fold under sulfur culture conditions. Many of these proteins were functionally associated with carbon fixation, Fe–S cluster biogenesis, ATP synthesis, sulfur reduction, protein glycosylation, protein translocation, and formate oxidation. Based on the abundances of the identified proteins in this and other genomic studies, the pathways associated with reductive sulfur metabolism, H2-metabolism, and oxidative stress defense were proposed. The results also revealed markedly lower expression levels of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway, as well as cysteine desulfurase, under sulfur culture condition. The present results provide the first global atlas of proteome changes triggered by sulfur, and may facilitate an understanding of how hyperthermophilic archaea adapt to sulfur-rich, extreme environments.

  13. Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

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    Moon, Yoon-Jung; Kwon, Joseph; Yun, Sung-Ho; Lim, Hye Li; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Seung Il; Chung, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 has been shown to produce H2 when using CO, formate, or starch as a growth substrate. This strain can also utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor for heterotrophic growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, the proteome of T. onnurineus NA1 cells grown under sulfur culture conditions was quantified and compared with those grown under H2-evolving substrate culture conditions. Using label-free nano-UPLC-MSE-based comparative proteomic analysis, approximately 38.4% of the total identified proteome (589 proteins) was found to be significantly up-regulated (≥1.5-fold) under sulfur culture conditions. Many of these proteins were functionally associated with carbon fixation, Fe–S cluster biogenesis, ATP synthesis, sulfur reduction, protein glycosylation, protein translocation, and formate oxidation. Based on the abundances of the identified proteins in this and other genomic studies, the pathways associated with reductive sulfur metabolism, H2-metabolism, and oxidative stress defense were proposed. The results also revealed markedly lower expression levels of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway, as well as cysteine desulfurase, under sulfur culture condition. The present results provide the first global atlas of proteome changes triggered by sulfur, and may facilitate an understanding of how hyperthermophilic archaea adapt to sulfur-rich, extreme environments. PMID:25915030

  14. Proteomic evidences for rex regulation of metabolism in toxin-producing Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

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    Sabrina Laouami

    Full Text Available The facultative anaerobe, Bacillus cereus, causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Its ability to deal with oxygen availability is recognized to be critical for pathogenesis. The B. cereus genome comprises a gene encoding a protein with high similarities to the redox regulator, Rex, which is a central regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we showed that B. cereus rex is monocistronic and down-regulated in the absence of oxygen. The protein encoded by rex is an authentic Rex transcriptional factor since its DNA binding activity depends on the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Rex deletion compromised the ability of B. cereus to cope with external oxidative stress under anaerobiosis while increasing B. cereus resistance against such stress under aerobiosis. The deletion of rex affects anaerobic fermentative and aerobic respiratory metabolism of B. cereus by decreasing and increasing, respectively, the carbon flux through the NADH-recycling lactate pathway. We compared both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of the wild-type and Δrex cells using a high throughput shotgun label-free quantitation approach and identified proteins that are under control of Rex-mediated regulation. Proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000886. The data suggest that Rex regulates both the cross-talk between metabolic pathways that produce NADH and NADPH and toxinogenesis, especially in oxic conditions.

  15. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

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    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  16. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce GDP-L-fucose from glucose and mannose.

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    Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum was metabolically engineered to convert glucose and mannose into guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose, a precursor of fucosyl-oligosaccharides, which are involved in various biological and pathological functions. This was done by introducing the gmd and wcaG genes of Escherichia coli encoding GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, respectively, which are known as key enzymes in the production of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. Coexpression of the genes allowed the recombinant C. glutamicum cells to produce GDP-L-fucose in a minimal medium containing glucose and mannose as carbon sources. The specific product formation rate was much higher during growth on mannose than on glucose. In addition, the specific product formation rate was further increased by coexpressing the endogenous phosphomanno-mutase gene (manB) and GTP-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyl-transferase gene (manC), which are involved in the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into GDP-D-mannose. However, the overexpression of manA encoding mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, catalyzing interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate showed a negative effect on formation of the target product. Overall, coexpression of gmd, wcaG, manB and manC in C. glutamicum enabled production of GDP-L-fucose at the specific rate of 0.11 mg g cell(-1) h(-1). The specific GDP-L-fucose content reached 5.5 mg g cell(-1), which is a 2.4-fold higher than that of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing gmd, wcaG, manB and manC under comparable conditions. Well-established metabolic engineering tools may permit optimization of the carbon and cofactor metabolisms of C. glutamicum to further improve their production capacity.

  17. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

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    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  18. Endogenous adenosine produced during hypoxia attenuates neutrophil accumulation: coordination by extracellular nucleotide metabolism.

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    Eltzschig, Holger K; Thompson, Linda F; Karhausen, Jorn; Cotta, Richard J; Ibla, Juan C; Robson, Simon C; Colgan, Sean P

    2004-12-15

    Hypoxia is a well-documented inflammatory stimulus and results in tissue polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation. Likewise, increased tissue adenosine levels are commonly associated with hypoxia, and given the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine, we hypothesized that adenosine production via adenine nucleotide metabolism at the vascular surface triggers an endogenous anti-inflammatory response during hypoxia. Initial in vitro studies indicated that endogenously generated adenosine, through activation of PMN adenosine A(2A) and A(2B) receptors, functions as an antiadhesive signal for PMN binding to microvascular endothelia. Intravascular nucleotides released by inflammatory cells undergo phosphohydrolysis via hypoxia-induced CD39 ectoapyrase (CD39 converts adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate [ATP/ADP] to adenosine monophosphate [AMP]) and CD73 ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73 converts AMP to adenosine). Extensions of our in vitro findings using cd39- and cd73-null animals revealed that extracellular adenosine produced through adenine nucleotide metabolism during hypoxia is a potent anti-inflammatory signal for PMNs in vivo. These findings identify CD39 and CD73 as critical control points for endogenous adenosine generation and implicate this pathway as an innate mechanism to attenuate excessive tissue PMN accumulation.

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast to Produce Fatty Acid-derived Biofuels: Bottlenecks and Solutions

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    Jiayuan eSheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  20. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

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    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  1. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

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    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  2. Beneficial effects on host energy metabolism of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins produced by commensal and probiotic bacteria.

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    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Chain, Florian; Martín, Rebeca; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Courau, Stéphanie; Langella, Philippe

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effect in host energy metabolism of the production of B group vitamins and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by commensal, food-grade and probiotic bacteria, which are also actors of the mammalian nutrition. The mechanisms of how these microbial end products, produced by these bacterial strains, act on energy metabolism will be discussed. We will show that these vitamins and SCFA producing bacteria could be used as tools to recover energy intakes by either optimizing ATP production from foods or by the fermentation of certain fibers in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Original data are also presented in this work where SCFA (acetate, butyrate and propionate) and B group vitamins (riboflavin, folate and thiamine) production was determined for selected probiotic bacteria.

  3. Metabolic flux rearrangement in the amino acid metabolism reduces ammonia stress in the α1-antitrypsin producing human AGE1.HN cell line.

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    Priesnitz, Christian; Niklas, Jens; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Heinzle, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    This study focused on metabolic changes in the neuronal human cell line AGE1.HN upon increased ammonia stress. Batch cultivations of α(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) producing AGE1.HN cells were carried out in media with initial ammonia concentrations ranging from 0mM to 5mM. Growth, A1AT production, metabolite dynamics and finally metabolic fluxes calculated by metabolite balancing were compared. Growth and A1AT production decreased with increasing ammonia concentration. The maximum A1AT concentration decreased from 0.63g/l to 0.51g/l. Central energy metabolism remained relatively unaffected exhibiting only slightly increased glycolytic flux at high initial ammonia concentration in the medium. However, the amino acid metabolism was significantly changed. Fluxes through transaminases involved in amino acid degradation were reduced concurrently with a reduced uptake of amino acids. On the other hand fluxes through transaminases working in the direction of amino acid synthesis, i.e., alanine and phosphoserine, were increased leading to increased storage of excess nitrogen in extracellular alanine and serine. Glutamate dehydrogenase flux was reversed increasingly fixing free ammonia with increasing ammonia concentration. Urea production additionally observed was associated with arginine uptake by the cells and did not increase at high ammonia stress. It was therefore not used as nitrogen sink to remove excess ammonia. The results indicate that the AGE1.HN cell line can adapt to ammonia concentrations usually present during the cultivation process to a large extent by changing metabolism but with slightly reduced A1AT production and growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

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    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  5. Effects of algal-produced neurotoxins on metabolic activity in telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Marit Jorgensen; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2007-01-01

    Neurotoxins from algal blooms have been reported to cause mortality in a variety of species, including sea birds, sea mammals and fish. Farmed fish cannot escape harmful algal blooms and their potential toxins, thus they are more vulnerable for exposure than wild stocks. Sublethal doses of the toxins are likely to affect fish behaviour and may impair cognitive abilities. In the present study, changes in the metabolic activity in different parts of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) brain involved in central integration and cognition were investigated after exposure to sublethal doses of three algal-produced neurotoxins; saxitoxin (STX), brevetoxin (BTX) and domoic acid (DA). Fish were randomly selected to four groups for i.p. injection of saline (control) or one of the neurotoxins STX (10 μg STX/kg bw), BTX (68 μg BTX/kg bw) or DA (6 mg DA/kg bw). In addition, 14 C-2-deoxyglucose was i.m. injected to measure brain metabolic activity by autoradiography. The three regions investigated were telencephalon (Tel), optic tectum (OT) and cerebellum (Ce). There were no differences in the metabolic activity after STX and BTX exposure compared to the control in these regions. However, a clear increase was observed after DA exposure. When the subregions with the highest metabolic rate were pseudocoloured in the three brain regions, the three toxins caused distinct differences in the respective patterns of metabolic activation. Fish exposed to STX displayed similar patterns as the control fish, whereas fish exposed to BTX and DA showed highest metabolic activity in subregions different from the control group. All three neurotoxins affected subregions that are believed to be involved in cognitive abilities in fish

  6. PPAR? population shift produces disease-related changes in molecular networks associated with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkowski, W; Roomp, K; Crespo, I; Schneider, J G; del Sol, A

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding domain at serine 273 has been shown to change the expression of a large number of genes implicated in obesity. The difference in gene expression seen when comparing wild-type phosphorylated with mutant non-phosphorylated PPARγ may have important consequences for the cellular molecular network,...

  7. Metabolic reprogramming for producing energy and reducing power in fumarate hydratase null cells from hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Fumarate hydratase (FH-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP that either generate NADPH (oxidative or do not (non-oxidative, we utilized [U-(13C]-glucose, [U-(13C,(15N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66% that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate and fatty acid

  8. The organellar genome and metabolic potential of the hydrogen- producing mitochondrion of Nyctotherus ovalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.P. Hackstein (Johannes); C. Burgtorf; B.E. Dutilh (Bas); I. Duarte (Isabel); G.W.M. van der Staay (Georg); R.M. de Graaf (Rob); J.W.P. Kuiper (Jan); M. Huynen (Martijn); T.A. van Alen (Theo); G. Ricard (Guenola); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract It is generally accepted that hydrogenosomes (hydrogen-producing organelles) evolved from a mitochondrial ancestor. However, until recently, only indirect evidence for this hypothesis was available. Here, we present the almost complete genome of the hydrogen-producing

  9. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins.

  10. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  11. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-09-09

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermatozoa inseminated long before egg spawning can be stored in the seminal receptacle. We found that sneaker spermatozoa exhibited greater persistence in fertilization competence and flagellar motility than consort ones because of a larger amount of flagellar glycogen. Sneaker spermatozoa also showed higher capacities in glucose uptake and lactate efflux. Lactic acidosis was considered to stabilize CO2-triggered self-clustering of sneaker spermatozoa, thus establishing hypoxia-induced metabolic changes and sperm survival. These results, together with comparative omics analyses, suggest that postcopulatory reproductive contexts define sperm longevity by modulating the inherent energy levels and metabolic pathways. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermatozoa inseminated long before egg spawning can be stored in the seminal receptacle. We found that sneaker spermatozoa exhibited greater persistence in fertilization competence and flagellar motility than consort ones because of a larger amount of flagellar glycogen. Sneaker spermatozoa also showed higher capacities in glucose uptake and lactate efflux. Lactic acidosis was considered to stabilize CO2-triggered self-clustering of sneaker spermatozoa, thus establishing hypoxia-induced metabolic changes and sperm survival. These results, together with comparative omics analyses, suggest that postcopulatory reproductive contexts define sperm longevity by modulating the inherent energy levels and metabolic pathways. PMID:27385589

  13. Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab-El-Deen, Mohamed Ahmed M M; Fadel, Moustafa S; Van Soom, Ann; Saleh, Sherif Y; Maes, Dominiek; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2010-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the circadian rhythm of blood metabolic parameters associated with summer heat stress (HS) in dairy cows. Ten healthy lactating Holstein Friesian cows were followed during HS for three successive days at six different time points. Blood was sampled from each cow starting from 07:00 AM: ; at 4-h intervals. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity were recorded, and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC) and urea were measured in each blood sample. The THI values were >68 at all times of the day, and the highest values were recorded at 11:00 AM: , 03:00 PM: and 07:00 PM: (80.9, 83.7, and 80.8, respectively). All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT coinciding with higher THI values (93 +/- 4 and 39.6 +/- 0.1; 90.2 +/- 3.4, and 40.1 +/- 0.1; 87.6 +/- 4.1, and 39.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, P < 0.05). The concentrations of glucose were the lowest at 11:00 AM: and 03:00 PM: (3.75 +/- 0.1 and 3.44 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Decreased glucose concentrations coincided with increased NEFA concentrations, (0.43 +/- 0.01 and 0.56 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05), and were highly negatively correlated (r = -0.50, P < 0.001). The highest urea and TC concentrations were registered at 11:00 AM: (6.11 +/- 0.15 mmol/L and 109.9 +/- 2.2 mg/dl, respectively) whereas the lowest urea and TC values were recorded at 03:00 AM: (4.97 +/- 0.18 mmol/L and 99.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, respectively, P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that there was a circadian variation in glucose, NEFA, urea, and TC resulting in the most unfavorable metabolic condition during the hottest moment of the day in dairy cattle. Earlier work revealed that HS-metabolic changes are reflected in the follicular fluid. The

  14. [Isolation and identification of a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium and its primary metabolic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wei-yun; Yao, Wen; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2007-06-01

    The distal mammalian gut harbors prodigiously abundant microbes, which provide unique metabolic traits to host. A lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain LB01, was isolated from adult swine feces by utilizing modified Hungate technique with rumen liquid-independent YCFA medium supplemented with lactate as the single carbon source. It was an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium, and could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose and lactate with a large amount of gas products. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it had the high similarity with members of the genus Megasphaera. The metabolic characteristics of strain LB01 was investigated by using in vitro fermentation system. Lactate at the concentration of 65 mmol/L in YCFA medium was rapidly consumed within 9 hours and was mainly converted to propionate and butyrate after 24h. As the level of acetate declined, the concentration of butyrate rose only in the presence of glucose, suggesting that butyrate could possibly be synthesized by the acetyl CoA: butyryl CoA transferase. When co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria strain K9, strain LB01 evidently reduced the concentration of lactate produced by strain K9 and decelerated the rapid pH drop, finally producing 12.11 mmol/L butyrate and 4.06 mmol/L propionate. The metabolic characteristics that strain LB01 efficiently converts toxic lactate and excessive acetate to butyrate can prevent lactate and acetate accumulation in the large intestine and maintain the slightly acidic environment of the large intestine, consequently revealing that stain LB01 could act as a potential probiotics.

  15. Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2007-12-01

    There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production.

  16. Producing Acetic Acid of Acetobacter pasteurianus by Fermentation Characteristics and Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2018-03-19

    The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A. pasteurianus JST-S was 57.14 ± 1.09 g/L, whereas that of A. pasteurianus CICC 20001 reached 48.24 ± 1.15 g/L in a 15-L stir stank. Metabolic flux analysis was also performed to compare the reaction byproducts. Our findings revealed the potential value of the strain in improvement of industrial vinegar fermentation.

  17. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Kahsai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, neurosecretory cells that release peptide hormones play a prominent role in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Several types of peptidergic neurosecretory cells have been identified in the brain of Drosophila with release sites in the corpora cardiaca and anterior aorta. We show here that in adult flies the products of three neuropeptide precursors are colocalized in five pairs of large protocerebral neurosecretory cells in two clusters (designated ipc-1 and ipc-2a: Drosophila tachykinin (DTK, short neuropeptide F (sNPF and ion transport peptide (ITP. These peptides were detected by immunocytochemistry in combination with GFP expression driven by the enhancer trap Gal4 lines c929 and Kurs-6, both of which are expressed in ipc-1 and 2a cells. This mix of colocalized peptides with seemingly unrelated functions is intriguing and prompted us to initiate analysis of the function of the ten neurosecretory cells. We investigated the role of peptide signaling from large ipc-1 and 2a cells in stress responses by monitoring the effect of starvation and desiccation in flies with levels of DTK or sNPF diminished by RNA interference. Using the Gal4-UAS system we targeted the peptide knockdown specifically to ipc-1 and 2a cells with the c929 and Kurs-6 drivers. Flies with reduced DTK or sNPF levels in these cells displayed decreased survival time at desiccation and starvation, as well as increased water loss at desiccation. Our data suggest that homeostasis during metabolic stress requires intact peptide signaling by ipc-1 and 2a neurosecretory cells.

  18. PPARγ population shift produces disease-related changes in molecular networks associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, W; Roomp, K; Crespo, I; Schneider, J G; Del Sol, A

    2011-08-11

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and has an important role in metabolic syndrome. Phosphorylation of the receptor's ligand-binding domain at serine 273 has been shown to change the expression of a large number of genes implicated in obesity. The difference in gene expression seen when comparing wild-type phosphorylated with mutant non-phosphorylated PPARγ may have important consequences for the cellular molecular network, the state of which can be shifted from the healthy to a stable diseased state. We found that a group of differentially expressed genes are involved in bi-stable switches and form a core network, the state of which changes with disease progression. These findings support the idea that bi-stable switches may be a mechanism for locking the core gene network into a diseased state and for efficiently propagating perturbations to more distant regions of the network. A structural analysis of the PPARγ-RXRα dimer complex supports the hypothesis of a major structural change between the two states, and this may represent an important mechanism leading to the differential expression observed in the core network.

  19. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stengärde Lena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  20. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  1. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: JLiu@kumc.edu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Lu, Yuan-Fu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Fan, Fang [Cytopathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  2. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Producing Astaxanthin as the Predominant Carotenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a carotenoid of significant commercial value due to its superior antioxidant potential and wide applications in the aquaculture, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. A higher ratio of astaxanthin to the total carotenoids is required for efficient astaxanthin production. β-Carotene ketolase and hydroxylase play important roles in astaxanthin production. We first compared the conversion efficiency to astaxanthin in several β-carotene ketolases from Brevundimonas sp. SD212, Sphingomonas sp. DC18, Paracoccus sp. PC1, P. sp. N81106 and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the recombinant Escherichia coli cells that synthesize zeaxanthin due to the presence of the Pantoea ananatis crtEBIYZ. The B. sp. SD212 crtW and P. ananatis crtZ genes are the best combination for astaxanthin production. After balancing the activities of β-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, an E. coli ASTA-1 that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was constructed to produce astaxanthin as the predominant carotenoid (96.6% with a specific content of 7.4 ± 0.3 mg/g DCW without an addition of inducer.

  4. Genealogy profiling through strain improvement by using metabolic network analysis: metabolic flux genealogy of several generations of lysine-producing corynebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Christoph; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-12-01

    A comprehensive approach of metabolite balancing, (13)C tracer studies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and isotopomer modeling was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of a genealogy of five successive generations of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. The five strains examined (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, 13287, 21253, 21526, and 21543) were previously obtained by random mutagenesis and selection. Throughout the genealogy, the lysine yield in batch cultures increased markedly from 1.2 to 24.9% relative to the glucose uptake flux. Strain optimization was accompanied by significant changes in intracellular flux distributions. The relative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux successively increased, clearly corresponding to the product yield. Moreover, the anaplerotic net flux increased almost twofold as a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes to cover the increased demand for lysine formation; thus, the overall increase was a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes. The relative flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase dropped from 82.7% in the wild type to 59.9% in the lysine-producing mutants. In contrast to the NADPH demand, which increased from 109 to 172% due to the increasing lysine yield, the overall NADPH supply remained constant between 185 and 196%, resulting in a decrease in the apparent NADPH excess through strain optimization. Extrapolated to industrial lysine producers, the NADPH supply might become a limiting factor. The relative contributions of PPP and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to NADPH generation changed markedly, indicating that C. glutamicum is able to maintain a constant supply of NADPH under completely different flux conditions. Statistical analysis by a Monte Carlo approach revealed high precision for the estimated fluxes, underlining the

  5. Metaproteome analysis to determine the metabolically active part of a thermophilic microbial community producing biogas from agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanreich, Angelika; Heyer, Robert; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Pioch, Markus; Reichl, Udo; Klocke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biogas production. A lot of information about the taxonomic structure and enzymatic potential of such communities has been collected by a variety of gene-based approaches, yet little is known about which of all the assumable metabolic pathways are active throughout the process of biogas formation. To tackle this problem, we established a protocol for the metaproteomic analysis of samples taken from biogas reactors fed with agricultural biomass. In contrast to previous studies where an anaerobic digester was fed with synthetic wastewater, the complex matrix in this study required the extraction of proteins with liquid phenol and the application of paper bridge loading for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were subjected to nanoHPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for characterization. Several housekeeping proteins as well as methanogenesis-related enzymes were identified by a MASCOT search and de novo sequencing, which proved the feasibility of our approach. The establishment of such an approach is the basis for further metaproteomic studies of biogas-producing communities. In particular, the apparent status of metabolic activities within the communities can be monitored. The knowledge collected from such experiments could lead to further improvements of biogas production.

  6. Detection of transketolase in bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells: benfotiamine enhances insulin synthesis and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Witek, Rafal P; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Detection of Transketolase in Bone Marrow—Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: Benfotiamine Enhances Insulin Synthesis and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Rafal P.; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus. PMID:18393672

  8. Metabolic network reconstruction and genome-scale model of butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Pan-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solventogenic clostridia offer a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based production of butanol--an important chemical feedstock and potential fuel additive or replacement. C. beijerinckii is an attractive microorganism for strain design to improve butanol production because it (i naturally produces the highest recorded butanol concentrations as a byproduct of fermentation; and (ii can co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars (the primary products from lignocellulosic hydrolysis. Interrogating C. beijerinckii metabolism from a systems viewpoint using constraint-based modeling allows for simulation of the global effect of genetic modifications. Results We present the first genome-scale metabolic model (iCM925 for C. beijerinckii, containing 925 genes, 938 reactions, and 881 metabolites. To build the model we employed a semi-automated procedure that integrated genome annotation information from KEGG, BioCyc, and The SEED, and utilized computational algorithms with manual curation to improve model completeness. Interestingly, we found only a 34% overlap in reactions collected from the three databases--highlighting the importance of evaluating the predictive accuracy of the resulting genome-scale model. To validate iCM925, we conducted fermentation experiments using the NCIMB 8052 strain, and evaluated the ability of the model to simulate measured substrate uptake and product production rates. Experimentally observed fermentation profiles were found to lie within the solution space of the model; however, under an optimal growth objective, additional constraints were needed to reproduce the observed profiles--suggesting the existence of selective pressures other than optimal growth. Notably, a significantly enriched fraction of actively utilized reactions in simulations--constrained to reflect experimental rates--originated from the set of reactions that overlapped between all three databases (P = 3.52 × 10-9, Fisher's exact test

  9. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  10. Carbon-flux distribution within Streptomyces coelicolor metabolism: a comparison between the actinorhodin-producing strain M145 and its non-producing derivative M1146.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Coze

    Full Text Available Metabolic Flux Analysis is now viewed as essential to elucidate the metabolic pattern of cells and to design appropriate genetic engineering strategies to improve strain performance and production processes. Here, we investigated carbon flux distribution in two Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2 strains: the wild type M145 and its derivative mutant M1146, in which gene clusters encoding the four main antibiotic biosynthetic pathways were deleted. Metabolic Flux Analysis and (13C-labeling allowed us to reconstruct a flux map under steady-state conditions for both strains. The mutant strain M1146 showed a higher growth rate, a higher flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and a higher flux through the anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In that strain, glucose uptake and the flux through the Krebs cycle were lower than in M145. The enhanced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway in M1146 is thought to generate NADPH enough to face higher needs for biomass biosynthesis and other processes. In both strains, the production of NADPH was higher than NADPH needs, suggesting a key role for nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase for redox homeostasis. ATP production is also likely to exceed metabolic ATP needs, indicating that ATP consumption for maintenance is substantial.Our results further suggest a possible competition between actinorhodin and triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways for their common precursor, acetyl-CoA. These findings may be instrumental in developing new strategies exploiting S. coelicolor as a platform for the production of bio-based products of industrial interest.

