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  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet Poor diet in infants Poor nutrition during pregnancy Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish ...

  4. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS. This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy.

  5. Fuzzy modeling for Vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; van Loon, S.L.M.; Boer, A.K.; Kaymak, U.; Scharnhorst, V.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vitamin B12 levels are not representative for actual vitamin B12 status in tissue. Instead plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels can be measured because MMA concentrations increase relatively early in the course of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA levels in plasma may also be increased

  6. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  7. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection.

  8. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 2Faculty of Dentistry, International Branch, 3Department of Internal Medicine & Endocrine and ... Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency, Folate deficiency, Homocysteinemia, Elderly population ... gastritis, intestinal malabsorption, pancreatic.

  9. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tavares Bello

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to identify the risk factors for the B12 deficit. The recognition of these variables will contribute to optimize the screening and prevention of the B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Lhermitte's sign and vitamin B12 deficiency: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Haratz, Salo; Zavala, Jorge; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Scola, Rosana Hermínia; Werneck, Lineu César

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lhermitte's sign, a classical neurological sign, is a rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim here was to report on a case of an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of Lhermitte's sign. CASE REPORT: We describe an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency who presented cognitive dysfunction, peripheral polyneuropathy and sensory ataxia, and whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of ...

  11. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  12. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf; Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B 12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T 1/2 ). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B 12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B 12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B 12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T 1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T 1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P 12 treatment (P 1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T 1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B 12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T 1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B 12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B 12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  14. [Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; Capitão, Ricardo Miguel; Sequeira Duarte, João; Azinheira, Jorge; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-10-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease, affecting up to 13.1% of the Portuguese population. In addition to the known micro and macrovascular complications, drug side effects constitute a major concern, leading to changes in the treatment guidelines, which favor safety over efficacy. Metformin is the first-line pharmacological treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, it has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in up to 30% of treated patients. The authors describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in a diabetic population and explore the possible underlying factors. Retrospective, observational study. Clinical and laboratory data of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients whose vitamin B12 status was evaluated in the last decade (2005 - 2016) were analyzed. Patients with known malabsorptive syndromes or having undergone bariatric surgery were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done and the results were considered statistically significant at p values 2.2 years and 11 ± 10.4 years of type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. These patients had a high prevalence of complications: diabetic renal disease 47.7%, neuropathy 9.2%, retinopathy 14.9%, coronary artery disease 8.4%, cerebrovascular disease 10.9%, and peripheral arterial disease 5.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (21.4% of the population and this subgroup was older (68.4 vs 65.8 years, p = 0.006), had a longer type 2 diabetes mellitus duration (13.35 vs 10.36 years; p = 0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (20.9% vs 13.3%; p = 0.005) and thyroid dysfunction (34% vs 23.7%; p = 0.002). Vitamin B12 deficiency was also more frequent in patients treated with metformin (24.7% vs 15.8%; p = 0.017), antiplatelet agents (25.4% vs 16.2%, p 26.8% vs 18.2%; p = 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, the variables associated with B12 deficiency were: metformin, hypothyroidism, age and type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. Despite the retrospective design

  15. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Haye H; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Mean age of the patients was 68±12 years and median serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide level was 1801 pg/mL (IQR 705-4335). Thirteen per cent of the patients had an LVEF >45%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level <200 pg/mL), folate deficiency (serum level <4.0 ng/mL) and iron deficiency (serum ferritin level <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with a transferrin saturation <20%) were present in 5%, 4% and 58% of the patients, respectively. No significant correlation between mean corpuscular volume and vitamin B12, folic acid or ferritin levels was observed. Lower folate levels were associated with an impaired health-related quality of life (p=0.029). During a median follow-up of 2.10 years (1.31-3.60 years), 254 subjects died. In multivariable proportional hazard models, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not associated with prognosis. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are relatively rare in patients with chronic HF. Since no significant association was observed between mean corpuscular volume and neither vitamin B12 nor folic acid levels, this cellular index should be used with caution in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with chronic HF. In contrast to iron deficiency, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not related to prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Evaluation of vitamin B 12 deficiency in various clinical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, J.A.; Alam, J.M.; Kazmi, T.; Waseem, S.; Hussain, A.; Arif, S.; Shaheen, R.; Sultana, I.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin B 12 have been associated with several clinical conditions. However no single symptom or group of symptoms can be made responsible. Reported causes of deficiency among older population are hematologic or neurological, followed by gastrointestinal and possibly vascular symptoms. The present prospective observational study was, hence, initiated to evaluate the underlying clinical condition or symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was prospective observational and carried out on 121 patients (males, n=63 and females, n=58) for the period from January 1, 2004 to January 24, 2007. Age ranges were between 16 - 70 years, and categorized as > 60 yrs and < 60 years. All blood parameters were analyzed by standardized methods on automated analyzers. The deficiency was found to be more prevalent in males and increased from 52.06% to 58.10% in individuals with vitamin B12 <150 pg/ml. Mal nourishment was noted among the most subjects and weakness and anemia were frequent clinical findings (35.55%, n=43, 14%, n=51). Other clinical conditions were neuropsychiatric. Whereas less frequent findings were paraesthesia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypertension was more prevalent in vitamin B12 deficient individuals followed by diabetes, dementia, stroke, ischemic heart disease and Parkinson's disease. (author)

  17. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  18. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. White centered retinal hemorrhages in vitamin b(12) deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Claus; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E

    2011-05-01

    To report a case of severe vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Interventional case report. A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B(12) deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  20. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  1. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. The human serum metabolome of vitamin B-12 deficiency and repletion, and associations with neurological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterize the human serum metabolome in sub-clinical vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency and repletion. A pre-post treatment study provided one injection of 10 mg B-12 to 27 community-dwelling elderly Chileans with B-12 deficiency evaluated with serum B-12, plasma homocysteine, methylmalonic acid a...

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-03-26

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient.

  4. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Red Cell Distribution Width-Platelet Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and red cell distribution widthplatelet ratio (RPR, and the variations in the parameters on vitamin B12 treatment. Methods: One hundred fifty-four patients with untreated vitamin B12 deficiency (56% men, mean age: 50 ± 12.7 years (untreated group, 86 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (62% men, mean age: 42 ± 20.7 years on vitamin B12 treatment (treated group, and 92 age- and sex-matched control group (54% men, mean age: 45 ± 15.1 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters were evaluated by the method of laser-based flow cytometric impedance, using an automated blood cell counter (ABX Pentra 120 Hematology Blood Analyzer. Results: RPR was significantly reduced in treated group compared with untreated group (4.88 ± 1.06; 6.13 ± 1.27; p0.05. Conclusion: We proposed that vitamin B12 deficiency has effects on RPR and supplementation with vitamin B12 corrects the RPR levels. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (3: 211-215

  5. Mathematical modeling of glutathione status in type 2 diabetics with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKaramshetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH are associated with anumber of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diag-nosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 andGSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoreticaldependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbonmetabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycleof the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple ‘stylized model’ that cap-tures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. Theanalysis shows – somewhat counter-intuitively – that the flux responsible forthe homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methioninecycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methioninesynthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increaseGSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSHcorrelation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfurationpathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine.We hypothesize this ‘cysteine-block’ is an essential consequence of vitaminB12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondaryeffects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  6. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency.

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... occurred following parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy. Conclusion: This case report highlights one of the neuro-psychiatric presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency .... and Occupational Health Abstract No:.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B 12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B 12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H 2 O 2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B 12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B 12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B 12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B 12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. B12 deficiency increases with age in hospitalized patients: a study on 14,904 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézière, Anthony; Audureau, Etienne; Vairelles, Stéphane; Krypciak, Sébastien; Dicko, Michèle; Monié, Marguerite; Giraudier, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is responsible for hematological, neurological, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric impairments and is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, particularly in the elderly people. In order to determine B12 status in old inpatients, a total number of 14,904 hospitalized patients in whom B12 measurements were performed in five hospitals in the Paris metropolitan area were included from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. The aims of the study were to determine whether age had an impact on B12 and folate deficiencies and to evaluate correlations between B12 and biological parameters-folate, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, homocystein (tHcy)-and age. Patients were aged 70.3±19.5 years. Low B12 concentration ( 17 µmol/L), 20.4% had low folate concentration (folate 17 µmol/L), and 4.7% of patients were both functional B12 and folate deficient. The B12 or folate deficient patients had lower mean cell volume level than nondeficient patients. Increase in mean cell volume and tHcy concentrations with age and decrease in B12, folate, and hemoglobin levels with age were observed. Frequency of functional B12 deficiency was 9.6% in patients aged 30-60 years and 14.2% in patients over 90 years. Frequency of functional folate deficiency was 9.5% in 30-60 years and 12.1% in >90 years. In inpatients, functional B12 deficiency and functional folate deficiency increase with age and are not associated with anemia or macrocytosis. False vitamin B deficiencies are frequent. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A general review on vitamin B12 deficiency with focus on the situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qutob, M. S.; Takruri, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient that is only obtained from foods of animal origin, such as meat, eggs and dairy products. Vitamin B 12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis and neurological function. Thus its deficiency can lead to several neurological symptoms such as memory loss, dizziness and in severe cases may lead to dementia. Many factors can cause or lead to vitamin B-1 2 deficiency. Among these are malabsorption, several gastron intestinal problems (i.e. celiac disease, Crobn's disease) and gastrointestinal surgeries. diagnosis of vitamin B-1 2 status depends commonly on serum vitamin B 12 which is nonspecific tool for the deficiency. Other more specific tests, which reflect true deficiency, include serum and urine methylmalonic aci de, total serum homocysteine and serum holotranscobalamin. Vitamin B 12 deficiency is a worldwide public health problem; epidemiological studies showed that its prevalence in industrialized countries ranges from 5-60% of the population depending on the used cutoff point of cobalamin level. In Jordan, many reports were published on vitamin B 12 deficiency. However, these reports gave different results of its prevalence ranging from 16-48% depending on the serum vitamin B 12 cutoff point used. A recent study showed a prevalence of true deficiency of 32.7% based on measuring both serum vitamin B 12 level and plasma methylmalonic acid. (authors).

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms occurred following parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy. Conclusion: This case report highlights one ...

  13. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cabrerizo-García

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Decreased vitamin B12 concentration does not usually result in clinical or hematological abnormalities. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia are two serious and rarely displayed consequences that appear in severe deficits. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a patient with subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe and sustained vitamin B12 deficiency. Such cases are rare nowadays and have potentially fatal consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin B12 deficiency should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis in cases of blood disorders or severe neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can avoid irreversible consequences.

  14. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

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    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Psolar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], Psolar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cobalt-vitamin B12 deficiency and the activity of methylmalonyl CoA mutase and methionine synthase in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D G; Young, P B; Kennedy, S; Scott, J M; Molloy, A M; Weir, D G; Price, J

    1995-01-01

    Cobalt deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals either a basal diet that was very low in Co (12.9-17.6 micrograms Co per kg), or the same diet supplemented with cobalt, for a total of 64 weeks. Vitamin B12 deficiency was induced, as judged by hepatic concentrations of vitamin B12 and plasma concentrations of MMA. However, the activity of holo-methylmalonyl CoA mutase was significantly reduced only in brain. This was reflected in very minor alterations in the tissue concentrations of branched chain- and odd numbered-fatty acids. The activity of holo-methionine synthase was significantly reduced in liver and brain, but there were no consequent alterations in the concentrations of phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. This study confirms that cattle are less susceptible to the effects of cobalt deficiency than sheep, and concludes that prolonged cobalt deficiency had little significant effect on tissue metabolism.

  17. Dual pathology as a result of spinal stenosis and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohammed Shakil; Rasul, Zurqa; Sell, Philip

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can confound the clinical assessment of patients presenting with features of spinal disorders. Speciality practice within spinal surgery may lead the clinician to a focus upon spinal explanations for symptoms and that belief may be reinforced by supporting imaging. In the presence of mainly sensory symptoms consideration and exclusion of non surgical causes needs to occur. This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency; the presence of dual pathology on imaging performed; the implementation of replacement therapy and their subsequent clinical response as perceived by patients. This was performed through a retrospective review of patients presenting to specialist spine out-patient clinics over a 4-year period via access to pathology reports followed by a telephone survey. 457 patients were investigated of which 8.5% were vitamin B12 deficient. 70% of patients had repeat levels and 31% continued to be deficient. 26% of these patients were not placed on any supplemental therapy. 72% of patients on treatment had self perceived improved outcomes as compared with 55% not on treatment. 73% of patients underwent MRI/CT imaging. 59% of which had evidence of spinal stenosis. In older patients with sensory symptoms, the coexistence of B12 deficiency should be considered. Detection of deficiency with consequent treatment results in better global outcomes than no treatment. Unless the correct blood test is done, the pathology will remain undetected, and patients may continue with their primary symptoms despite high-risk spinal surgical procedures.

  18. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting as Pancytopenia in Pregnancy: A Case Report

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    Idris N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia and pancytopenia. However, the incidence in pregnancy is rarely reported. We present a case of a 32-year old multigravid woman who was diagnosed with megaloblastic anaemia since 22 weeks gestation and progressed to develop severe pancytopenia at 30 weeks gestation. she was also diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency related to dietary and sociocultural habits. Folate and iron levels were normal throughout pregnancy. treatment with parenteral cyano-cobalamin resulted in sustained improvement of haematological parameters. the pregnancy was carried to term and the baby was born weighing 2,050gm but otherwise well at birth and had normal developmental milestones thereafter. this case illustrates the clinical presentation of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and demonstrates the importance of detecting and treating maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy in at-risk patients. Failure to diagnose and institute treatment carries significant risks to both mother and child. oral vitamin B12 supplementation should be considered for patients who are strict vegetarians or consume very little animal products.

  19. Fisiopatologia da deficiência de vitamina B12 e seu diagnóstico laboratorial

    OpenAIRE

    Paniz,Clóvis; Grotto,Denise; Schmitt,Gabriela Cristina; Valentini,Juliana; Schott,Karen Lílian; Pomblum,Valdeci Juarez; Garcia,Solange Cristina

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A vitamina B12 é hidrossolúvel, não-sintetizada pelo organismo humano, presente em alimentos de origem animal. Sua deficiência é muito freqüente entre idosos, vegetarianos e indivíduos que adotam baixa dieta protéica ou apresentam problemas de absorção gastrintestinal. FISIOPATOLOGIA: A deficiência de vitamina B12 leva a transtornos hematológicos, neurológicos e cardiovasculares, principalmente, por interferir no metabolismo da homocisteína (Hcy) e nas reações de metilação do orga...

  20. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Almoallim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

  1. Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause

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    Jérôme Franques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa.

  2. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  3. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies during pregnancy on fetal, infant, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Anne M; Kirke, Peadar N; Brody, Lawrence C; Scott, John M; Mills, James L

    2008-06-01

    The importance of folate in reproduction can be appreciated by considering that the existence of the vitamin was first suspected from efforts to explain a potentially fatal megaloblastic anemia in young pregnant women in India. Today, low maternal folate status during pregnancy and lactation remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity in some communities. The folate status of the neonate tends to be protected at the expense of maternal stores; nevertheless, there is mounting evidence that inadequate maternal folate status during pregnancy may lead to low infant birthweight, thereby conferring risk of developmental and long-term adverse health outcomes. Moreover, folate-related anemia during childhood and adolescence might predispose children to further infections and disease. The role of folic acid in prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) is now established, and several studies suggest that this protection may extend to some other birth defects. In terms of maternal health, clinical vitamin B12 deficiency may be a cause of infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Starting pregnancy with an inadequate vitamin B12 status may increase risk of birth defects such as NTD, and may contribute to preterm delivery, although this needs further evaluation. Furthermore, inadequate vitamin B12 status in the mother may lead to frank deficiency in the infant if sufficient fetal stores of vitamin B12 are not laid down during pregnancy or are not available in breastmilk. However, the implications of starting pregnancy and lactation with low vitamin B12 status have not been sufficiently researched.

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Serkan; Ozer, Murat Atabey; Akdemir, Mehmet Orçun

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with severe DED (without receiving topical artificial tears treatment) and ocular pain were enrolled (n = 90). Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). Patients were evaluated by the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, 3rd question (have you experienced painful or sore eyes during last week?) score of OSDI as a pain determiner and pain frequency measure), tear break up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's type 1 test. We compared the groups' OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer's test recordings at the first visit and after 12 weeks retrospectively. The OSDI score, 3rd OSDI question score, TBUT, and Schirmer's test results improved after 12 weeks (p treatment. The mean score changes between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the decrease in the OSDI questionnaire score (-30.80 ±5.24) and 3rd OSDI question score (-2.82 ±0.53) were remarkable in group 1 (Table 2). The mean TBUT increase was +7.98 ±2.90 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +12.16 ±2.01 mm in group 1. The mean TBUT increase was +6.18 ±1.49 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +6.71 ±1.47 mm in group 2. These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. It may be important to consider measuring the serum vitamin B12 level in patients with severe DED presenting with resistant ocular pain despite taking topical treatment.

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian S; Jensen, Jan S; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    .01; 0.43, p=0.038), and a decrease in 5min RHR of 0.25 beats per minute (95% CI -0.47; -0.03, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 may be inversely associated with CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. Confirmatory studies investigating a causal role of vitamin B12 for the development of diabetic CAN......AIMS: Vitamin B12 deficiency could be associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in diabetes patients. We aim to investigate the association between serum levels of vitamin B12 and CAN in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 469 ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients (mean diabetes...... duration 10.0years (IQR 5.0;17.0), mean age 59.0years (SD 11.6), 63% men, mean B12 289.0pmol/l (IQR 217;390)) were screened for CAN using three cardiovascular reflex tests, five minute resting heart rate (5min RHR) and heart rate variability indices. RESULTS: Serum levels of vitamin B12 were significantly...

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency might be related to sarcopenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Esra Ates; Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Dokuzlar, Ozge; Kocyigit, Suleyman Emre; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia and dynapenia are related to repeated falls, mobility restriction, depression, frailty, increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and sarcopenia in older adults. 403 patients, who attended to outpatient clinic and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment, were included study. All cases' skeletal muscle mass (SMM), walking speed and hand grip strength were recorded by bioimpedance, 4meter walking test and hand dynamometer respectively. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Sarcopenia was accepted low SMM with low handgrip strength or low physical performance. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia and dynapenia was 24.8% and 32.0%, respectively. In the patients with sarcopenia, mean age, osteoporosis and frailty were higher, and MMSE, and instrumental ADL scores were lower than the patients without sarcopenia (psarcopenia and dynapenia were 31.6% and 35.4%, respectively, in patients with vitamin B12 levels Sarcopenia, which results in lots of negative clinical outcomes in older adults, might be related to vitamin B12 deficiency. Therefore, these patients should be periodically examined for vitamin B12 deficiency due to the potential negative clinical outcomes such as sarcopenia in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CA 15-3 predicting breast cancer relapse: beware of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassy, Elie El; Ghor, Maya Al; Kattan, Joseph

    2018-05-10

    A sustained increase of cancer antigen 15-3 serum levels was found in a 54-year-old woman treated 2 years ago for early stage breast cancer, without any evidence of cancer recurrence. The patient thereafter developed severe megaloblastic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation with B12 to reverse the anemia led to the normalization of the cancer antigen 15-3 serum levels. As such, with the limited understanding of molecular biology, the integrative approach of clinical history, physical examination, and diagnostic imaging remain pivotal in the management of cancer patients.

  8. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Vitamin B12 deficiency of nutritional origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D

    1997-10-01

    The case is presented of a 14 year old boy who developed severe anaemia at the onset of puberty caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 of about 10 years duration. The dietary intake comprised mainly chips, ice-cream, fruit and Coca-Cola--with small amounts of vitamin B12 from occasional slices of chicken meat. His denial of abnormal nutritional intake, supported by his mother, delayed confirmation of the correct diagnosis. However, the true situation was eventually confessed--and following implementation of a normal diet he rapidly improved clinically, the haemoglobin value rose to normal and he subsequently remained well.

  9. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin metabolic disorders can cause diverse dysfunctions of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. There is conclusive evidence that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies may lead to diminished cognitive functions even to the extent of developing dementia. Cognitive impairments may be accompanied by involvement of other regions of the central nervous system, the corticospinal tract in particular, less frequently by brainstem and cerebellar disorders. Changes in nervous system functions in the presence of cyanocobalamin deficiency may predominate in the clinical picture, ahead of the occurrence of hematological changes. The paper considers the possible mechanisms for involvement of brain neurons in deficiency of cyanocobalamin and in that of folic acid in particular in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The low serum concentration of folic acid or cyanocobalamin in the elderly raises the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in future (by almost twice and vascular dementia. The authors give the results of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the vitamins used in patients with cognitive impairments. Thus, there are data that the use of cyanocobalamin in patients with lacunar infarcts and moderate cognitive impairments may give rise to their complete recovery and reduce the risk of depressive disorders. Intramuscular cyanocobalamin used in a daily dose of 1000 μg for 5 days, then 1000 μg once monthly is demonstrated to be efficacious. This therapy may be effective in patients with different types of dementia and cognitive diminution, primarily in those with these conditions and its serum concentration of less 150 pmol/l. Among the side effects while taking folic acid, there may be higher incidence rates of convulsive attacks. A number of trials have shown the efficacy of cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine, and folic acid in preventing acute cerebral ischemic episodes; however, not all the investigations

  10. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Hussein S. Hussein; Mohamed E. El-Boshy; Medhat N. Nassif

    2011-01-01

    As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease) in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy) were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l an...