  11. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  12. Effects of bacterially produced precipitates on the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria during the bio-treatment process of copper-containing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A large volume of bacterially produced precipitates are generated during the bio-treatment of heavy metal wastewater.The composition of the bacterially produced precipitates and its effects on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in copper-containing waste stream were evaluated in this study.The elemental composition of the microbial precipitate was studied using electrodispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.12.Combining with the results of copper distribution in the SRB metabolism culture,which was analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure,copper in the precipitates was determined as covellite (CuS).The bacterially produced precipitates caused a decrease of the sulfate reduction rate,and the more precipitates were generated,the lower the sulfate reduction rate was.The particle sizes of bacterially generated covellite were ranging from 0.03 to 2 m by particles size distribution (PSD) analysis,which was smaller than that of the SRB cells.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the microbial covellite was deposited on the surface of the cell.The effects of the microbial precipitate on SRB metabolism were found to be weakened by increasing the precipitation time and adding microbial polymeric substances in later experiments.These results provided direct evidence that the SRB activity was inhibited by the bacterially produced covellite,which enveloped the bacterium and thus affected the metabolism of SRB on mass transfer.

  13. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  14. Identified peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila brain regulate insulin-producing cells, stress responses and metabolism by coexpressed short neuropeptide F and corazonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Neval; Lushchak, Oleh V; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R

    2012-12-01

    Insulin/IGF-like signaling regulates the development, growth, fecundity, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and lifespan in worms, flies and mammals. Eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are found in Drosophila. Three of these (DILP2, 3 and 5) are produced by a set of median neurosecretory cells (insulin-producing cells, IPCs) in the brain. Activity in the IPCs of adult flies is regulated by glucose and several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. One of these, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), regulates food intake, growth and Dilp transcript levels in IPCs via the sNPF receptor (sNPFR1) expressed on IPCs. Here we identify a set of brain neurons that utilizes sNPF to activate the IPCs. These sNPF-expressing neurons (dorsal lateral peptidergic neurons, DLPs) also produce the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) and have axon terminations impinging on IPCs. Knockdown of either sNPF or CRZ in DLPs extends survival in flies exposed to starvation and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Expression of sNPF in DLPs in the sNPF mutant background is sufficient to rescue wild-type metabolism and response to starvation. Since CRZ receptor RNAi in IPCs affects starvation resistance and metabolism, similar to peptide knockdown in DLPs, it is likely that also CRZ targets the IPCs. Knockdown of sNPF, but not CRZ in DLPs decreases transcription of Dilp2 and 5 in the brain, suggesting different mechanisms of action on IPCs of the two co-released peptides. Our findings indicate that sNPF and CRZ co-released from a small set of neurons regulate IPCs, stress resistance and metabolism in adult Drosophila.

  15. Exposures to arsenite and methylarsonite produce insulin resistance and impair insulin-dependent glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongben; Fennel, Emily M J; Douillet, Christelle; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been shown to disturb glucose homeostasis, leading to diabetes. Previous laboratory studies have suggested several mechanisms that may underlie the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure, including (i) inhibition of insulin signaling (leading to insulin resistance) in glucose metabolizing peripheral tissues, (ii) inhibition of insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells, and (iii) dysregulation of the methylation or expression of genes involved in maintenance of glucose or insulin metabolism and function. Published studies have also shown that acute or chronic iAs exposures may result in depletion of hepatic glycogen stores. However, effects of iAs on pathways and mechanisms that regulate glycogen metabolism in the liver have never been studied. The present study examined glycogen metabolism in primary murine hepatocytes exposed in vitro to arsenite (iAs 3+ ) or its methylated metabolite, methylarsonite (MAs 3+ ). The results show that 4-h exposures to iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ at concentrations as low as 0.5 and 0.2 µM, respectively, decreased glycogen content in insulin-stimulated hepatocytes by inhibiting insulin-dependent activation of glycogen synthase (GS) and by inducing activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Further investigation revealed that both iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ inhibit insulin-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt, one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GS and GP by insulin. Thus, inhibition of insulin signaling (i.e., insulin resistance) is likely responsible for the dysregulation of glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes exposed to iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ . This study provides novel information about the mechanisms by which iAs exposure impairs glucose homeostasis, pointing to hepatic metabolism of glycogen as one of the targets.

  16. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative assessment of maize lines produced by different breeding methods using both microbiological and metabolic profiling tools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the South African maize samples that have been analysed for mycotoxins, for presence of F.verticillioides and for metabolic profiling. 26 maize cultivars are used , and 50 kernels were plated on 10 PCNB agar plates using...

  18. Multi-omic profiling of EPO producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael

    Heterologous protein production in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied to characterize the physiological impact of erythropoietin production, and discover production bottlenecks, ...

  19. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied...

  20. MOST-visualization: software for producing automated textbook-style maps of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, James J; Maor, Shay; Kim, Min Kyung; Lane, Anatoliy; Lun, Desmond S

    2017-08-15

    Visualization of metabolites, reactions and pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) can assist in understanding cellular metabolism. Three attributes are desirable in software used for visualizing GEMs: (i) automation, since GEMs can be quite large; (ii) production of understandable maps that provide ease in identification of pathways, reactions and metabolites; and (iii) visualization of the entire network to show how pathways are interconnected. No software currently exists for visualizing GEMs that satisfies all three characteristics, but MOST-Visualization, an extension of the software package MOST (Metabolic Optimization and Simulation Tool), satisfies (i), and by using a pre-drawn overview map of metabolism based on the Roche map satisfies (ii) and comes close to satisfying (iii). MOST is distributed for free on the GNU General Public License. The software and full documentation are available at http://most.ccib.rutgers.edu/. dslun@rutgers.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  2. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing CHO cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is the predominant mammalian cell factory for production of therapeutic glycoproteins. In this work, we aimed to study bottlenecks in the secretory pathway associated with the production of human erythropoietin (EPO) in CHO cells. In connection to this, we...... discovered indications of metabolic adaptation of the amino acid catabolism in favor of heterologous protein production. We established a panel of stably EPO expressing CHO-K1 clones spanning a 25-fold productivity range and characterized the clones in batch and chemostat cultures. For this, we employed...... a multi-omic physiological characterization including metabolic foot printing of amino acids, metabolite fingerprinting of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H-/NAD(P)+ and adenosine nucleotide phosphates. We used qPCR, qRT-PCR, western blots and Affymetrix CHO microarrays to assess EPO gene copy numbers...

  3. Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emnéus, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellul...... in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo.......Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular...... the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes...

  4. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use.

  5. Effect of urinary tract infection on the urinary metabolic characteristic as a risk factor in producing urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eskandarifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary metabolic disorders are one of the most common causes of stone formation in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infections in the urinary metabolic characteristics as a risk factor in the incidence of urolithiasis. This case-control study was conducted in 222 children with urolithiasis in the range of 6 months to 16 years old in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran during 2012-14. Patients were divided into two groups based on those with urinary tract infection and without urinary tract infection. Then, urine samples were collected from both groups, and levels of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, creatinine, and cysteine were measured. The collected information was analyzed using software SPSS (version 16. The ratio Average levels of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, cysteine, uric acid to creatinine in urine showed no significant difference between two groups based on statistical analysis. However, the amount of citrate to creatinine in children with urinary tract infection and urolithiasis was clearly less P=0.01. The results of this study show that the urinary tract infection cannot change the urinary metabolic characteristics, but it can be considered as a risk factor in kidney stone formation due to the reduced amount of citrate in the urine.

  6. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  7. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation Rate of Calcium Carbonate Produced through Microbial Metabolic Process of Bio Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Yane Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering. But plain concrete is a brittle material and has little resistance to cracking. The cracking in concrete promotes deterioration such as the corrosion of reinforcing rebar, therefore, repair in filling the crack is often carried out. Recently, repair methods using bio-based materials associated with microbial metabolic processes leading to precipitation of calcium carbonate have been intensively studied. In this study, influencing factors on the precipitation rate depending on the constituents of bio-based material comprising yeast, glucose and calcium acetate mixed in tris buffer solution was examined for improving the rate of initial reactions. In addition, effect of temperature change on the amount of calcium carbonate precipitation was also investigated. The precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the increase of temperature lead to a change on calcium carbonate precipitation and caused the pH decrease under 7.0.

  9. The Sexual Advantage of Looking, Smelling, and Tasting Good: The Metabolic Network that Produces Signals for Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Monica; Fernie, Alisdair R; Schiestl, Florian P; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2017-04-01

    A striking feature of the angiosperms that use animals as pollen carriers to sexually reproduce is the great diversity of their flowers with regard to morphology and traits such as color, odor, and nectar. These traits are underpinned by the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as pigments and volatiles, as well as carbohydrates and amino acids, which are used by plants to lure and reward animal pollinators. We review here the knowledge of the metabolic network that supports the biosynthesis of these compounds and the behavioral responses that these molecules elicit in the animal pollinators. Such knowledge provides us with a deeper insight into the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator interactions, and should help us to better manage these ecologically essential interactions in agricultural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Transketolase in Bone Marrow—Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: Benfotiamine Enhances Insulin Synthesis and Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Witek, Rafal P.; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the prolife...

  11. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Richard Ap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. RESULTS: Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal\\/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA\\/(Cr+Cho) ratio. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  12. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendergast Julie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1 engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.. An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs (including hippocampus before and after learning. Results Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho ratio. Conclusion Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  13. Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Richard Ap; Mullally, Sinéad L; McNulty, Jonathan P; Hayden, Judy; Brennan, Paul; Doherty, Colin P; Fitzsimons, Mary; McMackin, Deirdre; Prendergast, Julie; Sukumaran, Sunita; Mangaoang, Maeve A; Robertson, Ian H; O'Mara, Shane M

    2009-11-20

    Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho) ratio. Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  14. Rapidly produced /sup 125/I labelled autologous fibrinogen: in vitro properties and preliminary metabolic studies in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, R J; Hawker, L M [Birmingham Univ. (UK)

    1976-06-01

    The properties of fibrinogen extracted by a precipitation method using glycine at ambient temperatures near neutral pH are described. The simple and reproducible method gave a 73% yield of high purity plasminogen-free fibrinogen in 45 minutes from small volumes of plasma. The protein extract was labelled with /sup 125/I using chloramine-T under conditions optimal for fibrinogen stability. The extraction procedure, radio-iodination, desalting, and sterilization take only 70 minutes for completion from the time donor blood is received in the laboratory. The methods, using a specially developed extraction vessel and desalting/sterilizing column, can be used in a small hospital laboratory. Autologous fibrinogen can thus be extracted from patients' blood, eliminating the risk of transmitting hepatitis when it is re-administered. The autologous material, which is 97% clottable and contains less than 0.05% free iodide, is being routinely used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of deep vein thrombosis. The high purity of the preparation facilitates metabolic studies and in vitro experimental work. In vivo results showed a mean half-life in three normal volunteers of 3.95 days and a catabolic rate of 25.23% per day with the extravascular space estimated as 24.86%. In 30 surgical patients an expected reduced half-life in plasma was determined with a mean of 3.1 days.

  15. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Selenium treatment differentially affects sulfur metabolism in high and low glucosinolate producing cultivars of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Leung, Susanna; Joshi, Srishti; Rippon, Paula E; Joyce, Nigel I; McManus, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar. Also no significant change was observed in the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, EC 2.7.7.4) or O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC 2.5.1.47) with increased Se application. However, in the first investigation of APS kinase (APSK, EC 2.7.1.25) expression in response to Se fertilisation, an increase in transcript abundance of one variant of APS kinase 1 (BoAPSK1A) was observed in both cultivars, and an increase in BoAPSK2 transcript abundance was observed in the low GSL producing cultivar. A mechanism by which increased APSK transcription may provide a means of controlling the content of S-containing compounds, including GSLs, following Se uptake is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic engineering of the moss Physcomitrella patens to produce the sesquiterpenoids patchoulol and α/β-santalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The moss Physcomitrella patens, has been genetically engineered to produce patchoulol and β-santalene, two valuable sesquiterpenoid ingredients in the fragrance industry. The highest yield of patchoulol achieved was 1.34 mg/g dry weight. This was achieved by non-targeted transformation of the patchoulol synthase and either a yeast or P. patens HMGR gene under the control of a 35S promoter. Santalene synthase targeted to the plastids yielded 0.039 mg/g dry weight of α/β santalene; cytosolic santalene synthase and 35S controlled HMGR afforded 0.022 mg/g dry weight. It has been observed that the final yield of the fragrance molecules is dependent on the expression of the synthase. This is the first report of heterologous production of sesquiterpenes in moss and it opens up a promising source for light-driven production of valuable fragrance ingredients.

  18. Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2014-02-15

    A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce 2'-fucosyllactose via salvage pathway of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Wook; Seo, Nari; Kim, Jae-Han; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of the key oligosaccharides in human milk. In the present study, the salvage guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic pathway from fucose was employed in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) for efficient production of 2-FL. Introduction of the fkp gene coding for fucokinase/GDP-l-fucose pyrophosphorylase (Fkp) from Bacteroides fragilis and the fucT2 gene encoding α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori allows the engineered E. coli to produce 2-FL from fucose, lactose and glycerol. To enhance the lactose flux to 2-FL production, the attenuated, and deleted mutants of β-galactosidase were employed. Moreover, the 2-FL yield and productivity were further improved by deletion of the fucI-fucK gene cluster coding for fucose isomerase (FucI) and fuculose kinase (FucK). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) deleting lacZ and fucI-fucK, and expressing fkp and fucT2 resulted in 23.1 g/L of extracellular concentration of 2-FL and 0.39 g/L/h productivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2443-2452. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, F; De Vuyst, L

    2017-05-30

    Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953 T ) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production. Cultivation of these strains was performed in bottles and fermentors containing a modified medium for colon bacteria, including acetate, supplemented with either fructose, oligofructose, or inulin as the sole energy source. Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 could only ferment fructose and did not degrade oligofructose or inulin. E. rectale CIP 105953 T and F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T fermented fructose and could degrade both oligofructose and inulin. All chain length fractions of oligofructose were degraded simultaneously (both strains) and both long and short chain length fractions of inulin were degraded either simultaneously (E. rectale CIP 105953 T ) or consecutively (F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ), indicating an extracellular polymer degradation mechanism. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 produced high concentrations of butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 from fructose. E. rectale CIP 105953 T produced lactate, butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 , from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin, whereas F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T produced butyrate, formate, CO 2 , and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin. Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO 2 , and H 2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.

  1. Effects of the inoculations using bacteria producing ACC deaminase on ethylene metabolism and growth of wheat grown under different soil water contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhuang; Sun, Yonglin; Sheng, Hao; Li, Haichao; Liu, Xiping

    2018-04-01

    Crop growth and productivity are often impacted by the increased ethylene content induced by adverse environmental conditions such drought. Inoculations with bacteria producing ACC deaminase is considered as a potential biological approach to improve the growth and tolerance of stressed plants by lowering endogenous ethylene level. In this study, germinated wheat seeds were inoculated using three species of the rhizobacteria, which were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat growing in dryland, and sown in pots. After three weeks, wheat seedlings were exposed to non-limiting water condition, medium drought and severe drought, respectively, for six weeks. The results showed that, irrespective of rhizobacterial inoculations, decreased soil water contents stimulated wheat ethylene metabolism, which was reflected by the significantly increased activity of ACC synthetase and ACC oxidase, besides an increased content of ACC both in the roots and leaves, and an enhanced capacity of leaves to release ethylene, concomitant with a significant decline in shoot and roots biomass. The inoculations of all three rhizobacterial species under each water condition reduced ACC content in wheat leaves, but effects of the inoculations on ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity in the leaves and roots, ACC content in the roots, the capacity of leaves to release ethylene, and wheat growth varied with water conditions and bacterial species. Hence, both soil water conditions and rhizobacterial inoculations acted on all the processes of ethylene metabolism, with the former being dominant. The inoculations under non-limiting water condition and medium drought promoted shoot and root growth of wheat plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the repaglinide concentration increase produced by gemfibrozil and itraconazole based on the inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Hisaka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2013-02-01

    The plasma concentration of repaglinide is reported to increase greatly when given after repeated oral administration of itraconazole and gemfibrozil. The present study analyzed this interaction based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes involved in repaglinide disposition. Firstly, the plasma concentration profiles of inhibitors (itraconazole, gemfibrozil, and gemfibrozil glucuronide) were reproduced by a PBPK model to obtain their pharmacokinetic parameters. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were then analyzed by a PBPK model, together with those of the inhibitors, assuming a competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 by itraconazole, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were well reproduced by the PBPK model based on the above assumptions, and the optimized values for the inhibition constants (0.0676 nM for itraconazole against CYP3A4; 14.2 μM for gemfibrozil against OATP1B1; and 5.48 μM for gemfibrozil glucuronide against OATP1B1) and the fraction of repaglinide metabolized by CYP2C8 (0.801) were consistent with the reported values. The validity of the obtained parameters was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses and by reproducing the repaglinide concentration increase produced by concomitant gemfibrozil administration at various timings/doses. The present findings suggested that the reported concentration increase of repaglinide, suggestive of synergistic effects of the coadministered inhibitors, can be quantitatively explained by the simultaneous inhibition of the multiple clearance pathways of repaglinide.

  3. Extracellular magnesium enhances the damage to locomotor networks produced by metabolic perturbation mimicking spinal injury in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaryan, G; Mladinic, M; Mattioli, C; Nistri, A

    2009-10-06

    An acute injury to brain or spinal cord produces profound metabolic perturbation that extends and exacerbates tissue damage. Recent clinical interventions to treat this condition with i.v. Mg(2+) to stabilize its extracellular concentration provided disappointing results. The present study used an in vitro spinal cord model from the neonatal rat to investigate the role of extracellular Mg(2+) in the lesion evoked by a pathological medium mimicking the metabolic perturbation (hypoxia, aglycemia, oxidative stress, and acid pH) occurring in vivo. Damage was measured by taking as outcome locomotor network activity for up to 24 h after the primary insult. Pathological medium in 1 mM Mg(2+) solution (1 h) largely depressed spinal reflexes and suppressed fictive locomotion on the same and the following day. Conversely, pathological medium in either Mg(2+)-free or 5 mM Mg(2+) solution evoked temporary network depression and enabled fictive locomotion the day after. While global cell death was similar regardless of extracellular Mg(2+) solution, white matter was particularly affected. In ventral horn the number of surviving neurons was the highest in Mg(2+) free solution and the lowest in 1 mM Mg(2+), while motoneurons were unaffected. Although the excitotoxic damage elicited by kainate was insensitive to extracellular Mg(2+), 1 mM Mg(2+) potentiated the effect of combining pathological medium with kainate at low concentrations. These results indicate that preserving Mg(2+) homeostasis rendered experimental spinal injury more severe. Furthermore, analyzing ventral horn neuron numbers in relation to fictive locomotion expression might provide a first estimate of the minimal size of the functional locomotor network.

  4. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

  6. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  7. Ethnicity and genetics are more important than diabetes mellitus and hypertension in producing cardiovascular events in patients with the metabolic syndrome: emphasis in the Puerto Rico population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Pablo I; Marcial, José M; Banchs, Héctor; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease that affects an estimated 50 million Americans. The present article reviews the metabolic syndrome with respect to its definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. A primary focus in research has been to elucidate the processes determined to cause insulin resistance, the fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome. Namely, the incidence, component characteristics and complications of the metabolic syndrome in the island of Puerto Rico are described alongside the fact that the metabolic syndrome may be milder in Puerto Rico than in the mainland United States because it is characterized by less aggressive coronary disease and a relatively normal lipid profile. This suggests that the cardiovascular complications are more influenced by genetics and culture than diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  8. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  9. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Research Advances: Calorie Restriction and Increased Longevity Linked to Metabolic Changes; Isotope Ratios Reveal Trickery in the Produce Aisle; An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    The different lifelong patterns related to different levels of energy metabolism and the activities of the microbes in various animals are described. The analysis shows that many important beneficial changes occur due to the activities of symbiotic bacteria living in the intestinal tract.

  11. Metabolic alterations produced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rat striata and cultured astrocytes: quantitative in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Wan, Y.L.; Goh, C.C.; Tsai, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative high resolution in vitro 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the metabolic effects of 3-nitropropionic acid associated with aging from perchloric acid extracts of rat striata. Systemic injection of 3-nitropropionic acid in rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days significantly impaired energy metabolism in rats one, four and eight months of age, as evidenced by a marked elevation of succinate and lactate levels. However, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-l-aspartate level, a neuronal marker, was observed in four- and eight-month-old rats but not in one-month-old rats. This would indicate that rats at four to eight months are more susceptible to 3-nitropropionic acid than those at one month. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in four-month-old 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats, which is consistent with the literature that GABAergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment. In addition, glutamine and glutamate levels were markedly decreased at four and eight months in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats. Since glutamine is synthesized predominantly in glia, the observation above suggests that 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication may involve perturbation of energy metabolism, glial injury and consequent neuronal damage. Astrocytes which are essential in the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine were used to further assess 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity. Glial proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism and glutamine synthetase activity were all reduced by 3-nitropropionic acid treatment with a concomitant increase, in a dose-dependent manner, of lactate levels, suggesting that 3-nitropropionic acid is also detrimental to astrocytes in vivo and thus may affect metabolic interaction between neurons and glia.These results not only imply that 3-nitropropionic acid blocks energy metabolism prior to exerting neurotoxic damage but also demonstrate that the degree of

  12. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Varma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate association approach was employed to examine the influence of fructose on the intermediary metabolism of glucose. Increasing concentrations of fructose robustly increased the oxidation of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose to 13CO2 (p < 0.000001. However, glucose-derived 13CO2 negatively correlated with 13C labeled glutamate, 13C palmitate, and M+1 labeled lactate. These are strong markers of limited tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis, pentose cycle fluxes, substrate turnover and NAD+/NADP+ or ATP production from glucose via complete oxidation, indicating diminished mitochondrial energy metabolism. Contrarily, a positive correlation was observed between glucose-derived 13CO2 formed and 13C oleate and doses of fructose which indicate the elongation and desaturation of palmitate to oleate for storage. Collectively, these results suggest that fructose preferentially drives glucose through serine oxidation glycine cleavage (SOGC pathway one-carbon cycle for NAD+/NADP+ production that is utilized in fructose-induced lipogenesis and storage in adipocytes.

  13. The metabolic response of P. putida KT2442 producing high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoate under single- and multiple-nutrient-limited growth: Highlights from a multi-level omics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete-Castro Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida KT2442 is a natural producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, which can substitute petroleum-based non-renewable plastics and form the basis for the production of tailor-made biopolymers. However, despite the substantial body of work on PHA production by P. putida strains, it is not yet clear how the bacterium re-arranges its whole metabolism when it senses the limitation of nitrogen and the excess of fatty acids as carbon source, to result in a large accumulation of PHAs within the cell. In the present study we investigated the metabolic response of KT2442 using a systems biology approach to highlight the differences between single- and multiple-nutrient-limited growth in chemostat cultures. Results We found that 26, 62, and 81% of the cell dry weight consist of PHA under conditions of carbon, dual, and nitrogen limitation, respectively. Under nitrogen limitation a specific PHA production rate of 0.43 (g·(g·h-1 was obtained. The residual biomass was not constant for dual- and strict nitrogen-limiting growth, showing a different feature in comparison to other P. putida strains. Dual limitation resulted in patterns of gene expression, protein level, and metabolite concentrations that substantially differ from those observed under exclusive carbon or nitrogen limitation. The most pronounced differences were found in the energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, as well as stress proteins and enzymes belonging to the transport system. Conclusion This is the first study where the interrelationship between nutrient limitations and PHA synthesis has been investigated under well-controlled conditions using a system level approach. The knowledge generated will be of great assistance for the development of bioprocesses and further metabolic engineering work in this versatile organism to both enhance and diversify the industrial production of PHAs.

  14. Bi-articular Knee-Ankle-Foot Exoskeleton Produces Higher Metabolic Cost Reduction than Weight-Matched Mono-articular Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Galle, Samuel; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition. Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions. Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments. PMID:29551959

  15. Bi-articular Knee-Ankle-Foot Exoskeleton Produces Higher Metabolic Cost Reduction than Weight-Matched Mono-articular Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Malcolm

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition. Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions. Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments.