  12. Mielopatia por deficiência de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Luiz Felipe Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações neurológicas associadas à deficiência de vitamina B12 incluem polineuropatia, mielopatia, demência e neuropatia óptica. O diagnóstico laboratorial é feito através da dosagem sérica de cianocobalamina ou homocisteína e da excreção urinária de ácido metilmalônico. No estudo anatomopatológico observa-se na microscopia a destruição da mielina e de axônios vistos na substância branca. A região mais comumente afetada é o cordão posterior cervical e/ou torácico. O acometimento da coluna lateral é raro, ocorrendo em casos graves e avançados. O tratamento consiste na reposição de vitamina B12 e a resposta depende da gravidade do quadro e do tempo transcorrido entre o inicio dos sintomas e inicio do tratamento. Relatamos o caso de um paciente que apresentou, como manifestação de deficiência de vitamina B12, mielite transversa. O estudo morfológico da medula demonstrou comprometimento dos tractos cortico-espinhais lateral e anterior, da coluna dorsal e ainda do tracto espino-talâmico.

  13. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl...... treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.......64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups...

  14. Recreational Nitrous Oxide Abuse-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient Presenting with Hyperpigmentation of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ta Chiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes.

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency - a major cause of megaloblastic anaemia in patients attending a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.P.; Kakepoto, G.N.; Iqbal, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies have been known to cause megaloblastic anaemia. Since the deficiencies of these two vitamins are very common in Pakistani population, it would be imperative to investigate their role in causing megaloblastic anaemia. The objective of this study was to find out the contribution of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies in causing megaloblastic anaemia in our patient population. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, clinical records of 220 patients (101 females and 119 males with an age range of 1 - 80 years) who presented themselves with macrocytic anaemia at the Aga Khan University Hospital were collected. Data pertaining to complete blood count and serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were analysed. Results: The mean haemoglobin (Hb) level was 6.8 +- 0.2 gm/dl. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had severe anaemia (Hb<8 gm/dl). Mean +- SEM values of haemoglobin, serum folate and serum B12 were not significantly different between males and females (Hb 6.4 +- 0.3 gm/dl vs 6.3 +- 0.3 gm/dl; folate 6.9 +- 0.8 mu g/ml vs 7.8 +- 1 mu g/ml; B12 259 +- 65 mu g/ml vs 225 +- 45 mu g/ml, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that serum folate was inversely related with the mean corpuscular volume (MCV, p=0.04). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated an inverse mild association between MCV and serum folate (correlation coefficient= -0.18). Folate deficiency was 43.4%, while vitamin B12 deficiency was 78.5% in these patients. Seventy-one percent of folate-deficient patients had vitamin B12 deficiency as well, while 26.1% of patients with B12 deficiency had a co-occurrence of folate deficiency. Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency appears to be the major factor leading to megaloblastic anaemia in our study population. Inadequate dietary intake, over-cooking of our food and poor absorption might be contributing to high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population. (author)

  17. Chronic transgenerational vitamin B12 deficiency of severe and moderate magnitudes modulates adiposity-probable underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bojanapalli; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2017-05-06

    We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males. The offspring of control and severely deficient dams continued on the respective diets of their mothers. Few moderately deficient dams were rehabilitated to control diet from parturition and their pups were weaned to control diet. Also, some offspring born to moderately B12 deficient dams were weaned to control diet, while others continued on the same diet as their mothers. Various parameters were determined in the F1 offspring after 12 and 36 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that both severe and moderate maternal vitamin B12 restrictions were associated with accelerated catch-up growth, increased body fat percentage, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the F1 offspring. Inflammation, increased glucocorticoid and oxidative stress and poor antioxidant defence probably underlie these adverse effects. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning was beneficial in delaying the onset of the adverse outcomes in the offspring. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(3):400-414, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in 20 to 49 years old women: Ensanut 2012

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    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the prevalence of iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies in Mexican women of reproductive age from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012.Materials and methods. Data came from a  ationalprobabilistic survey, representative from rural and urban areas,and different age groups. Blood samples were obtained from 4 263, 20 to 49 years old women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and serum folate oncentrations. The prevalence of deficiencies, was assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. Results. The deficiency of folate was 1.9% (95%CI1.3-2.8, B12 deficiency was 8.5% (95%CI 6.7-10.1 and iron deficiency was 29.4% (95%CI 26.5-32.2. No differences were found when compared with 2006, 24.8% (95%CI 22.3-27.2.Conclusions. The vitamin B12 deficiency is still a problem for women of reproductive age and their offspring in Mexico,while folate deficiency disappeared as a problem. Iron deficiency needs prevention and fortification strategies.

  19. Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in 20 to 49 years old women: Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Rangel-Baltazar, Eduardo; Zambrano-Mujica, Norma

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies in Mexican women of reproductive age from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2012. Data came from a national probabilistic survey, representative from rural and urban areas, and different age groups. Blood samples were obtained from 4 263, 20 to 49 years old women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and serum folate concentrations. The prevalence of deficiencies, was assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. The deficiency of folate was 1.9% (95%CI 1.3-2.8), B12 deficiency was 8.5% (95%CI 6.7-10.1) and iron deficiency was 29.4% (95%CI 26.5-32.2). No differences were found when compared with 2006, 24.8% (95%CI 22.3-27.2). The vitamin B12 deficiency is still a problem for women of reproductive age and their offspring in Mexico, while folate deficiency disappeared as a problem. Iron deficiency needs prevention and fortification strategies.

  20. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and the Role of Gender: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Large Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ili; Cohen, Eytan; Goldberg, Elad; Krause, Ilan

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with hematological, neurological, and cardiovascular consequences. Epidemiologic data on these related illnesses indicate gender differences. A cross-sectional study was designed to examine gender differences in vitamin B12 deficiency among a healthy population. Data from healthy individuals aged 18-65, who were provided with a routine medical evaluation during 2000-2014, were retrieved from the medical charts. Individuals with background illnesses and those who had used medications or nutritional supplements were excluded. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined by 2 cutoff values (206 and 140 pmol/L). The multivariate analysis was adjusted for age, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hyperhomocysteinemia, folate deficiency, albumin, and transferrin saturation. Sensitivity analyses were implemented by excluding individuals with anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, or folate deficiency and by age stratification. In all, 7,963 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Serum vitamin B12 mean levels were 312.36 and 284.31 pmol/L for women and men respectively (p variations are therefore hypothesized to play a role. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Direct Rehydrogenation of LiBH4 from H-Deficient Li2B12H12−x

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    Yigang Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Li2B12H12 is commonly considered as a boron sink hindering the reversible hydrogen sorption of LiBH4. Recently, in the dehydrogenation process of LiBH4 an amorphous H-deficient Li2B12H12−x phase was observed. In the present study, we investigate the rehydrogenation properties of Li2B12H12−x to form LiBH4. With addition of nanostructured cobalt boride in a 1:1 mass ratio, the rehydrogenation properties of Li2B12H12−x are improved, where LiBH4 forms under milder conditions (e.g., 400 °C, 100 bar H2 with a yield of 68%. The active catalytic species in the reversible sorption reaction is suggested to be nonmetallic CoxB (x = 1 based on 11B MAS NMR experiments and its role has been discussed.

  2. Long-term Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroda, Vanita R.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Knowler, William C.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Bray, George A.; Schade, David S.; Temprosa, Marinella G.; White, Neil H.; Crandall, Jill P.

    2016-01-01

    Participants from DPP/DPPOS were assigned to placebo (n=1082) or metformin (n=1073) for 3.2 years, followed by metformin in the metformin group for 9 years. Metformin use was associated with increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency in diabetic subjects taking metformin: A cross sectional study in a Lebanese cohort

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    Joyce Zalaket

    2018-03-01

    Based on our results, we strongly recommend the routine screening of subjects with T2D on metformin for vitamin B12 deficiency due to its high prevalence and the significant clinical effects it may result in. Furthermore, we recommend, based on our data, to start treating those subjects once a borderline or low level is detected.

  4. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  5. Perspectives on Peripheral Neuropathy as a Consequence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in T2DM

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    Marwan A. Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy (PN is a primary complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and a direct manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Examining the effects of metformin use on PN status became imperative following clinical studies that showed the vitamin B12-lowering effect of the medication. The complexity of the topic and the inconsistency of the results warrant consideration of topic-specific perspectives for better understanding of the available evidence and more appropriate design of future studies.

  6. A study of clinical profile of vitamin B 12 deficiency with special reference to dermatologic manifestations in a Tertiary Care Hospital in sub-Himalayan Bengal

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    Kaushik Sen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon in the eastern parts of India including Bengal and the eastern states as compared to the northern and southern parts of India. The importance of cutaneous features in relation to vitamin B 12 deficiency is not well described in literature. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitamin B 12 deficiency in this region and to find out if there is any relationship between dermatologic manifestations with vitamin B 12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: All symptomatic patients of anemia requiring blood transfusions who had either raised mean corpuscular volume (MCV or bicytopenia/pancytopenia on complete blood count or were symptomatic in the form of skin hyperpigmentation were screened for vitamin B 12 deficiency. Results: Twenty-five patients were tested for vitamin B 12 deficiency. Of them 19 patients were found to be having vitamin B 12 deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin B 12 deficiency is not uncommon in the eastern parts of India, contrasting the previous thoughts that it was uncommon in this area, though larger studies are required to know it better. This study included only those requiring blood transfusions, thus a much higher prevalence is expected in this area. Patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency do present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and often have skin hyperpigmentation.

  7. Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Use of Reverse Osmosis Processed Water for Drinking: A Cross-Sectional Study from Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekant Surendra; Sheth, Sanket Pranjivan; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak

    2016-05-01

    Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency has increased in community in recent time. Possibility is raised for new and yet unidentified factors being associated with this increased prevalence. One of these factors frequently questioned is use of Reverse Osmosis (RO) processed water for drinking. We aimed to study association of use of RO processed water for drinking with Vitamin B12 deficiency. This cross-sectional study was done at tertiary care centre of Western India. Total 250 participants were recruited after excluding those participants with known factors responsible for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Information about gender, type of diet, milk intake and duration, dairy product intake, use of RO water and Vitamin B12 level was collected. Total 70 (28%) participants out of 250 were having Vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty (50.6%) of 79 participants using RO water were Vitamin B12 deficient against 30 (17.5%) of 171 using other sources. Logistic regression analysis showed independent association between use of RO water and Vitamin B12 deficiency. Although association of male gender, milk quantity of less than 100 ml per day and duration of RO water intake with occurrence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was found statistically significant in univariate analysis, logistic regression analysis did not show significant association. Use of RO processed drinking water was associated with Vitamin B12 deficiency. This being cross- sectional study, further longitudinal studies with large sample size and taking confounding factors into consideration, are required to establish this association.

  8. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella de Andrade; Malta, Flávia Monteiro França; Correia, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the São João Hospital Center in the city of Porto, Portugal, between 2005 and 2010. The following data were collected: surgical technique, sex, age, marital status, serum concentrations of vitamin B12, iron and folic acid and postoperative lifestyle. A 5% significance level was used for the statistical analysis (pmicronutrientes. Avaliar a deficiência de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico e fatores associados ao estilo de vida de obesos submetidos a diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas. Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica pelas técnicas de banda gástrica ajustável e bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux, no Centro Hospitalar de São João, E.P.E., Porto - Portugal, no período de 2005-2010. Foram coletadas: técnica cirúrgica, sexo, idade, estado civil, concentrações séricas de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico e o estilo de vida no pós-operatório. Para análise estatística foi utilizado nível de significância de 5% (pmicronutrientes foram detectadas após o bypass gástrico. A deficiência de micronutriente mais prevalente foi a de ferro (21,3%), seguida da vitamina B12 (16,9%) e do ácido fólico (4,5%). A ingestão de bebida alcoólica de leve-moderada, a adesão à dieta e o uso de polivitamínicos reduziu a frequência, mas não evitou a carência de micronutrientes. A deficiência de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico foi observada durante o primeiro e o segundo anos após as duas t

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the brain leads to DNA hypomethylation in the TCblR/CD320 knockout mouse

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    Fernàndez-Roig Sílvia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic phenomenon that can modulate gene function by up or downregulation of gene expression. Vitamin B12 and folate pathways are involved in the production of S-Adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Findings Brain vitamin B12 concentration and global DNA methylation was determined in transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320 knock out (KO (n = 4 and control mice (n = 4 at 20–24 weeks of age. Median [IQR] brain vitamin B12 concentrations (pg/mg in TCblR/CD320 KO mice compared with control mice was 8.59 [0.52] vs 112.42 [33.12]; p CD320 KO compared with control mice (Median [IQR]: 0.31[0.16] % vs 0.55[0.15] %; p  Conclusions In TCblR/CD320 KO mice, brain vitamin B12 drops precipitously by as much as 90% during a 20 week period. This decrease is associated with a 40% decrease in global DNA methylation in the brain. Future research will reveal whether the disruption in gene expression profiles due to changes in DNA hypomethylation contribute to central nervous system pathologies that are frequently seen in vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in a 15-year-old boy: presentation with haemolysis and pancytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy on a vegetarian diet presented with severe macrocytic anaemia (haemoglobin, 5.1 g/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 116 fL) in addition to leucopenia and thrombocytopaenia (pancytopenia), icterus secondary to haemolysis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed severe vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Following cobalamin replacement therapy, the patient reported increased well-being, including appetite and weight gain, and his icterus resolved. In the follow-up laboratory examinations, leucocyte and platelet counts in addition to serum bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalised. At the end of 2 months, laboratory findings, including haemoglobin level, were all within the normal range. We present this case as a reminder that severe vitamin B12 deficiency may present with findings mimicking acute leukaemia (pancytopenia and splenomegaly) and findings suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:25976204

  11. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  12. Severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency impairs lipid profile, induces adiposity and leads to adverse gestational outcome in female C57BL/6 mice

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    Shampa eGhosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for four weeks, (a control AIN-76A diet, (b vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption or (c vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption. After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat % significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 hours of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  13. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  14. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B12 deficiency with neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Loukili, Mouna; Soudy, Imar D; Rtibi, Kaies; Özel, Aslihan; Limas-Nzouzi, Nicolas; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Eto, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability and clinical benefits of oral new formulation (HB 12 ) of hydroxocobalamin (Hdrx) with Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS). First, in an observational study, a cohort of 30 vitamin B 12 -deficient patients (vit B 12 < 200 pg/mL) with neurological symptoms received oral fixed dose of Hdrx containing 15 mg Hdrx daily for 10 days followed by 15 mg monthly. Clinical benefits were evaluated on haematological and biochemical parameters, and neurological improvement at days 10 and 90 compared to day 0. To understand the mechanism, intestinal mucosa from mice were mounted in vitro in Ussing chambers to measure Hdrx Fluxes. In the clinical study, serum vitamin B 12 level increased from 55.1 ± 36.9 to 1330 ± 335.5 pg/mL at day 10 and 431.0 ± 24.27 pg/mL at day 90, without overt adverse effects. In mice ileum, (i) intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in dose-dependent manner with HB 12 . The apparent permeability of Hdrx was P app = 34.9 ± 4.6 × 10 -6 cm/s in the presence of 3 mg/mL (HB 12 B) compared to the control P app = 6.2 ± 0.7 × 10 -6 cm/s. (ii) Total transepithelial electrical conductance (G t ) increased in dose-dependent manner with HB 12 , G t = 161.5 ± 10.8 mS/cm² with HB 12 B (Hdrx 1 mg + HS 3 mg) compared to the control Hdrx, G t = 28.7 ± 4.0 mS/cm². In conclusion, the clinical study suggests that injections are not required when Hdrx is given orally. Intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in vitro when it was used concomitantly with HS. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in HIV-positive patients and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabha M R; Chowta, Mukta N; Ramapuram, John T; Rao, Satish; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana Devdas

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of micronutrients is prevalent even before the development of symptoms of HIV disease and is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. This study evaluates the prevalence of folate and Vitamin B 12 deficiency in HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response. Cross-sectional, observational study in an outpatient setting. Four groups of HIV-positive patients with TB (Group I), HIV-positive patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (Group II), HIV-positive patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms or TB (Group III), and HIV-negative controls with neuropsychiatric symptoms (Group IV). Vitamin B 12 and folate estimation was done using carbonyl metallo-immunoassay method. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, Pearson's correlation. The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in the Group I, 31.9% in the Group II, 23.4% in the Group III, and 32% in the Group IV being higher in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in both HIV and non-HIV patients. The prevalence of Vitamin B 12 deficiency was 18.8% in Group I, 9.1% in Group II, 4.8% in Group III, and 16.7% in Group IV. The patients with folate deficiency had more severe depression and anxiety. Nearly, 30% of the HIV patients had a folic acid deficiency, and about 10% of the HIV patients had Vitamin B 12 deficiency. The folate deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients with or without HIV infection and Vitamin B 12 deficiency was higher among HIV patients with TB.

  16. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

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    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  17. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  18. Reposição de vitamina B12 reduz comportamento depressivo induzido em ratos jovens = Vitamin B12 replacement therapy reduces induced depressive behavior in young rats

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    Brito, Adriana Maria de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Conclusões: A depleção suave de vitamina B12 na dieta, em nível não indutor de anemia, favoreceu o estado depressivo em ratos jovens, enquanto a sua suplementação na situação de depleção reverteu esse quadro. Em condições de nutrição adequada, entretanto, a suplementação dessa vitamina não exerceu efeito sobre o estado depressivo. Estes resultados estimulam a realização de mais estudos que aprofundem a avaliação das relações entre vitamina B12 e depressão em jovens. Além disso, este estudo também abre perspectivas para um novo modelo experimental de depressão, induzida por depleção de vitamina B12

  19. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing-Age in Guatemala 2009-2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15-49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009-2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. National prevalence estimates for deficient serum [Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations.

  20. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Guatemala 2009–2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. Methods A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15–49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009–2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1,473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. Results National prevalence estimates for deficient serum (Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations. PMID:26002178

  1. Effect of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B12 on cobalamin nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Gardana, Claudio; Brusamolino, Antonella; Battezzati, Alberto; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2018-02-15

    Vegetarians and vegans are more vulnerable to vitamin B 12 deficiency with severe risks of megaloblastic anemia, cognitive decline, neuropathy, and depression. An easy and simple method of supplementation consists of taking one weekly dosage of 2000 μg. However, single large oral doses of vitamin B 12 are poorly absorbed. The present research evaluates the ability of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B 12 (350 μg/week vs 2000 μg/week) in improving cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel intervention trial was performed. Forty subjects with marginal vitamin B 12 deficiency were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: test group Ld (low dose, 350 μg/week) and control group Hd (high dose, 2000 μg/week) vitamin B 12 supplementation. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days from the intervention for the determination of vitamin B 12 , related metabolic markers, and blood cell counts. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time (P < 0.0001) and of time × treatment interaction (P = 0.012) on serum concentration of vitamin B 12 that increased after 90-day supplementation (Ld and Hd) compared to baseline. Both the supplements increased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of holotranscobalamin, succinic acid, methionine and wellness parameter, while decreased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and folate compared to baseline. No difference was observed between groups (LdvsHd). No effect was detected for vitamin B 6 and blood cell count. In our experimental conditions, both supplements were able to restore adequate serum concentrations of vitamin B 12 and to improve the levels of related metabolic blood markers in subjects with a marginal deficiency. The results support the use of a sublingual dosage of 50 μg/day (350

  2. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kamphuis, D. M.; van Dijk, P. R.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.

    Objectives: To study vitamin B-12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B-12 concentrations. Research design and methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kamphuis, D M; van Dijk, P R; Groenier, K H; Houweling, S T; Bilo, H J G; Kleefstra, N

    OBJECTIVES: To study vitamin B12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B12 concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients with

  4. MRI of the spinal cord in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency: two additional cases and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, S.S.; Bulundwe, K.K.; Gledhill, R.F.; Labuscagne, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Focal spinal cord lesions have been present in all previously reported cases of MRI appearances in myelopathy complicating vitamin B 12 deficiency. We describe two further cases showing mild atrophy only and review the salient features of the previous 11 publications. MRI findings reflect quite closely the known pathological changes in this condition. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in an indigenous community from the Venezuelan Amazon with a high incidence of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Leets, Irene; Bracho, Carmen; Hidalgo, Mariana; Bastidas, Gilberto; Gomez, Ana; Peña, Ana; Pérez, Hilda

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in Betania del Topocho, a Piaroa community from Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, a zone with a high incidence of malaria. The group studied included 184 subjects of all ages that assisted to the local health center for malaria diagnosis. Analysis performed included hematology by coulter counter, ferritin quantification by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies and folic acid and vitamin B12 determinations by an immunoradiometric assay. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was 89.6% and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 affected 37.1,70.3 and 12.4% of the population studied, respectively. Plasmodium infection was detected by molecular diagnosis in 53.2% of the cases, and 86% of them were anemic. The highest incidence of anemia was found in children, with a prevalence of 100% in infants of both sexes. The high prevalence of anemia, iron and folic acid deficiencies found, indicates an important health and nutrition problem that should be immediately and properly addressed. The number of cases of anemia due to iron deficiency could be underestimated, since ferritin concentration increased as a acute phase protein, although prevalence data was also analyzed with a cutoff point of 30 microg/L for ferritin concentration.