  16. Bi-articular Knee-Ankle-Foot Exoskeleton Produces Higher Metabolic Cost Reduction than Weight-Matched Mono-articular Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Galle, Samuel; Derave, Wim; De Clercq, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The bi-articular m. gastrocnemius and the mono-articular m. soleus have different and complementary functions during walking. Several groups are starting to use these biological functions as inspiration to design prostheses with bi-articular actuation components to replace the function of the m. gastrocnemius. Simulation studies indicate that a bi-articular configuration and spring that mimic the m. gastrocnemius could be beneficial for orthoses or exoskeletons. Our aim was to test the effect of a bi-articular and spring configuration that mimics the m. gastrocnemius and compare this to a no-spring and mono-articular configuration. We tested nine participants during walking with knee-ankle-foot exoskeletons with dorsally mounted pneumatic muscle actuators. In the bi-articular plus spring condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the thigh segment with an elastic cord. In the bi-articular no-spring condition the pneumatic muscles were also attached to the thigh segment but with a non-elastic cord. In the mono-articular condition the pneumatic muscles were attached to the shank segment. We found the highest reduction in metabolic cost of 13% compared to walking with the exoskeleton powered-off in the bi-articular plus spring condition . Possible explanations for this could be that the exoskeleton delivered the highest total positive work in this condition at the ankle and the knee and provided more assistance during the isometric phase of the biological plantarflexors. As expected we found that the bi-articular conditions reduced m. gastrocnemius EMG more than the mono-articular condition but this difference was not significant. We did not find that the mono-articular condition reduces the m. soleus EMG more than the bi-articular conditions . Knowledge of specific effects of different exoskeleton configurations on metabolic cost and muscle activation could be useful for providing customized assistance for specific gait impairments.

  17. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  18. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár István

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. Results A de novo assembly of 1,334,609 next-generation pyrosequencing reads form the Showa strain of the B race of B. braunii yielded a transcriptomic database of 46,422 contigs with an average length of 756 bp. Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of pathways that produce terpenoid liquid hydrocarbons from primary metabolites, and pathways that divert photosynthetic carbon into tetraterpenoid carotenoids, diterpenoids, and the prenyl chains of meroterpenoid quinones and chlorophyll. Inventories of machine-assembled contigs are also presented for reconstructed pathways for the biosynthesis of competing storage compounds including triacylglycerol and starch. Regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and the extracellular localization of the hydrocarbon oils by active transport and possibly autophagy are also investigated. Conclusions The construction of an annotated transcriptomic database, publicly available in a web-based data depository and annotation tool, provides a foundation for metabolic pathway and network reconstruction, and facilitates further omics studies in the absence of a genome

  19. Engineering of metabolic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.

    2004-03-16

    The invention features a method of producing heterologous molecules in cells under the regulatory control of a metabolite and metabolic flux. The method can enhance the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides and metabolites.

  20. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...

  1. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  3. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  4. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  5. [Metabolic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Cremaschi, Elena; Greco, Paolo; Parenti, Elisabetta; Morabito, Santo; Sabatino, Alice; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On this basis the bedside differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis should be started from the identification of the two main subtypes of metabolic acidosis: the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and the normal anion gap (or hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, especially in its acute forms with elevated anion gap such as is the case of lactic acidosis, diabetic and acute intoxications, may significantly affect metabolic body homeostasis and patients hemodynamic status, setting the stage for true medical emergencies. The therapeutic approach should be first aimed at early correction of concurrent clinical problems (e.g. fluids and hemodynamic optimization in case of shock, mechanical ventilation in case of concomitant respiratory failure, hemodialysis for acute intoxications etc.), in parallel to the formulation of a diagnosis. In case of severe acidosis, the administration of alkalizing agents should be carefully evaluated, taking into account the risk of side effects, as well as the potential need of renal replacement therapy.

  6. Metabolism of phencyclidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, M.K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a drug of abuse which may produce, in some users, a persistent schizophreniform psychosis. The possibility that long term effects of PCP are mediated by metabolic activation of the parent compound to reactive species is consistent with the demonstration of metabolism-dependent covalent binding of radiolabeled PCP in vivo and in vitro to macromolecules in rodent lung, liver, and kidney. Formation of the electrophilic iminium ion metabolite of PCP is believed to be critical for covalent binding since binding was inhibited by cyanide ion at concentrations which did not inhibit metabolism of PCP but did trap the iminium ion to form the corresponding alpha-aminonitrile. The present studies were designed to characterize further the biological fate of PCP by identifying possible macromolecular targets of the reactive metabolite(s)

  7. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  8. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  9. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  10. [Metabolic myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    To review the metabolic myopathies manifested only by crisis of myalgias, cramps and rigidity of the muscles with decreased voluntary contractions and normal inter crisis neurologic examination in children and adolescents. These metabolic myopathies are autosomic recessive inherited enzymatic deficiencies of the carbohydrates and lipids metabolisms. The end result is a reduction of intra muscle adenosine triphosphate, mainly through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with decrease of available energy for muscle contraction. The one secondary to carbohydrates intra muscle metabolism disorders are triggered by high intensity brief (fatty acids metabolism disorders are triggered by low intensity prolonged (> 10 min) exercises. The conditions in the first group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of myophosforilase (GSD V), muscle phosphofructokinase (GSD VII), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (GSD X) and beta enolase (GSD XIII). The conditions in the second group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II and very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The differential characteristics of patients in each group and within each group will allow to make the initial presumptive clinical diagnosis in the majority and then to order only the necessary tests to achieve the final diagnosis. Treatment during the crisis includes hydration, glucose and alkalinization of urine if myoglobin in blood and urine are elevated. Prevention includes avoiding exercise which may induce the crisis and fasting. The prognosis is good with the exception of rare cases of acute renal failure due to hipermyoglobinemia because of severe rabdomyolisis.

  11. Identification of a novel gene cluster in the upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA involved in cell wall metabolism of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and characterization of the recombinantly produced autolysin and pyruvyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleschberger, Magdalena; Hildner, Florian; Rünzler, Dominik; Gelbmann, Nicola; Mayer, Harald F; Sleytr, Uwe B; Egelseer, Eva M

    2013-05-01

    The S-layer protein SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 assembles into a square (p4) lattice structure and recognizes a pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) as the proper anchoring structure to the rigid cell wall layer. Sequencing of 8,004 bp in the 5'-upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA led to five ORFs-encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism. After cloning and heterologous expression of ORF1 and ORF5 in Escherichia coli, the recombinant autolysin rAbpA and the recombinant pyruvyl transferase rCsaB were isolated, purified, and correct folding was confirmed by circular dichroism. Although rAbpA encoded by ORF1 showed amidase activity, it could attack whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 only after complete extraction of the S-layer lattice. Despite the presence of three S-layer-homology motifs on the N-terminal part, rAbpA did not show detectable affinity to peptidoglycan-containing sacculi, nor to isolated SCWP. As the molecular mass of the autolysin lies above the molecular exclusion limit of the S-layer, AbpA is obviously trapped within the rigid cell wall layer by the isoporous protein lattice. Immunogold-labeling of ultrathin-sectioned whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against rCsaB encoded by ORF5, and cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the pyruvyl transferase was located in the cytoplasm, but not associated with cell envelope components including the plasma membrane. In enzymatic assays, rCsaB clearly showed pyruvyl transferase activity. By using RT-PCR, specific transcripts for each ORF could be detected. Cotranscription could be confirmed for ORF2 and ORF3.

  12. Primary Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Flux Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter introduces the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) or stoichiometry-based MFA, and describes the quantitative basis for MFA. It discusses the catabolic pathways in which free energy is produced to drive the cell-building anabolic pathways. An overview of these primary pathways provides...... the reader who is primarily trained in the engineering sciences with atleast a preliminary introduction to biochemistry and also shows how carbon is drained off the catabolic pathways to provide precursors for cell mass building and sometimes for important industrial products. The primary pathways...... to be examined in the following are: glycolysis, primarily by the EMP pathway, but other glycolytic pathways is also mentioned; fermentative pathways in which the redox generated in the glycolytic reactions are consumed; reactions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which produce biomass precursors and redox...

  13. Modeling of Zymomonas mobilis central metabolism for novel metabolic engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnenieks, Uldis; Pentjuss, Agris; Rutkis, Reinis; Stalidzans, Egils; Fell, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of metabolism is essential for rational metabolic engineering. The present work focuses on several types of modeling approach to quantitative understanding of central metabolic network and energetics in the bioethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. Combined use of Flux Balance, Elementary Flux Mode, and thermodynamic analysis of its central metabolism, together with dynamic modeling of the core catabolic pathways, can help to design novel substrate and product pathways by systematically analyzing the solution space for metabolic engineering, and yields insights into the function of metabolic network, hardly achievable without applying modeling tools.

  14. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolis...

  15. Metabolic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Schauer, Philip R; Kaplan, Lee M

    2018-01-01

    The alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity is paralleled by an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic surgery is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Randomized trials have recently shown...... the superiority of surgery over medical treatment alone in achieving improved glycemic control, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms seem to extend beyond the magnitude of weight loss alone and include improvements in incretin profiles, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity....... Moreover, observational data suggest that the reduction in cardiovascular risk factors translates to better patient outcomes. This review describes commonly used metabolic surgical procedures and their current indications and summarizes the evidence related to weight loss and glycemic outcomes. It further...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  17. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  18. Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Metabolic Engineering: Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals. Ram Kulkarni. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 233-237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Effects of introducing heterologous pathways on microbial metabolism with respect to metabolic optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Byoungjin; Seung, Do Young

    2014-01-01

    reactions are more frequently introduced into various microbial hosts. The genome-scale metabolic simulations of Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce 1,4-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and amorphadiene suggest that microbial metabolism shows much different responses to the introduced heterologous...... reactions in a strain-specific manner than typical gene knockouts in terms of the energetic status (e.g., ATP and biomass generation) and chemical production capacity. The 1,4-butanediol and 1,3-propanediol producers showed greater metabolic optimality than the wild-type strains and gene knockout mutants...... for the energetic status, while the amorphadiene producer was metabolically less optimal. For the optimal chemical production capacity, additional gene knockouts were most effective for the strain producing 1,3-propanediol, but not for the one producing 1,4-butanediol. These observations suggest that strains having...

  20. Dynamics of pyruvate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiorsen, Claus Rix; Jensen, Niels B.S.; Christensen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    The pyruvate metabolism in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis was studied in anaerobic cultures under transient conditions. During growth of L. lactis in continuous culture at high dilution rate, homolactic product formation was observed, i.e., lactate was produced as the major end...... product. At a lower dilution rate, the pyruvate metabolism shifted towards mixed acid-product formation where formate, acetate, and ethanol were produced in addition to lactate. The regulation of the shift in pyruvate metabolism was investigated by monitoring the dynamic behavior of L. lactis...

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  2. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  3. Precision metabolic engineering: The design of responsive, selective, and controllable metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Monica P; Watstein, Daniel M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic engineering is generally focused on static optimization of cells to maximize production of a desired product, though recently dynamic metabolic engineering has explored how metabolic programs can be varied over time to improve titer. However, these are not the only types of applications where metabolic engineering could make a significant impact. Here, we discuss a new conceptual framework, termed "precision metabolic engineering," involving the design and engineering of systems that make different products in response to different signals. Rather than focusing on maximizing titer, these types of applications typically have three hallmarks: sensing signals that determine the desired metabolic target, completely directing metabolic flux in response to those signals, and producing sharp responses at specific signal thresholds. In this review, we will first discuss and provide examples of precision metabolic engineering. We will then discuss each of these hallmarks and identify which existing metabolic engineering methods can be applied to accomplish those tasks, as well as some of their shortcomings. Ultimately, precise control of metabolic systems has the potential to enable a host of new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications for any problem where flexibility of response to an external signal could be useful. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  6. Oscillospira and related bacteria - from metagenomics species to metabolic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gophna, Uri; Konikoff, Tom; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    and manual metabolic pathway curation to decipher key metabolic features of this intriguing bacterial genus. We infer that Oscillospira species are butyrate producers, and at least some of them have the ability to utilize glucuronate, a common animal-derived sugar that is both produced by the human host...

  7. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  8. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  9. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  10. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  11. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  12. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  13. Metabolic engineering tools in model cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Austin L; Case, Anna E; Zhang, Angela; Atsumi, Shota

    2018-03-26

    Developing sustainable routes for producing chemicals and fuels is one of the most important challenges in metabolic engineering. Photoautotrophic hosts are particularly attractive because of their potential to utilize light as an energy source and CO 2 as a carbon substrate through photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are unicellular organisms capable of photosynthesis and CO 2 fixation. While engineering in heterotrophs, such as Escherichia coli, has result in a plethora of tools for strain development and hosts capable of producing valuable chemicals efficiently, these techniques are not always directly transferable to cyanobacteria. However, recent efforts have led to an increase in the scope and scale of chemicals that cyanobacteria can produce. Adaptations of important metabolic engineering tools have also been optimized to function in photoautotrophic hosts, which include Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, 13 C Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA), and Genome-Scale Modeling (GSM). This review explores innovations in cyanobacterial metabolic engineering, and highlights how photoautotrophic metabolism has shaped their development. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  15. Metabolism and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grodzicker, Terri; Stewart, David J; Stillman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ...), cellular, organ system (cardiovascular, bone), and organismal (timing and life span) scales. Diseases impacted by metabolic imbalance or dysregulation that were covered in detail included diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer...

  16. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  17. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  18. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  19. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  20. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  1. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  2. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  3. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  4. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  5. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  6. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  7. Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P.; Moehl, Keelin; Ghena, Nathaniel; Schmaedick, Maggie; Cheng, Aiwu

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease. Here, we consider how intermittent metabolic switching, repeating cycles of a metabolic challenge that induces ketosis (fasting and/or exercise) followed by a recovery period (eating, resting and sleeping), may optimize brain function and resilience throughout the lifespan, with a focus on the neuronal circuits involved in cognition and mood. Such metabolic switching impacts multiple signalling pathways that promote neuroplasticity and resistance of the brain to injury and disease. PMID:29321682

  8. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  9. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  10. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  11. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  12. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  14. [Metabolic functions and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies emphasize the increased of metabolic diseases of the adults, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity in children. It is due more to sedentariness, caused more by inactivity (television, video, games, etc.) than by overeating. Many studies have shown that regular physical activities benefit various bodily functions including metabolism. After dealing with the major benefits of physical exercise on some adult metabolic disorders, we focus on the prime role played by physical activity in combating the public health problem of childhood obesity.

  15. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J; Davis, E J

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  16. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  17. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  18. Genetic and metabolic engineering in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weichao; Daboussi, Fayza

    2017-09-05

    Diatoms have attracted considerable attention due to their success in diverse environmental conditions, which probably is a consequence of their complex origins. Studies of their metabolism will provide insight into their adaptation capacity and are a prerequisite for metabolic engineering. Several years of investigation have led to the development of the genome engineering tools required for such studies, and a profusion of appropriate tools is now available for exploring and exploiting the metabolism of these organisms. Diatoms are highly prized in industrial biotechnology, due to both their richness in natural lipids and carotenoids and their ability to produce recombinant proteins, of considerable value in diverse markets. This review provides an overview of recent advances in genetic engineering methods for diatoms, from the development of gene expression cassettes and gene delivery methods, to cutting-edge genome-editing technologies. It also highlights the contributions of these rapid developments to both basic and applied research: they have improved our understanding of key physiological processes; and they have made it possible to modify the natural metabolism to favour the production of specific compounds or to produce new compounds for green chemistry and pharmaceutical applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  20. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  1. Investigation of metabolic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cycle defects is the X-linked recessive disorder, ornithine ... life, or if the child is fed the compounds that they are unable .... as learning difficulties, drowsiness and avoidance of ... Table 2. Laboratory investigation of suspected metabolic encephalopathy. Laboratory .... Clinical approach to treatable inborn metabolic diseases:.

  2. Metabolic regulation of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Immune cells constantly patrol the body via the bloodstream and migrate into multiple tissues where they face variable and sometimes demanding environmental conditions. Nutrient and oxygen availability can vary during homeostasis, and especially during the course of an immune response, creating a demand for immune cells that are highly metabolically dynamic. As an evolutionary response, immune cells have developed different metabolic programmes to supply them with cellular energy and biomolecules, enabling them to cope with changing and challenging metabolic conditions. In the past 5 years, it has become clear that cellular metabolism affects immune cell function and differentiation, and that disease-specific metabolic configurations might provide an explanation for the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases. This Review outlines the metabolic challenges faced by immune cells in states of homeostasis and inflammation, as well as the variety of metabolic configurations utilized by immune cells during differentiation and activation. Changes in cellular metabolism that contribute towards the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases are also briefly discussed.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  4. The compositional and evolutionary logic of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2013-01-01

    within biochemistry. Module boundaries provide the interfaces where change is concentrated, when we catalogue extant diversity of metabolic phenotypes. The same modules that organize the compositional diversity of metabolism are argued, with many explicit examples, to have governed long-term evolution. Early evolution of core metabolism, and especially of carbon-fixation, appears to have required very few innovations, and to have used few rules of composition of conserved modules, to produce adaptations to simple chemical or energetic differences of environment without diverse solutions and without historical contingency. We demonstrate these features of metabolism at each of several levels of hierarchy, beginning with the small-molecule metabolic substrate and network architecture, continuing with cofactors and key conserved reactions, and culminating in the aggregation of multiple diverse physical and biochemical processes in cells. (topical review)

  5. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  6. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  8. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  9. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  10. Astrocytes and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebil, Mateja; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert; Kreft, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Astrocytes are glial cells, which play a significant role in a number of processes, including the brain energy metabolism. Their anatomical position between blood vessels and neurons make them an interface for effective glucose uptake from blood. After entering astrocytes, glucose can be involved in different metabolic pathways, e.g. in glycogen production. Glycogen in the brain is localized mainly in astrocytes and is an important energy source in hypoxic conditions and normal brain functioning. The portion of glucose metabolized into glycogen molecules in astrocytes is as high as 40%. It is thought that the release of gliotransmitters (such as glutamate, neuroactive peptides and ATP) into the extracellular space by regulated exocytosis supports a significant part of communication between astrocytes and neurons. On the other hand, neurotransmitter action on astrocytes has a significant role in brain energy metabolism. Therefore, understanding the astrocytes energy metabolism may help understanding neuron-astrocyte interactions.

  11. It must be my metabolism: Metabolic control of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Small

    2014-07-01

    relationship between the reinforcing potency of sugared solutions and the metabolic effects that follow their consumption (16, also see the abstract of I. de Araujo. We therefore hypothesized that metabolic response provides the critical signal necessary to condition preference. To test this prediction in humans we designed a flavor nutrient conditioning study in which participants first rated their liking for novel flavored beverages and then, over a three week-long conditioning protocol, alternately ingested one of the flavored beverages with 112.5 kcal from maltodextrin, a tasteless and odorless polysaccharide that breaks down into glucose, and another flavored beverage with no calories added. Plasma glucose was measured before and after each of the drinks’ consumption as a proxy measure of metabolic response, assuming that glucose oxidation depends upon the level of circulating glucose. For each participant flavor-calorie pairings were held constant but the identity of the conditioned flavors were counterbalanced across participants. Following the exposure phase, participants’ liking of, and brain responses to, non-caloric versions of the flavors were assessed. We predicted that change in plasma glucose produced by beverage consumption during the exposure sessions would be associated with neural responses in dopamine source and target regions to the calorie predictive flavor. As predicted, response in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus to the calorie-predictive flavor (CS+ vs. non the noncaloric-predictive flavor (CS- was strongly associated with the changes in plasma glucose levels produced by ingestion of these same beverages when consumed previously either with (CS+ or without (CS- calories (17. Specifically, the greater the increase in circulating glucose occurring post ingestion of the beverage containing 112.5 kcal from maltodextrin versus the noncaloric drink, the stronger was the brain response to the CS+ compared to the CS- flavor. Importantly, because each

  12. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  13. Production of L-valine from metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Quinn, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production. Metabolic engineering based on the metabolic biosynthesis and regulation of L-valine provides an effective alternative to the traditional breeding for strain development. Industrially competitive L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strains have been constructed by genetically defined metabolic engineering. This article reviews the global metabolic and regulatory networks responsible for L-valine biosynthesis, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, and the strategies employed in C. glutamicum strain engineering.

  14. Diet-dependent shifts in ruminal butyrate producing bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Tepšič, K.; Avguštin, G.; Kopečný, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 294-298 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : butyrate-producing bacteria Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  15. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Brain glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gerald M; Dienel, Gerald A; Colbran, Roger J

    2018-05-11

    The synthesis of glycogen allows for efficient intracellular storage of glucose molecules in a soluble form that can be rapidly released to enter glycolysis in response to energy demand. Intensive studies of glucose and glycogen metabolism, predominantly in skeletal muscle and liver, have produced innumerable insights into the mechanisms of hormone action, resulting in the award of several Nobel Prizes over the last one hundred years. Glycogen is actually present in all cells and tissues, albeit at much lower levels than found in muscle or liver. However, metabolic and physiological roles of glycogen in other tissues are poorly understood. This series of Minireviews summarizes what is known about the enzymes involved in brain glycogen metabolism and studies that have linked glycogen metabolism to multiple brain functions involving metabolic communication between astrocytes and neurons. Recent studies unexpectedly linking some forms of epilepsy to mutations in two poorly understood proteins involved in glycogen metabolism are also reviewed. © 2018 Carlson et al.

  16. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  17. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  18. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  20. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  1. Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M; Motoba, K; Borhan, B; Pinot, F; Hammock, B D

    1996-08-13

    Mouse liver microsomes oxidized linoleic acid to form 9,10- or 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoate. These monoepoxides were subsequently hydrolyzed to their corresponding diols in the absence of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Furthermore, both 9,10- and 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoates were oxidized to diepoxyoctadecanoate at apparently identical rates by mouse liver microsomal P-450 epoxidation. Both epoxyoctadecanoates and diepoxyoctadecanoates were converted to tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes. Tetrahydroxides of linoleate were produced as minor metabolites. Arachidonic acid was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoates, dihydroxyeicosatrienoates, and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoates by the microsomes. Microsomes prepared from clofibrate (but not phenobarbital) -treated mice exhibited much higher production rates for epoxyeicosatrienoates and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoates. This indicated an induction of P-450 epoxygenase(s) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in mice by clofibrate and not by phenobarbital. Incubation of synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoates with microsomes led to the production of diepoxyeicosadienoates. Among chemically generated diepoxyeicosadienoate isomers, three of them possessing adjacent diepoxides were hydrolyzed to their diol epoxides which cyclized to the corresponding tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase at a much higher rate. Larger cyclic products from non-adjacent diepoxides were not observed. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that linoleic and arachidonic acid can be metabolized to their tetrahydrofuran-diols by two consecutive microsomal cytochrome P-450 epoxidations followed by microsomal or soluble epoxide hydrolase catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxides. Incubation experiments with the S-9 fractions indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase is more important in this conversion. This manuscript is the first report of techniques for the separation and

  2. Alternative Substrate Metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Spagnuolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genetic engineering capabilities have enabled the development of oleochemical producing strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. Much of the metabolic engineering effort has focused on pathway engineering of the product using glucose as the feedstock; however, alternative substrates, including various other hexose and pentose sugars, glycerol, lipids, acetate, and less-refined carbon feedstocks, have not received the same attention. In this review, we discuss recent work leading to better utilization of alternative substrates. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge for alternative substrate utilization, suggest potential pathways identified through homology in the absence of prior characterization, discuss recent work that either identifies, endogenous or cryptic metabolism, and describe metabolic engineering to improve alternative substrate utilization. Finally, we describe the critical questions and challenges that remain for engineering Y. lipolytica for better alternative substrate utilization.