  6. Vitamin B-12 treatment of asymptomatic, deficient, elderly Chileans improves conductivity in myelinated periphreal nerves, but high serum folate impairs vitamin B-12 status response assessed by the combined indicator of..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2005 the National Feeding Program for the Elderly (PACAM) in Chile has provided a B12 fortified milk drink (1.7 µg B12/d) which is insufficient to ensure B12 adequacy in many individuals. The objective was to evaluate effects of adding 1 mg B12/d to PACAM vs 1 mg B12/d as a pill with PACAM on ...

  7. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. Case presentation An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and somnolence. Upon admission, his weight, length and head circumference were below the third percentile, he had an enlarged liver and spleen, and showed a significant delay in developmental milestones and communicative reactions. He had a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL with an MCV of 84.2 fL, a white blood cell count of 4,680/mm3, and a platelet count of 45,000/mm3. His serum vitamin B12 level was 57 pg/mL (normal value 180–500 pg/mL and serum folate level 12.8 ng/mL (normal value >3 ng/mL. The results of metabolic examinations excluded a cobalamin C disorder, whereas nutritional screening showed a serum iron concentration of 9 μg/dL and serum ferritin of 4 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles with diffuse delayed myelination. The child was diagnosed as having vitamin B12 and iron deficiency due to nutritional inadequacy and was immediately treated with packed red blood cells, intramuscular vitamin B12 injections, and iron supplementation. A few days after the start of therapy, his hemoglobin levels and other hematological parameters rapidly improved, and a clinical improvement was observed within few weeks. There was an increase in his achievement of developmental milestones, but his development was still retarded seven months after the start of therapy. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of adequately controlling maternal vitamin B12 intake during pregnancy by means of

  8. Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Cam; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrients are essential to neurocognitive development; yet their role in educational outcomes is unclear. We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. We recruited 3156 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were estimated by categories of micronutrient status indicators with use of Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of grade repetition was 4.9%, and the absenteeism rate was 3.8 d per child-year of observation. Vitamin B-12 deficiency (educational outcomes and neurocognitive development of school children need to be determined in intervention studies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Incidência da deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica pela técnica Fobi-Capella (Y-de-Roux Incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients submitted to Fobi-Capella Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Ribeiro Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica podem desenvolver, ao longo do tempo, algumas complicações e a anemia é quadro importante decorrente da ressecção gástrica, levando à deficiência de ferro, ácido fólico ou vitamina B. OBJETIVO: Verificar a incidência da deficiência de vitamina B12 e comparar dados antropométricos e bioquímicos do pré e pós-operatório (seis meses, em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica Fobi-Capella (Y de Roux. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva e descritiva de 91 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à operação. Foram coletadas informações pessoais, data do procedimento e valores do pré e pós-operatório (seis meses, redução de peso, co-morbidades, colesterol, triglicérides, glicemia, vitamina B12, hemoglobina e hematócrito. Para análise estatística foi utilizado nível de significância de 5% (pBACKGROUND: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may develop over time, some complications and anemia is an important one due to gastric resection, leading to iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency. AIM: To determine the incidence of deficiency of vitamin B12 and other anthropometric and biochemical data comparing the preoperative and postoperative (six months period in patients who underwent bariatric surgery with Fobi-Capella (Roux-en-Y technique. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive analysis of 91 charts of patients who underwent surgery. It was collected personal information, date of surgery and pre-and postoperative (six months values, weight loss, comorbidities, serum analysis of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, vitamin B12, hemoglobin and hematocrit. For statistical analysis, it was considered significance level of 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: It was found that there was a reduction in weight of 25,0% compared with the preoperative value and the average BMI was from 41,2±4,9 kg/m² to 30,7±3,9 kg/m². The most common co-morbidities were dyspnea (93,4%, spine

  10. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Prevalence of mild serum vitamin B12 deficiency in rural and urban Costa Rican young adults Prevalencia de la deficiencia moderada de vitamina B12 sérica en jóvenes adultos de zonas rurales y urbanas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Holst-Schumacher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown an increase of mild serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency in some Latin American countries; however, no data are available from Costa Rica. The purpose of this work was to establish the prevalence of serum vitamin B12 deficiency among Costa Rican young adults and to study some factors that may help explain the serum cobalamin concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 adults aged 20 to 40 years old from urban and rural areas of the central valley of Costa Rica to determine serum vitamin B12 levels. Additionally, cobalamin dietary intake and the detection of Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies were studied as possible determinants of the serum vitamin B12 concentrations. RESULTS: The mean serum concentration of vitamin B12 was 268 ± 125 pmol/L, and no significant differences were found by gender or area. Study data indicate an overall prevalence of inadequate serum cobalamin levels of 42.4% (11.2% deficient and 31.2% marginal; more than 50% but less than 75% of individuals had an intake of vitamin B12 below the U.S. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and 61.2% had IgG antibodies to H. pylori. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mild serum vitamin B12 deficiency in young Costa Rican subjects is as high as in other Latin American countries. More investigation should be done to elucidate the etiological factors that are generating deficient and marginal serum cobalamin levels in Costa Rican adults in order to define appropriate public health actions.OBJETIVO: Aunque estudios recientes han demostrado un incremento en el déficit moderado de cobalamina (vitamina B12 sérica en algunos países de América Latina, no hay datos de Costa Rica. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina B12 sérica en jóvenes adultos de Costa Rica y estudiar algunos factores que pueden ayudar a explicar las concentraciones séricas de cobalamina. MÉTODOS: Se

  12. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  13. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  14. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-03-28

    To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12

  15. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  16. Prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico e sua associação com anemia em idosos atendidos em um hospital universitário

    OpenAIRE

    Coussirat, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Descrever a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico e a sua associação com anemia em idosos atendidos em um ambulatório de geriatria de um hospital universitário.Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão de prontuários de todos os idosos que tiveram pelo menos um atendimento no Ambulatório de Geriatria do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, no período de julho de 2005 a junho de 2010. Para verificar a deficiência de vitamina B12, foram utilizados os seguintes critérios: Vitamin...

  17. The influence of thyroid diseases, diabetes mellitus, primary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency and other comorbid autoimmune diseases on treatment outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: An exploratory cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the impact of comorbid diseases on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outcome. All patients diagnosed with RA since 2006, who were registered in our local Danbio registry, were included in this cohort study. Patients’ demographics, serology results, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints......-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months of treatment initiation were collected. Patients’ electronic hospital records were evaluated for a positive history of thyroid diseases, diabetes mellitus, primary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency, and the presence of other...... diagnosed autoimmune diseases. 1035 RA patients were included. The observed prevalence of thyroid diseases was 11.8%, DM 10.4%, primary hyperparathyroidism 2.8%, vitamin B12 deficiency 5.8%, and other diagnosed autoimmune diseases 1.6%. There were significant associations between presence of thyroid...

  18. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  19. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  20. Vegetarer har høj risiko for at få B12-vitaminmangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians...... are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency....

  1. B-12 vitamin metabolism disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriciova, K.; Bzduch, V.; Behulova, D.; Skodova, J.; Holesova, D.; Ostrozlikova, M.; Schmidtova, K.; Kozich, V.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 – cobalamin (Cbl) is a water soluble vitamin, which is synthesized by lower organisms. It cannot be synthesized by plants and higher organisms. Problem in the metabolic pathway of Cbl can be caused by its deficiency or by the deficiency of its last metabolites – adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Both reasons are presented by errors in the homocysteine and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Clinical symptoms of the Cbl metabolism disorders are: different neurological disorders, changes in haematological status (megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia), symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea) and changes in the immune system. In the article the authors describe the causes of Cbl metabolism disorders, its different diagnosis and treatment. They introduce the group of patients with these disorders, who were taken care of in the I st Paediatric Department of University Children Hospital for the last 5 years. (author)

  2. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  3. Deficiency of Vitamin B12, Folate and Methionine During Preconception Period Causes Altered Immune Responses, Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Hypertension in Adult Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rustanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Munculnya penyakit degeneratif pada orang dewasa bisa berhubungan dengan fase perkembangan sewaktu di dalam rahim. Asupan nutrisi selama tahap perkembangan ini dapat mempengaruhi gen yang meregulasi epigenetik. Telah banyak penelitian yang menemukan bahwa asupan nutrisi selama kehamilan akan mempengaruhi status kesehatan anak yang akan dilahirkan. Akan tetapi, baru sedikit yang meneliti efek dari nutrisi tertentu pada saat sebelum konsepsi dan sebelum kehamilan. Fase ini penting, sebab fase ini adalah waktunya oosit tumbuh dan berkembang. Secara umum, setelah masa perkembangan oosit , DNA metilasi dalam jaringan akan menetap. Riset menunjukkan adanya efek pembatasan asupan nutrisi tertentu, yaitu vitamin B12, vitamin B9 (asam folat dan metionin, pada masa prekonsepsi dalam diet ibu terhadap terjadinya obesitas, diabetes mellitus, hipertensi dan berkurangnya respon imun pada anak setelah dewasa. Kekurangan ketiga nutrisi tersebut ternyata dapat menyebabkan terjadinya epigenetik melalui DNA hipometilasi pada pulau­pulau CpG. Hipometilasi pada DNA tersebut berhubungan dengan fenotipe beberapa parameter klinis yang berupa obesitas, diabetes mellitus, hipertensi dan berkurangnya respon imun. Penemuan-penemuan mengenai hal ini berguna sebagai sumber referensi mengenai nutrisi bagi perencanaan kehamilan untuk mengurangi faktor resiko penyakit degeneratif pada keturunan.

  4. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  5. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of your deficiency. They will perform a physical exam or review your health. A blood test may be done, as well. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  6. Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Clarke, R.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has reduced the number of neural tube defects in North America. Concerns that high intakes of folic acid might mask vitamin B-12 deficiency in older persons have delayed the introduction of fortification in many European countries.

  7. [Folate, vitamin B12 and human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel; Gaitán, Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poor folate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults, who are considered to have higher risk of gastric mucosa atrophy, altered production of intrinsic factor and acid secretion. Deficiency of these vitamins is associated with hematological disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also induce clinical and sub-clinical neurological and of other disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in the basic and applied knowledge of these vitamins relative to human health.

  8. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-01-01

    AIM To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). METHODS A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. RESULTS Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve (R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. CONCLUSION Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy

  9. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  10. Deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes de uma enfermaria de clínica médica em Fortaleza/CEdoi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n1p18-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Maria Moura Cassimiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo transversal que contou com 116 participantes que estiveram internados na enfermaria de Clínica Médica do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF nos seis primeiros meses do ano de 2015. O objetivo foi descrever a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina B12 e descrever as características clínicas em pacientes internados nessa unidade. A prevalência de deficiência de cobalamina foi de 18%. Encontramos que 40% dos pacientes apresentaram afecção neurológica não explicada por causas vasculares, 20% anemia macrocítica, 20% alcoolismo, 20% uso de inibidor de bomba de prótons, 10% uso de metformina, 10% dieta estritamente vegetariana, 10% diagnóstico de infecção por HIV, 10% diagnóstico prévio de gastrite atrófica e 10% diagnóstico prévio de hipotireoidismo. Em nenhum caso supracitado encontrou-se significância estatística (p < 0,05.

  11. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  12. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  13. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  14. Folic acid fortification: why not vitamin B12 also?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid fortification of cereal grains was introduced in many countries to prevent neural tube defect occurrence. The metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B12 intersect during the transfer of the methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine catalyzed by B12-dependent methioine synthase. Regeneration of tetrahydrofolate via this reaction makes it available for synthesis of nucleotide precursors. Thus either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency can result in impaired cell division and anemia. Exposure to extra folic acid through fortification may be detrimental to those with vitamin B12 deficiency. Among participants of National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate (>59 nmol/L) was associated with higher prevalence of anemia and cognitive impairment when compared with normal serum folate. We also observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), two functional indicators of vitamin B12 status, with increase in plasma folate under low vitamin B12 status. These data strongly imply that high plasma folate is associated with the exacerbation of both the biochemical and clinical status of vitamin B12 deficiency. Hence any food fortification policy that includes folic acid should also include vitamin B12. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem Ali

    2017-06-09

    Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive) using the key words "vitamin B12" and "cobalamin" versus "sperm". Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  16. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ali Banihani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive using the key words “vitamin B12” and “cobalamin” versus “sperm”. Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  17. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  18. Hampered Vitamin B12 Metabolism in Gaucher Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hannibal PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Untreated vitamin B 12 deficiency manifests clinically with hematological abnormalities and combined degeneration of the spinal cord and polyneuropathy and biochemically with elevated homocysteine (Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA. Vitamin B 12 metabolism involves various cellular compartments including the lysosome, and a disruption in the lysosomal and endocytic pathways induces functional deficiency of this micronutrient. Gaucher disease (GD is characterized by dysfunctional lysosomal metabolism brought about by mutations in the enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM: 606463; Enzyme Commission (EC 3.2.1.45, gene: GBA1 . In this study, we collected and examined available literature on the associations between GD, the second most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder in humans, and hampered vitamin B 12 metabolism. Results from independent cohorts of patients show elevated circulating holotranscobalamin without changes in vitamin B 12 levels in serum. Gaucher disease patients under enzyme replacement therapy present normal levels of Hcy and MMA. Although within the normal range, a significant increase in Hcy and MMA with normal serum vitamin B 12 was documented in treated GD patients with polyneuropathy versus treated GD patients without polyneuropathy. Thus, a functional deficiency of vitamin B 12 caused by disrupted lysosomal metabolism in GD is a plausible mechanism, contributing to the neurological form of the disorder but this awaits confirmation. Observational studies suggest that an assessment of vitamin B 12 status prior to the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may shed light on the role of vitamin B 12 in the pathogenesis and progression of GD.

  19. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  20. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  1. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead...... in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  2. Study on changes of serum ferritin (SF), folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 levels after transfusion of preserved red cells (PRC) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongsu; Li Xinhua; Li Keqin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SF, FA and VitB 12 levels after transfusion of preserved red cells in patients with IDA. Methods: Serum SF, FA and VitB 12 levels (with RIA) were detected both before and after transfusion of preserved red cells in 32 patients with IDA as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion of preserved red cells, the serum SF levels were significantly lower than those in controls (P 12 levels were significantly higher (P 12 were not much different from those in the controls. Conclusion: Transfusion of preserved red cells proves to be very useful. (authors)

  3. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 in homozygous β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachos, P.; Liakakos, D.

    1976-01-01

    Schilling tests were performed in ten children aged 5-12 years suffering from homozygous β-thalassemia. 57 Co labelled vitamin B 12 values excreted in the urine have been found much lower than normal and remained low when the same procedure was repeated with the addition of intrinsic factor. The possible factors responsible for this malabsorption of vitamin B 12 seemed to be liver damage and folic acid deficiency. (orig.) [de

  4. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  5. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  6. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Grittner, Ulrike; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Low-normal concentrations of vitamin B-12 (VitB12) may be associated with worse cognition. However, previous evidence has been mixed, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We determined whether serum VitB12 concentrations within the normal range were linked to memory functions and related neuronal structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a cross-sectional design, we assessed 100 amnestic MCI patients (52 women; age range: 50-80 y) with low- and high-normal VitB12 concentration (median split: 304 pmol/L) for memory functions with the use of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. MRI was performed at 3 tesla (n= 86) for the estimation of the volume and microstructure of the hippocampus and its subfields as indicated by the mean diffusivity on diffusion-weighted images. With the use of a mediation analysis, we examined whether the relation between VitB12 and memory performance was partially explained by volume or microstructure. MCI patients with low-normal VitB12 showed a significantly poorer learning ability (P= 0.014) and recognition performance (P= 0.008) than did patients with high-normal VitB12. Also, the microstructure integrity of the hippocampus was lower in patients with low-normal VitB12, mainly in the cornu ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus region (P= 0.029), which partially mediated the effect of VitB12 on memory performance (32-48%). Adjustments for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and total homocysteine, folate, and creatinine did not attenuate the effects. Low VitB12 concentrations within the normal range are associated with poorer memory performance, which is an effect that is partially mediated by the reduced microstructural integrity of the hippocampus. Future interventional trials are needed to assess whether supplementation of VitB12 may improve cognition in MCI patients even in the absence of clinically manifested VitB12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01219244. © 2016

  7. Vitamin B12 assays compared by use of patients sera with low vitamin B12 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.L.; Pearce, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors compared four radioisotope dilution (RD) methods and a microbiological assay for measuring concentrations of vitamin B12 in a selected panel of serum samples from patients known to be deficient in the vitamin. Low (less than 100 ng/L) and borderline (100-180 ng/L) results were similar between methods, but use of the manufacturers recommended ranges for borderline results would have changed the diagnostic classifications for 22 of 38 samples. Results of all the RD methods inter-correlated well, but less so with the microbiological assay. Borderline, nondiagnostic results were common to all methods, and no apparent advantage was gained from using the microbiological assay

  8. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B......(12) observed in patients treated with metformin reflects impaired B(12) status, and rather suggests altered tissue distribution and metabolism of the vitamin....

  9. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. N. Hohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO-/- mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO-/- mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate assay were prevented in 5-LO-/- mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage.

  10. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin generally synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals cannot synthesize this vitamin but have evolved processes for absorption, transport and cellular uptake of this vitamin. Only about 30% of vitamin B 12 , which is bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC (Holo-TC [HoloTC] enters into the cell and hence is referred to as the biologically active form of vitamin B 12 . Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to several complex disorders, including neurological disorders and anemia. We had earlier shown that vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD in Indian population. In the current study, using a proteomics approach we identified proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of individuals with low HoloTC levels. Materials and Methods: We used isobaric-tagging method of relative and absolute quantitation to identify proteins that are differently expressed in individuals with low HoloTC levels when compared to those with normal HoloTC level. Results: In two replicate isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation, cholesterol metabolic process, and lipoprotein metabolic process were found to be altered in individuals having low HoloTC levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that low HoloTc levels could be a risk factor in the development of CAD.

  11. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2) A...

  12. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  13. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  15. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  16. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  17. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency with diff......Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency...

  18. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  19. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  20. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer the folate test. Can taking too many vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements hurt me? Not usually. Since B12 and folic acid are water-soluble, the body will rid itself of any excess by excreting it in the urine. However, taking ...

  1. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  2. Vitamin B 12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Serum vitamin B12 level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 81 T2DM patients who have been on metformin for 5 years or more. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum concentration of 300 pg/dl as normal.

  3. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  4. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  5. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  6. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  7. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  8. EVALUATION OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS ON METFORMIN THERAPY ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kalakappa Koppad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is an endocrine disorder and a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterised by an elevation of fasting blood glucose that is caused by a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin. Serum vitamin B12 levels have been reported to be inversely associated with the dose and duration of metformin use. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable condition. However, there is insufficient data regarding prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the South Indian population. Hence, the study was undertaken to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels in T2DM on metformin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 T2DM patients attending Outpatient Department (OPD or admitted under Department of General Medicine of KIMS, Hubli, during the time period of 2 years were taken for study considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Qualifying patients underwent detailed history, clinical examination, routine investigation and vitamin B12 estimation. RESULTS Majority were in the age group of 45-59 years making 42% of the total. The age group in most patients having vitamin B12 deficiency was >60 years. Males had more vitamin B12 deficiency forming 54.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency was more in hypertensive group accounting for 71.4%, which was statistically significant. Most of the vitamin B12 deficiency patients had diabetes duration >10 years. Most of the vitamin B12 deficient patients were taking metformin therapy for longer years (≥10 years and in higher dose (>2 g/day. Most of the vitamin B12 deficient diabetes patients were overweight forming 52.5% of the total. CONCLUSION Longer duration of diabetes increases the risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency on metformin therapy. The higher dose of metformin intake had inverse relation with vitamin B12 levels. Longer duration of metformin intake causes vitamin B12 deficiency and hence should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency and can be supplemented with vitamin B12.

  9. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  10. Reduced metastasis of transgenic mammary cancer in urokinase-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Lund, L.R.; Rygaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    A prominent phenotype of plasmin deficiency in mice is reduced metastasis in the MMTV-PymT transgenic breast cancer model. Proteolytically active plasmin is generated from inactive plasminogen by one of 2 activators, uPA or tPA. We now find that uPA deficiency alone significantly reduces metastasis...... >7-fold in the MMTV-PymT model. We studied a cohort of 55 MMTV-PymT transgenic mice, either uPA-deficient or wild-type controls. Tumor incidence, latency, growth rate and final primary tumor burden were not significantly affected by uPA deficiency. In contrast, average lung metastasis volume...

  11. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, Jan Willem R.; Wong, Kwok H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is also believed that several epigenetic factors have an influence on the development of LHON. Methods: A case series was observed. Results: Three

  12. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  13. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  14. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyan......Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy...... with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  15. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  16. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 μmol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 μg/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 μg/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  17. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, Michael, E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 10041 Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 {mu}mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 {mu}g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 {mu}g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  18. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  19. Low levels of vitamin B12 can persist in the early resettlement of refugees: symptoms, screening and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Hanifi, Hoda; Giri, Gauri; Leahy, Catherine; Lorimer, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Many refugees have vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. It has been assumed that deficiency would be predictable from macrocytosis or symptoms, and borderline levels would improve after a period of resettlement in countries rich with animal-source foods. We explored B12 levels and symptoms soon after the refugees' arrival and 4-8 months after settlement in Australia. Newly arrived refugees aged >18 years (n = 136) were tested for vitamin B12 and haematological indices. They also completed a language-validated questionnaire, which they repeated 4-8 months after arrival. B12 levels were reassessed in patients with levels ≤240 pmol at baseline. We found that 21 participants (15%) had low levels of B12 
(≤150 pmol/L) and 65 (48%) had borderline B12 levels 
(151-240 pmol/L). There was no relationship between B12 level and mean corpuscular volume, ferritin or symptoms. Borderline B12 levels persisted in 64% of participants at follow-up and deficiency developed in 11%. B12 levels cannot be predicted from macrocytosis or symptoms, and may not 'self-correct' after resettlement. Health assessments for newly arrived refugees should include B12 measurement and those with borderline levels should be followed up.

  20. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  1. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consistently demonstrating the powerful use of logical reason- ing where it was customary to abandon such approaches. Barton further says, "We were taught to think that mechanism had nothing to do with 'real' Chemistry. With one lecture, Wood- ward showed us the contrary." Vitamin B12 is a large and complex molecule ...

  2. Production of vitamin B12 and labeled vitamin B12 by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ghorbanzadeh Mashkani, S.; Tajer Mohammad Ghazvini, P.; Nazari, A.; Aflakee, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of labeled vitamin B 12 with one strain of actinomycet in a novel synthetic medium by batch fermentation method was investigated. After releasing vitamin B 12 from microbial cells, the solution containing cobalamin analogues was fixed on amberlite XAD-4 exchanger and eluted by various solutions. Vitamin B 12 in the collected fractions were measured by HPLC method and also in order to confirm the existence of cobalamin compounds in the samples, TLC technique was used. In the optimal conditions, production of vitamin B 12 by this microorganism was 1456μg/1. The best recoveries of vitamin B 12 from the column were obtained when the column was eluted by ethanol followed by acetone. The R f , values for cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, produced by this microorganism were the same as the standard values of R f . The desorption of labeled vitamine B 12 was carried out by different eluants, including acetone, ethanol (absolute), ethanol 25% and deionized water. The activity of labeled vitamin B 12 was 8.55, 6.90, 0.79, 5.75 Bq/ml, respectively. Therefore, the total specific activity of 21.99 Bq/ml was obtained for labeled vitamin B 12 .

  3. [Vitamin B12 levels in the patient population attending an urban health centre in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Shelly, M

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin B 12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B 12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B 12 values obtained. A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted on a sample consisting of 5,531 patients from Barajas Health Primary Centre, Madrid, between 2008 and 2012, and on whom a blood test was performed for any reason, with values of vitamin B 12 . A deficiency was found in 9.1% (SD 2.3) of the patients, of whom 49.4% were less than 65 years. The deficiencies were associated (P<.001, 95% CI) with age, dementia, changes in blood red cell counts, memory, and with the taking of metformin and proton pump inhibitors (P=.007). The prevalence of vitamin B 12 deficiency in our served population is similar in patients older and younger than 65 years. The extended screening was relevant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12...

  5. Combined vitamin B-12 and balanced protein-energy supplementation affect homocysteine remethylation in the methionine cycle in pregnant south Indian women of low vitamin B-12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-quality dietary protein intake and vitamin B-12 deficiency could interact to decrease methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates during pregnancy, and may affect epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. The objective of this randomized, partially open-labeled intervention trial was...

  6. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing...

  7. Vitamin B12 and eicosanoids in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 was not detected in the house fly, Musca domestica, which apparently cannot interconvert propionate and succinate. In contrast, the termite readily interconverts succinate and methylmalonate, and contains high amounts of vitamin B 12 . The intestinal bacteria were the major source of vitamin B 12 in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. The presence of arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosatrienoic acid (20:3,n-6) at low levels in adult male and female house flies was demonstrated by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After injection, over 80% of 20:4 was rapidly incorporated into the phospholipid (PL) fraction. Over 80% of the sequestered 20:4 was in the 2-position of PLs. The 20:4 was injected into the insect or was included in the diet prior to administration of [ 3 H] 20:4; large amounts of radioactivity were recovered in the triacylglycerol and free fatty acid fractions. Arachidonic acid (20:4) injected into house flies was rapidly converted to prostaglandins, and was also catabolized rapidly. Radiolabeled 20:4 injected into the hemolymph was incorporated into the reproductive tissues of male insects. About 2.1% of the total radioactivity from [ 3 H] 20:4 injected into males just prior to mating was transferred to females during mating

  8. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (ppasture-based diet. Supplementation increased concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum but did not improve liveweight gains. Under this calf rearing system, vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely to occur prior to weaning, and vitamin B12 supplementation is unlikely to increase growth rates of grazing calves when concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum are > 90 pmol/L.

  9. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  10. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a Chinese family with distinct skin lesions refractory to vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S H; Sourial, N A; Lu, K C; Hsueh, E J

    1994-01-01

    Two brothers in a Chinese family with selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 associated with proteinuria (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome) presented with widespread mottled skin pigmentation, termed poikiloderma. In contrast to anaemia, this pigmentary disturbance remained unresponsive to vitamin B12 replacement. This is different from the reported hyperpigmentation sometimes seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is reversible following treatment. As far as is known, an irreversible and persistent...

  11. PD-L1 Deficiency within Islets Reduces Allograft Survival in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ma

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation may potentially cure type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, immune rejection, especially that induced by the alloreactive T-cell response, remains a restraining factor for the long-term survival of grafted islets. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 is a negative costimulatory molecule. PD-L1 deficiency within the donor heart accelerates allograft rejection. Here, we investigate whether PD-L1 deficiency in donor islets reduces allograft survival time.Glucose Stimulation Assays were performed to evaluate whether PD-L1 deficiency has detrimental effects on islet function. Islets isolated from PDL1-deficient mice or wild- type (WT mice (C57BL/6j were implanted beneath the renal capsule of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Blood glucose levels and graft survival time after transplantation were monitored. Moreover, we analyzed the residual islets, infiltrating immune cells and alloreactive cells from the recipients.PD-L1 deficiency within islets does not affect islet function. However, islet PD-L1 deficiency increased allograft rejection and was associated with enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration and recipient T-cell alloreactivity.This is the first report to demonstrate that PD-L1 deficiency accelerated islet allograft rejection and regulated recipient alloimmune responses.

  12. Correlations between maternal, breast milk, and infant vitamin B12 concentrations among mother-infant dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Pry Veng, Cambodia: an exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal a...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  14. New method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Nathan; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method for the radioactive determination of vitamin B12 in a sample solution of serum in which a radioactive tracer of vitamin B12 and the vitamin B12 of the serum compete with respect to an intrinsic factor of limited linking capacity. The free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free vitamin B12 of the serum are separated from the intrinsic factor and from the radioactive vitamin B12 and from the serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, before the radioactivity is measured against standard values. The method consists in separating the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 of the intrinsic factor and portions of radioactive and serum vitamin B12 linked to this factor, by adding an adequate quantity of bentonite to adsorb the free radioactive vitamin B12 and free serum vitamin B12 so that the intrinsic factor surface floating solution in association with the linked radioactive vitamin B12 and the linked serum vitamin B12 may be physically isolated from the solid bentonite that has adsorbed the free radioactive vitamin B12 and the free serum vitamin B12 [fr

  15. Vitamin B12 in metformin-treated diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Brazil Vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos usando metformina: um corte transversal no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Nervo; Adriano Lubini; Fabiana Viegas Raimundo; Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber; Carine Leite; Leonardo Moura Fischer; Tania Weber Furlanetto

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency and the factors associated with serum vitamin B12 levels in a sample of metformin-treated Brazilian diabetic patients. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low (< 125 pmol/L) in 10 patients (6.9%) and possibly low (125 - 250 pmol/L) in 53 patients (36.8%). Serum vitamin B12 levels were negatively associated with age (B = -3.17; β= -0.1...

  16. Measurement of FA and VitB12 in serum by TRFIA and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinhong; Wang Huimin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between diseases and the quantity of folic acid(FA) and vitamine B 12 (VitB 12 ) in serum, the quantity of FA and VitB 12 in serum was measured by TR- FIA. The results showed that the levels of FA and VitB 12 in 68 controlled subjects were 20.13±5.72 nmol/L and 240.45±58.23 pmol/L respectively. The levels of FA and VitB 12 in 6 patients with megaloblastic anemia, 26 with medium-terminal gestation femineity, 7 with liver cirrhosis, 10 with gastric ulcerand 31 with cerebral infarction were significant lower than those in the control group. The level of FA in 24 with malignant hematopathy and 57 with malignant tumor was significantly lower but VitB 12 between the 31 patients with iron deficiency anemia and 12 with CAA and the control group. The amount of the FA in 9 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and 42 blood donors were lower than that in the control. The determination of FA and VitB 12 levels may be quite significant in the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of diseases. Laboratories should establish the reference values which fit the locals specifically. (authors)

  17. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  18. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.; Johnson, A.A.; Walters, C.S.; Greene, E.J.; Lindsey, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B 12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B 12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  19. The need for a sufficient number of low level sera in comparisons of different serum vitamin B12 assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.; Kock, H.W. de; Meulendijk, P.N.; Schmidt, N.A.; Schopman, W.; Tertoolen, J.F.W.; Voogd, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eight radiochemical methods for the assay of vitamin B 12 in serum were compared with the microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 using 198 individual sera of patients. There was a good agreement between the results of most samples with some kits and the microbiological assay. However, especially in the sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients large discrepancies between the results could occur. These variations were due to both the kits used and the performance of the assays in different laboratories. A sufficient number of non-pooled sera of vitamin B 12 -deficient patients should be included in investigations to validate radiochemical methods. (Auth.)

  20. Vitamin B12 in metformin-treated diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Brazil Vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos usando metformina: um corte transversal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nervo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency and the factors associated with serum vitamin B12 levels in a sample of metformin-treated Brazilian diabetic patients. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low (OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos brasileiros tratados com metformina e os fatores associados aos níveis séricos de vitamina B12. MÉTODO: Corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 144 pacientes foram incluídos. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram baixos (< 125 pmol/L em 10 pacientes (6,9% e possivelmente baixos (125 - 250pmol/L em 53 pacientes (36,8%. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram associados negativamente à idade (B = -3,17; β = -0,171; p = 0,037 e à duração do uso de metformina (B = -33,36; β= -0,161; p = 0,048 e positivamente com a ingestão estimada de vitamina B12 (B = 67,96; β = 0,249; p = 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos tratados com metformina. Pacientes mais velhos, em uso de metformina há muito tempo e com ingestão baixa de vitamina B12 estão provavelmente mais predispostos a essa deficiência.

  1. Caspase-1 deficiency in mice reduces intestinal triglyceride absorption and hepatic triglyceride secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, J.A. van; Stienstra, R.; Vroegrijk, I.O.C.M.; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Salvatori, D.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Kersten, S.; Tack, C.J.; Netea, M.G.; Smit, J.W.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-1 is known to activate the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, it can cleave other substrates, including proteins involved in metabolism. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency in mice strongly reduces high-fat diet-induced weight gain, at least partly caused by

  2. Caspase-1 deficiency reduces intestinal and hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Janna A.; Stienstra, Rinke; Hooiveld, Guido; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Rensen, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activity regulates the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency strongly reduces high fat diet-induced adiposity although the mechanism is still unclear.

  3. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  4. Radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanchi, X.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    2000-01-01

    Research on the radiolysis of vitamins is of considerable interest since these compounds are important nutritional constituents in foods and in dietetic supplements. In spite of these considerations there are few data and very often difficult to compare for the radiolytic behavior of vitamins. In this work we focused our attention on to the study of the radiolysis of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) in solid state and in aqueous solutions. The procedure was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a linear function of the dose. The G of decomposition for a 1x10 -5 M solution was 3.3. In the solid state the vitamin was very stable towards the irradiation in the conditions used in this study with a G=2.1x10 -3 . A study made with Serratia marcescens as a microbiological contaminant showed that at the sterilization dose there is a destruction of the vitamin in aqueous solution. In the solid state the degree of decomposition was 7%. (author)

  5. C. elegans MRP-5 Exports Vitamin B12 from Mother to Offspring to Support Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Huimin; Ponomarova, Olga; Giese, Gabrielle E; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-03-20

    Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase to produce the anabolic methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase to catabolize the short-chain fatty acid propionate. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, maternally supplied vitamin B12 is required for the development of offspring. However, the mechanism for exporting vitamin B12 from the mother to the offspring is not yet known. Here, we use RNAi of more than 200 transporters with a vitamin B12-sensor transgene to identify the ABC transporter MRP-5 as a candidate vitamin B12 exporter. We show that the injection of vitamin B12 into the gonad of mrp-5 deficient mothers rescues embryonic lethality in the offspring. Altogether, our findings identify a maternal mechanism for the transit of an essential vitamin to support the development of the next generation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful public health action to reduce the incidence of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Robert John; McGee, Eleanor; Debelle, Geoff D; Mather, Ian; Shaw, Nicholas J

    2012-11-01

    In response to a resurgence of symptomatic cases of vitamin D deficiency in a high-risk predominantly ethnic minority population, a programme of universal rather than targeted vitamin D supplementation was begun with a public awareness campaign about the importance of vitamin D. To evaluate the effectiveness of this programme in reducing case numbers. Cases of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in children under 5 years resident in a primary care trust catchment area presenting at local hospitals were identified through laboratory records of low vitamin D levels which were cross-checked against medical records to confirm the diagnosis. Comparisons were made of the case incidence rate, level of public knowledge and vitamin supplement uptake rate at the onset of the programme in 2005 and 4 years later. The number of cases of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in those under 5 years fell by 59% (case incidence rate falling from 120/100 000 to 49/100 000) despite the supplement uptake rate rising only to 17%. Public awareness of vitamin D deficiency rose to near universal levels. A programme of universal rather than targeted Healthy Start vitamin D supplementation for pregnant and lactating women and young children has led to a substantial decrease in cases of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in a high-risk population. Supplementation was also started at a younger age than in the national programme. This approach has implications for the delivery of vitamin D supplementation programmes in similar populations.

  7. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  8. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Grebowiec, Philip; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-04-02

    There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12) status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be "unnatural" products. The use of B-12 fortified food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the influence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortified food. A five year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortified in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. A significant decrease (p vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. B-12 fortified products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  9. The Singer's and the Clinician's Perspective on Vitamin B12 Treatment for Vocal Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Lava, Christian X; Hapner, Edie R; O'Dell, Karla; Reder, Lindsay; Johns, Michael M

    2018-01-03

    There is a belief among vocalists that there are voice benefits from vitamin B 12 treatment. Yet there are no previous reports regarding vitamin B 12 effects on voice. To assess the prevalence of vitamin B 12 use among singers and their beliefs regarding vitamin B 12 therapy. Anonymous online survey administered to singers, singing-teachers, speech-language pathologists, and laryngologists. A total of 192 participants completed the surveys; 128 singers (68 singing-teachers, 30 speech-language pathologists) and 64 laryngologists. Among singers, 12% have perceived voice benefits from vitamin B 12 treatment taken for any reason. Four percent used vitamin B 12 for voice benefits; all perceived voice benefits as a result. The leading voice benefits were improved stamina, reduced effort, confidence, and control. Nineteen percent of the singers would recommend vitamin B 12 treatment to a friend; 15% of the singing-teachers would recommend it to a student. Among laryngologists, 33% been asked by a singer to prescribe vitamin B 12 for voice benefits; 9% have prescribed it in the past. Yet only 3% would you recommend it to a patient. When asked "Do you believe vitamin B 12 therapy improves vocal performance?" 31% of the singers responded "Yes," compared with none in the laryngologists. When asked "Do you think the singing community believes vitamin B 12 therapy improves vocal performance?" 26% of the singers responded "Yes," compared with 53% of the laryngologists (P = 0.0002). There is a discrepancy between the singers' and the laryngologists' beliefs regarding vocal benefits perceived by vitamin B 12 . Blinded randomized trials are required to verify or refute this belief. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be...

  11. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B 12 in biological specimens is described. A sample containing folate and vitamin B 12 is contacted with 125 I-folate and 57 Co-vitamin B 12 and their respective specific binders. After separation of the bound and free portions, the radioactivity in the portions is counted and the amounts of folate and vitamin B 12 then determined from standard curves. (U.K.)

  12. Metabolic distress in lipid & one carbon metabolic pathway through low vitamin B-12: a population based study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Joshi, Shipra; Yadav, Suniti; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2018-04-25

    Dyslipidemia and hyper-homocysteinemia are the major independent risk factors of cardio vascular disease. Deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12 are associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship of homocysteine and its associated dietary determinant levels (Folate and Vitamin B-12) with lipids and obesity parameters (WC, BMI, WHR) in North Indian population. The participants were recruited under a major government funded project through household survey covering 15 villages of Haryana, India. Participants were both males and females, between age group 30-65 years, from a north Indian community. Initially 1634 individuals were recruited, of which 1374 were considered for analysis as they were not found to be on any kind of medication for high blood pressure, CAD, diabetes or any other disorder, and had no missing data. 5 mL of intravenous blood sample was collected after obtaining written informed consent from the participants. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were estimated through Immulite 1000 by chemi-luminescence technique. Triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-C were estimated by spectrophotometry technique using commercial kits. The values for LDL and VLDL were calculated using Friedwald's equation. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) was measured over light clothing. Statistical analysis for data was performed using SPSS 16.0 version. All the lipid indices, except HDL, showed a trend of negative correlation with homocysteine after controlling for confounders, though not significant. No association was found between obesity (WC, BMI, WHR) and homocysteine in the present study. Vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and low HDL. Folate was found to have significantly reduced risk for high TC & LDL. The "hcy-lipid" hypothesis does not seem to be complementing in the present studied population. The

  13. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. Production Of Vitamin B 12 By Streptomyces Fulvissimus | Atta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty five of actinomycete isolates were screened for vitamin B12 production by growing on soybean meal medium fortified with cobalt. Only one AZ-Z-88 among nine actinomycete cultures was found to produce significantly higher yield of the vitamin B12 (64.57 ug/ml). Determination of vitamin B12 production was carried out ...

  16. Urinary reducing substances in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Kader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal cholestasis due to citrin deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in SLC25A13 gene. Mutations in this gene have a relatively high prevalence in East-Asian races compared to European or Afro-Caribbean races. Mutations in both sets of chromosomes often lead to self-limiting early onset cholestasis and growth retardation referred as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD. It is associated with a wide range of metabolic derangements including galactosemia and aminoacidemia, which can be detected on the newborn blood spot screening. Galactose, being a reducing sugar, can also be detected using Clinitest® (Clinitest® Reagent Tablets, Bayer Corporation, Diagnostics Division, Elkhart, IN, USA, a common screening test used in the work up of metabolic and hepatic diseases. In the western population classical galactosemia is often suspected when non glucose reducing substances are detected in the urine of infants with cholestasis. However in East-Asian races the prevalence of classical galactosemia is very low whilst galactosemia due to altered uridine diphosphate-galactose epimerase activity in NICCD is more common. We present a case of NICCD in an East-Asian infant with cholestasis and persistently positive urine reducing substance. Conclusion: NICCD deficiency should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any infant with cholestasis and persistently positive urinary reducing substances.

  17. Simultaneous radioassay of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1979-01-01

    A serum sample is heated at an alkaline pH to release folate and vitamin B 12 from endogenous binders. A simultaneous radioassay for folate and vitamin B 12 is effected by contacting the sample with binder for folate, binder for vitamin B 12 , folote labeled with one radioactive isotope and vitamin B 12 labeled with another radioacitve isotope, followed by separation of bound and free portions, and determination of the radioactivity of at least one of the portions. The amounts of folate and vitamin B 12 present in the sample may be determined from standard curves

  18. Mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy and complex II deficiency associated with a recessive SDHB mutation with reduced penetrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ardissone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease involving complex II is rare among respiratory chain deficiencies and its genetic cause remains often unknown. Two main clinical presentations are associated with this biochemical defect: mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and susceptibility to tumors. Only one homozygous SDHB mutation has been described in a patient with mitochondrial disorder. We report here two sisters, who presented highly different phenotypes (neurological impairment with leukoencephalopathy vs. asymptomatic status and harbored the same homozygous SDHB mutation, suggesting reduced penetrance.