  3. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  4. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  5. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  6. The metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy

  7. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  8. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  9. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  10. Ca-48 metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    Calcium metabolism has been studied in depth physiologically and is a relatively well-understood element in biochemistry and medicine. There is still only restricted knowledge of the metabolic fate of calcium in normal and abnormal paediatric subjects. The latter is partially owing to inadequate techniques for tracing and modelling calcium pathways in children. The advent of radioactive tracers has unquestionably enhanced medical research and improved the quality of many metabolic studies. The present study was aimed at the development, promotion and justification of a new tracer technique using the stable isotope, calcium-48. The obvious advantages of such a technique are its harmlessness tothe subject, its applicability to both short- and long-term studies as well as its usefulness to the study for which it was originally motivated, viz research defining the actual relationship between a calcium-deficient diet and the occurrence of rickets in rural Black children in South Africa. Exploratory instrumental analyses were performed specifically with serum samples. This proved successful enough to develop a less specific pre-concentration technique which improved the sensitivity and reduces the cost of doing calcium-48 metabolism studies. The results of a simple metabolic study are presented whereby the scope of the technique is demonstrated in a real situation. The possibilities and limitations of double-isotope metabolic studies are discussed, particularly with regard to strontium as the second tracer

  11. Systematic Applications of Metabolomics in Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dromms

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of metabolic engineering are well-served by the biological information provided by metabolomics: information on how the cell is currently using its biochemical resources is perhaps one of the best ways to inform strategies to engineer a cell to produce a target compound. Using the analysis of extracellular or intracellular levels of the target compound (or a few closely related molecules to drive metabolic engineering is quite common. However, there is surprisingly little systematic use of metabolomics datasets, which simultaneously measure hundreds of metabolites rather than just a few, for that same purpose. Here, we review the most common systematic approaches to integrating metabolite data with metabolic engineering, with emphasis on existing efforts to use whole-metabolome datasets. We then review some of the most common approaches for computational modeling of cell-wide metabolism, including constraint-based models, and discuss current computational approaches that explicitly use metabolomics data. We conclude with discussion of the broader potential of computational approaches that systematically use metabolomics data to drive metabolic engineering.

  12. [Aging and metabolism: changes and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Flores-Alvarado, Luis J; Torres-Sánchez, Erandis D; Cortés-Enríquez, Fernando; González-Renovato, Erika D; Ortiz-Velázquez, Irma G

    2012-09-01

    Studies about the effects of aging in the physiology and metabolism are increasingly, one of its objectives is to help implement programs to improve the quality of life and prevent disability in elderly. It is relevant to mention that, during aging, there is a natural metabolic deceleration, a series of changes in the regulation of energy are produced, which contributes to loss of weight and fat; the changes in the regulation of caloric intake contribute to increase the susceptibility to energy imbalance both positive and negative, which is associated with a deterioration in health. However, to grow old, is not a death sentence for metabolism, on the other hand, it can be controlled by maintaining an active lifestyle, coupled with this, research has shown that the metabolism'can be regulated by a synchronized clock (circadian rhythms), which is mediated by regulatory proteins, this relationship ensures the proper functioning of the cells and therefore good health. The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the energy- metabolism-regulation and its relationship with the great variety of components involved in energy expenditure that accompany aging, to analyze the regulation of this system to improve the quality of life and maintenance of health in old age.

  13. Triglyceride metabolism in exercising muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Cheng, Yunsheng

    2017-10-01

    Triglycerides are stored within lipid droplets in skeletal muscle and can be hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids for energy production through β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While there was some controversy regarding the quantitative importance of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) as a metabolic substrate, recent advances in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and confocal microscopy support earlier tracer and biopsy studies demonstrating a substantial contribution of IMTG to energy production, particularly during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. This review provides an update on the understanding of IMTG utilization during exercise, with a focus on describing the key regulatory proteins that control IMTG breakdown and how these proteins respond to acute exercise and in the adaptation to exercise training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent Advances in Lipid Droplet Biology edited by Rosalind Coleman and Matthijs Hesselink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tradeoff between robustness and elaboration in carotenoid networks produces cycles of avian color diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Morrison, Erin S; Belloni, Virginia; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-08-20

    Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the evolution of carotenoid pigmentation that produces spectacular diversity in avian colors and show that basic structural properties of the underlying carotenoid metabolic network are reflected in global patterns of elaboration and diversification in color displays. Birds color themselves by consuming and metabolizing several dietary carotenoids from the environment. Such fundamental dependency on the most upstream external compounds should intrinsically constrain sustained evolutionary elongation of multi-step metabolic pathways needed for color elaboration unless the metabolic network gains robustness - the ability to synthesize the same carotenoid from an additional dietary starting point. We found that gains and losses of metabolic robustness were associated with evolutionary cycles of elaboration and stasis in expressed carotenoids in birds. Lack of metabolic robustness constrained lineage's metabolic explorations to the immediate biochemical vicinity of their ecologically distinct dietary carotenoids, whereas gains of robustness repeatedly resulted in sustained elongation of metabolic pathways on evolutionary time scales and corresponding color elaboration. The structural link between length and robustness in metabolic pathways may explain periodic convergence of phylogenetically distant and ecologically distinct species in expressed carotenoid pigmentation; account for stasis in carotenoid colors in some ecological lineages; and show how the connectivity of the underlying metabolic network provides a mechanistic link between microevolutionary elaboration and macroevolutionary diversification.

  15. L-arabinose metabolism in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, A L; Rigo, L U; Funayama, S; Pedrosa, F O

    1989-01-01

    The pathway for L-arabinose metabolism in Herbaspirillum seropedicae was shown to involve nonphosphorylated intermediates and to produce alpha-ketoglutarate. The activities of the enzymes and the natures of several intermediates were determined. The pathway was inducible by L-arabinose, and two key enzymes, L-arabinose dehydrogenase and 2-keto-glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, were present in all strains of H. seropedicae tested. PMID:2768202

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Kong, In Iok; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jayakody, Lahiru N.; Kim, Heejin; Xia, Peng-Fei; Kwak, Suryang; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Walukiewicz, Hanna E.; Rao, Christopher V.; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast that has been used for promoting gut health as well as preventing diarrheal diseases. This yeast not only exhibits beneficial phenotypes for gut health but also can stay longer in the gut than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, S. boulardii is an attractive host for metabolic engineering to produce biomolecules of interest in the gut. However, the lack of auxotrophic strains with defined genetic backgrounds has hampered the use of this strain for...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc......Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...

  18. Vertigo and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maruska D' Aparecida; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are accepted by many authors as being responsible for balance disorders. Because of the importance of metabolic disorders in the field of labyrinthine dysfunction, we decided to assess the prevalence of carbohydrates, lipids and thyroid hormones disorders in our patients with vestibular diseases. The study evaluates the metabolic profile of 325 patients with vertigo who sought the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The laboratory tests ordered according to the classical research protocol were: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, TSH, T3, T4 and fasting blood sugar level. The metabolic disorders found and the ones that were observed in the general population were compared. The high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the altered levels of thyroid hormones, the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus were the most significant changes found in the group of study. The higher amount of metabolic disorders in patients with vertigo disease reinforces the hypothesis of its influence on the etiopathogenesis of cochleovestibular symptoms.

  19. Metabolic surgery: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of bariatric surgery beyond its effect on weight loss has entailed a change in the way of regarding it. The term metabolic surgery has become more popular to designate those interventions that aim at resolving diseases that have been traditionally considered as of exclusive medical management, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Recommendations for metabolic surgery have been largely addressed and discussed in worldwide meetings, but no definitive consensus has been reached yet. Rates of diabetes remission after metabolic surgery have been one of the most debated hot topics, with heterogeneity being a current concern. This review aims to identify and clarify controversies regarding metabolic surgery, by focusing on a critical analysis of T2D remission rates achieved with different bariatric procedures, and using different criteria for its definition. Indications for metabolic surgery for patients with T2D who are not morbidly obese are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  1. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Quinn; Jackson, Ethel N

    2015-12-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a safe and robust yeast that has a history of industrial applications. Its physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics have made it a superior host for metabolic engineering. The results of optimizing internal pathways and introducing new pathways have demonstrated that Y. lipolytica can be a platform cell factory for cost-effective production of chemicals and fuels derived from fatty acids, lipids and acetyl-CoA. Two products have been commercialized from metabolically engineered Y. lipolytica strains producing high amounts of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, and more products are on the way to be produced at industrial scale. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for production of biodiesel fuel, functional fatty acids and carotenoids. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review......Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further....

  5. Corynebacterium glutamicum for Sustainable Bioproduction: From Metabolic Physiology to Systems Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Gießelmann, Gideon; Hoffmann, Sarah Lisa; Wittmann, Christoph

    Since its discovery 60 years ago, Corynebacterium glutamicum has evolved into a workhorse for industrial biotechnology. Traditionally well known for its remarkable capacity to produce amino acids, this Gram-positive soil bacterium, has become a flexible, efficient production platform for various bulk and fine chemicals, materials, and biofuels. The central turnstile of all these achievements is our excellent understanding of its metabolism and physiology. This knowledge base, together with innovative systems metabolic engineering concepts, which integrate systems and synthetic biology into strain engineering, has upgraded C. glutamicum into one of the most successful industrial microorganisms in the world.

  6. Metabolic changes in malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P W

    2005-10-01

    This paper is concerned with malnutrition caused by inadequate intake of all the major nutrients rather than deficiency diseases relating to a single micronutrient. Three common situations are recognised: young children in third world countries with protein-energy malnutrition; adults in the same countries who are chronically adapted to subsisting on marginally inadequate diets; and patients who become malnourished as a result of chronic diseases. In all these situations infectious diseases are often also present, and this complicates the interpretation of biochemical and physiological observations. The metabolic response to starvation is primarily concerned with maintaining a supply of water-soluble substrates to supply energy to the brain. Thus there is an initial rise in metabolic rate, reflecting gluconeogenic activity. As fasting progresses, gluconeogenesis is suppressed to minimise muscle protein breakdown and ketones become the main fuel for the brain. With chronic underfeeding the basal metabolic rate per cell appears to fall, but the mechanistic basis for this is not clear. The main adaptation to chronic energy deficiency is slow growth and low adult body size, although the reduction in energy requirement achieved by this is partially offset by the preservation of the more metabolically active organs at the expense of muscle, which has a lower metabolic rate. The interaction between malnutrition and the metabolic response to trauma has been studied using an animal model. The rise in energy expenditure and urinary nitrogen excretion following surgery were significantly attenuated in malnourished rats, suggesting that malnutrition impairs the ability of the body to mobilise substrates to support inflammatory and reparative processes. However, the healing process in wounded muscle remained unimpaired in malnutrition, suggesting that this process has a high biological priority.

  7. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  9. Control of fluxes towards antibiotics and the role of primary metabolism in production of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Yield improvements in antibiotic-producing strains have classically been obtained through random mutagenesis and screening. An attractive alternative to this strategy is the rational design of producer strains via metabolic engineering, an approach that offers the possibility to increase yields...... in the metabolic network. Here we describe and discuss available methods for identification of these steps, both in antibiotic biosynthesis pathways and in the primary metabolism, which serves as the supplier of precursors and cofactors for the secondary metabolism. Finally, the importance of precursor...... and cofactor supply from primary metabolism in the biosynthesis of different types of antibiotics is discussed and recent developments in metabolic engineering towards increased product yields in antibiotic producing strains are reviewed....

  10. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  11. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  12. Metabolic complications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sycova-Mila, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, a lot of space and time is devoted to the therapy of oncologic diseases itself. To reach the good therapy results, complex care of the oncologic patient is needed. Management of complications linked with the disease itself and management of complications emerged after administration of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or targeted therapy, plays a significant role. In addition to infectious, hematological, neurological, cardiac or other complications, metabolic complications are relatively extensive and serious. One of the most frequent metabolic complications in oncology is tumor lysis syndrome, hyperuricemia, hypercalcaemia and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. (author)

  13. Prokaryote metabolism activity

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Lori

    2017-01-01

    I wrote this activity to emphasize that prokaryotic organisms can carry out 6 different types of metabolisms (as presented in Freeman’s Biological Science textbook) and this contrasts to eukaryotes, which can only use 2 metabolism pathways (photoautotroph and heterotroph).    For in class materials I remove the  red box (upper right corner) and print slides 3-10, place them back-to-back and laminate them.  The students get a key (slide 2) and a two-sided organism sheet...

  14. Validated Predictions of Metabolic Energy Consumption for Submaximal Effort Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Tsianos, George A.; MacFadden, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary Muscles consume metabolic energy to generate movement. Performing a movement over a long period of time or at a high intensity strains the respiratory and cardiovascular systems that need to replenish the energy reserves in muscle. Furthermore, consuming and replenishing metabolic energy involves biochemical reactions with byproducts that cause muscle fatigue. These biochemical reactions also produce heat that increases body temperature, potentially causing central fatigue. A m...

  15. Positron emission tomography for measuring metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear medical imaging always relates to changes at the cellular or molecular level of organization of the body. For years, such changes, summarily called metabolism, permitted radionuclides as tracers to produce information on rather gross organ structure and function. Yet, more recently, increasing emphasis is placed on metabolic reactions themselves; this development is of considerable promise to the clinician, because disease begins and nearly always expresses itself by alterations of metabolism. PET greatly helps to investigate and describe in vivo individual steps within the complex network of enzyme catalized reactions that maintain life; in fact, PET allows studies of biochemistry in vivo. (Author)

  16. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  17. Rewriting the Metabolic Blueprint: Advances in Pathway Diversification in Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Sakir Hossain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways. Thus, the range of chemicals that can be produced by biological systems can be expanded to meet the demands of industries for compounds such as plastic precursors and new antibiotics, most of which can only be obtained through chemical synthesis currently. Herein, we review and discuss novel strategies that have been developed to rewrite natural metabolic blueprints in a bid to broaden the chemical repertoire achievable in microorganisms. This review aims to provide insights on recent approaches taken to open new avenues for achieving biochemical production that are beyond currently available inventions.

  18. Rewriting the Metabolic Blueprint: Advances in Pathway Diversification in Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Zhang, Lei; Ng, Tee-Kheang; Foo, Jee Loon; Ling, Hua; Choi, Won Jae; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways. Thus, the range of chemicals that can be produced by biological systems can be expanded to meet the demands of industries for compounds such as plastic precursors and new antibiotics, most of which can only be obtained through chemical synthesis currently. Herein, we review and discuss novel strategies that have been developed to rewrite natural metabolic blueprints in a bid to broaden the chemical repertoire achievable in microorganisms. This review aims to provide insights on recent approaches taken to open new avenues for achieving biochemical production that are beyond currently available inventions.

  19. Context-specific metabolic networks are consistent with experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Becker

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of cellular metabolism are publicly available for a variety of different microorganisms and some mammalian genomes. To date, these reconstructions are "genome-scale" and strive to include all reactions implied by the genome annotation, as well as those with direct experimental evidence. Clearly, many of the reactions in a genome-scale reconstruction will not be active under particular conditions or in a particular cell type. Methods to tailor these comprehensive genome-scale reconstructions into context-specific networks will aid predictive in silico modeling for a particular situation. We present a method called Gene Inactivity Moderated by Metabolism and Expression (GIMME to achieve this goal. The GIMME algorithm uses quantitative gene expression data and one or more presupposed metabolic objectives to produce the context-specific reconstruction that is most consistent with the available data. Furthermore, the algorithm provides a quantitative inconsistency score indicating how consistent a set of gene expression data is with a particular metabolic objective. We show that this algorithm produces results consistent with biological experiments and intuition for adaptive evolution of bacteria, rational design of metabolic engineering strains, and human skeletal muscle cells. This work represents progress towards producing constraint-based models of metabolism that are specific to the conditions where the expression profiling data is available.

  20. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawal, Humaira Aziz; Asghar, Kashif; Bureik, Matthias; Jalal, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.

  1. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  2. Targeting the latest hallmark of cancer: another attempt at 'magic bullet' drugs targeting cancers' metabolic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S; Touaibia, M; Lefort, N

    2012-10-01

    The metabolism of tumors is remarkably different from the metabolism of corresponding normal cells and tissues. Metabolic alterations are initiated by oncogenes and are required for malignant transformation, allowing cancer cells to resist some cell death signals while producing energy and fulfilling their biosynthetic needs with limiting resources. The distinct metabolic phenotype of cancers provides an interesting avenue for treatment, potentially with minimal side effects. As many cancers show similar metabolic characteristics, drugs targeting the cancer metabolic phenotype are, perhaps optimistically, expected to be 'magic bullet' treatments. Over the last few years there have been a number of potential drugs developed to specifically target cancer metabolism. Several of these drugs are currently in clinical and preclinical trials. This review outlines examples of drugs developed for different targets of significance to cancer metabolism, with a focus on small molecule leads, chemical biology and clinical results for these drugs.

  3. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  4. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  5. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  6. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  7. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  8. Metabolism of femoxetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, H.; Lund, J.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism of femoxetine, a serotonin uptake inhibitor, has been investigated in rats, dogs, monkeys, and human subjects using two 14 C-femoxetine compounds with labelling in different positions. The metabolic pathways were oxidations (and glucuronidation) and demethylation, both reactions most probably taking place in the liver. Nearly all femoxetine was metabolised, and the same metabolites were found in urine from all four species. Only a small percentage of the radioactivity excreted in the urine was not identified. Rat and dog excreted more N-oxide than monkey and man, while most of the radioactivity (60-100%) in these two species was excreted as two hydroxy metabolites. The metabolic pattern in monkey and man was very similar. About 50% was excreted in these two species as one metabolite, formed by demethylation of a methoxy group. A demethylation of a N-CH 3 group formed an active metabolite, norfemoxetine. The excretion of this metabolite in urine from man varied from 0 to 18% of the dose between individuals. Most of the radioactivity was excreted with the faeces in rat and dog, while monkey and man excreted most of the radioactivity in urine. This difference in excretion route might be explained by the difference in the metabolic pattern. No dose dependency was observed in any of the three animal species investigated. (author)

  9. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here and still get the great care and treatment I received in Michigan.” MDA Is Here to Help You T he Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services to help you and your family deal with metabolic diseases of muscle. The staff at your local MDA office is ...

  11. Dysregulated metabolism contributes to oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschey, Matthew D.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Diehl, Anna Mae E.; Drew, Janice E.; Frezza, Christian; Green, Michelle F.; Jones, Lee W.; Ko, Young H.; Le, Anne; Lea, Michael A.; Locasale, Jason W.; Longo, Valter D.; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; McDonnell, Eoin; Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Michelotti, Gregory; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Murphy, Michael P.; Pedersen, Peter L.; Poore, Brad; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Sivanand, Sharanya; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Wellen, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by unrestrained cellular proliferation. In order to sustain growth, cancer cells undergo a complex metabolic rearrangement characterized by changes in metabolic pathways involved in energy production and biosynthetic processes. The relevance of the metabolic transformation of cancer cells has been recently included in the updated version of the review “Hallmarks of Cancer”, where the dysregulation of cellular metabolism was included as an emerging hallmark. While several lines of evidence suggest that metabolic rewiring is orchestrated by the concerted action of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, in some circumstances altered metabolism can play a primary role in oncogenesis. Recently, mutations of cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes involved in key metabolic pathways have been associated with hereditary and sporadic forms of cancer. Together, these results suggest that aberrant metabolism, once seen just as an epiphenomenon of oncogenic reprogramming, plays a key role in oncogenesis with the power to control both genetic and epigenetic events in cells. In this review, we discuss the relationship between metabolism and cancer, as part of a larger effort to identify a broad-spectrum of therapeutic approaches. We focus on major alterations in nutrient metabolism and the emerging link between metabolism and epigenetics. Finally, we discuss potential strategies to manipulate metabolism in cancer and tradeoffs that should be considered. More research on the suite of metabolic alterations in cancer holds the potential to discover novel approaches to treat it. PMID:26454069

  12. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  13. A Metabolic Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Costa et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome describes a set of metabolic risk factors that manifest in an individual and some aspects contribute to its appearance: genetic, overweight and the absence of physical activity. So, a board game was created to simulate the environment and routine experienced by UFF students that could contribute  to the development of Metabolic Syndrome. Players move along a simplified map of Niterói city, where places as Antônio Pedro Hospital (HUAP are pointed out. OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to develop an educational game to consolidate Metabolic Syndrome biochemical events. MATERIAL E METHODS: Each group receives a board, pins, dice, question, challenge and diagnostics cards. One student performs the family doctor function, responsable for delivering cards, reading activities and providing diagnosis to players when game is over.The scoring system is based on 3 criteria for Metabolic Syndrome diagnosis: glycemia, abdominal obesity and HDL cholesterol. At the end of game, it is possible to calculate the rates of each player and provide proportional diagnosis. The winner is the healthiest that first arrives at HUAP. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The game was applied to 50 students and only 10% classified the subject-matter as difficult. This finding highlight the need to establish new methods to enhance the teaching and learning process and decrease the students’ dificulties. Students evaluated the game as an important educational support and 85% of them agreed it complements  and consolidate the content discussed in classroom. Finally, the game was very highly rated by students according to their perception about their own performance while playing.  In addition, 95 % students pointed they would play again and 98% said they think games are able to optimize learning. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible not only to approximate biochemical phenomena to the students’ daily life, but also to solidify the theoretical concepts in a dynamic and fun

  14. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  15. Metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls by marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Harvey, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    There have been no reports of laboratory studies of PCB metabolism by marine organisms. A few workers have analyzed marine animals for products of PCB metabolism. A search for hydroxylated PCBs in marine fish proved inconclusive. Phenolic metabolites of PCBs have been identified in seals and guillemot. PCBs that had been hydroxylated and excreted by marine organisms would most likely be found in the sediments, so in our laboratory we conducted a search for these compounds in marine sediments. Two kilograms of organic-rich surface sediment from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, were extracted. The phenolic fraction was isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Neither wide mass scans nor selected mass searches produced any evidence of hydroxylated PCB derivatives. It was felt that if any marine organisms were capable of metabolism of PCBs, some marine bacteria should have that capability. Thus a series of laboratory experiments was conducted to test this possibility. Reported here is the finding of PCB metabolism by marine bacteria in batch culture

  16. Can you boost your metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000893.htm Can you boost your metabolism? To use the sharing ... boosting metabolism than tactics that work. Some myths can backfire. If you think you are burning more ...

  17. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    ... metabolism and its impact on patient welfare. After underlining the relationship between efficacy, toxicity and drug concentration, the book then considers how metabolizing systems operate and how they impact upon drug concentration...

  18. Host cells and methods for producing diacid compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Eric J.; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Dietrich, Jeffrey A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-04-24

    The present invention provides for a method of producing one or more fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids in a genetically modified host cell which does not naturally produce the one or more derived fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids. The invention provides for the biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acid ranging in length from C3 to C26. The host cell can be further modified to increase fatty acid production or export of the desired fatty acid derived compound, and/or decrease fatty acid storage or metabolism.

  19. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  20. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, p...

  1. Pulmonary metabolism of foreign compounds: Its role in metabolic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The lung has the potential of metabolizing many foreign chemicals to a vast array of metabolites with different pharmacological and toxicological properties. Because many chemicals require metabolic activation in order to exert their toxicity, the cellular distribution of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in a heterogeneous tissue, such as the lung, and the balance of metabolic activation and deactivation pathways in any particular cell are key factors in determining the cellular specificity of many pulmonary toxins. Environmental factors such as air pollution, cigarette smoking, and diet markedly affect the pulmonary metabolism of some chemicals and, thereby, possibly affect their toxicity

  2. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    ..., both under drug pressure and during inhibition. Factors affecting drug metabolism, such as genetic polymorphisms, age and diet are discussed and how metabolism can lead to toxicity is explained. The book concludes with the role of drug metabolism in the commercial development of therapeutic agents as well as the pharmacology of some illicit drugs.

  3. A metabolic switch in brain: glucose and lactate metabolism modulation by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maite A; Beltrán, Felipe A; Brauchi, Sebastián; Concha, Ilona I

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we discuss a novel function of ascorbic acid in brain energetics. It has been proposed that during glutamatergic synaptic activity neurons preferably consume lactate released from glia. The key to this energetic coupling is the metabolic activation that occurs in astrocytes by glutamate and an increase in extracellular [K(+)]. Neurons are cells well equipped to consume glucose because they express glucose transporters and glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Moreover, neuronal cells express monocarboxylate transporters and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1, which is inhibited by pyruvate. As glycolysis produces an increase in pyruvate concentration and a decrease in NAD(+)/NADH, lactate and glucose consumption are not viable at the same time. In this context, we discuss ascorbic acid participation as a metabolic switch modulating neuronal metabolism between rest and activation periods. Ascorbic acid is highly concentrated in CNS. Glutamate stimulates ascorbic acid release from astrocytes. Ascorbic acid entry into neurons and within the cell can inhibit glucose consumption and stimulate lactate transport. For this switch to occur, an ascorbic acid flow is necessary between astrocytes and neurons, which is driven by neural activity and is part of vitamin C recycling. Here, we review the role of glucose and lactate as metabolic substrates and the modulation of neuronal metabolism by ascorbic acid.

  4. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.