  19. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  20. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  1. Voltammetry of Vitamin B12 on a thin self-assembled monolayer modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 showed three reduction waves at a thin self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoacetic acid modified gold electrode at 0.21, 0.16, -0.41 V in a 0.01 mol l -1 HCl solution at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The overall electrode reaction followed an ECE mechanism, leading to a total two-electron exchange. The predominant Co(III) form was reduced directly at 0.21 V by a one-electron transfer accomplished by CN - cleavage into the cyanocob(II)alamin. The latter species then equilibrated with the base-off B 12r , which was immediately reduced into B 12s at 0.16 V. The wave at -0.41 V might be a catalytic hydrogen wave. The cathodic peak currents at 0.21 V were controlled by the diffusion of Vitamin B 12 . On the base of its diffusion behavior, the semi-derivate voltammetric method for the detection of Vitamin B 12 was presented. The semi-derivate voltammetric peak current of the wave at 0.21 V was linear with the content of Vitamin B 12 in the range of 4.0 x 10 -9 to 4.0 x 10 -5 mol l -1 . The detection limit was 1.0 x 10 -9 mol l -1 . The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the content of Vitamin B 12 in pharmaceutical preparations

  2. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in normal population of northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madood-ul-mannan; Anwar, M.; Saleem, M.; Waqar, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnosis of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency can not be made unless reference ranges of these vitamins in a given population are known. These serum levels depend upon the dietary intake of these vitamins which in turn depends upon the availability of foods containing these vitamins and the methods of cooking/processing. The latter vary in different populations. Therefore serum level of these vitamins would vary in different populations. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate were estimated by radioimmunoassay technique in 30 normal subjects of different age groups. The levels of vitamin B12 were found to be 215.2 pg/ml and that of folate 3.9 ng/ml. These values are much lower than those described for European population. It is therefore concluded that the cut off point of the levels of these vitamins should be different than the European figures. (author)

  3. Zinc deficiency with reduced mastication impairs spatial memory in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Kumiko; Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient oral microelements such as zinc and fully chewing of foods are required to maintain cognitive function despite aging. No knowledge exists about the combination of factors such as zinc deficiency and reduced mastication on learning and memory. Here we show that tooth extraction only in 8-week-old mice did not change the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus or spatial memory parameters. However, tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation strongly impaired spatial memory and led to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. The impaired spatial performance in the zinc-deficient only (ZD) mice also coincided well with the increase in the astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. After switching both zinc-deficient groups to a normal diet with sufficient zinc, spatial memory recovered, and more time was spent in the quadrant with the goal in the probe test in the mice with tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation (EZD) compared to the ZD mice. Interestingly, we found no differences in astrocytic density in the CA1 region among all groups at 22 weeks of age. Furthermore, the escape latency in a visible probe test at all times was longer in zinc-deficient groups than the others and demonstrated a negative correlation with body weight. No significant differences in escape latency were observed in the visible probe test among the ZD, EZD, and normal-fed control at 4 weeks (CT4w) groups in which body weight was standardized to that of the EZD group, or in the daily reduction in latency between the normal-fed control and CT4w groups. Our data showed that zinc-deficient feeding during a young age impairs spatial memory performance and leads to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region and that zinc-sufficient feeding is followed by recovery of the impaired spatial memory along with changes in astrocytic density. The combination of the two factors, zinc deficiency

  4. Radioisotope binding capacity of serum for folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in hematologic and rheumatologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringelhann, B.; Revicky, A.; Arvai, I.; Megyeri, A.; Goemoer, B.; Josfay, L.; Csak, E.

    1980-01-01

    Folic acid, vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from hemic and rheumatic diseases, resp. Compared to the controls the folic acid levels were lower in some cases, the deficiency of folic acid absorption and distribution possibly being caused by the disease. Vitamin B 12 was only slightly decreased. In ankylosing spondylitis the transferrin level was similar to that of the controls, but in rheumatoid arthritis and in patients suffering from various diseases it was increased

  5. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  6. [Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulat, O; Rey, F; Mooser, V

    2012-10-31

    Biological markers for the status of vitamins B12 and D: the importance of some analytical aspects in relation to clinical interpretation of results When vitamin B12 deficiency is expressed clinically, the diagnostic performance of total cobalamin is identical to that of holotranscobalamin II. In subclinical B12 deficiency, the two aforementioned markers perform less well. Additional analysis of a second, functional marker (methylmalonate or homocysteine) is recommended. Different analytical approaches for 25-hydroxyvitamin D quantification, the marker of vitamin D deficiency, are not yet standardized. Measurement biases of up to +/- 20% compared with the original method used to establish threshold values are still observed.

  7. Racial difference in serum Vitamin B12 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, H.G.; Bowman, H.S.; Wells, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the serum Vitamin B 12 concentrations of 49 black and 49 white healthy adults demonstrate a significantly higher mean serum Vitamin B 12 level in blacks when compared to whites. The reason for this difference appears to be genetic, although environmental factors may also be involved. It is suggested that clinical laboratories should establish their own separate reference values of serum Vitamin B 12 for blacks and whites in order to prevent misinterpretation of test results

  8. NutriPhone: a mobile platform for low-cost point-of-care quantification of vitamin B12 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jess; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often asymptomatic early in its course; however, once it manifests, particularly with neurological symptoms, reversal by dietary changes or supplementation becomes less effective. Access to easy, low cost, and personalized nutritional diagnostics could enable individuals to better understand their own deficiencies as well as track the effects of dietary changes. In this work, we present the NutriPhone, a mobile platform for the analysis of blood vitamin B12 levels in 15 minutes. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a competitive-type lateral flow test strip that quantifies vitamin B12 levels. To achieve the detection of sub-nmol/L physiological levels of vitamin B12, our assay incorporates an innovative "spacer pad" for increasing the duration of the key competitive binding reaction and uses silver amplification of the initial signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of our NutriPhone system by quantifying physiologically relevant levels of vitamin B12 and performing human trials where it was used to accurately evaluate blood vitamin B12 status of 12 participants from just a drop (~40 μl) of finger prick blood.

  9. Electron addition to alkyl cobalamins, coenzyme B12 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.N.R.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of dilute solutions of methyl and ethyl cobalamins and coenzyme B 12 in dilute solutions (D 2 O+CD 3 OD) to 60 Co #betta#-rays at 77 K gave a single broad feature in the free-spin region assigned to electron-capture species with the excess electron largely confined to a π* corrin orbital. On warming above 77 K the methyl derivative gave a novel species with spectral features characteristic of an unpaired electron in the Co(dsub(x 2 -y 2 )) orbital. The other two substrates gave spectra due to Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) both on warming and after photolyses with visible light. The acetyl derivative gave an electron-capture species whose e.s.r. spectrum was characteristic of an electron in the Co(dsub(z 2 )) orbital, which on warming above 77 K changed to the normal Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) spectrum. The cyano derivative (vitamin B 12 ) gave electron addition into the Co(dsub(z 2 )) orbital, as evidenced by the large hyperfine coupling to 13 C from 13 CN ligands. On annealing, cyanide ions were lost irreversibly, Bsub(12r) being detected by e.s.r. spectroscopy. In contrast, the dicyano derivative on electron addition at 77 K gave a species containing only one 13 CN ligand. Hence in this case one CN - ligand was lost at 77 K, with no return of the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand. These results are discussed in terms of a new mechanism for electron-addition to alkyl cobalamins. (author)

  10. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: De Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, Wulffelé MG, van der Kolk J, Bets D, Verburg J, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 May 20;340:c2181.

  11. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  12. Cortactin deficiency is associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment but increased vascular permeability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Michael; Lai, Frank P L; Zarbock, Alexander; Kläver, Ruth; Polaschegg, Christian; Schulte, Dörte; Weich, Herbert A; Oelkers, J Margit; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2011-08-01

    Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. In this study, we analyzed in vivo whether these processes require the function of the actin nucleation-promoting factor cortactin. Basal vascular permeability for high molecular weight substances was enhanced in cortactin-deficient mice. Despite this leakiness, neutrophil extravasation in the tumor necrosis factor-stimulated cremaster was inhibited by the loss of cortactin. The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). The defect in neutrophil extravasation was caused by enhanced rolling velocity and reduced adhesion in postcapillary venules. Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β(2)-integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. A signaling process known to be critical for the formation of ICAM-1-enriched contact areas and for transendothelial migration, the ICAM-1-mediated activation of the GTPase RhoG was blocked in cortactin-deficient endothelial cells. Our results represent the first physiological evidence that cortactin is crucial for orchestrating the molecular events leading to proper endothelial barrier function and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

  13. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent

  14. Influence of vitamin b-12 complex injection (eldervit-12) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin B-12 complex injection on the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate injection and Vitamin B-12complex injection containing 2500mcg ...

  15. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  16. Simultaneous radiodetermination of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a method to simultaneously investigate or determine folate and vitamin B12. The differentiation between both compounds is based on the use of radioactive tracers; a radio-iodized folic acid is used as folate tracer; vitamin B12 can be labelled with 57 Co. (VJ) [de

  17. Vitamin B12 supplementation and cognitive scores in geriatric patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender

  18. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Nader

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD. Methods We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran. Results After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females. Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01. However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 ± 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87. Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01. Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Conclusion We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (bellow 45 years old – especially in men -and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  19. Fluphenazine reduces proteotoxicity in C. elegans and mammalian models of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD is associated with hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is caused by the proteotoxic effect of a mutant secretory protein that aberrantly accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. Recently we developed a model of this deficiency in C. elegans and adapted it for high-content drug screening using an automated, image-based array scanning. Screening of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds identified fluphenazine (Flu among several other compounds as a drug which reduced intracellular accumulation of mutant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ. Because it is representative of the phenothiazine drug class that appears to have autophagy enhancer properties in addition to mood stabilizing activity, and can be relatively easily re-purposed, we further investigated its effects on mutant ATZ. The results indicate that Flu reverses the phenotypic effects of ATZ accumulation in the C. elegans model of ATD at doses which increase the number of autophagosomes in vivo. Furthermore, in nanomolar concentrations, Flu enhances the rate of intracellular degradation of ATZ and reduces the cellular ATZ load in mammalian cell line models. In the PiZ mouse model Flu reduces the accumulation of ATZ in the liver and mediates a decrease in hepatic fibrosis. These results show that Flu can reduce the proteotoxicity of ATZ accumulation in vivo and, because it has been used safely in humans, this drug can be moved rapidly into trials for liver disease due to ATD. The results also provide further validation for drug discovery using C. elegans models that can be adapted to high-content drug screening platforms and used together with mammalian cell line and animal models.

  20. Absorption of vitamin B12 and effect of pancreatic juice on gastric vitamin B12 binder in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaki, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    The effect of pancreatic juice on vitamin B 12 absorption was studied in dogs. It was found that dog gastric juice as well as pancreatic juice contain vitamin B 12 binding proteins which differ in the elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose columns, the former being eluted at much lower sodium chloride concentrations. When radio-active vitamin B 12 was fed or instilled in the proximal bowel and vitamin B 12 recovered at different bowel levels, it was found that vitamin B 12 -protein complex behaved like gastric juice binder in the proximal bowel and like pancreatic binder in the distal. In vitro digestion of gastric binder with pancreatic juice altered vitamin B 12 -protein complex in such a way that elution pattern became similar to that of pancreatic juice. It was also shown that the change was not due to transfer of vitamin B 12 from gastric binder to pancreatic binder. Trypsin digestion had similar effect on gastric binder, and Sephadex G-200 gelfiltration demonstrated reduction in the molecular size. In the doz, vitamin B 12 first bound to gastric binder undergoes chemical changes in the bowel and becomes a readily absorbable form in the distal bowel. (auth.)

  1. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

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    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub

  2. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults.

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    Costa, Marcelo F; Goulart, Paulo R K; Barboni, Mirella T S; Ventura, Dora F

    2016-01-01

    In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic) and a blue-yellow (tritanopic). We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u', 0.4689 v' in the CIE 1976) consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD = 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous) and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD = 3.7 years) normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F 2,100 = 18.80; p color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  3. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

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    Marcelo Fernandes Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic and a blue-yellow (tritanopic. We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u’, 0.4689 v’ in the CIE 1976 consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD= 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD= 3.7 years normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F2,100= 18.80; p< 0.0001 and white-yellow (F2,100= 22.10; p< 0.0001 thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  4. Rasal2 deficiency reduces adipogenesis and occurrence of obesity-related disorders

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    Xiaoqiang Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of additional regulatory factors involved in the onset of obesity is important to understand the mechanisms underlying this prevailing disease and its associated metabolic disorders and to develop therapeutic strategies. Through isolation and analysis of a mutant, we aimed to uncover the function of a Ras-GAP gene, Rasal2 (Ras protein activator like 2, in the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders and to obtain valuable insights regarding the mechanism underlying the function. Methods: An obesity-based genetic screen was performed to identify an insertional mutation that disrupts the expression of Rasal2 (Rasal2PB/PB mice. Important metabolic parameters, such as fat mass and glucose tolerance, were measured in Rasal2PB/PB mice. The impact of Rasal2 on adipogenesis was evaluated in the mutant mice and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with Rasal2 siRNA. Ras and ERK activities were then evaluated in Rasal2-deficient preadipocytes or mice, and their functional relationships with Rasal2 on adipogenesis were investigated by employing Ras and MEK inhibitors. Results: Rasal2PB/PB mice showed drastic decrease in Rasal2 expression and a lean phenotype. The mutant mice displayed decreased adiposity and resistance to high-fat diet induced metabolic disorders. Further analysis indicated that Rasal2 deficiency leads to impaired adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, while Rasal2 deficiency resulted in increased activity of both Ras and ERK in preadipocytes, reducing Ras, but not ERK, suppressed the impaired adipogenesis. Conclusions: Rasal2 promotes adipogenesis, which may critically contribute to its role in the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders and may do so by repressing Ras activity in an ERK-independent manner. Keywords: Ras, ERK, Ras-GAP, Glucose tolerance, High-fat diet, Diabetes

  5. SEC24A deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol through reduced PCSK9 secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, He; Bajaj, Kanika; Zhang, Pengcheng; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Ma, Danjun; Bai, Yongsheng; Liu, Hui-Hui; Adams, Elizabeth; Baines, Andrea; Yu, Genggeng; Sartor, Maureen A; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Zhengping; Lin, Jiandie; Young, Stephen G; Schekman, Randy; Ginsburg, David

    2013-01-01

    The secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells packages cargo proteins into COPII-coated vesicles for transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. We now report that complete genetic deficiency for the COPII component SEC24A is compatible with normal survival and development in the mouse, despite the fundamental role of SEC24 in COPII vesicle formation and cargo recruitment. However, these animals exhibit markedly reduced plasma cholesterol, with mutations in Apoe and Ldlr epistatic to Sec24a, suggesting a receptor-mediated lipoprotein clearance mechanism. Consistent with these data, hepatic LDLR levels are up-regulated in SEC24A-deficient cells as a consequence of specific dependence of PCSK9, a negative regulator of LDLR, on SEC24A for efficient exit from the ER. Our findings also identify partial overlap in cargo selectivity between SEC24A and SEC24B, suggesting a previously unappreciated heterogeneity in the recruitment of secretory proteins to the COPII vesicles that extends to soluble as well as trans-membrane cargoes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00444.001 PMID:23580231

  6. Vitamin B-12 and Depression: Are They Related?

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    ... al. Nutritional aspects of depression. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2015;37:1029. Vitamin B12. Natural Medicines. https:// ... Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for ...

  7. [Evaluation of the needs and possibilities of increasing the vitamin B12 content in diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Cholewa, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 belongs to the biologically active compounds related to cyanocobalamin group. The bioavailability of B12 from different food products varies considerably, for example from the chicken meat it ranges from 61 to 66%, from fish meat is 42%, and from eggs below 9% only. The deficiency of vitamin B12 could easily be overcame by the appropriate diet or food supplements. The aim of this study was to characterize the fortified with vitamin B12 food products available on the market and to assess the possibilities of increasing the intake of this vitamin by including such products into the daily diet. The study was carried out in winter 2011, at eleven Warsaw supermarkets. Information about food products was based on label declarations. There were 220 products fortified with vitamin B12 from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, fruit juice, non-alcoholic beverages, cereals bars, candies, instant cocoa and tea, margarine, as well as soya products. Breakfast cereals (40%) and juice, non-alcoholic beverages (30%) were the largest groups. RESULTS. The highest amount of vitamin B12 was found in some candies (max. 4,5 microg/100 g) and instant tea (max. 3,75 microg/100g). The lowest amount was found in some fruit beverages (min. 0,12 microg/100 g). There is possibility of increasing the vitamin B12 intake by consuming various fortified products: for instance a glass of soya drink (20,8% RDA), a cup of soya pudding (15%), a glass of instant tea (14%), apple juice (12,5%), a cereal bar (10%), a bowl of corn flakes (9,8%) or a slice of bread with margarine (7,5%). The intake of one average portion of chosen food products fortified with vitamin B12 provides about 0,18-0,5 microg (7,5-20,8% Polish RDA for adults). The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition, it is especially recommendable to vegetarian and elderly people.

  8. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using 57 CoB12 and 51 CrCl 3 , the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%)

  9. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of MgB12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adasch, Volker; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ludwig, Thilo; Vojteer, Natascha; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of MgB 12 were synthesized from the elements in a Mg/Cu melt at 1600deg. C. MgB 12 crystallizes orthorhombic in space group Pnma with a=16.632(3)A, b=17.803(4)A and c=10.396(2)A. The crystal structure (Z=30, 5796 reflections, 510 variables, R 1 (F)=0.049, wR 2 (I)=0.134) consists of a three dimensional net of B 12 icosahedra and B 21 units in a ratio 2:1. The B 21 units are observed for the first time in a solid compound. Mg is on positions with partial occupation. The summation reveals the composition MgB 12.35 or Mg 0.97 B 12 , respectively. This is in good agreement with the value of MgB 11.25 as expected by electronic reasons to stabilize the boron polyhedra B 12 2- and B 21 4-

  11. Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline J; Young, Sera L; Achando, Beryl S; Allen, Lindsay H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Dentz, Holly N; Hampel, Daniela; Kiprotich, Marion C; Lin, Audrie; Null, Clair A; Nyambane, Geoffrey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Stewart, Christine P

    2016-05-01

    Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1-6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-expressed breast milk 1 min into a feeding after 90 min observed nonbreastfeeding. The Household Hunger Scale was used to measure hunger, food intake in the previous week was measured with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and vitamin B-12 intake was estimated by using 24-h dietary recall. An animal-source food score was based on 10 items from the FFQ (range: 0-70). Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was measured with the use of a solid-phase competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and was modeled with linear regression. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlated observations at the cluster level. Median (IQR) vitamin B-12 intake was 1.5 μg/d (0.3, 9.7 μg/d), and 60% of women consumed hunger prevalence was 27%; the animal-source food score ranged from 0 to 30 item-d/wk. Hunger and recent animal-source food and vitamin B-12 intake were not associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Maternal age was negatively associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Most lactating Kenyan women consumed less than the estimated average requirement of vitamin B-12 and had low breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. We recommend interventions that improve vitamin B-12 intake in lactating Kenyan women to foster maternal health and child development. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01704105. © 2016

  12. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, A M J; Crowe, F L; Lloyd-Wright, Z; Sanders, T A B; Appleby, P N; Allen, N E; Key, T J

    2010-09-01

    Vegans, and to a lesser extent vegetarians, have low average circulating concentrations of vitamin B12; however, the relation between factors such as age or time on these diets and vitamin B12 concentrations is not clear. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations between omnivores, vegetarians and vegans and to ascertain whether vitamin B12 concentrations differed by age and time on the diet. A cross-sectional analysis involving 689 men (226 omnivores, 231 vegetarians and 232 vegans) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort. Mean serum vitamin B12 was highest among omnivores (281, 95% CI: 270-292 pmol/l), intermediate among vegetarians (182, 95% CI: 175-189 pmol/l) and lowest among vegans (122, 95% CI: 117-127 pmol/l). In all, 52% of vegans, 7% of vegetarians and one omnivore were classified as vitamin B12 deficient (defined as serum vitamin B12 vegan diet and serum vitamin B12. In contrast, folate concentrations were highest among vegans, intermediate among vegetarians and lowest among omnivores, but only two men (both omnivores) were categorized as folate deficient (defined as serum folate Vegans have lower vitamin B12 concentrations, but higher folate concentrations, than vegetarians and omnivores. Half of the vegans were categorized as vitamin B12 deficient and would be expected to have a higher risk of developing clinical symptoms related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  13. Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Zeder, C.; Muthayya, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Chaouki, N.; Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Overweight is increasing in transition countries, while iron deficiency remains common. In industrialized countries, greater adiposity increases risk of iron deficiency. Higher hepcidin levels in obesity may reduce dietary iron absorption. Therefore, we investigated the association

  14. Efficacy of folate and vitamin B12 in lowering homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients

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    Azadibakhsh Nassim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of supplementation with high dose folic acid with and with-out vitamin B 12 in lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in hemodialysis (HD patients, we studied 36 HD patients randomized into four groups according to the received thera-peutic regimen: group I (only folic acid (FA, 5 mg/day, group II (FA, 5 mg/day + vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day group III (only FA, 15 mg/day, group IV (FA, 15 mg/day, vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day for a period of 8 weeks. Plasma tHcy and serum FA and vitamin B 12 levels were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intakes were assessed during the study period. At baseline, 27.8% of the patients had normal levels of tHcy and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After supplementation, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group I and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups II, III and IV respectively, which was only significant in group IV (P= 0.014. The patients did not show any significant changes in serum folic acid, but a significant change in serum vitamin B 12 in group IV (P= 0.006. Percentage of patients reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group IV than in the reference group (group I. No corre-lations were found between changes of plasma tHcy levels and dietary intakes. We conclude that oral supplementation with 15 mg/day folic acid together with 1 mg/day of vitamin B 12 is effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients. These supplements also have a desirable effect on serum folic acid and vitamin B12.