  5. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  6. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  7. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  8. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  9. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  10. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  11. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  12. Microglia energy metabolism in metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, Martin J T; Mulder, Laurie; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2016-12-15

    Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal survival. Microglia carry out a non-stop patrol of the CNS, make contact with neurons and look for abnormalities, all of which requires a vast amount of energy. This non-signaling energy demand increases after activation by pathogens, neuronal damage or other kinds of stimulation. Of the three major energy substrates - glucose, fatty acids and glutamine - glucose is crucial for microglia survival and several glucose transporters are expressed to supply sufficient glucose influx. Fatty acids are another source of energy for microglia and have also been shown to strongly influence microglial immune activity. Glutamine, although possibly suitable for use as an energy substrate by microglia, has been shown to have neurotoxic effects when overloaded. Microglial fuel metabolism might be associated with microglial reactivity under different pathophysiological conditions and a microglial fuel switch may thus be the underlying cause of hypothalamic dysregulation, which is associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels...... in patients with T2D. HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit. Patients with a prolactinoma, patients with schizophrenia and/or T2D often have disturbances in this balance and the finding of lower prolactin (PRL) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS......) may indicate increased dopaminergic tonus. Recent studies supported that PRL levels within or above reference range may be differently related to MetS. In healthy study populations and in PCOS, PRL levels were inversely associated with metabolic risk markers. Ongoing research on PRL fragments...

  14. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  15. Spectrum of metabolic myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Corrado

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic myopathies are disorders of utilization of carbohydrates or fat in muscles. The acute nature of energy failure is manifested either by a metabolic crisis with weakness, sometimes associated with respiratory failure, or by myoglobinuria. A typical disorder where permanent weakness occurs is glycogenosis type II (GSDII or Pompe disease) both in infantile and late-onset forms, where respiratory insufficiency is manifested by a large number of cases. In GSDII the pathogenetic mechanism is still poorly understood, and has to be attributed more to structural muscle alterations, possibly in correlation to macro-autophagy, rather than to energetic failure. This review is focused on recent advances about GSDII and its treatment, and the most recent notions about the management and treatment of other metabolic myopathies will be briefly reviewed, including glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease), glycogenosis type III (debrancher enzyme deficiency or Cori disease), CPT-II deficiency, and ETF-dehydrogenase deficiency (also known as riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or RR-MADD). The discovery of the genetic defect in ETF dehydrogenase confirms the etiology of this syndrome. Other metabolic myopathies with massive lipid storage and weakness are carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage-myopathy (NLSD-M), besides RR-MADD. Enzyme replacement therapy is presented with critical consideration and for each of the lipid storage disorders, representative cases and their response to therapy is included. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  17. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zulak, Katherine G; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the al...

  19. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  20. Imaging metabolic heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debanti; Pratx, Guillem

    2016-01-06

    As our knowledge of cancer metabolism has increased, it has become apparent that cancer metabolic processes are extremely heterogeneous. The reasons behind this heterogeneity include genetic diversity, the existence of multiple and redundant metabolic pathways, altered microenvironmental conditions, and so on. As a result, methods in the clinic and beyond have been developed in order to image and study tumor metabolism in the in vivo and in vitro regimes. Both regimes provide unique advantages and challenges, and may be used to provide a picture of tumor metabolic heterogeneity that is spatially and temporally comprehensive. Taken together, these methods may hold the key to appropriate cancer diagnoses and treatments in the future.

  1. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  2. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  3. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  4. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  5. Population FBA predicts metabolic phenotypes in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Labhsetwar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using protein counts sampled from single cell proteomics distributions to constrain fluxes through a genome-scale model of metabolism, Population flux balance analysis (Population FBA successfully described metabolic heterogeneity in a population of independent Escherichia coli cells growing in a defined medium. We extend the methodology to account for correlations in protein expression arising from the co-regulation of genes and apply it to study the growth of independent Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in two different growth media. We find the partitioning of flux between fermentation and respiration predicted by our model agrees with recent 13C fluxomics experiments, and that our model largely recovers the Crabtree effect (the experimentally known bias among certain yeast species toward fermentation with the production of ethanol even in the presence of oxygen, while FBA without proteomics constraints predicts respirative metabolism almost exclusively. The comparisons to the 13C study showed improvement upon inclusion of the correlations and motivated a technique to systematically identify inconsistent kinetic parameters in the literature. The minor secretion fluxes for glycerol and acetate are underestimated by our method, which indicate a need for further refinements to the metabolic model. For yeast cells grown in synthetic defined (SD medium, the calculated broad distribution of growth rates matches experimental observations from single cell studies, and we characterize several metabolic phenotypes within our modeled populations that make use of diverse pathways. Fast growing yeast cells are predicted to perform significant amount of respiration, use serine-glycine cycle and produce ethanol in mitochondria as opposed to slow growing cells. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the proteomics constraints necessary to reproduce the growth rate distributions seen experimentally. We find that a core set of 51 constraints are essential but

  6. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  7. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation

  8. Yeast metabolic engineering--targeting sterol metabolism and terpenoid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Pichler, Harald

    2013-07-01

    Terpenoids comprise various structures conferring versatile functions to eukaryotes, for example in the form of prenyl-anchors they attach proteins to membranes. The physiology of eukaryotic membranes is fine-tuned by another terpenoid class, namely sterols. Evidence is accumulating that numerous membrane proteins require specific sterol structural features for function. Moreover, sterols are intermediates in the synthesis of steroids serving as hormones in higher eukaryotes. Like steroids many compounds of the terpenoid family do not contribute to membrane architecture, but serve as signalling, protective or attractant/repellent molecules. Particularly plants have developed a plenitude of terpenoid biosynthetic routes branching off early in the sterol biosynthesis pathway and, thereby, forming one of the largest groups of naturally occurring organic compounds. Many of these aromatic and volatile molecules are interesting for industrial application ranging from foods to pharmaceuticals. Combining the fortunate situation that sterol biosynthesis is highly conserved in eukaryotes with the amenability of yeasts to genetic and metabolic engineering, basically all naturally occurring terpenoids might be produced involving yeasts. Such engineered yeasts are useful for the study of biological functions and molecular interactions of terpenoids as well as for the large-scale production of high-value compounds, which are unavailable in sufficient amounts from natural sources due to their low abundance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  10. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental

  11. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  12. Reconstruction of the central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The topology of central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger was identified and the metabolic network reconstructed, by integrating genomic, biochemical and physiological information available for this microorganism and other related fungi. The reconstructed network may serve as a valuable...... of metabolic fluxes using metabolite balancing. This framework was employed to perform an in silico characterisation of the phenotypic behaviour of A. niger grown on different carbon sources. The effects on growth of single reaction deletions were assessed and essential biochemical reactions were identified...... for different carbon sources. Furthermore, application of the stoichiometric model for assessing the metabolic capabilities of A. niger to produce metabolites was evaluated by using succinate production as a case study....

  13. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  14. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction. PMID:27264109

  15. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction.

  16. Computational methods in metabolic engineering for strain design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew R; Ong, Wai Kit; Reed, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic engineering uses genetic approaches to control microbial metabolism to produce desired compounds. Computational tools can identify new biological routes to chemicals and the changes needed in host metabolism to improve chemical production. Recent computational efforts have focused on exploring what compounds can be made biologically using native, heterologous, and/or enzymes with broad specificity. Additionally, computational methods have been developed to suggest different types of genetic modifications (e.g. gene deletion/addition or up/down regulation), as well as suggest strategies meeting different criteria (e.g. high yield, high productivity, or substrate co-utilization). Strategies to improve the runtime performances have also been developed, which allow for more complex metabolic engineering strategies to be identified. Future incorporation of kinetic considerations will further improve strain design algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production...... of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves...... input from chemical engineers, molecular biologists, biochemists, physiologists, and analytical chemists. Obviously, molecular biology is central in the production of novel products, as well as in the improvement of existing processes. However, in the latter case, input from other disciplines is pivotal...

  18. Isotopic labeling affects 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloran, B.P.; Bikle, D.D.; Castro, M.E.; Gee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope substitution can change the biochemical properties of vitamin D. To determine the effect of substituting 3H for 1H on the metabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3, we measured the metabolic clearance rate and renal metabolism of unlabeled and 3H-labeled 1,25(OH)2D3. Substitution of 3H for 1H on carbons 26 and 27 [1,25(OH)2[26,27(n)-3H]D3] or on carbons 23 and 24 [1,25(OH)2[23,24(n)-3H]D3] reduced the in vivo metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D3 by 36% and 37%, respectively, and reduced the in vitro renal catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3 by 11% and 54%, respectively. Substitutions of 3H for 1H on carbons 23 and 24 as opposed to carbons 26 and 27 reduced conversion of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 to [3H]1,24,25(OH)2D3 by 25% and to putative 24-oxo-1,23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by 1600%. These results indicate that substitution of 3H for 1H on carbons 26 and 27 or on carbons 23 and 24 can reduce the metabolic clearance rate and in vitro metabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3 and quantitatively alter the pattern of metabolic products produced

  19. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chul Cho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α,γ, and σ are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators.

  20. Central carbon metabolism influences cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Liu, S; Li, Y; Wang, H; Xiao, S; Li, C; Liu, B

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis that can produce cellulase including endo glucanase and glucosidase is an important industrial microbe for cellulose degradation. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of endo glucanase gene bglC and glucosidase gene bglH on the central metabolic flux in B. licheniformis. bglC and bglH were knocked out using homologous recombination method, respectively, and the corresponding knockout strains were obtained for 13 C metabolic flux analysis. A significant change was observed in metabolic fluxes after 13 C metabolic flux ratio analysis. In both of the knockout strains, the increased fluxes of the pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme reaction enabled an elevated supply of NADPH which provided enough reducing power for the in vivo synthesis reactions. The fluxes through tricarboxylic acid cycle and anaplerotic reactions increased fast in the two knockout strains, which meant more energy generated. The changed fluxes in central carbon metabolism provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis and possible targets for further strain engineering. Cellulase is very important in the field of agriculture and bioenergy because of its degrading effect on cellulosic biomass. This study presented the effect of central carbon metabolism on cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis. The study also provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis. The shifted metabolism provided a quantitative evaluation of the biosynthesis of cellulase and a priority ranked target list for further strain engineering. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.

    2004-01-01

    the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway has been...... to design metabolic engineering strategies towards construction of more efficient producers of specific metabolites. In this context, methods that allow rapid and reliable mapping of the central carbon metabolism are valuable. In the present study, a C-13 labelling-based method was used to identify...... recognized as the main catabolic pathway in an actinomycete. The Nonomuraea genes encoding the key enzymes of the ED pathway were subsequently identified, sequenced and functionally described....

  2. Metabolic cytometry: capillary electrophoresis with two-color fluorescence detection for the simultaneous study of two glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways in single primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaka, David C; Prendergast, Jillian; Keithley, Richard B; Palcic, Monica M; Hindsgaul, Ole; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dovichi, Norman J

    2012-03-20

    Metabolic cytometry is a form of chemical cytometry wherein metabolic cascades are monitored in single cells. We report the first example of metabolic cytometry where two different metabolic pathways are simultaneously monitored. Glycolipid catabolism in primary rat cerebella neurons was probed by incubation with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled GM1 (GM1-TMR). Simultaneously, both catabolism and anabolism were probed by coincubation with BODIPY-FL labeled LacCer (LacCer-BODIPY-FL). In a metabolic cytometry experiment, single cells were incubated with substrate, washed, aspirated into a capillary, and lysed. The components were separated by capillary electrophoresis equipped with a two-spectral channel laser-induced fluorescence detector. One channel monitored fluorescence generated by the metabolic products produced from GM1-TMR and the other monitored the metabolic products produced from LacCer-BODIPY-FL. The metabolic products were identified by comparison with the mobility of a set of standards. The detection system produced at least 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range in each spectral channel with negligible spectral crosstalk. Detection limits were 1 zmol for BODIPY-FL and 500 ymol for tetramethylrhodamine standard solutions.

  3. METABOLIC WAR: A VARIATION FOR METABOLIC BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING OF A WORLDLY KNOWN BOARD GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Anjos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical careers are highly wished by young students in Brazil. Although future jobs,  academic knowledge and higher earnings  are tempting reasons for this life choice, few of them are aware  of  the difficult path through the  basic classes. Advanced and specific disciplines  are easier to associate with the professional career itself, but few students can identify the importance  of the basic knowledge for their future work. Biochemistry is one of the most difficult  disciplines  for Brazilian students, probably due to the level of abstraction needed to fully learn and understand the topics. Some recent experimental tools, such as bioinformatics, are now helping students with the learning process, providing visual data for understanding biomolecule structure.  In addition to this, biochemical reactions  could be even tougher because of the many variables involved.  To facilitate the learning process for metabolic biochemistry, we created a game based on the board game WAR®,  using Photoshop software. Named Metabolic War, it keeps the same basic rules of WAR®, but with some minor changes. The continents are metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle, glycolysis, beta-oxidation, etc and the countries are metabolic intermediates. Similarly to the original game, players must conquer an objective (one or more metabolic pathways by dominating intermediates. But the desired intermediate must be a possible product from an intermediate the player already owns. This  and other  games were produced by Biomedicine  undergraduate  students  in Metabolic Biochemistry classes. It was presented to other students, who tested and acknowledged it as a great help in understanding metabolic biochemistry,  giving a great understanding of integrative metabolism. Keywords: game; Biochemistry; Metabolic Biochemistry learning; science learning; playful learning.

  4. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  5. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of metabolism by using metabolic network topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    in the metabolic network that follow a common transcriptional response. Thus, the algorithm enables identification of so-called reporter metabolites (metabolites around which the most significant transcriptional changes occur) and a set of connected genes with significant and coordinated response to genetic......Cellular response to genetic and environmental perturbations is often reflected and/or mediated through changes in the metabolism, because the latter plays a key role in providing Gibbs free energy and precursors for biosynthesis. Such metabolic changes are often exerted through transcriptional...... therefore developed an algorithm that is based on hypothesis-driven data analysis to uncover the transcriptional regulatory architecture of metabolic networks. By using information on the metabolic network topology from genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, we show that it is possible to reveal patterns...

  6. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Whelton, B.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Peterson, D.P.; Oldham, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  7. Connecting Myokines and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rexford S. Ahima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body in non-obese individuals and is now considered to be an endocrine organ. Hormones (myokines secreted by skeletal muscle mediate communications between muscle and liver, adipose tissue, brain, and other organs. Myokines affect muscle mass and myofiber switching, and have profound effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus contributing to energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the biology of myokines and provide an assessment of their potential as therapeutic targets.

  8. Treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arati; Stone, Neil J

    2004-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is intended to identify patients who have increased risk of diabetes and/or a cardiac event due to the deleterious effects of weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and/or an atherogenic diet. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition uses easily measured clinical findings of increased abdominal circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose and/or elevated blood pressure. Three of these five are required for diagnosis. The authors also note that other definitions of metabolic syndrome focus more on insulin resistance and its key role in this syndrome. This review focuses on how treatment might affect each of the five components. Abdominal obesity can be treated with a variety of lower calorie diets along with regular exercise. Indeed, all of the five components of the metabolic syndrome are improved by even modest amounts of weight loss achieved with diet and exercise. For those with impaired fasting glucose tolerance, there is good evidence that a high fiber, low saturated fat diet with increased daily exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes by almost 60%. Of note, subjects who exercise the most, gain the most benefit. Metformin has also been shown to be helpful in these subjects. Thiazolidinedione drugs may prove useful, but further studies are needed. Although intensified therapeutic lifestyle change will help the abnormal lipid profile, some patients may require drug therapy. This review also discusses the use of statins, fibrates, and niacin. Likewise, while hypertension in the metabolic syndrome benefits from therapeutic lifestyle change, physicians should also consider angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs or angiotensin receptor blockers, due to their effects on preventing complications of diabetes, such as progression of diabetic nephropathy and due to their effects on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Aspirin

  9. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Intermediary metabolism in protists: a sequence-based view of facultative anaerobic metabolism in evolutionarily diverse eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Michael L; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Fulton, Chandler; Cande, W Zacheus; Dawson, Scott C

    2010-12-01

    Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2-3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H(2) in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. The discussion of core energy metabolism in unicellular eukaryotes is the subject of this review. Since genomic sequencing has so far only touched the surface of protist diversity, it is anticipated that sequences of additional protists may reveal an even wider range of metabolic capabilities, while simultaneously enriching our understanding of the early evolution of eukaryotes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  12. Commentary: Potential Neurobiologic Mechanisms through Which Metabolic Disorders Could Relate to Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    To illustrate the possible relationships between metabolic disorders and autism, this commentary reviews findings from studies on the characteristics of individuals with Rett syndrome that indicate the genetic mechanism of transcriptional dysregulation can produce pathologic phenotypes which resemble metabolic disorders that stunt axonodendritic…

  13. Sex Differences in Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Opioid Withdrawal and Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Giovanni C; Carrion, Joseph; Patel, Krishna; Vilchez, Crystal; Veith, Jennifer; Brodie, Jonathan D; Dewey, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are currently the most common pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence. Interestingly, the clinical response to these drugs appears to be sex specific. That is, females exhibit superior therapeutic efficacy, defined as extended periods of abstinence and longer time to relapse, compared with males. However, the underlying metabolic effects of opioid withdrawal and replacement have not been examined. Therefore, using 18 FDG and microPET, we measured differences in regional brain glucose metabolism in males and females following morphine withdrawal and subsequent methadone or buprenorphine replacement. In both males and females, spontaneous opioid withdrawal altered glucose metabolism in regions associated with reward and drug dependence. Specifically, metabolic increases in the thalamus, as well as metabolic decreases in insular cortex and the periaqueductal gray, were noted. However, compared with males, females exhibited increased metabolism in the preoptic area, primary motor cortex, and the amygdala, and decreased metabolism in the caudate/putamen and medial geniculate nucleus. Methadone and buprenorphine initially abolished these changes uniformly, but subsequently produced their own regional metabolic alterations that varied by treatment and sex. Compared with sex-matched control animals undergoing spontaneous opioid withdrawal, male animals treated with methadone exhibited increased caudate/putamen metabolism, whereas buprenorphine produced increased ventral striatum and motor cortex metabolism in females, and increased ventral striatum and somatosensory cortex metabolism in males. Notably, when treatment effects were compared between sexes, methadone-treated females showed increased cingulate cortex metabolism, whereas buprenorphine-treated females showed decreased metabolism in cingulate cortex and increased metabolism in the globus pallidus. Perhaps the initial similarities in males and females underlie early therapeutic

  14. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  15. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  16. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    , the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...

  18. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimaraes Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer.

  20. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Raquel Guimaraes; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Carvalho, Denise P.

    2018-01-01

    Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer. PMID:29629339

  1. SU-E-J-102: Separation of Metabolic Supply and Demand: From Power Grid Economics to Cancer Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, T; Xu, L; Gillies, R; Gatenby, R [Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study a new model of glucose metabolism which is primarily governed by the timescale of the energetic demand and not by the oxygen level, and its implication on cancer metabolism (Warburg effect) Methods: 1) Metabolic profiling of membrane transporters activity in several cell lines, which represent the spectrum from normal breast epithelium to aggressive, metastatic cancer, using Seahorse XF reader.2) Spatial localization of oxidative and non-oxidative metabolic components using immunocytochemical imaging of the glycolytic ATP-producing enzyme, pyruvate kinase and mitochondria. 3) Finite element simulations of coupled partial differential equations using COMSOL and MATLAB. Results: Inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in aerobic glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. These results were consistent with computational simulations of changes in short-timescale demand for energy by cell membrane processes. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. These predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusion: The results in this work support a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Similar to power grid economics, optimal metabolic control requires the two pathways, even in normoxic conditions, to match two different types of energy demands. Cells use aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This model provides a mechanism for the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Here, the Warburg effect emerges during carcinogenesis is a physiological

  2. SU-E-J-102: Separation of Metabolic Supply and Demand: From Power Grid Economics to Cancer Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, T; Xu, L; Gillies, R; Gatenby, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study a new model of glucose metabolism which is primarily governed by the timescale of the energetic demand and not by the oxygen level, and its implication on cancer metabolism (Warburg effect) Methods: 1) Metabolic profiling of membrane transporters activity in several cell lines, which represent the spectrum from normal breast epithelium to aggressive, metastatic cancer, using Seahorse XF reader.2) Spatial localization of oxidative and non-oxidative metabolic components using immunocytochemical imaging of the glycolytic ATP-producing enzyme, pyruvate kinase and mitochondria. 3) Finite element simulations of coupled partial differential equations using COMSOL and MATLAB. Results: Inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in aerobic glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. These results were consistent with computational simulations of changes in short-timescale demand for energy by cell membrane processes. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. These predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusion: The results in this work support a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Similar to power grid economics, optimal metabolic control requires the two pathways, even in normoxic conditions, to match two different types of energy demands. Cells use aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This model provides a mechanism for the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Here, the Warburg effect emerges during carcinogenesis is a physiological

  3. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  5. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.

  6. Drug metabolism and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Hilary

    2005-06-01

    Older people are major consumers of drugs and because of this, as well as co-morbidity and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, are at risk of associated adverse drug reactions. While age does not alter drug absorption in a clinically significant way, and age-related changes in volume of drug distribution and protein binding are not of concern in chronic therapy, reduction in hepatic drug clearance is clinically important. Liver blood flow falls by about 35% between young adulthood and old age, and liver size by about 24-35% over the same period. First-pass metabolism of oral drugs avidly cleared by the liver and clearance of capacity-limited hepatically metabolized drugs fall in parallel with the fall in liver size, and clearance of drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio falls in parallel with the fall in hepatic blood flow. In normal ageing, in general, activity of the cytochrome P450 enzymes is preserved, although a decline in frail older people has been noted, as well as in association with liver disease, cancer, trauma, sepsis, critical illness and renal failure. As the contribution of age, co-morbidity and concurrent drug therapy to altered drug clearance is impossible to predict in an individual older patient, it is wise to start any drug at a low dose and increase this slowly, monitoring carefully for beneficial and adverse effects.

  7. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism

  8. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  9. Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Mohamad; Gharavi, Nima; Watson, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Poor nutrition, overweight and obesity have increasingly become a public health concern as they affect many metabolic disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, digestive system disorders, and renal failure. Study of the effects of life style including healthy nutrition will help further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse effects of poor nutrition. Unhealthy life style including poor nutrition can result in imbalance in our oxidation/redox systems. Lipids can undergo oxidative modification by lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, myeloperoxidase, and other enzymes. Oxidized phospholipids can induce inflammatory molecules in the liver and other organs. This can contribute to inflammation, leading to coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, inflammatory bowl disease, metabolic syndrome, bone and joint disorders, and even certain types of cancer. Our antioxidant and antiinflammatory defense mechanisms contribute to a balance between the stimulators and the inhibitors of inflammation. Beyond a point, however, these systems might be overwhelmed and eventually fail. High-density lipoprotein is a potent inhibitor of the formation of toxic oxidized lipids. High-density lipoprotein is also an effective system for stimulating the genes whose products are active in the removal, inactivation, and elimination of toxic lipids. Supporting the high-density lipoprotein function should help maintain the balance in these systems. It is hoped that the present report would elucidate some of the ongoing work toward this goal.

  10. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  11. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.

  12. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  13. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  14. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  15. Nucleons II: cryopreservation and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H M; Delgado, N M

    2001-01-01

    The establishment of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) as a routine procedure in assisted fertilization has been used in the treatment of male infertility. The major technical problem that has arisen with the use of immotile sperm for ICSI has been differentiating between live and dead cells. Nucleons from human, pig, hamster, mouse, rat, and bull have been able to induce their chromatin decondensation by the action of heparin/GSH. Cryopreservation is deleterious to sperm function, killing more than 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Nucleon cryostorage was performed at 5 and -5 degrees C and analyzed for total area (mu2), perimeter (mu), width (mu), and length (mu), using Metamorph Imaging System software. On the other hand, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) is hydrolyzed by intracellular estereases to produce fluorescein, which exhibits green fluorescence when excited by blue light. This fact is a striking result since the presence of this metabolic activity opens the possibility to select the nucleons for ICSI. In the present study, the authors decided to search for a suitable metabolic test, which might reflect the metabolism and viability of these chromatin structures. This is a simple cryostorage technique that after months of cryopreservation, allow the use of nucleons for ICSI with suitable fertilization and pregnancies rates.