  15. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinow, R.M.; Carmel, R.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients

  16. Reduced Functional Connectivity of Default Mode and Set-Maintenance Networks in Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Pacheco-Colón

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is an X-chromosome linked urea cycle disorder (UCD that causes hyperammonemic episodes leading to white matter injury and impairments in executive functioning, working memory, and motor planning. This study aims to investigate differences in functional connectivity of two resting-state networks--default mode and set-maintenance--between OTCD patients and healthy controls.Sixteen patients with partial OTCD and twenty-two control participants underwent a resting-state scan using 3T fMRI. Combining independent component analysis (ICA and region-of-interest (ROI analyses, we identified the nodes that comprised each network in each group, and assessed internodal connectivity.Group comparisons revealed reduced functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN of OTCD patients, particularly between the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC node and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL, as well as between the ACC/mPFC node and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC node. Patients also showed reduced connectivity in the set-maintenance network, especially between right anterior insula/frontal operculum (aI/fO node and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG, as well as between the right aI/fO and ACC and between the ACC and right SFG.Internodal functional connectivity in the DMN and set-maintenance network is reduced in patients with partial OTCD compared to controls, most likely due to hyperammonemia-related white matter damage. Because several of the affected areas are involved in executive functioning, it is postulated that this reduced connectivity is an underlying cause of the deficits OTCD patients display in this cognitive domain.

  17. Rhoh deficiency reduces peripheral T-cell function and attenuates allogenic transplant rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porubsky, Stefan; Wang, Shijun; Kiss, Eva

    2011-01-01

    better graft function. This effect was independent of the lower T-cell numbers in Rhoh-deficient recipients, because injection of equal numbers of Rhoh-deficient or control T cells into kidney transplanted mice with SCID led again to a significant 60% reduction of rejection. Mixed lymphocyte reaction...... deficiency in a clinically relevant situation, in which T-cell inhibition is desirable. In murine allogenic kidney transplantation, Rhoh deficiency caused a significant 75% reduction of acute and chronic transplant rejection accompanied by 75% lower alloantigen-specific antibody levels and significantly...

  18. Characterization of extracellular vitamin B12 producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains and assessment of the probiotic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Yang, Lanlan; Yu, Yue; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-11-01

    We investigated extracellular vitamin B 12 -producing Lactobacillus strains and their characteristics in tolerance to environmental stresses, gastric acid and bile salts. Two isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 and CY2, showed high extracellular B 12 production, 98±15μg/L and 60±9μg/L respectively. Extracellular B 12 from LZ95 were identified as adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin using a combination of solid phase extraction and reverse-phase HPLC, while that from CY2 was adenosylcobalamin. Both strains grew under environmental stresses, and LZ95 exhibited better tolerance to low temperature and high ethanol concentration. LZ95 also showed good viability when exposed to gastric acid (pH 2.0 and 3.0) and bile salts (0.3%) as well as good adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The viability of CY2 was significantly reduced under low pH and exposure to bile salt. Together, extracellular B 12 producer LZ95 with good probiotic properties might be a candidate for in situ B 12 fortification in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Papel da vitamina B12 na patogenia da mielose funicular

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    Horacio M. Canelas

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a absorção da vitamina B12 radioativa em 29 casos de mielose funicular. O diagnóstico baseou-se na clássica sintomatologia neu- rológica e na presença de acloridria gástrica e eventuais alterações hemato-lógicas. As manifestações neurológicas foram avaliadas de modo semiquan-titativo e correlacionadas com os resultados do teste de excreção urinária da vitamina B12. Não foi verificada correlação significante da absorção da vitamina B12, quer com a sintomatologia nuerológica total, quer com as síndromes periférica e funicular dorsal. Contudo, foi encontrada significante correlação negativa entre a síndrome piramidal e a absorção da vitamina B12. Os resultados são confrontados com o papel desempenhado pela vitamina B12 na síntese das bainhas de mielina e do ácido ribonuclêico, sendo salientada a importância dêste último para a vida das células nervosas e dos longos axônios.

  20. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  1. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Alec; Bolander-Gouaille, Christina

    2005-01-01

    We review the findings in major depression of a low plasma and particularly red cell folate, but also of low vitamin B12 status. Both low folate and low vitamin B12 status have been found in studies of depressive patients, and an association between depression and low levels of the two vitamins is found in studies of the general population. Low plasma or serum folate has also been found in patients with recurrent mood disorders treated by lithium. A link between depression and low folate has similarly been found in patients with alcoholism. It is interesting to note that Hong Kong and Taiwan populations with traditional Chinese diets (rich in folate), including patients with major depression, have high serum folate concentrations. However, these countries have very low life time rates of major depression. Low folate levels are furthermore linked to a poor response to antidepressants, and treatment with folic acid is shown to improve response to antidepressants. A recent study also suggests that high vitamin B12 status may be associated with better treatment outcome. Folate and vitamin B12 are major determinants of one-carbon metabolism, in which S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is formed. SAM donates methyl groups that are crucial for neurological function. Increased plasma homocysteine is a functional marker of both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Increased homocysteine levels are found in depressive patients. In a large population study from Norway increased plasma homocysteine was associated with increased risk of depression but not anxiety. There is now substantial evidence of a common decrease in serum/red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12 and an increase in plasma homocysteine in depression. Furthermore, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism that impairs the homocysteine metabolism is shown to be overrepresented among depressive patients, which strengthens the association. On the basis of current data, we suggest that oral doses of both folic acid (800 microg daily

  2. An observational study of vitamin b12 levels and peripheral neuropathy profile in patients of diabetes mellitus on metformin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kamesh; Jain, Anand; Rohatgi, Anurag

    A descriptive, observational study was completed in a tertiary care hospital between November 2014 and March 2016. Fifty consecutive patients of Type 2-Diabetes Mellitus who had been on metformin therapy for at least three months were included in our study. Several Parameters were compared with vitamin B12 levels and severity of peripheral neuropathy (using Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) and Nerve Conduction Velocity). These included the duration of diabetes, duration of metformin usage, dietary history, and HbA1c levels. Definite B12 deficiency was defined as B12peripheral neuropathy (r=0.40). The mean TCSS score was 6.8. The percentage of patients with mild neuropathy was 28%, with moderate neuropathy was 20% and severe neuropathy in 12% of the patients. The average duration of metformin use in patients without peripheral neuropathy was 5.5yrs whereas the average length of metformin use in patients with peripheral neuropathy was 10.4 yrs. Patients on long-term metformin therapy are at a high risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. Interval Screening for peripheral neuropathy is recommended for patients on metformin even if Vitamin B12 levels appear to be normal. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and ferritin levels in patients with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Acar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that disability due to migraine may be reduced with homocysteine-lowering treatment including folic acid and vitamin B12. In addition, recently the periaqueductal gray matter iron deposits have been found to be increased in migraine patients. There are few studies regarding vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine. The aims of this study was to measure vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine and compare them with the control group. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive newly diagnosed migraine patients who did not receive any vitamin supplement medication were enrolled. The study group consisted of 51 patients, suffering from migraine with aura (n= 23 and migraine without aura (n= 28. The control group consisted of 28 healthy participants without history of headache, anemia and vitamin supplement. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferin levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B12 and folic acid compared with the healthy controls (for vitamin B12; 215.6±133.7 pg/ml vs. 289.9±12 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.005; for folic acid; 6.74 ± 4.31 pg/ml vs. 8.47 ± 1.85 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.048. The vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (177.3 ± 139.2 pg/ml vs 252.5 ± 119.5 pg/ml, p=0.043. There were no differences in folic acid, ferritin, and transferritin levels between during attacks and in interictal period of patients with migraine (p>0.05. The ferritin levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (43.4 ± 41.1 mg/ml, vs 75.4 ± 51.7, mg/ml, p=0.018. CONCLUSION: Migraine patients had lower serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels than healthy subjects. These findings supported that vitamin B12

  4. Vitamin B12 absorption judged by measurement of holotranscobalamin, active vitamin B12: evaluation of a commercially available EIA kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2011-11-01

    Active vitamin B12 absorption is followed by an increase in holotranscobalamin (holoTC) upon loading with a high physiological dose of the vitamin (the CobaSorb test). This study evaluates the use of a newly launched EIA kit for measurement of holoTC (active B12) in relation to the CobaSorb test. Intra-assay imprecision and linearity of the EIA kit was examined, employing serum pools of increasing holoTC concentrations. For the CobaSorb test, holoTC was measured before and after loading with 3-times 9 μg of vitamin B12 employing both the in-house ELISA and the EIA kit (n=25). The EIA kit showed an intra-assay CV between 2.2% and 5.8% for holoTC values ranging from 21 to 80 pmol/L. Employing diluted serum samples resulted in spurious high values of holoTC. The EIA kit performed well in relation to the CobaSorb test and classified the patients studied as capable of absorbing vitamin B12 (n=10) or not (n=15), as did the in-house ELISA. The Active B12 (holoTC) EIA kit proved suitable for use with the CobaSorb test, but not for analysis of diluted serum samples.

  5. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwu Liu

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/- mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+, we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p0.82, p<0.01. Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord.

  6. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  7. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  8. Reducing small intestinal permeability attenuates colitis in the IL10 gene-deficient mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, M C; Madsen, K; Doyle, J; Meddings, J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Defects in the small intestinal epithelial barrier have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease but their role in the causation of disease is still a matter of debate. In some models of disease increased permeability appears to be a very early event. The interleukin 10 (IL10) gene-deficient mouse spontaneously develops colitis after 12 weeks of age. These mice have been shown to have increased small intestinal permeability that appears early in life. Furthermore, the development of colitis is dependent upon luminal agents, as animals do not develop disease if raised under germ-free conditions. Aims: To determine if the elevated small bowel permeability can be prevented, and if by doing so colonic disease is prevented or attenuated. Methods: IL10 gene-deficient (IL10−/−) mice) were treated with AT-1001 (a zonulin peptide inhibitor), a small peptide previously demonstrated to reduce small intestinal permeability. Small intestinal permeability was measured, in vivo, weekly from 4 to 17 weeks of age. Colonic disease was assessed at 8 weeks in Ussing chambers, and at 17 weeks of age inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase were measured in the colon. Colonic permeability and histology were also endpoints. Results: Treated animals showed a marked reduction in small intestinal permeability. Average area under the lactulose/mannitol time curve: 5.36 (SE 0.08) in controls vs 3.97 (SE 0.07) in the high-dose AT-1001 group, p<0.05. At 8 weeks of age there was a significant reduction of colonic mucosal permeability and increased electrical resistance. By 17 weeks of age, secretion of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) from a colonic explant was significantly lower in the treated group (25.33 (SE 4.30) pg/mg vs 106.93 (SE 17.51) pg/ml in controls, p<0.01). All other markers also demonstrated a clear reduction of colitis in the treated animals. Additional experiments were performed which demonstrated that AT-1001 was functionally active only in the small

  9. Possible Involvement of Hydrosulfide in B12-Dependent Methyl Group Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Toohey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several fields of investigation lead to the hypothesis that the sulfur atom is involved in vitamin B12-dependent methyl group transfer. To compile the evidence, it is necessary to briefly review the following fields: methylation, the new field of sulfane sulfur/hydrogen sulfide (S°/H2S, hydrosulfide derivatives of cobalamins, autoxidation of hydrosulfide radical, radical S-adenosylmethionine methyl transfer (RSMT, and methionine synthase (MS. Then, new reaction mechanisms for B12-dependent methyl group transfer are proposed; the mechanisms are facile and overcome difficulties that existed in previously-accepted mechanisms. Finally, the theory is applied to the effect of S°/H2S in nerve tissue involving the “hypomethylation theory” that was proposed 50 years ago to explain the neuropathology resulting from deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid. The conclusions are consistent with emerging evidence that sulfane sulfur/hydrogen sulfide may be beneficial in treating Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy Act... Social Security Number; and whether providing the Social Security Number is voluntary or mandatory. Do...

  11. The Ligand Substitution Reactions of Hydrophobic Vitamin B12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry ... The equilibrium constants, K, for the reaction of five-membered heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (the azoles imidazole, pyrazole and 1,2,4-triazole) with displacement of ... Keywords: Hydrophobic vitamin B12, cobalt corrinoids, equilibrium constants, solvent polarity, trans influence.

  12. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models.

  13. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  14. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Zwaluw, Nikita L. van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  15. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  16. Developmental Vitamin D (DVD) Deficiency Reduces Nurr1 and TH Expression in Post-mitotic Dopamine Neurons in Rat Mesencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Wei; Hammond, Luke Alexander; Cotter, Edmund; Osborne, Geoffrey William; Alexander, Suzanne Adele; Nink, Virginia; Cui, Xiaoying; Eyles, Darryl Walter

    2018-03-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as an important risk factor for schizophrenia. Our previous study using Sprague Dawley rats found that DVD deficiency disrupted the ontogeny of mesencephalic dopamine neurons by decreasing the mRNA level of a crucial differentiation factor of dopamine cells, the nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1). However, it remains unknown whether this reflects a reduction in dopamine cell number or in Nurr1 expression. It is also unclear if any particular subset of developing dopamine neurons in the mesencephalon is selectively affected. In this study, we employed state-of-the-art spinning disk confocal microscopy optimized for the imaging of tissue sections and 3D segmentation to assess post-mitotic dopamine cells on a single-cell basis in the rat mesencephalon at embryonic day 15. Our results showed that DVD deficiency did not alter the number, morphology, or positioning of post-mitotic dopamine cells. However, the ratio of Nurr1+TH+ cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) compared with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was increased in DVD-deficient embryos. In addition, the expression of Nurr1 in immature dopamine cells and mature dopamine neurons in the VTA was decreased in DVD-deficient group. Tyrosine hydroxylase was selectively reduced in SNc of DVD-deficient mesencephalon. We conclude that DVD deficiency induced early alterations in mesencephalic dopamine development may in part explain the abnormal dopamine-related behaviors found in this model. Our findings may have broader implications for how certain environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may shape the ontogeny of dopaminergic systems and by inference increase the risk of schizophrenia.

  17. Cobalt deficiency effects on trace elements, hormones and enzymes involved in energy metabolism of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Kirchgessner, M

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physiological consequences of long-term moderate cobalt deficiency in beef cattle, which have not hitherto been studied in detail. Cobalt deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals either a basal corn silage-based diet that was moderately low in cobalt (83 micrograms Co/kg), or the same diet supplemented with cobalt to a total of 200 micrograms per kg, for 43 weeks. Cobalt deficiency was induced, as judged by inappetance, diminished growth gain and a markedly reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver. The long-term cobalt deprivation which was primarily a combination of reduced feed intake and a tissue vitamin B12 deficiency did not show evidence of a significant dysfunction of energy metabolism. The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in liver remained unaffected by cobalt deficiency, nor was there a significant change in serum glucose level of cattle on the cobalt-deprived diet. However, analysis of thyroid hormone status indicated a slight reduction of type I thyroxine monodeiodinase activity in liver accompanied by a significant reduction of the triiodothyronine level in serum. The diminished liver vitamin B12 level resulted in significantly reduced folate level in this tissue, reduced concentrations of heme-depending blood parameters. Moreover cobalt deficiency or rather vitamin B12 deficiency was accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of the trace elements iron and nickel in liver. These results indicate that long-term moderate cobalt deficiency may induce a number of physiological changes in cattle, but a follow-up study, which excluded different feed levels by including a pair-fed control group, will be necessary to actually obtain the single effect of cobalt deficiency in cattle.

  18. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chebaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum. Canadian mothers (n = 124 consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69 were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI in pmol/L were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747, 452 (400, 504, and 506 (459, 552; in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687, 317 (256, 378, and 357 (312, 402. The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L: 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05; only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001.

  19. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexø, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. METHODS: Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. RESULTS: All infant...... formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows...... that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated....

  1. Modeling the reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandala, Gregory M; Smith, David M; Radom, Leo

    2010-05-18

    Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions with an exceptional selectivity that makes life itself possible. Understanding the factors responsible for this efficient catalysis is of utmost importance in our quest to harness the tremendous power of enzymes. Computational chemistry has emerged as an important adjunct to experimental chemistry and biochemistry in this regard, because it provides detailed insights into the relationship between structure and function in a systematic and straightforward manner. In this Account, we highlight our recent high-level theoretical investigations toward this end in studying the radical-based reactions catalyzed by enzymes dependent on coenzyme B(12) (or adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl). In addition to their fundamental position in biology, the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes represent a valuable framework within which to understand Nature's method of efficiently handling high-energy species to execute very specific reactions. The AdoCbl-mediated reactions are characterized by the interchange of a hydrogen atom and a functional group on adjacent carbon atoms. Our calculations are consistent with the conclusion that the main role of AdoCbl is to provide a source of radicals, thus moving the 1,2-rearrangements onto the radical potential energy surface. Our studies also show that the radical rearrangement step is facilitated by partial proton transfer involving the substrate. Specifically, we observe that the energy requirements for radical rearrangement are reduced dramatically with appropriate partial protonation or partial deprotonation or sometimes (synergistically) both. Such interactions are particularly relevant to enzyme catalysis, because it is likely that the local amino acid environment in the active site of an enzyme can function in this capacity through hydrogen bonding. Finally, our calculations indicate that the intervention of a very stable radical along the reaction pathway may inactivate the enzyme, demonstrating that sustained

  2. Tofacitinib ameliorates atherosclerosis and reduces foam cell formation in apoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaicun; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zunzhe; Yun, Tiantian; Wang, Chenchen; Wang, Huating

    2017-08-19

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory cardiovascular disease with high mortality worldwide. Tofacitinib (CP-690,550), an oral small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis. However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Tofacitinib on atherogenic diet (ATD)-induced atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis-prone apoE-/- mice were fed with ATD and treated with or without Tofacitinib through intragastrical administration (10 mg kg -1 day -1 ) for 8 weeks. Our results showed that Tofacitinib did not change plasma lipids, while significantly reduced the levels of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. It also significantly attenuated atherosclerotic plaque lesion in the aortic root and macrophages contained in plaque as shown with Mac2 immuno-staining. Peritoneal macrophages (PMC) were separated from apoE-/- mice fed with 8-week ATD, and then subjected to inflammation tests. Flow cytometry analysis of F4/80 and CD206 and mRNA levels of M1 and M2 macrophages markers showed that M1 macrophages decreased while M2 macrophages increased in Tofacitinib treated group. Expressions of other inflammatory genes also indicated an anti-inflammatory status in mice treated with Tofacitinib. Ox-LDL was used to induce foam cell formation from PMC in wild type mice, and the results displayed a reduced formation of foam cells and decreased inflammation in mice with Tofacitinib administration (1 μM). The mRNA and protein levels of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), a key gene involved in cholesterol efflux, remarkably increased, while it was absence of alterations in scavenger receptors expression. Therefore, we demonstrated that Tofacitinib could attenuate atherosclerosis and foam cells formation by

  3. Experimental Demyelination and Axonal Loss Are Reduced in MicroRNA-146a Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nellie A; Molnar, Viktor; Szilagyi, Gabor T; Elkjaer, Maria L; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Okarmus, Justyna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Thygesen, Eva K; Palkovits, Miklos; Gallyas, Ferenc; Larsen, Martin R; Lassmann, Hans; Benedikz, Eirikur; Owens, Trevor; Svenningsen, Asa F; Illes, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination. MicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination. Demyelination, axonal loss, changes in number of oligodendrocytes, OPCs, and macrophages/microglia was compared by histology/immunohistochemistry between KO and WT mice. Differential expression of target genes and proteins of miR-146a was analyzed in the transcriptome (4 × 44K Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarray) and proteome (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) of CPZ-induced de- and remyelination in WT mice. Levels of proinflammatory molecules in the corpus callosum were compared in WT versus KO mice by Meso Scale Discovery multiplex protein analysis. miR-146a was increasingly upregulated during CPZ-induced de- and remyelination. The absence of miR-146a in KO mice protected against demyelination, axonal loss, body weight loss, and atrophy of thymus and spleen. The number of CNP + oligodendrocytes was increased during demyelination in the miR-146a KO mice, while there was a trend of increased number of NG2 + OPCs in the WT mice. miR-146a target genes, SNAP25 and SMAD4, were downregulated in the proteome of demyelinating corpus callosum in WT mice. Higher levels of SNAP25 were measured by ELISA in the corpus callosum of miR-146a KO mice, but there was no difference between KO and WT mice during demyelination. Multiplex protein analysis of the corpus callosum lysate revealed upregulated TNF-RI, TNF-RII, and CCL2 in the WT mice in contrast to KO mice. The number of Mac3 + and Iba1 + macrophages/microglia was

  4. Experimental Demyelination and Axonal Loss Are Reduced in MicroRNA-146a Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie A. Martin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe cuprizone (CPZ model of multiple sclerosis (MS was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination.MethodsMicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination. Demyelination, axonal loss, changes in number of oligodendrocytes, OPCs, and macrophages/microglia was compared by histology/immunohistochemistry between KO and WT mice. Differential expression of target genes and proteins of miR-146a was analyzed in the transcriptome (4 × 44K Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarray and proteome (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of CPZ-induced de- and remyelination in WT mice. Levels of proinflammatory molecules in the corpus callosum were compared in WT versus KO mice by Meso Scale Discovery multiplex protein analysis.ResultsmiR-146a was increasingly upregulated during CPZ-induced de- and remyelination. The absence of miR-146a in KO mice protected against demyelination, axonal loss, body weight loss, and atrophy of thymus and spleen. The number of CNP+ oligodendrocytes was increased during demyelination in the miR-146a KO mice, while there was a trend of increased number of NG2+ OPCs in the WT mice. miR-146a target genes, SNAP25 and SMAD4, were downregulated in the proteome of demyelinating corpus callosum in WT mice. Higher levels of SNAP25 were measured by ELISA in the corpus callosum of miR-146a KO mice, but there was no difference between KO and WT mice during demyelination. Multiplex protein analysis of the corpus callosum lysate revealed upregulated TNF-RI, TNF-RII, and CCL2 in the WT mice in contrast to KO mice. The number of Mac3+ and

  5. Reducción de órganohalogenados mediada por vitamina B12 y citrato de titanio (III en microemulsiones bicontinuas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorean Madriz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the electrochemical behavior of both the titanium citrate and the vitamin B12 in bicontinuous microemulsions for the reduction of halogenated organic compounds. The reduced form of titanium citrate complex, Ti(III-cit, prepared by electrolysis, transforms, in a homogeneous way, the vitamin B12 to their reduced (B12r and super reduced (B12s forms; the latter form (B12s easily promotes dehalogenation of organic compounds in microemulsion. Benzyl chloride, for example, was dehalogenated in a short period of time transforming the original amount between 46 and 85%; on the other hand, lindane disappeared completely when it was in the presence of vitamin B12 while no effect was observed for 1,2–dichloroethane

  6. The tinker, tailor, soldier in intracellular B12 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma; Gherasim, Carmen; Padovani, Dominique

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of eight discrete genetic complementation groups among patients with inherited cobalamin disorders provided early insights into the complexity of a cofactor-processing pathway that supports only two known B(12)-dependent enzymes in mammals. With the identification of all eight genes now completed, biochemical interrogations of their functions have started and are providing novel insights into a trafficking pathway involving porters that tinker with and tailor the active cofactor forms and editors that ensure the fidelity of the cofactor loading process. The principles of sequestration and escorted delivery of a rare and reactive organometallic cofactor that are emerging from studies on B(12) might be of general relevance to other cofactor trafficking pathways.