  16. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Kong, In Iok; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kim, Heejin; Xia, Peng-Fei; Kwak, Suryang; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Walukiewicz, Hanna E; Rao, Christopher V; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-04-01

    Saccharomyces boulardiiis a probiotic yeast that has been used for promoting gut health as well as preventing diarrheal diseases. This yeast not only exhibits beneficial phenotypes for gut health but also can stay longer in the gut than Saccharomyces cerevisiae Therefore, S. boulardiiis an attractive host for metabolic engineering to produce biomolecules of interest in the gut. However, the lack of auxotrophic strains with defined genetic backgrounds has hampered the use of this strain for metabolic engineering. Here, we report the development of well-defined auxotrophic mutants (leu2,ura3,his3, and trp1) through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-based genome editing. The resulting auxotrophic mutants can be used as a host for introducing various genetic perturbations, such as overexpression or deletion of a target gene, using existing genetic tools forS. cerevisiae We demonstrated the overexpression of a heterologous gene (lacZ), the correct localization of a target protein (red fluorescent protein) into mitochondria by using a protein localization signal, and the introduction of a heterologous metabolic pathway (xylose-assimilating pathway) in the genome ofS. boulardii We further demonstrated that human lysozyme, which is beneficial for human gut health, could be secreted by S. boulardii Our results suggest that more sophisticated genetic perturbations to improveS. boulardii can be performed without using a drug resistance marker, which is a prerequisite for in vivo applications using engineeredS. boulardii. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Le Barz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut.

  19. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  20. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  1. Clinical update on metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.

  2. Hydrogen production and metabolic flux analysis of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seohyoung; Seol, Eunhee; Park, Sunghoon [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Oh, You-Kwan [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-543 (Korea); Wang, G.Y. [Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Escherichia coli can produce H{sub 2} from glucose via formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). In order to improve the H{sub 2} production rate and yield, metabolically engineered E. coli strains, which included pathway alterations in their H{sub 2} production and central carbon metabolism, were developed and characterized by batch experiments and metabolic flux analysis. Deletion of hycA, a negative regulator for FHL, resulted in twofold increase of FHL activity. Deletion of two uptake hydrogenases (1 (hya) and hydrogenase 2 (hyb)) increased H{sub 2} production yield from 1.20 mol/mol glucose to 1.48 mol/mol glucose. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and fumarate reductase (frdAB) further improved the H{sub 2} yield; 1.80 mol/mol glucose under high H{sub 2} pressure or 2.11 mol/mol glucose under reduced H{sub 2} pressure. Several batch experiments at varying concentrations of glucose (2.5-10 g/L) and yeast extract (0.3 or 3.0 g/L) were conducted for the strain containing all these genetic alternations, and their carbon and energy balances were analyzed. The metabolic flux analysis revealed that deletion of ldhA and frdAB directed most of the carbons from glucose to the glycolytic pathway leading to H{sub 2} production by FHL, not to the pentose phosphate pathway. (author)

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  4. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  5. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  6. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  7. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  8. Metabolic interrelationships software application: Interactive learning tool for intermediary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); M. Doets (Mathijs); J.M.J. Lamers (Jos); J.F. Koster (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe developed and implemented the software application titled Metabolic Interrelationships as a self-learning and -teaching tool for intermediary metabolism. It is used by undergraduate medical students in an integrated organ systems-based and disease-oriented core curriculum, which

  9. Dynamics of ammonia metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, J.S.; McDonald, J.M.; Reiman, R.E.; Gelbard, A.S.; Laughlin, J.S.; Duffy, T.E.; Plum, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cyclotron-produced radionuclide 13 N, T/sub 1/2/ 10 min, was used to label NH 3 and study its metabolism in 5 normal subjects and 17 with liver disease, including 5 with portacaval shunts, and 11 with encephalopathy (HE). The arterial NH 3 levels were 100 +- 8 μM in the non-HE subjects and 149 +- 18 μM in those with HE, (P 13 NH 4 Cl, the rate of NH 3 clearance from the vascular compartment was a function of its arterial concentration: μmol/min = 4.71 [NH 3 ]/sub a/ + 3.76 (r = +0.85, P 3 was maximal, and plateaued at levels 5.1 times those due to an equivalent amount of blood, indicating rapid passage of NH 3 across the blood-brain barrier, followed by metabolic trapping. Quantitative body scans showed that 7.4 +- 0.3% of observed activity was trapped by the brain. The brain NH 3 utilization rate (BAUR), calculated from brain and blood activities, was a function of [NH 3 ]/sub a/: μmol/min = 0.32 [NH 3 ]/sub a/ + 1.8 (r = +0.93, P 3 was extracted from the blood during a single pass through normal brains. Utilization was greatest in grey matter. Calculations show that NH 3 metabolism occurs in a compartment, perhaps in astrocytes, that contains less than 20% of all brain ammonia. Liver uptake (3 to 24%) was a function of its projected size on the scan. Skeletal muscle metabolized about 50% of the arterial NH 3 in normals, less in those with cachexia

  10. Metabolism during hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federov, I. V.

    1980-01-01

    Physical immobilization, inaction due to space travel, a sedentary occupation, or bed confinement due to a chronic illness elicit similar alternations in the metabolism of man and animals (rat, rabbit, dog, mouse). After a preliminary period of weight loss, there is eventually weight gain due to increased lipid storage. Protein catabolism is enhanced and anabolism depressed, with elevated urinary excretion of amino acids, creatine, and ammonia. Glycogen stores are depleted and glyconeogenesis is accelerated. Polyuria develops with subsequent redistribution of body fluids in which the blood volume of the systemic circulation is decreased and that of pulmonary circulation increased. This results in depressed production of vasopressin by the posterior pituitary which further enhances urinary water and salt loss.

  11. Olfaction Under Metabolic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Recently published work and emerging research efforts have suggested that the olfactory system is intimately linked with the endocrine systems that regulate or modify energy balance. Although much attention has been focused on the parallels between taste transduction and neuroendocrine controls of digestion due to the novel discovery of taste receptors and molecular components shared by the tongue and gut, the equivalent body of knowledge that has accumulated for the olfactory system, has largely been overlooked. During regular cycles of food intake or disorders of endocrine function, olfaction is modulated in response to changing levels of various molecules, such as ghrelin, orexins, neuropeptide Y, insulin, leptin, and cholecystokinin. In view of the worldwide health concern regarding the rising incidence of diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic disorders, we present a comprehensive review that addresses the current knowledge of hormonal modulation of olfactory perception and how disruption of hormonal signaling in the olfactory system can affect energy homeostasis. PMID:22832483

  12. Metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.

  13. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  14. Genome scale metabolic modeling of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Avlant; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    of metabolism which allows simulation and hypotheses testing of metabolic strategies. It has successfully been applied to many microorganisms and is now used to study cancer metabolism. Generic models of human metabolism have been reconstructed based on the existence of metabolic genes in the human genome......Cancer cells reprogram metabolism to support rapid proliferation and survival. Energy metabolism is particularly important for growth and genes encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism are frequently altered in cancer cells. A genome scale metabolic model (GEM) is a mathematical formalization...

  15. Metabolic plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2013-05-15

    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by all free-living organisms. In most bacteria, the common precursors of all isoprenoids are produced by the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway. The MEP pathway is absent from archaea, fungi and animals (including humans), which synthesize their isoprenoid precursors using the completely unrelated MVA (mevalonate) pathway. Because the MEP pathway is essential in most bacterial pathogens (as well as in the malaria parasites), it has been proposed as a promising new target for the development of novel anti-infective agents. However, bacteria show a remarkable plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis that should be taken into account when targeting this metabolic pathway for the development of new antibiotics. For example, a few bacteria use the MVA pathway instead of the MEP pathway, whereas others possess the two full pathways, and some parasitic strains lack both the MVA and the MEP pathways (probably because they obtain their isoprenoids from host cells). Moreover, alternative enzymes and metabolic intermediates to those of the canonical MVA or MEP pathways exist in some organisms. Recent work has also shown that resistance to a block of the first steps of the MEP pathway can easily be developed because several enzymes unrelated to isoprenoid biosynthesis can produce pathway intermediates upon spontaneous mutations. In the present review, we discuss the major advances in our knowledge of the biochemical toolbox exploited by bacteria to synthesize the universal precursors for their essential isoprenoids.

  16. A CASE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo Ee Ming; Rabia Khatoon

    2006-01-01

    This case report illustrates a 40-year-old woman who presented with chest discomfort that was subsequently diagnosed to have metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a common condition associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As primary care providers, we should be detect this condition early, intervene and prevent appropriately before complications occur.

  17. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...

  18. Metabolic alterations in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Assessing metabolic risk in dialysis patients, three main aspects are important: a) the pathophysiologic effects of metabolic disturbances as known from the general population are unlikely to completely reverse once patients reach dialysis. b) Specific additional problems related to chronic kidney

  19. Selected Metabolic Responses to Skateboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Hunt, Ian; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the popularity of skateboarding worldwide, the authors believe that no previous studies have investigated the metabolic demands associated with recreational participation in the sport. Although metabolic equivalents (METs) for skateboarding were published in textbooks, the source of these values is unclear. Therefore, the rise in…

  20. Gait Dynamics and Locomotor Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    26 47. Taylor CR, Heglund NC, Maloiy GMO . Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of...San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1994. 110 47. Taylor CR, Heglund NC, Maloiy GMO . Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic

  1. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  2. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  3. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  4. The JBEI quantitative metabolic modeling library (jQMM): a python library for modeling microbial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkel, Garrett W.; Ghosh, Amit; Kumar, Vinay S.

    2017-01-01

    analysis, new methods for the effective use of the ever more readily available and abundant -omics data (i.e. transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) are urgently needed.Results: The jQMM library presented here provides an open-source, Python-based framework for modeling internal metabolic fluxes......, it introduces the capability to use C-13 labeling experimental data to constrain comprehensive genome-scale models through a technique called two-scale C-13 Metabolic Flux Analysis (2S-C-13 MFA). In addition, the library includes a demonstration of a method that uses proteomics data to produce actionable...... insights to increase biofuel production. Finally, the use of the jQMM library is illustrated through the addition of several Jupyter notebook demonstration files that enhance reproducibility and provide the capability to be adapted to the user's specific needs.Conclusions: jQMM will facilitate the design...

  5. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  6. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  7. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  8. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  9. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  10. Metabolic sensing neurons and the control of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry E

    2006-11-30

    The brain and periphery carry on a constant conversation; the periphery informs the brain about its metabolic needs and the brain provides for these needs through its control of somatomotor, autonomic and neurohumoral pathways involved in energy intake, expenditure and storage. Metabolic sensing neurons are the integrators of a variety of metabolic, humoral and neural inputs from the periphery. Such neurons, originally called "glucosensing", also respond to fatty acids, hormones and metabolites from the periphery. They are integrated within neural pathways involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Unlike most neurons, they utilize glucose and other metabolites as signaling molecules to regulate their membrane potential and firing rate. For glucosensing neurons, glucokinase acts as the rate-limiting step in glucosensing while the pathways that mediate responses to metabolites like lactate, ketone bodies and fatty acids are less well characterized. Many metabolic sensing neurons also respond to insulin and leptin and other peripheral hormones and receive neural inputs from peripheral organs. Each set of afferent signals arrives with different temporal profiles and by different routes and these inputs are summated at the level of the membrane potential to produce a given neural firing pattern. In some obese individuals, the relative sensitivity of metabolic sensing neurons to various peripheral inputs is genetically reduced. This may provide one mechanism underlying their propensity to become obese when exposed to diets high in fat and caloric density. Thus, metabolic sensing neurons may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity.

  11. Deranged Cardiac Metabolism and the Pathogenesis of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the neuro-hormonal system is a pathophysiological consequence of heart failure. Neuro-hormonal activation promotes metabolic changes, such as insulin resistance, and determines an increased use of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. Fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation are increased in patients with heart failure, yielding a state of metabolic inefficiency. The net result is additional depletion of myocardial adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase levels with further decreased efficiency of mechanical work. In this context, manipulation of cardiac energy metabolism by modification of substrate use by the failing heart has produced positive clinical results. The results of current research support the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and towards glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. The additional use of drugs able to partially inhibit fatty acids oxidation in patients with heart failure may therefore yield a significant protective effect for clinical symptoms and cardiac function improvement, and simultaneously ameliorate left ventricular remodelling. Certainly, to clarify the exact therapeutic role of metabolic therapy in heart failure, a large multicentre, randomised controlled trial should be performed. PMID:28785448

  12. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.K. de; Salles, L.P.; Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract

  13. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.K. de [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade da Ceilândia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Salles, L.P. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Rosa e Silva, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  14. Aspects of energetic substrate metabolism of in vitro and in vivo bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolism of early bovine embryos has not been fully elucidated, several publications have addressed this important issue to improve culture conditions for cattle reproductive biotechnologies, with the ultimate goal of producing in vitro embryos similar in quality to those developing in vivo. Here, we review general aspects of bovine embryo metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and discuss the use of metabolic analysis of embryos produced in vitro to assess viability and predict a viable pregnancy after transference to the female tract.

  15. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin A Metabolism: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. In excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic acid. 11-cis-retinal serves as the visual chromophore in vision. The body must acquire retinoid from the diet in order to maintain these essential physiological processes. Retinoid metabolism is complex and involves many different retinoid forms, including retinyl esters, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid and oxidized and conjugated metabolites of both retinol and retinoic acid. In addition, retinoid metabolism involves many carrier proteins and enzymes that are specific to retinoid metabolism, as well as other proteins which may be involved in mediating also triglyceride and/or cholesterol metabolism. This review will focus on recent advances for understanding retinoid metabolism that have taken place in the last ten to fifteen years.

  17. The metabolic switch of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although remarkable progress has been made in oncology research, cancer is still a leading cause of death worldwide. It is well recognized that cancer is a genetic disease, yet metabolic alterations or reprogramming are the major phenotypes associated with the (epi-genetic modifications of cancer cells. Thus, understanding the metabolic changes of tumor cells will facilitate the diagnosis of cancer, alleviate drug resistance and provide novel druggable targets that can lead to cures for cancer. The first Sino-US Symposium on Cancer Metabolism was held in Chongqing on October 10th and 11th, with the theme of “cancer metabolism and precision cancer therapy”. The symposium brought about a dozen keynote speakers each from the US and mainland China, as well as one hundred delegates with an interest in cancer metabolism. This short article will briefly summarize the advances reported during this meeting.

  18. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date......, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose...

  19. L-Cysteine Metabolism and Fermentation in Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ohtsu, Iwao

    L-Cysteine is an important amino acid both biologically and commercially. Although most amino acids are industrially produced by microbial fermentation, L-cysteine has been mainly produced by protein hydrolysis. Due to environmental and safety problems, synthetic or biotechnological products have been preferred in the market. Here, we reviewed L-cysteine metabolism, including biosynthesis, degradation, and transport, and biotechnological production (including both enzymatic and fermentation processes) of L-cysteine. The metabolic regulation of L-cysteine including novel sulfur metabolic pathways found in microorganisms is also discussed. Recent advancement in biochemical studies, genome sequencing, structural biology, and metabolome analysis has enabled us to use various approaches to achieve direct fermentation of L-cysteine from glucose. For example, worldwide companies began to supply L-cysteine and its derivatives produced by bacterial fermentation. These companies successfully optimized the original metabolism of their private strains. Basically, a combination of three factors should be required for improving L-cysteine fermentation: that is, (1) enhancing biosynthesis: overexpression of the altered cysE gene encoding feedback inhibition-insensitive L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT), (2) weakening degradation: knockout of the genes encoding L-cysteine desulfhydrases, and (3) exploiting export system: overexpression of the gene involved in L-cysteine transport. Moreover, we found that "thiosulfate" is much more effective sulfur source than commonly used "sulfate" for L-cysteine production in Escherichia coli, because thiosulfate is advantageous for saving consumption of NADPH and relating energy molecules.

  20. Intestinal Crosstalk between Bile Acids and Microbiota and Its Impact on Host Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Sayin, Sama I; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids......, is produced in the liver from cholesterol and metabolized in the intestine by the gut microbiota. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate numerous metabolic pathways in the host....... Conversely, bile acids can modulate gut microbial composition both directly and indirectly through activation of innate immune genes in the small intestine. Thus, host metabolism can be affected through microbial modifications of bile acids, which lead to altered signaling via bile acid receptors, but also...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Etchegoyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2, for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function. First, we revise a few essential concepts of MetS pathophysiology. Second, we explore some neuroprotective approaches in MetS pertaining brain hypoxia. The articles chosen for this review range from the years 1989 until 2017; the selection criteria was based on those providing data and exploratory information on MetS as well as those that studied innovative therapeutic approaches.Pathophysiology: The characteristically impaired metabolic pathways of MetS lead to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hypoxia, all closely associated with an overall pro-oxidative status. Oxidative stress is well-known to cause the wreckage of cellular structures and tissue architecture. Alteration of the redox homeostasis and oxidative stress alter the macromolecular array of DNA, lipids, and proteins, in turn disrupting the biochemical pathways necessary for normal cell function.Neuroprotection: Different neuroprotective strategies are discussed involving lifestyle changes, medication aimed to mitigate MetS cardinal symptoms, and treatments targeted toward reducing oxidative stress. It is well-known that the routine practice of physical exercise, aerobic activity in particular, and a complete and well-balanced nutrition are key factors to prevent MetS. Nevertheless, pharmacological control of MetS as a whole and

  2. Method of producing ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliskirk, G; Yates, H J

    1978-09-13

    Ethanol was produced from whey by removing protein from the whey by ultrafiltration, concentrating the deproteinized whey by reverse osmosis to a lactose content of at least 8 g/100 mL, fermenting with Candida pseudotropicalis NCYC 744, and distilling. E.g., milk whey was deproteinized to give a permeate containing 8.3 g lactose/100 mL. After fermentation, the final lactose content was 0.1 g/100 mL and the ethanol concentration was 3.55 g/100 mL, representing a 42% conversion of lactose to ethanol.

  3. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  4. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  5. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  6. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  7. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  8. Effect of heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Dobrá, Jana; Martincová, Olga; Prášil, I.T.; Gubiš, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 182, Sp.Issue (2012), s. 49-58 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Heat stress * Polyamines * Proline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2012

  9. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermato...

  10. Metabolic impact of an NADH-producing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olavarria, K.; De Ingeniis, J.; Zielinski, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) is one of the major sources of NADPH when glucose is the sole carbon nutrient. However, unbalanced NADPH production causes growth impairment as observed in a strain lacking phosphoglucoisomerase (Δpgi). In this work......PDH(R46E,Q47E). Through homologous recombination, the zwf loci (encoding G6PDH) in the chromosomes of WT and Δpgi E. coli strains were replaced by DNA encoding LmG6PDH(R46E,Q47E). Contrary to some predictions performed with flux balance analysis, the replacements caused a substantial effect...

  11. A Status Report on the Global Research in Microbial Metabolic Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho

    2008-09-15

    Biotechnology industry is now a global 'Mega-Trend' and metabolic engineering technology has important role is this area. Therefore, many countries has made efforts in this field to produce top value added bio-products efficiently using microorganisms. It has been applied to increase the production of chemicals that are already produced by the host organism, to produce desired chemical substances from less expensive feedstock, and to generate products that are new to the host organism. Recent experimental advances, the so-called '-omics' technologies, mainly functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled wholesale generation of new genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data. This report provides the insights of the integrated view of metabolism generated by metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications of microbial metabolic engineering.

  12. A Status Report on the Global Research in Microbial Metabolic Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho

    2008-09-01

    Biotechnology industry is now a global 'Mega-Trend' and metabolic engineering technology has important role is this area. Therefore, many countries has made efforts in this field to produce top value added bio-products efficiently using microorganisms. It has been applied to increase the production of chemicals that are already produced by the host organism, to produce desired chemical substances from less expensive feedstock, and to generate products that are new to the host organism. Recent experimental advances, the so-called '-omics' technologies, mainly functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled wholesale generation of new genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data. This report provides the insights of the integrated view of metabolism generated by metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications of microbial metabolic engineering

  13. A Status Report on the Global Research in Microbial Metabolic Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho

    2008-09-15

    Biotechnology industry is now a global 'Mega-Trend' and metabolic engineering technology has important role is this area. Therefore, many countries has made efforts in this field to produce top value added bio-products efficiently using microorganisms. It has been applied to increase the production of chemicals that are already produced by the host organism, to produce desired chemical substances from less expensive feedstock, and to generate products that are new to the host organism. Recent experimental advances, the so-called '-omics' technologies, mainly functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have enabled wholesale generation of new genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data. This report provides the insights of the integrated view of metabolism generated by metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications of microbial metabolic engineering.

  14. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Romeo, F; Inoue, S; Niklison-Chirou, M V; Elia, A J; Dinsdale, D; Morone, N; Knight, R A; Mak, T W; Melino, G

    2016-09-01

    Newly generated neurons pass through a series of well-defined developmental stages, which allow them to integrate into existing neuronal circuits. After exit from the cell cycle, postmitotic neurons undergo neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis and synaptic maturation and plasticity. Lack of a global metabolic analysis during early cortical neuronal development led us to explore the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biology during ex vivo differentiation of primary cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we observed a huge increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function were correlated with the upregulation of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, TFAM and PGC-1α. Concomitant with mitochondrial biogenesis, we observed an increase in glucose metabolism during neuronal differentiation, which was linked to an increase in glucose uptake and enhanced GLUT3 mRNA expression and platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKp) protein expression. In addition, glutamate-glutamine metabolism was also increased during the differentiation of cortical neurons. We identified PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling as a critical regulator role of energy metabolism in neurons. Selective pharmacological inhibition of these metabolic pathways indicate existence of metabolic checkpoint that need to be satisfied in order to allow neuronal differentiation.

  15. Noise effect in metabolic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Yan, Li; Zheng-Wei, Xie; Tong, Chen; Qi, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Constraint-based models such as flux balance analysis (FBA) are a powerful tool to study biological metabolic networks. Under the hypothesis that cells operate at an optimal growth rate as the result of evolution and natural selection, this model successfully predicts most cellular behaviours in growth rate. However, the model ignores the fact that cells can change their cellular metabolic states during evolution, leaving optimal metabolic states unstable. Here, we consider all the cellular processes that change metabolic states into a single term 'noise', and assume that cells change metabolic states by randomly walking in feasible solution space. By simulating a state of a cell randomly walking in the constrained solution space of metabolic networks, we found that in a noisy environment cells in optimal states tend to travel away from these points. On considering the competition between the noise effect and the growth effect in cell evolution, we found that there exists a trade-off between these two effects. As a result, the population of the cells contains different cellular metabolic states, and the population growth rate is at suboptimal states. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  17. Nutrigenetics of the lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that lipid metabolism is a cornerstone in the development of the commonest important chronic diseases worldwide, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome. In this regard, the area of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is one of the areas in which the understanding of the development and progression of those metabolic disorders has been studied in greater depth. Thus, growing evidence has demonstrated that while universal recommendations might be appropriate for the general population, in this area there is great variability among individuals, related to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Moreover, the interaction between genetic and dietary components has helped in understanding this variability. Therefore, with further study into the interaction between the most important genetic markers or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and diet, it may be possible to understand the variability in lipid metabolism, which could lead to an increase in the use of personalized nutrition as the best support to combat metabolic disorders. This review discusses some of the evidence in which candidate SNPs can affect the key players of lipid metabolism and how their phenotypic manifestations can be modified by dietary intake. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  19. Sphingolipid metabolism diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2006-12-01

    Human diseases caused by alterations in the metabolism of sphingolipids or glycosphingolipids are mainly disorders of the degradation of these compounds. The sphingolipidoses are a group of monogenic inherited diseases caused by defects in the system of lysosomal sphingolipid degradation, with subsequent accumulation of non-degradable storage material in one or more organs. Most sphingolipidoses are associated with high mortality. Both, the ratio of substrate influx into the lysosomes and the reduced degradative capacity can be addressed by therapeutic approaches. In addition to symptomatic treatments, the current strategies for restoration of the reduced substrate degradation within the lysosome are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), cell-mediated therapy (CMT) including bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and cell-mediated "cross correction", gene therapy, and enzyme-enhancement therapy with chemical chaperones. The reduction of substrate influx into the lysosomes can be achieved by substrate reduction therapy. Patients suffering from the attenuated form (type 1) of Gaucher disease and from Fabry disease have been successfully treated with ERT.

  20. Physics of metabolic organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin

    2017-03-01

    We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.

  1. The metabolism of biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.; Aarbakke, J.; Scheline, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolic disposition of 14 C-biphenyl in the rat was studied by liquid scintillation counting. The rats were given an oral dose of 14 C-biphenyl (100 mg/kg, 0.7-1.0 μci) and the total excretion of radioactivity after 96 hrs was 92.2% of the dose. Urinary excretion accounted for 84.8% and faecal excretion for 7.3% of the dose. Most of this radioactivity, 75.8% and 5.8% respectively, was excreted within 24 hrs. Only trace amounts of 14 CO 2 were detected in the expired air and 0.6% of the dose was found to be still present in the rats 96 hrs after biphenyl administration. Extraction and fractionation of the 24 hrs urine samples showed that the largest fraction (nearly 30% of the dose) consisted of conjugated phenolic metabolites. Acidic metabolites accounted for a quarter of the dose and the low levels of expired 14 CO 2 indicated that these were not products resulting from extensive degradation and decarboxylation. (author)

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, C.R.; Lovell, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Radiolabeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14 C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U- 14 C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14 C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14 C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14 C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  3. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon-producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Ottolini, Matteo; Raje, Vidisha; Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G; Harris, Thurl E; Patel, Manoj K; Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake-lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide-expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.

  4. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  5. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  6. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  7. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  8. The metabolic response of Candida albicans to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Li; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Bôas, Silas G

    2012-12-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule (QSM) produced, and sensed, by the polymorphic fungus, Candida albicans. This cell-to-cell communication molecule is known to suppress the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Despite many studies investigating the signalling mechanisms by which QSMs influence the morphogenesis of C. albicans, the downstream metabolic effect of these signalling pathways in response to farnesol-mediated morphogenesis remains obscure. Here, we have used metabolomics to investigate the metabolic response of C. albicans upon exposure to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions. We have found a general up-regulation of central carbon metabolic pathways when hyphal formation was suppressed by farnesol evidenced by a considerably larger number of central carbon metabolic intermediates detected under this condition at an overall lower intracellular level. By combining the metabolic profiles from farnesol-exposed cells with previous metabolomics data for C. albicans undergoing morphogenesis, we have identified several metabolic pathways that are likely to be associated with the morphogenetic process of C. albicans, as well as metabolic pathways such as those involved in lipid metabolism that appeared to be specifically affected by farnesol. Therefore, our results provide important new insights into the metabolic role of farnesol in C. albicans metabolism. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mathematical modeling of cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2018-04-01

    Systemic approaches are needed and useful for the study of the very complex issue of cancer. Modeling has a central position in these systemic approaches. Metabolic reprogramming is nowadays acknowledged as an essential hallmark of cancer. Mathematical modeling could contribute to a better understanding of cancer metabolic reprogramming and to identify new potential ways of therapeutic intervention. Herein, I review several alternative approaches to metabolic modeling and their current and future impact in oncology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Chronic mild inflammation links obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, M; Polák, J; Kraml, P; Dlouhý, P; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation is relatively new concept in metabolic medicine. This concept describes the relations between the inflammation and adipose tissue, insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Macrophages and lymphocytes deposed in adipose tissue produce proinflammatory cytokines which directly or through the CRP liver secretion are targeting endothelial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of Langerhans islets of pancreas. The dysfunction of these cells follows often further disturbances and in case of beta cells - the cell death. The connection between the adipose tissue insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes was earlier described with endocrine and metabolic descriptors. The concept of chronic low grade inflammation creates also another description of multilateral connections in metabolic syndome. The salicylates and the drugs related to them seem to have some glucose lowering properties. The recent development in the field ofchronic low grade inflammation represents also certain therapeutic hope for antiinflammatory intervention in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Study of collagen metabolism after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xulan; Wu Shiliang; Zhang Xueguang; Chen Liesong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of collagen metabolism and it's regulation after β radiation. Method: The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 was tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. Results: After exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. Conclusion: The changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 and IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  12. Computing autocatalytic sets to unravel inconsistencies in metabolic network reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, R.; Waschina, S.; Boettger-Schmidt, D.

    2015-01-01

    , the method we report represents a powerful tool to identify inconsistencies in large-scale metabolic networks. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The method is available as source code on http://users.minet.uni-jena.de/ approximately m3kach/ASBIG/ASBIG.zip. CONTACT: christoph.kaleta@uni-jena.de SUPPLEMENTARY...... by inherent inconsistencies and gaps. RESULTS: Here we present a novel method to validate metabolic network reconstructions based on the concept of autocatalytic sets. Autocatalytic sets correspond to collections of metabolites that, besides enzymes and a growth medium, are required to produce all biomass...... components in a metabolic model. These autocatalytic sets are well-conserved across all domains of life, and their identification in specific genome-scale reconstructions allows us to draw conclusions about potential inconsistencies in these models. The method is capable of detecting inconsistencies, which...

  13. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular metabolic deficiency in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Mei; Huang, Han-Chang; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2012-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The pathology of AD includes amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, as well as neuronal loss in specific brain regions. Increasing epidemiological and functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that global and regional disruptions in brain metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Aβ precursor protein is cleaved to produce both extracellular and intracellular Aβ, accumulation of which might interfere with the homeostasis of cellular metabolism. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that not only supply the main energy to the cell but also regulate apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction might contribute to Aβ neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize the pathways of Aβ generation and its potential neurotoxic effects on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. Effects of kinins on glucose metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, W H; Jauch, K W; Wolfe, R R; Schildberg, F W

    1990-01-01

    Current concepts of the physiological importance of the kinin/prostaglandin system view these tissue factors as part of a defense system, which protects tissues from potentially noxious factors, such as hypoxia or destructive inflammatory reactions. This kinin-triggered defense reaction includes an improvement in cellular energy metabolism. The latter is brought about in peripheral tissues by an increased availability of glucose for anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis, whereas in liver tissue, energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis are attenuated. There is evidence that such favorable effects can also be produced in man when kinins are administered systemically. Prostaglandins are most likely the second messengers of kinin-induced metabolic effects. Thus, it may be advantageous to increase the availability of kinins either by exogenous infusion or by inhibiting endogenous degradation during postoperative stress or in diseases such as diabetes mellitus, in which glucose metabolism is severely disturbed.

  16. Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Crommen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a combined disease, resulting from a hyperglycemia and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved in diabetes development, altering metabolic processes including glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, type 2 diabetes patients show a microbial dysbiosis, with reduced butyrate-producing bacteria and elevated potential pathogens compared to metabolically healthy individuals. Furthermore, probiotics are a known tool to modulate the microbiota, having a therapeutic potential. Current literature will be discussed to elucidate the complex interaction of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation leading to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, this review aims to generate a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism of potential microbial strains, which can be used as probiotics.

  17. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Cuenca, J.; González-Hernández, A.; López-Canales, O.A.; Villagrana-Zesati, J.R.; Rodríguez-Choreão, J.D.; Morín-Zaragoza, R.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; López-Canales, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10?9?10?5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-...

  18. Plant metabolic modeling: achieving new insight into metabolism and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  20. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  1. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  2. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  3. Producer flexibility answers market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry was revolutionized in the 1980s when oil became a commodity and rising prices no longer ensured profits. Alliancing, partnering, integration and operator cooperation became economic responses to the 1990s market reality. The industry has long been a bastion of free-marketeering; competition among producers and service providers continues to control prices. But new, more efficient ways of doing business control costs in an industry buffeted by stagnant prices, a prolonged period of downsizing and increasingly difficult and remote operating environments. How long the new business atmosphere will last depends on industry needs and how well things work out. But based on the successes of the immediate past and the foreseeable future, the new cross-company business practices seem destined only to multiply

  4. Process for producing a polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimura, M; Haruta, K; Matsuzaka, J; Terakado, H

    1969-02-13

    A novel polymer is produced by a novel polymerization or copolymerization process in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst or radical-forming irradiation energy to provide a monomer of the general formula CH/sub 2/=C(R/sub 1/)(COO)-(R/sub 2/OOCR/sub 3/COO)sub(n)-R/sub 2/OH wherein R/sub 1/ is hydrogen, halogen or alkyl radical containing one or two atoms; R/sub 2/ is an epoxy compound residue; R/sub 3/ is a polybasic anhydride residue; and n is an integer. This polymer: (1) enables the cross-linking reaction, (2) improves the adhesiveness of adhesives, pigments, films and coatings; (3) is adjustable for mutual solubility and affinity when blending with other solvents and resins; (4) is resistant to yellowing and mechanically stronger than the benzene nucleus of styrene; (5) improves the textile dyeing affinity, adhesiveness and dispersion of pigments, and the dimensional stability of films and sheets; (6) is suitable as a molding material of synthetic resins, adhesives and coatings because of its three dimensional cross-linking construction; (7) can control the hardness, flexibility and rigidity of the molding materials; and (8) can lower the cost of production. In an example, 10 g of the monomer of the above mentioned formula wherein n=1, R/sub 1/=CH/sub 3/, R/sub 2/=-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ is ortho-substituted benzene, and 0.1 g of benzol peroxide, are added to ampoule, sealed and polymerized at 120/sup 0/C for 2 hours. Next the contents are precipitated in a large amount of benzene to produce a polymer having a molecular weight of 9,500. The products have good dimensional stability as molding materials.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  6. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  7. Topological analysis of metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A K

    1990-12-01

    A topological approach is presented for the analysis of control and regulation in metabolic pathways. In this approach, the control structure of a metabolic pathway is represented by a weighted directed graph. From an inspection of the topology of the graph, the control coefficients of the enzymes are evaluated in a heuristic manner in terms of the enzyme elasticities. The major advantage of the topological approach is that it provides a visual framework for (1) calculating the control coefficients of the enzymes, (2) analyzing the cause-effect relationships of the individual enzymes, (3) assessing the relative importance of the enzymes in metabolic regulation, and (4) simplifying the structure of a given pathway, from a regulatory viewpoint. Results are obtained for (a) an unbranched pathway in the absence of feedback the feedforward regulation and (b) an unbranched pathway with feedback inhibition. Our formulation is based on the metabolic control theory of Kacser and Burns (1973) and Heinrich and Rapoport (1974).

  8. Neuroinflammatory basis of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-10-05

    Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  9. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  10. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  11. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis

  12. Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency. Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologies accounting for 60%-75% cases. Other important causes include postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure, abdominal trauma, drug toxicity, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown (idiopathic pancreatitis. Metabolic conditions giving rise to pancreatitis are less common, accounting for 5%-10% cases. The causes include hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, and Wilson′s disease. The episodes of pancreatitis tend to be more severe. In cases of metabolic pancreatitis, over and above the standard routine management of pancreatitis, careful management of the underlying metabolic abnormalities is of paramount importance. If not treated properly, it leads to recurrent life-threatening bouts of acute pancreatitis. We hereby review the pathogenesis and management of various causes of metabolic pancreatitis.

  13. B-12 vitamin metabolism disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriciova, K.; Bzduch, V.; Behulova, D.; Skodova, J.; Holesova, D.; Ostrozlikova, M.; Schmidtova, K.; Kozich, V.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 – cobalamin (Cbl) is a water soluble vitamin, which is synthesized by lower organisms. It cannot be synthesized by plants and higher organisms. Problem in the metabolic pathway of Cbl can be caused by its deficiency or by the deficiency of its last metabolites – adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Both reasons are presented by errors in the homocysteine and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Clinical symptoms of the Cbl metabolism disorders are: different neurological disorders, changes in haematological status (megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia), symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea) and changes in the immune system. In the article the authors describe the causes of Cbl metabolism disorders, its different diagnosis and treatment. They introduce the group of patients with these disorders, who were taken care of in the I st Paediatric Department of University Children Hospital for the last 5 years. (author)

  14. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Human Drug Metabolism, An Introduction, Second Edition provides an accessible introduction to the subject and will be particularly invaluable to those who already have some understanding of the life sciences...

  15. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  16. Metabolic Responses to Weight Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Nelson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Editor's Note, The ability to lift heavy loads while performing multiple repetitions is not only highly correlated with muscle mass or the total number actomyosin interactions, but also metabolic functions that includes substrate concentrations and by-product removal.  Muscles use adenosine triphosphate (ATP in at least three locations during exercise; to run the actomyosin interaction, operate sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps, and operate sarcolemma sodium and potassium pumps.  Weight lifting sessions are considered to be an intermittent activity that includes only a few second bursts of high force and/or velocity movements followed by rest periods of up to several minutes. Therefore, the anaerobic pathways such as the phosphagen and glycolytic systems are the initial pathways to respond due in part to the ability to match the increased rates of ATP depletion by increasing ATP production. After the initial resting ATP stores are used up, the phosphagen system starts contributing to ATP replenishment.  This system consists of reactions from the creatine kinase (CK pathway and the adenylate kinase (AK pathway.  However, the CK pathway can only work at max capacity for a short period for resting phosphocreatine (PCr concentrations are only about 4-6 times the amount of resting ATP stores.  Once the PCr concentrations are depleted, the AK reaction will begin by using two adenosine diphosphate (ADP to form one ATP and one adenosine monophosphate (AMP. Although ATP is produced in this pathway, this production of ATP does coincide with an increased concentration of AMP. This is problematic because increased AMP levels will in turn stimulate the adenylate deaminase reaction, which will produce ammonia (NH3. This conversion of AMP into NH3 will result in the muscle cell having a net loss of total adenine nucleotides available to resynthesize ATP.  Glycolysis is the next reaction in line, which increases its role in ATP replenishment as PCr

  17. Intracellular product recycling in high succinic acid producing yeast at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahl, S.A.; Bernal Martinez, C.; Zhao, Zheng; van Gulik, W.M.; Jansen, Mickel L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of succinic acid has progressed dramatically, and a series of high-producing hosts are available. At low cultivation pH and high titers, the product transport can become bidirectional, i.e. the acid is reentering

  18. [Endocrinological diseases, metabolic diseases, sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Sexuality is regularly evaluated in media surveys. Relations between sexual problems and some chronic pathologies as diabetes or metabolic syndrome have been brought to light. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest. Hormones play an important role in sexual function and relation between hormonal status and metabolic data are now well established. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Evolution of metabolic network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonchev Danail

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of metabolic networks across species is a key to understanding how evolutionary pressures shape these networks. By selecting taxa representative of different lineages or lifestyles and using a comprehensive set of descriptors of the structure and complexity of their metabolic networks, one can highlight both qualitative and quantitative differences in the metabolic organization of species subject to distinct evolutionary paths or environmental constraints. Results We used a novel representation of metabolic networks, termed network of interacting pathways or NIP, to focus on the modular, high-level organization of the metabolic capabilities of the cell. Using machine learning techniques we identified the most relevant aspects of cellular organization that change under evolutionary pressures. We considered the transitions from prokarya to eukarya (with a focus on the transitions among the archaea, bacteria and eukarya, from unicellular to multicellular eukarya, from free living to host-associated bacteria, from anaerobic to aerobic, as well as the acquisition of cell motility or growth in an environment of various levels of salinity or temperature. Intuitively, we expect organisms with more complex lifestyles to have more complex and robust metabolic networks. Here we demonstrate for the first time that such organisms are not only characterized by larger, denser networks of metabolic pathways but also have more efficiently organized cross communications, as revealed by subtle changes in network topology. These changes are unevenly distributed among metabolic pathways, with specific categories of pathways being promoted to more central locations as an answer to environmental constraints. Conclusions Combining methods from graph theory and machine learning, we have shown here that evolutionary pressures not only affects gene and protein sequences, but also specific details of the complex wiring of functional modules

  20. Energy metabolism in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic function is controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is converted into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is subsequently oxidized in the mitochondria to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and/or cholesterol esters in hepatocytes. These complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as very low-density lipoprotein particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source for endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue, resulting in release of nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in hepatic mitochondria though β-oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver energy metabolism is tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal signals. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis but suppresses gluconeogenesis, and glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze key steps of metabolic pathways, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  1. Drug treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabas, Velimir

    2013-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Epilepsy and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling. In this review, we will discuss how astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy leads to distortion of key metabolic and biochemical mechanisms. Dysfunctional glutamate metabolism in astrocytes can directly contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability. Closure of astrocyte intercellular gap junction coupling as observed early during epileptogenesis limits activity-dependent trafficking of energy metabolites, but also impairs clearance of the extracellular space from accumulation of K + and glutamate. Dysfunctional astrocytes also increase the metabolism of adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP degradation that broadly inhibits energy-consuming processes as an evolutionary adaptation to conserve energy. Due to the critical role of astroglial energy homeostasis in the control of neuronal excitability, metabolic therapeutic approaches that prevent the utilization of glucose might represent a potent antiepileptic strategy. In particular, high fat low carbohydrate "ketogenic diets" as well as inhibitors of glycolysis and lactate metabolism are of growing interest for the therapy of epilepsy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  5. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  6. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  7. Patchoulol Production with Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Henke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism. In this study, systematic metabolic engineering enabled construction of a patchoulol producing C. glutamicum strain by applying the following strategies: (i construction of a farnesyl pyrophosphate-producing platform strain by combining genomic deletions with heterologous expression of ispA from Escherichia coli; (ii prevention of carotenoid-like byproduct formation; (iii overproduction of limiting enzymes from the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP-pathway to increase precursor supply; and (iv heterologous expression of the plant patchoulol synthase gene PcPS from Pogostemon cablin. Additionally, a proof of principle liter-scale fermentation with a two-phase organic overlay-culture medium system for terpenoid capture was performed. To the best of our knowledge, the patchoulol titers demonstrated here are the highest reported to date with up to 60 mg L−1 and volumetric productivities of up to 18 mg L−1 d−1.

  8. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roze Ludmila V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine; we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1 Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2 VeA coordinates the

  9. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans metabolism: from genome sequence to industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Robert

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a major participant in consortia of microorganisms used for the industrial recovery of copper (bioleaching or biomining. It is a chemolithoautrophic, γ-proteobacterium using energy from the oxidation of iron- and sulfur-containing minerals for growth. It thrives at extremely low pH (pH 1–2 and fixes both carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere. It solubilizes copper and other metals from rocks and plays an important role in nutrient and metal biogeochemical cycling in acid environments. The lack of a well-developed system for genetic manipulation has prevented thorough exploration of its physiology. Also, confusion has been caused by prior metabolic models constructed based upon the examination of multiple, and sometimes distantly related, strains of the microorganism. Results The genome of the type strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was sequenced and annotated to identify general features and provide a framework for in silico metabolic reconstruction. Earlier models of iron and sulfur oxidation, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, inorganic ion uptake, and amino acid metabolism are confirmed and extended. Initial models are presented for central carbon metabolism, anaerobic metabolism (including sulfur reduction, hydrogen metabolism and nitrogen fixation, stress responses, DNA repair, and metal and toxic compound fluxes. Conclusion Bioinformatics analysis provides a valuable platform for gene discovery and functional prediction that helps explain the activity of A. ferrooxidans in industrial bioleaching and its role as a primary producer in acidic environments. An analysis of the genome of the type strain provides a coherent view of its gene content and metabolic potential.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.M.; Cho, S.S.; Lee, K.-H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y.S.; Kim, B.-T.; Kim, S.E.; Kwon, J.C.; Na, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the third most common cause of dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neuro behavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patients with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. Methods: We analyzed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Results: Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral pre-motor area was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical and neuropsychological features of FTLD syndromes. Conclusion: These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD

  11. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic flux analysis of heterotrophic growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette R Boyle

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of knowledge available for C. reinhardtii, the central metabolic fluxes of growth on acetate have not yet been determined. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA was used to determine and quantify the metabolic pathways of primary metabolism in C. reinhardtii cells grown under heterotrophic conditions with acetate as the sole carbon source. Isotopic labeling patterns of compartment specific biomass derived metabolites were used to calculate the fluxes. It was found that acetate is ligated with coenzyme A in the three subcellular compartments (cytosol, mitochondria and plastid included in the model. Two citrate synthases were found to potentially be involved in acetyl-coA metabolism; one localized in the mitochondria and the other acting outside the mitochondria. Labeling patterns demonstrate that Acetyl-coA synthesized in the plastid is directly incorporated in synthesis of fatty acids. Despite having a complete TCA cycle in the mitochondria, it was also found that a majority of the malate flux is shuttled to the cytosol and plastid where it is converted to oxaloacetate providing reducing equivalents to these compartments. When compared to predictions by flux balance analysis, fluxes measured with 13C-MFA were found to be suboptimal with respect to biomass yield; C. reinhardtii sacrifices biomass yield to produce ATP and reducing equivalents.

  13. Metabolic Profiling in Patients with Pneumonia on Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliffe, David; Jiménez, Beatriz; Veselkov, Kirill; Holmes, Elaine; Gordon, Anthony C

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features and investigations lack predictive value when diagnosing pneumonia, especially when patients are ventilated and when patients develop ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). New tools to aid diagnosis are important to improve outcomes. This pilot study examines the potential for metabolic profiling to aid the diagnosis in critical care. In this prospective observational study ventilated patients with brain injuries or pneumonia were recruited in the intensive care unit and serum samples were collected soon after the start of ventilation. Metabolic profiles were produced using 1D 1 H NMR spectra. Metabolic data were compared using multivariate statistical techniques including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). We recruited 15 patients with pneumonia and 26 with brain injuries, seven of whom went on to develop VAP. Comparison of metabolic profiles using OPLS-DA differentiated those with pneumonia from those with brain injuries (R 2 Y=0.91, Q 2 Y=0.28, p=0.02) and those with VAP from those without (R 2 Y=0.94, Q 2 Y=0.27, p=0.05). Metabolites that differentiated patients with pneumonia included lipid species, amino acids and glycoproteins. Metabolic profiling shows promise to aid in the diagnosis of pneumonia in ventilated patients and may allow a more timely diagnosis and better use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  15. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Maren R; Lloyd, K C Kent; Cline, Gary W; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-01

    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community's needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses.

  16. The anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, V S

    1992-10-09

    The degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria is now known to be an important mechanism of bioremediation. In an experimental study, a mixed phototrophic culture was found to metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation on a benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate medium for 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Radioisotopic studies showed [sup 14]C-3-chlorobenzoate was converted by the isolate to [sup 14]CO[sub 2] and cell biomass in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a cosubstrate red light. Cyclohexane carboxylate was able to replace the cosubstrate, benzoate. The isolate also metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of pimelic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium succinate; however, the metabolic rate was reduced. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated the intracellular presence of 3-chlorobenzoate and benzoyl-CoA. Cell-free extracts produced benzoate and benzoyl-CoA. A probable route of 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism via dehalogenation followed by steps similar to the benzoate reductive ring fission pathway is suggested. Comparison of kinetic coefficients showed a higher affinity of the isolate for benzoate. Isolates from representative samples of various freshwater and wastewater ecosystems indicated widespread ecological distribution of R. palustris and the common occurrence of the 3-chlorobenzoate metabolic phenotype. R. palustris was found to grow in mixed anaerobic cultures and retained its 3-chlorobenzoate degradation property. 91 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Investigation of cerebral metabolism by positron CT in Japanese following musical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Naotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic responses to Japanese and Western instrumental music were examined using 11 C-glucose and positron CT. Eight right-handed subjects were studied in both Japanese and Western music-stimulated states. Biaural musical stimulation with a Japanese instrument, the 'shakuhachi', produced diffuse metabolic changes in the left temporal lobe in all subjects. Biaural musical stimulation with a Western instrument, the 'violin', produced metabolic changes in the right temporal lobe in 3 subjects, changes in the left in 4, and changes on both sides in one. It was considered previously that all musical stimulation led to hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere of human beings. However, the present results indicated that Japanese music produced activation of the left hemisphere in Japanese. On the other hand, Western music produced right hemispheric hypermetabolism in Japanese with no emotion. The laterality of the hemisphere stimulated by Western music was apparently incidentally changed according to the state of mind the Japanese subjects. (author)

  18. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  19. Metabolic syndrome: clinical concept and molecular basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia and is a common basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, a practical definition is needed. A worldwide definition that considers increased waist circumference as an essential component has been settled. Visceral fat locates upstream of the liver. Free fatty acids and glycerol derived from visceral fat reach the liver and stimulate lipoprotein synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively. The adipose tissue produces a variety of bioactive substances conceptualized as 'adipocytokines'. Overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tumor necrosis factor- seems to relate to the thrombotic and inflammatory tendency. On the other hand, adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities, is reduced in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In Japan, the waist circumference criterion based on visceral fat accumulation has been adopted. The concept of this syndrome has been widely publicized, and health promotion programs based on the concept have commenced in various areas of the country. Such 'Adipo-Do-It' movement is an incentive to encourage physical exercise to reduce visceral fat and is a big challenge to prevent life-style-related diseases and CVD.