  7. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, J.A.; Hall, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B 12 (B 12 , cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  8. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  9. Efficacy of vitamin B12 combined with metformin in treating type 2 diabetes and its effect on homocysteine

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    Na Geng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe and analyze Vitamin B12 combined with metformin treat for the type 2 diabetes, which affect the homocysteine. Methods: 92 cases of type 2 diabetes were selected in our hospital for treatment and study from October 2014 to April 2014. All patients were randomly divided into control group (46 cases and observation group (46 cases. Treatment of patients in the control group: patients were treated by metformin; observation group patients: Take vitamin B12 to patients treated with metformin. Finally, patient outcomes, as well as vitamin B12 and homocysteine in patients before and after treatment were analyzed. Results: Before treatment, all patients vitamin B12 content difference comparisons were no significant differences (P>0.05. Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the vitamin B12 content of the observation group were significantly higher in patients with vitamin B12 levels of data compared to each other there was a significant difference (P0.05. Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the homocysteine content of the observation group were not significantly reduced, the control group of patients with homocysteine increased significantly (P<0.000 1. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 combined with metformin in type 2 diabetes treatment, can significantly increase a patient's body to control homocysteine, while the treatment effect is obvious, clinical recommendations widely implemented.

  10. Importância da vitamina B12 na avaliação clínica do paciente idoso = Importance of vitamin B12 screening in clinical evaluation of elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futterleib, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Conclusão: A investigação da deficiência de vitamina B12 é um procedimento importante na avaliação clínica do paciente idoso, já que o diagnóstico precoce pode evitar distúrbios neurológicos e hematológicos, bem como proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida ao paciente

  11. Oral vitamin C supplementation reduces erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients with functional iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tanjim; DeVita, Maria V; Michelis, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Functional iron deficiency (FID) is a major cause of persistent anemia in dialysis patients and also contributes to a suboptimal response to erythropoietin (Epo) administration. Vitamin C acts as an enzyme cofactor and enhances mobilization of the ferrous form of iron to transferrin thus increasing its bioavailability. High-dose intravenous vitamin C has been shown to decrease the Epo requirement and improve hemoglobin levels in previous studies. This study assessed the effect of low-dose oral vitamin C on possible reduction in Epo dose requirements in stable hemodialysis patients with FID. This prospective study included 22 stable hemodialysis patients with FID defined as transferrin saturation (T sat) 100 mcg/L with Epo requirement of ≥4000 U/HD session. Patients received oral vitamin C 250 mg daily for 3 months. Hemoglobin, iron and T sat levels were recorded monthly. No one received iron supplementation during the study period. There was a significant reduction in median Epo dose requirement in the 15 patients who completed the study, from 203.1 U/kg/week (95 % CI 188.4-270.6) to 172.8 U/kg/week (95 % CI 160.2-214.8), (P = 0.01). In the seven responders, there was 33 % reduction in Epo dose from their baseline. Despite adjustment of Epo dose, the mean hemoglobin level was significantly increased from 10.1 ± 0.6 to 10.7 ± 0.6 mg/dL (P = 0.03). No adverse effects of oral vitamin C were observed. Daily low-dose oral vitamin C supplementation reduced Epo dose requirements in hemodialysis patients with FID. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and the lack of measurements of vitamin C and oxalate levels. Despite concerns regarding oral vitamin C absorption in dialysis patients, this study indicates vitamin C was well tolerated by all participants without reported adverse effect.

  12. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, Petra J. G.; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Roord, John J.; van Furth, A. Marceline

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  13. Efficacy of a low-dose ferric-EDTA in reducing iron deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem in Tanzania especially among children under the age of five years. In malaria holoendemic areas, control of anaemia by supplementation with iron has been reported to increase serious adverse events. The World Health Organization recommends that, programs to control ...

  14. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves García-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.

  15. Biotin deficiency in the rat as a model for reduced pyruvate carboxylase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Jacobus

    1978-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis are a contribution to the study of Leigh's disease (Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy, SNE). SNE resembles in neuropathology Wernicke's encephalopathy, which is caused by thiamine deficiency. The scope and the purpose of the present study is given

  16. Experimental demyelination and axonal loss are reduced in MicroRNA-146a deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie A.; Molnar, Viktor; Szilagyi, Gabor T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differ...

  17. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Poll, van der T.; Florquin, S; Akira, S; Takeda, K; Roord, J.J.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  18. Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Ernst, Benjamin Philipp; Nuber, Franziska; Passmann, Sandra; Schäfer, Dieter; Steinke, Verena; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Plotz, Guido; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela

    2014-01-24

    Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated. Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively. MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability. These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be related to SPTAN1.

  19. Quantifying the Electrocatalytic Turnover of Vitamin B12-Mediated Dehalogenation on Single Soft Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Compton, Richard G

    2016-02-12

    We report the electrocatalytic dehalogenation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by single soft nanoparticles in the form of Vitamin B12 -containing droplets. We quantify the turnover number of the catalytic reaction at the single soft nanoparticle level. The kinetic data shows that the binding of TCE with the electro-reduced vitamin in the Co(I) oxidation state is chemically reversible. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tissue distribution of oral vitamin B12 is influenced by B12 status and B12 form: an experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Linda Skibsted; Fedosov, Sergey; Juul, Christian Bredgaard

    2017-01-01

     k in/k out) in all organs except for the kidney, where the ratio decreased considerably. Twenty-four-hour accumulation of labelled Cbl showed that HOCbl > CNCbl (liver) and CNCbl > HOCbl (brain, muscle and plasma). CONCLUSIONS......PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) is the dominating Cbl form in food, whereas cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is common in vitamin pills and oral supplements. This study compares single-dose absorption and distribution of oral HO[57Co]Cbl and CN[57Co]Cbl in Cbl-deficient and normal rats. METHODS: Male......, heart, spleen, intestines, skeletal muscle, 24-h urine and faeces were collected, and the content of [57Co]Cbl was measured. Endogenous Cbl in tissues and plasma was analysed by routine methods. RESULTS: Mean endogenous plasma-Cbl was sevenfold lower in deficient vs. normal rats (190 vs. 1330 pmol/L, p...

  1. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  2. The clinical observation on the treatment of irradiated injuries of the skin and mucosa by using vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hui; Li, Jianchao; Xie, Xiuzhen; Chen, Quiang; Yang, Yongguang

    1987-01-01

    A clinical study of the treatment of irradiated skin and mucosa injuries (40 cases). This paper introduces two methods of treating irradiated injuries of the skin and mucosa. By using Vitamin B 12 both externaly and applying in the mouth, we can stop the pain promptly, reduce the exudation, improve the growth of granulation and the healing of the ulcer especialy in the early acute stage. In addition Vitamin B 12 produces good effects on other kinds of skin injuries. Shu BaiKe considered that the skin had the same function as the liver, which includes various kinds of enzymes. We thought that using Vitamin B 12 externaly on skin injuries, it would be absorbed and join the RNA synthesizing process in the liver and skin. After applying Vitamin B 12 , the RNA content rose. The results of animal experiments coincided with clinial treatment. It clarified the mechanisms needed to treat the third degree acute irradiated skin injuries. (author)

  3. Pregnant women of South Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.

  4. Thrombospondin1 deficiency reduces obesity-associated inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obese mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhang Li

    Full Text Available Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance. Advanced studies suggest that obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in inflamed adipose tissue. A recent study suggests a positive correlation of TSP1 with obesity, adipose inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of TSP1 on obesity and insulin resistance is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role of TSP1 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance by using TSP1 knockout mice.Male TSP1-/- mice and wild type littermate controls were fed a low-fat (LF or a high-fat (HF diet for 16 weeks. Throughout the study, body weight and fat mass increased similarly between the TSP1-/- mice and WT mice under HF feeding conditions, suggesting that TSP1 deficiency does not affect the development of obesity. However, obese TSP1-/- mice had improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity compared to the obese wild type mice. Macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue were reduced in obese TSP1-/- mice. Consistent with the local decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, systemic inflammation was also decreased in the obese TSP1-/- mice. Furthermore, in vitro data demonstrated that TSP1 deficient macrophages had decreased mobility and a reduced inflammatory phenotype.TSP1 deficiency did not affect the development of high-fat diet induced obesity. However, TSP1 deficiency reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and protected against obesity related inflammation and insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that TSP1 may play an important role in regulating macrophage function and mediating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. These data suggest that TSP1 may serve as a

  5. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A patient with an inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism (cblF) detected by newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Christine M; Brebner, Alison; Watkins, David; Geraghty, Michael T; Chan, Alicia; Rosenblatt, David S

    2013-07-01

    A neonate, who was found to have an elevated C3/C2 ratio and minimally elevated propionylcarnitine on newborn screening, was subsequently identified as having the rare cblF inborn error of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism. This disorder is characterized by the retention of unmetabolized cobalamin in lysosomes such that it is not readily available for cellular metabolism. Although cultured fibroblasts from the patient did not show the expected functional abnormalities of the cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, they did show reduced synthesis of the active cobalamin cofactors adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Mutation analysis of LMBRD1 established that the patient had the cblF disorder. Treatment was initiated promptly, and the patient showed a robust response to regular injections of cyanocobalamin, and she was later switched to hydroxocobalamin. Currently, at 3 years of age, the child is clinically well, with appropriate development. Adjusted newborn screening cutoffs in Ontario allowed detection of a deficiency that might not have otherwise been identified, allowing early treatment and perhaps preventing the adverse sequelae seen in some untreated patients.

  7. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    OpenAIRE

    García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...

  8. Crif1 Deficiency Reduces Adipose OXPHOS Capacity and Triggers Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Yong Kyung; Choi, Min Jeong; Tadi, Surendar; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Jung, Saet Byel; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jo, Young Suk; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin Man; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Park, Ki Cheol; Lee, Jung Uee; Kong, Young Yun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chung, Jongkyeong; Shong, Minho

    2013-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been proposed as an etiological mechanism underlying insulin resistance. However, the initiating organ of OXPHOS dysfunction during the development of systemic insulin resistance has yet to be identified. To determine whether adipose OXPHOS deficiency plays an etiological role in systemic insulin resistance, the metabolic phenotype of mice with OXPHOS–deficient adipose tissue was examined. Crif1 is a protein required for the intramitochondrial production of mtDNA–encoded OXPHOS subunits; therefore, Crif1 haploinsufficient deficiency in mice results in a mild, but specific, failure of OXPHOS capacity in vivo. Although adipose-specific Crif1-haploinsufficient mice showed normal growth and development, they became insulin-resistant. Crif1-silenced adipocytes showed higher expression of chemokines, the expression of which is dependent upon stress kinases and antioxidant. Accordingly, examination of adipose tissue from Crif1-haploinsufficient mice revealed increased secretion of MCP1 and TNFα, as well as marked infiltration by macrophages. These findings indicate that the OXPHOS status of adipose tissue determines its metabolic and inflammatory responses, and may cause systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:23516375

  9. MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis without Reducing Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea Csak

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis.Wild type (WT and miR-155-deficient (KO mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD or -supplemented (MCS control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed.MCD diet resulted in steatohepatitis and increased miR-155 expression in total liver, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Steatosis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were attenuated in miR-155 KO mice after MCD feeding. In contrast, miR-155 deficiency failed to attenuate inflammatory cell infiltration, nuclear factor κ beta (NF-κB activation and enhanced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1 in MCD diet-fed mice. We found a significant attenuation of apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and reduction in collagen and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA levels in miR-155 KO mice compared to WTs on MCD diet. In addition, we found attenuation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, a pro-fibrotic cytokine; SMAD family member 3 (Smad3, a protein involved in transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ signal transduction and vimentin, a mesenchymal marker and indirect indicator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in miR-155 KO mice. Nuclear binding of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ a miR-155 target involved in EMT was significantly increased in miR-155 KO compared to WT mice.Our novel data demonstrate that miR-155 deficiency can reduce steatosis and fibrosis without decreasing inflammation in steatohepatitis.

  10. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Greibe

    Full Text Available Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12 is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12. Here we test commercially available infant formulas.Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC.All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest.This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated.

  11. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated.

  12. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...... and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides...... of how Cbl indirectly induces ligand-receptor coupling. Finally, the comparison of Ca(2+)-binding CUB domains and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-type A modules suggests that the electrostatic pairing of a basic ligand arginine/lysine residue with Ca(2+)-coordinating acidic aspartates...

  13. Deficiency of CRTAP in non-lethal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta reduces collagen deposition into matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, M; Barnes, A M; Gallanti, A; Cabral, W A; Viglio, S; Weis, M A; Makareeva, E; Eyre, D; Leikin, S; Antoniazzi, F; Marini, J C; Mottes, M

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency of any component of the ER-resident collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex causes recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The complex modifies the α1(I)Pro986 residue and contains cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) and cyclophilin B (CyPB). Fibroblasts normally secrete about 10% of CRTAP. Most CRTAP mutations cause a null allele and lethal type VII OI. We identified a 7-year-old Egyptian boy with non-lethal type VII OI and investigated the effects of his null CRTAP mutation on collagen biochemistry, the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex, and collagen in extracellular matrix. The proband is homozygous for an insertion/deletion in CRTAP (c.118_133del16insTACCC). His dermal fibroblasts synthesize fully overmodified type I collagen, and 3-hydroxylate only 5% of α1(I)Pro986. CRTAP transcripts are 10% of control. CRTAP protein is absent from proband cells, with residual P3H1 and normal CyPB levels. Dermal collagen fibril diameters are significantly increased. By immunofluorescence of long-term cultures, we identified a severe deficiency (10-15% of control) of collagen deposited in extracellular matrix, with disorganization of the minimal fibrillar network. Quantitative pulse-chase experiments corroborate deficiency of matrix deposition, rather than increased matrix turnover. We conclude that defects of extracellular matrix, as well as intracellular defects in collagen modification, contribute to the pathology of type VII OI. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  15. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  16. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne MJ; Crowe, Francesca L; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Sanders, Thomas AB; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vegans and to a lesser extent vegetarians have low average circulating concentrations of vitamin B12; however, the relation between factors such as age or time on these diets and vitamin B12 concentrations is not clear. The objectives were to investigate differences in serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations between omnivores, vegetarians and vegans and to ascertain whether vitamin B12 concentrations differed by age and time on the diet. Subjects/Methods A cross-sectional analysis involving 689 men (226 omnivores, 231 vegetarians and 232 vegans) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort. Results Mean serum vitamin B12 was highest among omnivores (281, 95% CI: 270-292 pmol/l), intermediate in vegetarians (182, 95% CI: 175-189 pmol/l), and lowest in vegans (122, 95% CI: 117-127 pmol/l). Fifty-two percent of vegans, 7% of vegetarians and one omnivore were classified as vitamin B12 deficient (defined as serum vitamin B12 vegan diet and serum vitamin B12. In contrast, folate concentrations were highest among vegans, intermediate in vegetarians, and lowest in omnivores, but only two men (both omnivores) were categorised as folate deficient (defined as serum folate Vegans have lower vitamin B12 concentrations, but higher folate concentrations, than vegetarians and omnivores. Half of the vegans were categorised as vitamin B12 deficient and would be expected to have a higher risk of developing clinical symptoms related to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:20648045

  17. Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Metformin Compared to those Never on Metformin: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data about the effect of metformin use on serum Vitamin B12 levels in type 2 diabetes patients from India. We studied serum Vitamin B12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were receiving metformin and compared them to those never treated with metformin. A total of 183 patients ("metformin" group 121, "no metformin" group 63) of type 2 diabetes from the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary care center in North India were studied. Serum Vitamin B12 levels were measured in all patients. Diabetic neuropathy symptom score (DNS) and diabetic neuropathy examination score (DNE) were used to assess peripheral neuropathy while hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were used to assess anemia. The serum Vitamin B12 levels were 267.7 ± 194.4 pmol/l in metformin group and 275.1 ± 197.2 pmol/l in the no metformin group ( P = 0.78). When adjusted for duration of diabetes, metformin use was associated with a 87.7 ± 37.7 pmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI], -162.1--3.3, P = 0.02) lower serum Vitamin B12 levels. No significant increase in the prevalence of neuropathy (DNS and DNE scores), anemia, or MCV was found in the Vitamin B12 deficient patients (levels <150 pmol/l) as compared to patients with normal Vitamin B12. However, serum Vitamin B12 levels for the entire cohort were higher by 12.2 ± 3.0 pmol/l (95% CI 6.4-18.0, P < 0.001) for every 1 year increase in the duration of diabetes. Metformin use was associated with a lower serum Vitamin B12 levels when adjusted for duration of diabetes. Increasing duration of diabetes was associated with higher serum Vitamin B12 levels.

  18. Oral supplementation of vitamin E reduces osmotic fragility of RBC in hemolytic anemic patients with G6PD deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, N.; Begum, S.; Begum, N.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has role in maintaining the integrity of red cell member by preventing oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus protects cells from oxidative stress-induced lysis in G6PD deficiency. Changes in osmotic fragility of RBC and some absolute values like MCV, MCH and MCHC may occur in haemolytic anaemic patients with G6PD deficiency. To observe the effects of vitamin E supplementation on these changes in order to evaluate the role of this anti-oxidant vitamin in reducing chronic haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. A total number of 102 subjects with age ranged of 5 to 40 years of both sexes were included in the study. Among them 68 were G6PD enzyme deficient patients, of whom 34 were in supplemented group (experimental group) and 34 were in non-supplemented group (control group). The supplemented group received vitamin E supplementation for 60 consecutive days at a dose of 800 IU/day for adult and 400 IU/day for children ?12 years (in a divided dose, i.e., 4 times daily). Age and sex matched 34 apparently healthy subjects with normal blood G6PD level were taken to observe the base line data (healthy control) and also for comparison. All the G6PD deficient patients were selected from Out Patient Department (OPD) of Haematology, Banglabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2005 to June 2006 and all healthy subjects were selected from personal contact. Blood G6PD level, osmotic fragility of RBC were measured by standard techniques and MCV, MCH, and MCHC were obtained by calculation. All the parameters were measured on day 1 of their first visit and also were on day 60 in deficient group. Data were compared among the deficient groups, also in supplemented group just before and after supplementation. Analysis of data was done by appropriate statistical method. Mean starting and completing points of osmotic fragility of RBC were significantly higher but MCV. MCH, MCHC were significantly lower in patients suffering from

  19. Survival curves of irradiated glutathione-deficient human fibroblasts: indication of a reduced enhancement of radiosensitivity by oxygen and misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Malaise, E.P.; Revesz, L.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts derived from a patient with 5-oxoprolinuria are genetically deficient in glutathione synthetase. This deficiency causes a dramatic decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. The radiosensitivity of GSH deficient cells (GSH) was studied in vitro using colony forming ability as an endpoint. Cells with normal GSH level, obtained from the healthy brother of the patient, were used as controls. When irradiated in 95% air-5% CO 2 , GSH - cells are slightly but significantly more radiosensitive than GSH + controls (dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.2). When irradiated in argon, the survival curve of GSH - cells indicates an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of 1.5 when compared to the curve obtained in oxic conditions. The OER of control cells in the same conditions is 2.9. In comparison to results obtained in air, 100% oxygen moderately increases the radiosensitivity of GSH + cells (DMF 1,23), while it has a very low effect on GSH - cells (DMF 1.06). These results suggest that intracellular GSH plays an essential protective role in hypoxia, its effect is reduced in air and practically disappears in 100% oxygen. When cells are incubated with 8 mM misonidazole 2 hours before irradiation, the drug has a much greater sensitizing effect on GSH + cells (DMF 2.33) than on GSH - cells (DMF 1.55). The results demonstrate that intracellular GSH level plays a major role in the response of hypoxic cells, irradiated either alone or in the presence of misonidazole

  20. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  1. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO 3 , MMA III or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1 +/+ and Ogg1 −/− genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1 +/+ and Ogg1 −/− cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1 −/− cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1 −/− cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency—exacerbates this phenomenon. The

  2. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  3. β5i subunit deficiency of the immunoproteasome leads to reduced Th2 response in OVA induced acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Volkov

    Full Text Available The immunoproteasome subunit β5i has been shown to play an important role in Th1/Th17 driven models of colitis and arthritis. However, the function of β5i in Th2 dependent diseases remains enigmatic. To study the role of β5i in Th2-driven pathology, β5i knockout (KO and control mice were tested in different models of experimental allergic asthma. β5i-deficient mice showed reduced OVA/Alum- and subcutaneous/OVA-induced acute asthma with decreased eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, low OVA-specific IgG1 and reduced local and systemic Th2 cytokines. While Th2 cells in the lungs were reduced, Tregs and Th1 cells were not affected. Attenuated asthma in β5i KO mice could not be attributed to defects in OVA uptake or maturation of dendritic cells in the lung. Surprisingly, β5i deficient mice developed HDM asthma which was comparable to control mice. Here, we present novel evidence for the requirement of the β5i immunosubunit to generate a strong Th2 response during OVA- but not HDM-induced acute asthma. The unexpected role of β5i in OVA asthma remains to be clarified.