  20. Extracellular DNA metabolism in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eChimileski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA is found in all environments and is a dynamic component of the micro-bial ecosystem. Microbial cells produce and interact with extracellular DNA through many endogenous mechanisms. Extracellular DNA is processed and internalized for use as genetic information and as a major source of macronutrients, and plays several key roles within prokaryotic biofilms. Hypersaline sites contain some of the highest extracellular DNA con-centrations measured in nature–a potential rich source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for halophilic microorganisms. We conducted DNA growth studies for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii DS2 and show that this model Halobacteriales strain is capable of using exogenous double-stranded DNA as a nutrient. Further experiments with varying medium composition, DNA concentration and DNA types revealed that DNA is utilized primarily as a phosphorus source, that growth on DNA is concentration-dependent and that DNA isolated from different sources is metabolized selectively, with a bias against highly divergent methylated DNA sources. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that labeled DNA colocalized with Haloferax volcanii cells. The gene Hvo_1477 was also identified using a comparative genomic approach as a factor likely to be involved in extracellular DNA processing at the cell surface, and deletion of Hvo_1477 created an H. volcanii strain deficient in its ability to grow on extracellular DNA. Widespread distribution of Hvo_1477 homologs in archaea suggests metabolism of extracellular DNA may be of broad ecological and physiological relevance in this domain of life.

  1. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  2. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  3. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  4. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  5. BAD-dependent regulation of fuel metabolism and K(ATP) channel activity confers resistance to epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N

    2012-05-24

    Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phosphoregulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the K(ATP) channel, implicating the BAD-K(ATP) axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Apr 13,2017 What are the symptoms ... Syndrome? This content was last reviewed August 2016. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  7. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

  8. Optimization of lysine metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang

    ,000,000 tons. The aim of this project is to optimize the yield of lysine in C. glutamicum using metabolic engineering strategies. According to a genome scale model of C. glutamicum, theoretically there is much room for increasing the lysine yield (Kjeldsen and Nielsen 2009). Lysine synthesis requires NADPH......Commercial pig and poultry production use the essential amino acid lysine as a feed additive with the purpose of optimizing the feed utilization. Lysine is produced by a fermentation process involving either Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli. The global annual production is around 1...... the project intends to eliminate. PGI catalyzes the conversion of alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate just downstream of the branch in the glycolysis, but it also catalyzes the reverse reaction. It is unknown whether up- or down-regulation of the pgi is required to increase the flux through...

  9. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  10. Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced gly...

  11. Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polacheck, I; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus, C. neoformans and C. bacillisporus, utilized creatinine as a source of nitrogen but not of carbon. Chromatographic and autoradiographic studies suggest that creatinine metabolism in both species involves a single step resulting in the production of methylhydantoin and ammonia. The enzyme responsible for this step, creatinine deiminase, was produced by the cells only in the presence of creatinine in both species. The synthesis of creatinine deiminase was...

  12. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiaoting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. Results A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. Conclusions In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as “synthetic metabolic engineering”. Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be

  13. Targeting Lipid Metabolic Reprogramming as Anticancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Ji-Young; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and survival, and this metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Lipid metabolism is pivotal in cellular process that converts nutrients into energy, building blocks for membrane biogenesis and the generation of signaling molecules. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells show alterations in different aspects of lipid metabolism. The changes in lipid metabolism of cancer cells c...

  14. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2015-11-10

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis fueled by systems biology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B. subtilis and highlight current gaps in our understanding of global metabolism and global pathway engineering in this organism. We also propose future perspectives in the systems biology of B. subtilis and suggest ways that this approach can be used to guide metabolic engineering. Specifically, although hundreds of regulatory events have been identified or inferred via systems biology approaches, systematic investigation of the functionality of these events in vivo has lagged, thereby preventing the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms and further rational pathway engineering. In metabolic engineering, ignoring the engineering of multilayer regulation hinders metabolic flux redistribution. Post-translational engineering, allosteric engineering, and dynamic pathway analyses and control will also contribute to the modulation and control of the metabolism of engineered B. subtilis, ultimately producing the desired cellular traits. We hope this review will aid metabolic engineers in making full use of available systems biology datasets and approaches for the design and perfection of microbial cell factories through global metabolism optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  17. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means...

  18. Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone F. Bathen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49 were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01, irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01, indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors.

  19. Energy Metabolism Impairment in Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevoli, Sabina; Favoni, Valentina; Cortelli, Pietro

    2018-06-22

    Migraine is a common disabling neurological disorder which is characterised by recurring headache associated with a variety of sensory and autonomic symptoms. The pathophysiology of migraine remains not entirely understood, although many mechanisms involving the central and peripheral nervous system are now becoming clear. In particular, it is widely accepted that migraine is associated with energy metabolic impairment of the brain. The purpose of this review is to present an update overview of the energy metabolism involvement in the migraine pathophysiology. Several biochemical, morphological and magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have confirmed the presence of energy production deficiency together with an increment of energy consumption in migraine patients. An increment of energy demand over a certain threshold create metabolic and biochemical preconditions for the onset of the migraine attack. The defect of oxidative energy metabolism in migraine is generalized. It remains to be determined if the mitochondrial deficit in migraine is primary or secondary. Riboflavin and Co-Enzyme Q10, both physiologically implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain functioning, are effective in migraine prophylaxis, supporting the hypothesis that improving brain energy metabolism may reduce the susceptibility to migraine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Insights into Brain Glycogen Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines Li; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Cocaign, Angélique; Léger, Thibaut; Woffendin, Gary; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Etchebest, Catherine; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Brain glycogen metabolism plays a critical role in major brain functions such as learning or memory consolidation. However, alteration of glycogen metabolism and glycogen accumulation in the brain contributes to neurodegeneration as observed in Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism, catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycogen mobilization. Moreover, the allosteric regulation of the three GP isozymes (muscle, liver, and brain) by metabolites and phosphorylation, in response to hormonal signaling, fine-tunes glycogenolysis to fulfill energetic and metabolic requirements. Whereas the structures of muscle and liver GPs have been known for decades, the structure of brain GP (bGP) has remained elusive despite its critical role in brain glycogen metabolism. Here, we report the crystal structure of human bGP in complex with PEG 400 (2.5 Å) and in complex with its allosteric activator AMP (3.4 Å). These structures demonstrate that bGP has a closer structural relationship with muscle GP, which is also activated by AMP, contrary to liver GP, which is not. Importantly, despite the structural similarities between human bGP and the two other mammalian isozymes, the bGP structures reveal molecular features unique to the brain isozyme that provide a deeper understanding of the differences in the activation properties of these allosteric enzymes by the allosteric effector AMP. Overall, our study further supports that the distinct structural and regulatory properties of GP isozymes contribute to the different functions of muscle, liver, and brain glycogen. PMID:27402852

  1. Autophagic pathways and metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S; Singh, R; Cuervo, A M

    2010-10-01

    Autophagy is an essential intracellular process that mediates degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Autophagy was initially identified for its role as alternative source of energy when nutrients are scarce but, in recent years, a previously unknown role for this degradative pathway in the cellular response to stress has gained considerable attention. In this review, we focus on the novel findings linking autophagic function with metabolic stress resulting either from proteins or lipids. Proper autophagic activity is required in the cellular defense against proteotoxicity arising in the cytosol and also in the endoplasmic reticulum, where a vast amount of proteins are synthesized and folded. In addition, autophagy contributes to mobilization of intracellular lipid stores and may be central to lipid metabolism in certain cellular conditions. In this review, we focus on the interrelation between autophagy and different types of metabolic stress, specifically the stress resulting from the presence of misbehaving proteins within the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum and the stress following a lipogenic challenge. We also comment on the consequences that chronic exposure to these metabolic stressors could have on autophagic function and on how this effect may underlie the basis of some common metabolic disorders. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  3. Mass-producing B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-06-15

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the Z resonance. Experiments at

  4. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  5. Metabolic engineering of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 for curdlan production from cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Yong-Il; Chen, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Curdlan is a commercial polysaccharide made by fermentation of Agrobacterium sp. Its anticipated expansion to larger volume markets demands improvement in its production efficiency. Metabolic engineering for strain improvement has so far been limited due to the lack of genetic tools. This research aimed to identify strong promoters and to engineer a strain that converts cellobiose efficiently to curdlan. Three strong promoters were identified and were used to install an energy-efficient cellobiose phosphorolysis mechanism in a curdlan-producing strain. The engineered strains were shown with enhanced ability to utilize cellobiose, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in titer. The availability of metabolically engineered strain capable of producing β-glucan from cellobiose paves the way for its production from cellulose. The identified native promoters from Agrobacterium open up opportunities for further metabolic engineering for improved production of curdlan and other products. The success shown here marks the first such metabolic engineering effort in this microbe.

  6. Protein engineering for metabolic engineering: current and next-generation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein engineering in the context of metabolic engineering is increasingly important to the field of industrial biotechnology. As the demand for biologically-produced food, fuels, chemicals, food additives, and pharmaceuticals continues to grow, the ability to design and modify proteins to accomplish new functions will be required to meet the high productivity demands for the metabolism of engineered organisms. This article reviews advances of selecting, modeling, and engineering proteins to improve or alter their activity. Some of the methods have only recently been developed for general use and are just beginning to find greater application in the metabolic engineering community. We also discuss methods of generating random and targeted diversity in proteins to generate mutant libraries for analysis. Recent uses of these techniques to alter cofactor use, produce non-natural amino acids, alcohols, and carboxylic acids, and alter organism phenotypes are presented and discussed as examples of the successful engineering of proteins for metabolic engineering purposes. PMID:23589443

  7. Incomplete metabolism of phytoestrogens by gut microbiota from children under the age of three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Peirotén, Ángela; Medina, Margarita; Landete, José Maria

    2018-05-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with structural and functional similarities to mammalian oestrogens. The aim of this work was to study the metabolism of phytoestrogens by children's intestinal microbiota and to compare it with previous results in adults. Faecal samples of 24 healthy children were subjected to phytoestrogen fermentation assay. Only one child produced equol, while O-desmethylangolensin was found in all. Urolithin production was detected in 14 children and enterolactone in 10. Further comparison with the metabolism of phytoestrogens by adult intestinal microbiota reflected that glycitein, dihydrogenistein, urolithins D and E, enterolactone, secoisolariciresinol and arctigenin were the most important metabolites differentiating between adult and child microbial gut metabolism. Although the child intestinal microbiota showed the ability to metabolise isoflavones, ellagitannins and lignans to a certain extent, it generally showed a reduced metabolism of phytoestrogens, with a lack of 5-hydroxy equol and enterodiol, and less urolithins and enterolactone producers.

  8. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  9. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Johnson, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane. 106 refs

  10. Novel genes in LDL metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole-exome sequencing of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 'exome chip' studies pointing to novel genes in LDL metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic loci for ATP-binding cassette......-exome sequencing and 'exome chip' studies have additionally suggested several novel genes in LDL metabolism including insulin-induced gene 2, signal transducing adaptor family member 1, lysosomal acid lipase A, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 5 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2. Most...... of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. SUMMARY: GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol...

  11. Flux networks in metabolic graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P B; Queiros, S M Duarte; Jones, J L

    2009-01-01

    A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms

  12. Integrating the protein and metabolic engineering toolkits for next-generation chemical biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Christopher M; De Mey, Marjan; Jones Prather, Kristala L; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2013-04-19

    Through microbial engineering, biosynthesis has the potential to produce thousands of chemicals used in everyday life. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are fields driven by the manipulation of genes, genetic regulatory systems, and enzymatic pathways for developing highly productive microbial strains. Fundamentally, it is the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes themselves that dictate flux through a biosynthetic pathway toward the product of interest. As metabolic engineers target sophisticated secondary metabolites, there has been little recognition of the reduced catalytic activity and increased substrate/product promiscuity of the corresponding enzymes compared to those of central metabolism. Thus, fine-tuning these enzymatic characteristics through protein engineering is paramount for developing high-productivity microbial strains for secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the importance of protein engineering for advancing metabolic engineering of secondary metabolism pathways. This pathway integrated enzyme optimization can enhance the collective toolkit of microbial engineering to shape the future of chemical manufacturing.

  13. 'Biomoleculas': cellular metabolism didactic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghi, M L; Novella, L P; Siebenlist, M R

    2007-01-01

    'Biomoleculas' is a software that deals with topics such as the digestion, cellular metabolism and excretion of nutrients. It is a pleasant, simple and didactic guide, made by and for students. In this program, each biomolecule (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) is accompanied until its degradation and assimilation by crossing and interrelating the different metabolic channels to finally show the destination of the different metabolites formed and the way in which these are excreted. It is used at present as a teaching-learning process tool by the chair of Physiology and Biophysics at the Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios

  14. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  15. Incidence and Major Metabolic Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved 300 (92 males and 208 females) type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted at the Tamale Teaching/Regional Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) criteria. The incidence of the ...

  16. Substrate metabolism in the metabolic response to injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    In healthy subjects the metabolic response to starvation invokes regulatory mechanisms aimed at conservation of protein mass. This response is characterized by a decrease in energy expenditure and a progressive decrease in urinary N excretion. Many non-endocrine diseases induce anorexia and a

  17. Gamma radiation induced alterations in the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and enzymes in wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoo, J.V.; Suryawanshi, S.A. [Inst. of Science, Bombay (India)

    1992-07-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation (600 rads) on the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and some enzymes in wistar rat, are reported. Electron microscopic observations of endocrine pancreas revealed prominent changes in beta cells while alpha and delta cells were not much affected. Irradiation also inflicted hyperglycemia, increase in liver and muscle glycogen and decrease in insulin level. It has also increased the activity of enzymes but failed to produce significant changes in protein, lipid and mineral metabolism. (auth0008.

  18. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groza, P; Ghizari, E; Butculescu, I; Ciontescu, L; Ciuntu, L

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  19. An Integrative Approach to Energy Carbon and Redox Metabolism In Cyanobacterium Synechocystis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ross Overbeek

    2003-06-30

    The main objectives for the first year were to produce a detailed metabolic reconstruction of synechocystis sp.pcc6803 especially in interrelated arrears of photosynthesis respiration and central carbon metabolism to support a more complete understanding and modeling of this organism. Additionally, IG, Inc. provided detailed bioinformatic analysis of selected functional systems related to carbon and energy generation and utilization, and of the corresponding pathways functional roles and individual genes to support wet lab experiments by collaborators.

  20. Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totah, Rheem A; Allen, Kyle E; Sheffels, Pamela; Whittington, Dale; Kharasch, Evan D

    2007-04-01

    Methadone is administered as a racemate, although opioid activity resides in the R-enantiomer. Methadone disposition is stereoselective, with considerable unexplained variability in clearance and plasma R/S ratios. N-Demethylation of methadone in vitro is predominantly mediated by cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and somewhat by CYP2C19. This investigation evaluated stereoselectivity, models, and kinetic parameters for methadone N-demethylation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19, and the potential for interactions between enantiomers during racemate metabolism. CYP2B6 metabolism was stereoselective. CYP2C19 was less active, and stereoselectivity was opposite that for CYP2B6. CYP3A4 was not stereoselective. With all three isoforms, enantiomer N-dealkylation rates in the racemate were lower than those of (R)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (R-methadone) or (S)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (S-methadone) alone, suggesting an enantiomeric interaction and mutual metabolic inhibition. For CYP2B6, the interaction between enantiomers was stereoselective, with S-methadone as a more potent inhibitor of R-methadone N-demethylation than R-of S-methadone. In contrast, enantiomer interactions were not stereoselective with CYP2C19 or CYP3A4. For all three cytochromes P450, methadone N-demethylation was best described by two-site enzyme models with competitive inhibition. There were minor model differences between cytochromes P450 to account for stereoselectivity of metabolism and enantiomeric interactions. Changes in plasma R/S methadone ratios observed after rifampin or troleandomycin pretreatment in humans in vivo were successfully predicted by CYP2B6- but not CYP3A4-catalyzed methadone N-demethylation. CYP2B6 is a predominant catalyst of stereoselective methadone metabolism in vitro. In vivo, CYP2B6 may be a major determinant of methadone metabolism and disposition, and CYP2B6 activity and stereoselective metabolic

  1. Enhancing the Sweetness of Yoghurt through Metabolic Remodeling of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I; Curic-Bawden, Mirjana; Junge, Mette P; Janzen, Thomas; Johansen, Eric

    2016-06-15

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are used in the fermentation of milk to produce yoghurt. These species normally metabolize only the glucose moiety of lactose, secreting galactose and producing lactic acid as the main metabolic end product. We used multiple serial selection steps to isolate spontaneous mutants of industrial strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that secreted glucose rather than galactose when utilizing lactose as a carbon source. Sequencing revealed that the S. thermophilus strains had mutations in the galKTEM promoter, the glucokinase gene, and genes encoding elements of the glucose/mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS). These strains metabolize galactose but are unable to phosphorylate glucose internally or via the PTS. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants had mutations in genes of the glucose/mannose PTS and in the pyruvate kinase gene. These strains cannot grow on exogenous glucose but are proficient at metabolizing internal glucose released from lactose by β-galactosidase. The resulting strains can be combined to ferment milk, producing yoghurt with no detectable lactose, moderate levels of galactose, and high levels of glucose. Since glucose tastes considerably sweeter than either lactose or galactose, the sweetness of the yoghurt is perceptibly enhanced. These strains were produced without the use of recombinant DNA technology and can be used for the industrial production of yoghurt with enhanced intrinsic sweetness and low residual levels of lactose. Based on a good understanding of the physiology of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, we were able, by selecting spontaneously occurring mutants, to change dramatically the metabolic products secreted into the growth medium. These mutants consume substantially more of the lactose, metabolize some of the galactose, and secrete the remaining galactose

  2. The establishment of animal model of radiation-skin-burn and its changes of tissue metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xingan; Wu Shiliang; Wang Xiuzhen; Zhou Yinghui; Feng Yizhong; Tian Ye; Peng Miao

    2001-01-01

    The biochemistry metabolic changes of the tissues induced by 60 Co γ radiation or by accelerator β radiation on the animal local tissues were observed. The experiment results were shown as follows: (1) 60 Co γ radiation can induce the metabolic changes of the local tissue and led to ulcer or death. (2) Accelerator β radiation at the same dose of γ radiation can only produce ulcer but no death. (3) The biochemistry metabolic changes of the tissues induced by 60 Co γ radiation are similar to that by β radiation, but as a radiation-burn animal model, the latter is better

  3. Metabolic development of the porcine placenta in response to alterations in maternal or fetal homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsey, T.G.; kasser, T.R.; Hausman, G.J.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Porcine placenta has been utilized as a model for elucidating contributions of both fetal and maternal tissues to metabolic activity of the placenta in response to a variety of stresses. Alloxan diabetes, food restriction and genetic obesity all produced alterations in placental metablolism with differences in responses of fetal and maternal placentas. Further analysis of nutrient untilization by the placenta produced dramatic differences in the partitioning of substrates by fetal and maternal tissues during placental development. Metabolic activity of maternal tissue contributed to overall placental metabolic activity to a greater degree than fetal tissue. However, experiments with in utero fetal decapitation indicated that some of differences between fetal and maternal placental metabolic activity may be due to the influence of fetal regulatory mechanisms. Maternal endometrium plays a critical role in metabolic response of uteroplacenta and thus availability of nutrients to the fetus and fetal placenta. Differences in metabolic development of fetal and maternal tissues suggested that regulation of placental metabolism may originate from fetal as well as maternal sources

  4. Improved Triacylglycerol Production in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols are used in various purposes including food applications, cosmetics, oleochemicals and biofuels. Currently the main sources for triacylglycerol are vegetable oils, and microbial triacylglycerol has been suggested as an alternative for these. Due to the low production rates and yields of microbial processes, the role of metabolic engineering has become more significant. As a robust model organism for genetic and metabolic studies, and for the natural capability to produce triacylglycerol, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 serves as an excellent organism for modelling the effects of metabolic engineering for energy molecule biosynthesis. Results Beneficial gene deletions regarding triacylglycerol production were screened by computational means exploiting the metabolic model of ADP1. Four deletions, acr1, poxB, dgkA, and a triacylglycerol lipase were chosen to be studied experimentally both separately and concurrently by constructing a knock-out strain (MT with three of the deletions. Improvements in triacylglycerol production were observed: the strain MT produced 5.6 fold more triacylglycerol (mg/g cell dry weight compared to the wild type strain, and the proportion of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased by 8-fold. Conclusions In silico predictions of beneficial gene deletions were verified experimentally. The chosen single and multiple gene deletions affected beneficially the natural triacylglycerol metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1. This study demonstrates the importance of single gene deletions in triacylglycerol metabolism, and proposes Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 as a model system for bioenergetic studies regarding metabolic engineering.

  5. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, R K

    2017-12-01

    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  6. Actionable Metabolic Pathways in Heart Failure and Cancer—Lessons From Cancer Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Karlstaedt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in cancer cell metabolism provide unprecedented opportunities for a new understanding of heart metabolism and may offer new approaches for the treatment of heart failure. Key questions driving the cancer field to understand how tumor cells reprogram metabolism and to benefit tumorigenesis are also applicable to the heart. Recent experimental and conceptual advances in cancer cell metabolism provide the cardiovascular field with the unique opportunity to target metabolism. This review compares cancer cell metabolism and cardiac metabolism with an emphasis on strategies of cellular adaptation, and how to exploit metabolic changes for therapeutic benefit.

  7. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matouš Čihák

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  8. Metabolic abnormalities in cachexia and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, M J

    2000-10-01

    An increased glucose requirement by many solid tumors produces an increased metabolic demand on the liver, resulting in an increased energy expenditure. In addition, several cytokines and tumor catabolic products have been suggested as being responsible for the depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal-muscle mass in cachexia. A sulphated glycoprotein of molecular mass 24 kDa, produced by cachexia-inducing tumors and present in the urine of cancer patients actively losing weight, has been shown to be capable of inducing direct muscle catabolism in vitro and a state of cachexia in vivo, with specific loss of the non-fat carcass mass. In vitro studies have shown the bioactivity of this proteolysis-inducing factor to be attenuated by the polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid. Preliminary clinical studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid stabilizes body weight and protein and fat reserves in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Further trials are required to confirm the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid and to determine the anticachectic activity in other types of cancer.

  9. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Puri, AW; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. (C) 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation...

  11. Iodine metabolism and food needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine is an element that is necessary for the growth and mental development of a child and for the maintenance of the activity of all cells at all ages. In this article, the author recalls the iodine sources, its metabolism and the food needs and contributions

  12. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  13. Dithiobiuret metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Porter, W.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Our main objective was to describe the metabolism of dithiobiuret (DTB) in the adult, male rat. Based on the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of urine from animals treated with [ 14 C] or [ 35 S] labeled DTB, two pathways for metabolism are proposed. One pathway is reversible and involves the oxidation of DTB to thiuret and the reduction of thiuret back to DTB. The other pathway consists of the desulfurization of DTB to monothiobiuret. The liver appears to desulfurate DTB because DTB-derived [35S] was eliminated from the liver more rapidly than [ 14 C]. The liver was the only tissue where the elimination kinetics of [ 35 S] and [ 14 C] DTB were different. DTB-derived radioactivity in urine that co-chromatographed with DTB, monothiobiuret, thiuret and sulfate was quantitated along with that of three uncharacterized metabolites. The presence of these unknown metabolites suggests that DTB metabolism is complex. The present study is the first description of the metabolic fate of DTB in the rat and serves as a starting point for determining whether DTB neurotoxicity is caused by the parent compound or a metabolite

  14. Cancer Metabolism: A Modeling Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    suggest that utilization of amino acids and lipids contributes significantly to cancer cell metabolism. Also recent progresses in our understanding of carcinogenesis have revealed that cancer is a complex disease and cannot be understood through simple investigation of genetic mutations of cancerous cells...

  15. MicroRNAs in Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara; Geiger, Julian; Madsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    roles in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, whereas miR-103 and -107 regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity. In muscle tissue a defined number of miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, mir-206) control myofiber type switch and induce myogenic differentiation programs. Similarly, in adipose tissue a defined number of mi...

  16. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  17. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  18. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  19. Modifying factors for metabolic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro

    1990-01-01

    Studies on factors which influence the metabolic parameter for calculation of radiation doses from intakes of radionuclides are very important for estimation of the doses for the general public, because the present procedures recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection is for occupationally exposed workers and the underlying metabolic and dosimetric models have been developed from studies on adult man and experiments on adult animals and from observations on radionuclides in physico-chemically simple form. Many factors have been reported to influence the metabolic parameters. Among them, the food-chain involvement of radionuclides and the age-dependence in humans and animals are most significant as environmental and physiological factor, respectively. In connection with the age-dependence of dose calculation, the ICRP started a new programme. They organized a Task Group on Age-Dependent Dose-Factors where relevant information on metabolic and biokinetic parameters are presently being reviewed for development of a set of dose factors for the following age-groups: infant, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old, and ICRP Reference Man. The first stage of the work is for age-dependent integrated organ and effective dose factors for radioisotopes of the following elements: hydrogen, carbon, iodine, cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium. (author)

  20. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.