  4. Nutritional Deficiencies and Sarcopenia in Heart Failure: A Therapeutic Opportunity to Reduce Hospitalization and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Hegazi, Refaat M

    2016-01-01

    There is an expanding prevalence pool of heart failure (HF) due to the increasing prevalence of survivors of myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. There is increasing interest in the role of nutrition in all forms of HF, given observations concerning micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, loss of lean body mass or sarcopenia, and their relationships with hospitalization and death. This review examines the relationships among loss of lean body mass, macro- and micronutrient intake, and the natural history of HF, particularly in the elderly, in whom the risks for all-cause rehospitalization, infection, falls, and mortality are increased. These risks are potentially modifiable through strategies that improve nutrition in this vulnerable population.

  5. Reducing Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies through Biofortification: Progress Under HarvestPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouis, Howarth

    2018-01-01

    Fundamentally, the prevalence of mineral and vitamin deficiencies is high in developing countries due to the fact that agricultural systems do not produce sufficient foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Biofortification involves breeding staple food crops to increase their micronutrient content, targeting staple foods widely consumed by low-income families globally. In so doing, biofortification contributes to solving the underlying problem of mineral and vitamin deficiencies by increasing the amount of iron, zinc, and provitamin A produced by food systems. When HarvestPlus first started in 2003, there was much doubt among a range of stakeholders, that biofortification would work. First, we had to prove to the plant science community that higher target levels iron, zinc, and provitamin A could be bred into high-yielding, profitable varieties. Presently, over 150 varieties of 12 biofortified crops have passed the agronomic tests of varietal release committees in 30 developing countries. In 3-5 years, biofortified varieties will be available to farmers and consumers in an additional 25 countries. The nutrition community initially questioned the efficacy of biofortified crops - would the levels of retained nutrients and absorption be high enough? HarvestPlus has commissioned 15 efficacy trials, all undertaken in developing countries. While 5 of these studies are still in process, there is already sufficient positive published evidence for iron and provitamin A. Can adoption of biofortified crops by farmers be scaled up, and a public health impact demonstrated? HarvestPlus estimates that 20 million farmers and consumers presently grow and consume biofortified crops in 8 target countries. The final and major challenge is to mainstream biofortification into the fabric of "business-as-usual" of a range of organizations - public and private agricultural research, institutions that focus on bringing improved agricultural technologies to farmers including multi

  6. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S; Nakanjako, Damalie; Ddungu, Henry; Kambugu, Andrew; Manabe, Yukari C; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP) or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900). Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (ART (CD4ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery.

  7. Impaired liver regeneration is associated with reduced cyclin B1 in natural killer T cell-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Meir, Hadar; Zolotaryova, Lydia; Ilan, Yaron; Shteyer, Eyal

    2017-03-23

    It has been shown that the proportion of natural killer T cells is markedly elevated during liver regeneration and their activation under different conditions can modulate this process. As natural killer T cells and liver injury are central in liver regeneration, elucidating their role is important. The aim of the current study is to explore the role of natural killer T cells in impaired liver regeneration. Concanvalin A was injected 4 days before partial hepatectomy to natural killer T cells- deficient mice or to anti CD1d1-treated mice. Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were used to measure hepatocytes proliferation. Expression of hepatic cyclin B1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were evaluated by Western Blot and liver injury was assessed by ALT and histology. Natural killer T cells- deficient or mice injected with anti CD1d antibodies exhibited reduced liver regeneration. These mice were considerably resistant to ConA-induced liver injury. In the absence of NKT cells hepatic proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin B1 decreased in mice injected with Concanvalin A before partial hepatectomy. This was accompanied with reduced serum interleukin-6 levels. Natural killer T cells play an important role in liver regeneration, which is associated with cyclin B1 and interleukin-6.

  8. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  9. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  10. Expeditious Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Using Vitamin B12 under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changseok Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized Ag, Au, and Pd samples were thoroughly characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission microscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometry, confirming that metallic Ag, Au, and Pd were synthesized by the green chemistry method.

  11. Simultaneous radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1977-01-01

    The radioassays of vitamin B 12 and folic acid can be carried out in a single tube to give the simultaneous assay of both vitamins in 100 μl of serum. Release of bound vitamins from their endogenous binders and the destruction of these binders are effected by a heating step at pH 9.3. The subsequent binding reactions with hog intrinsic factor and milk binder protein proceed advantageously and simultaneously in the same tube at pH 9.3. A single set of dual reagents replaces two sets of reagents that would normally be used for separate radioassays. Complete separation of bound radioactivities, [ 57 Co] cyanocobalamin and 125 I-labeled folate derivative, is obtained in a dual-channel gamma counter with no requirement for any correction for spill-over of counting data. Analytical results are comparable to those found for previously developed individual radioassays. The simultaneous assay has decreased technical time of analysis for these interrelated vitamins by about 50%

  12. Vitamin D deficiency changes the intestinal microbiome reducing B vitamin production in the gut. The resulting lack of pantothenic acid adversely affects the immune system, producing a "pro-inflammatory" state associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gominak, S C

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins. Review of the scientific literature shows that pantothenic acid does not have a natural food source, it is supplied by the normal intestinal bacteria. In order to test the hypothesis that vitamin D replacement slowly induced a secondary pantothenic acid deficiency, B100 (100mg of all B vitamins except 100mcg of B12 and biotin and 400mcg of folate) was added to vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D and B100 were recommended to over 1000 neurology patients. Sleep characteristics, pain levels, neurologic symptoms, and bowel complaints were recorded by the author at routine appointments. Three months of vitamin D plus B100 resulted in improved sleep, reduced pain and unexpected resolution of bowel symptoms. These results suggest that the combination of vitamin D plus B100 creates an intestinal environment that favors the return of the four specific species, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria that make up the normal human microbiome. 1) Seasonal fluctuations in vitamin D levels have normally produced changes in the intestinal microbiome that promoted weight gain in winter. Years of vitamin D deficiency, however, results in a permanently altered intestinal environment that no longer favors the "healthy foursome". 2) Humans have always had a commensal relationship with their intestinal microbiome. We supplied them vitamin D, they supplied us B vitamins. 3) The four species

  13. Tocopherol deficiency reduces sucrose export from salt-stressed potato leaves independently of oxidative stress and symplastic obstruction by callose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Fabado, María Amparo; Ammon, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Voll, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherol cyclase, encoded by the gene SUCROSE EXPORT DEFECTIVE1, catalyses the second step in the synthesis of the antioxidant tocopherol. Depletion of SXD1 activity in maize and potato leaves leads to tocopherol deficiency and a ‘sugar export block’ phenotype that comprises massive starch accumulation and obstruction of plasmodesmata in paraveinal tissue by callose. We grew two transgenic StSXD1:RNAi potato lines with severe tocopherol deficiency under moderate light conditions and subjected them to salt stress. After three weeks of salt exposure, we observed a strongly reduced sugar exudation rate and a lack of starch mobilization in leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants, but not in wild-type plants. However, callose accumulation in the vasculature declined upon salt stress in all genotypes, indicating that callose plugging of plasmodesmata was not the sole cause of the sugar export block phenotype in tocopherol-deficient leaves. Based on comprehensive gene expression analyses, we propose that enhanced responsiveness of SnRK1 target genes in mesophyll cells and altered redox regulation of phloem loading by SUT1 contribute to the attenuation of sucrose export from salt-stressed SXD:RNAi source leaves. Furthermore, we could not find any indication that elevated oxidative stress may have served as a trigger for the salt-induced carbohydrate phenotype of SXD1:RNAi transgenic plants. In leaves of the SXD1:RNAi plants, sodium accumulation was diminished, while proline accumulation and pools of soluble antioxidants were increased. As supported by phytohormone contents, these differences seem to increase longevity and prevent senescence of SXD:RNAi leaves under salt stress. PMID:25428995

  14. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetics and reduced insulin production in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, Ar; Nakhjavani, M

    2015-04-01

    It is not known whether the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with glycemic measurements of individuals without diabetes is similar to those with diabetes or not. This study is aimed to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D with glycemic markers of diabetics, nondiabetics, and prediabetics. A case-control study was conducted on age and sex matched 1,195 patients with type 2 DM, 121 prediabetics, and 209 healthy controls. Anthropometric variables, lipid profile, glycemic measurements, and serum 25(OH)D levels were recorded. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels were also measured. All glycemic measurements were compared between diabetics and nondiabetics and prediabetics at different vitamin D status. Patients with DM had lower serum 25(OH)D compared to prediabetics and healthy controls. Endogenous insulin production in response to food intake and in fasting was significantly lower in vitamin D deficient patients with DM compared to those with serum 25(OH)D>40 ng/ml. Diabetic women with serum 25(OH)D40 ng/ml. Healthy individuals with serum 25(OH)D<20 ng/ml had signs of insulin resistance as estimated by significant increase of HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). In addition, we found that serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetics, which is independent of obesity. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced insulin production in type 2 diabetics, which was mainly observed in men. Accordingly, a gender disparity also exists in association of serum 25(OH)D with glycemic measurements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-29

    Mar 29, 2016 ... This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum. Vitamin B12 ... Consumption of certain types of food contributes to increase vitB12 level. Key words: ... nutritional status among apparently healthy obese.

  16. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum......Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  17. vitamin b12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is involved in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism. VITAMIN B12 ..... concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in ... and folic acid: a cross-sectional study in patients with type 2 ... pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  18. The effect of vitamin B12 supplementation in Nepalese infants on growth and development: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Kvestad, Ingrid; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Merina; Basnet, Sudha; Ranjitkar, Suman; Shrestha, Laxman; Shrestha, Prakash S

    2017-04-21

    Vitamin B 12 deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with poor cognitive development and growth. Vitamin B 12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and it is necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study is to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B 12 on the neurodevelopment and growth of young children in Nepal. We are conducting an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 600 marginally stunted children 6-11 months old (length for age less than -1 z-score). Children are randomized to receive a lipid-based paste containing vitamin B 12 or placebo daily for 12 months. The main outcomes are changes in growth (z-scores) and in neurodevelopment measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, from baseline until the end of the study. If vitamin B 12 supplementation benefits early child development and growth, this will have consequences for dietary recommendations for malnourished children worldwide. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02272842 . Registered on 21 October 2014. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1161-5187. Registered on 8 September 2014.

  19. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-03-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The distribution of total vitamin b12 holotranscobalamin and the active vitamin b12 fraction in the first 5 weeks postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, D.A.A.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; de Vries, J.; van Wijk, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Total vitamin B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy and recover to normal values within 8-week postpartum. Holotranscobalamin (holoTC) reflects the active part of vitamin B12 and has been shown to remain constant during pregnancy and postpartum. A mechanism of

  1. Assessment of Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Patients with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum vitamin B12 levels were obtained preoperatively and every 6 months postoperatively. All patients received 100 microgram of vitamin B-12 twice yearly. Follow up ranged from 3-10 years. Results All 16 patients included in the study had a normal concentration of serum vitamin B12 preoperatively with a range of ...

  2. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730.

  3. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  4. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for vitamin B12 in serum, with use of radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, D.B.; Painter, K.; Niswender, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    Although radioassays for vitamin B 12 with use of any of several binding proteins have been available for many years, a radioimmunoassay for B 12 has not been reported. We describe here such a radioimmunoassay, incorporating, for the first time, a radioiodinated tyrosine methyl ester of B 12 as the radioactive tracer. Polypropylene tubes are coated with antiserum raised in a rabbit against B 12 /bovine serum albumin to simplify the separation of bound and free radioactivity. Factors affecting the preparation of coated tubes are described. The assay is accurate, sensitive, precise, and specific for vitamin B 12 . Accuracy of the assay is unaffected by the presence of denatured protein. The advantages of this radioimmunoassay over conventional radioassays are discussed

  5. Diamine oxidase (DAO) supplement reduces headache in episodic migraine patients with DAO deficiency: A randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Casas, Joan; Comas-Basté, Oriol; Latorre-Moratalla, M Luz; Lorente-Gascón, Marian; Duelo, Adriana; Soler-Singla, Luis; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2018-02-15

    Histamine intolerance is a disorder in the homeostasis of histamine due to a reduced intestinal degradation of this amine, mainly caused by a deficiency in the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO). Among histamine related symptoms, headache is one of the most recorded. Current clinical strategies for the treatment of the symptomatology related to this disorder are based on the exclusion of foods with histamine or other bioactive amines and/or exogenous DAO supplementation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a food supplement consisting of DAO enzyme as a preventive treatment of migraine in patients with DAO deficiency through a randomized double-blind trial. 100 patients with confirmed episodic migraine according to current International Headache Society (IHS) criteria and DAO deficiency (levels below 80 HDU/ml) were randomized in two groups. One group received DAO enzyme supplementation and the other received placebo for one month. Clinical outcomes assessed were duration and number of attacks, perception of pain intensity and adverse effects during treatment. The use of triptans was also recorded. Great variability was found in the duration of migraine attacks reported by placebo and DAO groups. A significant reduction (p = 0.0217) in hours of pain was achieved in patients treated with DAO supplement, with mean durations of 6.14 (±3.06) and 4.76 (±2.68) hours before and after treatment, respectively. A smaller reduction without statistical signification was also observed for this outcome in the placebo group, from 7.53 (±4.24) to 6.68 (±4.42) hours. Only in DAO group, a decrease in the percentage of patients taking triptans was observed. The number of attacks and the scores of pain intensity showed a similar reduction in both groups. No adverse effects were registered in patients treated with DAO enzyme. Migrainous patients supplemented with DAO enzyme during one month significantly reduced the duration of their migraine attacks by 1.4 h. No

  6. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Michal Kozlowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM. Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl. Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT states.

  7. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (-/- and -/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (-/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (-/-) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution.

  9. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  10. Clinical value of serum vitamin B12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hao; Zhang Yongxue

    2002-01-01

    To study the clinical value of serum vitamin B 12 and folate in cerebrovascular disease, the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and folate in 32 patients with cerebrovascular disease was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the changes in folate in all groups were not significant. The content of vitamin B 12 in multi-infarct dementia was markedly lower than that in cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Moreover, the level of vitamin B 12 was lower in paralytic patients with muscular strength of grade 0-III. It can be concluded that serum vitamin B 12 level had association with intelligent disorder and paralytic degree

  11. Electron transfer. 93. Further reactions of transition-metal-center oxidants with vitamin B12s (Cob(I)alamin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, G.C.; Ghosh, S.K.; Gould, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Vitamin B 12s (cob(I)alamin) reduces europium(III), titanium(IV) (TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 2- ), and uranium(VI) in aqueous solution. These oxidants undergo one-electron changes, leading in each case to the cobalt product cob(II)alamin (B 12r ). The reduction of Eu 3+ , which is inhibited by TES buffer, but not by glycine, is outer sphere. Its limiting specific rate (1 x 10 2 M -1 s -1 ), incorporated in the Marcus treatment, yields a B 12s ,B 12r self-exchange rate of 10 4.8±0.5 M -1 s -1 . Reductions of TiO(C 2 O 4 ) 2 2- are accelerated by H + and by acetic acid. Kinetic patterns suggest three competing reaction paths involving varying degrees of protonation of the Ti(IV) center or its association with acetic acid. The very rapid reduction of U(VI) (k = 4 x 10 6 M -1 s -1 ) yields U(V) in several buffering media, even when B 12s is taken in excess. The much slower conversion of U(V) to U(IV), although thermodynamically favored, appears to be retarded by the extensive reorganization of the coordination sphere of oxo-bound U(V) that must accompany its acceptance of an additional electron. The observed specific rate for the B 12s -U(VI) reaction is in reasonable agreement, in the framework of the Marcus formalism, with reported values of the formal potential and the self-exchange rate for U(V,VI). 37 references, 4 tables

  12. HIF1α deficiency reduces inflammation in a mouse model of proximal colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava N. Mladenova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptation of cells to hypoxic microenvironments, for example inside solid tumours. Stabilisation of HIF1α can also occur in normoxic conditions in inflamed tissue or as a result of inactivating mutations in negative regulators of HIF1α. Aberrant overexpression of HIF1α in many different cancers has led to intensive efforts to develop HIF1α-targeted therapies. However, the role of HIF1α is still poorly understood in chronic inflammation that predisposes the colon to carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that the transcription of HIF1α is upregulated and that the protein is stabilised in inflammatory lesions that are caused by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac in the mouse proximal colon. Here, we exploited this side effect of long-term sulindac administration to analyse the role of HIF1α in colon inflammation using mice with a Villin-Cre-induced deletion of Hif1α exon 2 in the intestinal epithelium (Hif1αΔIEC. We also analysed the effect of sulindac sulfide on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR pathway in vitro in colon cancer cells. Most sulindac-treated mice developed visible lesions, resembling the appearance of flat adenomas in the human colon, surrounded by macroscopically normal mucosa. Hif1αΔIEC mice still developed lesions but they were smaller than in the Hif1α-floxed siblings (Hif1αF/F. Microscopically, Hif1αΔIEC mice had significantly less severe colon inflammation than Hif1αF/F mice. Molecular analysis showed reduced MIF expression and increased E-cadherin mRNA expression in the colon of sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. However, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a defect of E-cadherin protein expression in sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. Sulindac sulfide treatment in vitro upregulated Hif1α, c-JUN and IL8 expression through the AHR pathway. Taken together, HIF1α expression augments inflammation

  13. Fasting time and vitamin B12 levels in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Dennis J; Naugler, Christopher; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential vitamin that manifests with numerous severe but non-specific symptoms in cases of deficiency. Assessing Cbl status often requires fasting, although this requirement is not standard between institutions. This study evaluated the impact of fasting on Cbl levels in a large community-based cohort in an effort to promote standardization of Cbl testing between sites. Laboratory data for Cbl, fasting time, patient age and sex were obtained from laboratory information service from Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) for the period of April 2011 to June 2015. CLS is the sole supplier of laboratory services in the Southern Alberta region in Canada (population, approximately 1.4 million). To investigate potential sex-specific effects of fasting on Cbl levels, males and females were analyzed separately using linear regression models. A total of 346,957 individual patient results (196,849 females, 146,085 males) were obtained. The mean plasma Cbl level was 386.5 (±195.6) pmol/L and 412.0 (±220.8) pmol/L for males and females, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed fasting had no significant association with Cbl levels in females; however a statistically significant decrease of 0.9pmol/L/hour fasting (pfasting has the potential to contribute to higher rates of Cbl deficiency in men. Together, these data suggest fasting should be excluded as a requirement for evaluating plasma Cbl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic properties and bulk moduli of novel boron nitride polymorphs: hyperdiamond B12N12 and the simple cubic B24N24, B12N12 fulborenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrivnyj, V.V.; Bekenev, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    Equation of states, energy band structure, electronic density of states, and bulk moduli of the boron nitride fulborenite crystals: B 12 N 12 with a diamond lattice and B 24 N 24 , B 12 N 12 with a simple cubic lattice have been calculated for the first time by FLAPW method. Calculated parameters of these compounds are as follows: equilibrium lattice parameter, the length of B-N bond, the number of atoms per conventional cell, density, bulk modulus, band gap. Hyperdiamond B 12 N 12 is shown to have the record bulk modulus B 0 = 658 GPa [ru

  15. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  16. Simvastatin reduces neointimal thickening in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice after experimental angioplasty without changing plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Zago, Alexandre C; Ehlers, Raila; Detmers, Patricia A; Wright, Samuel D; Rogers, Campbell; Simon, Daniel I

    2002-07-02

    Statins exert antiinflammatory and antiproliferative actions independent of cholesterol lowering. To determine whether these actions might affect neointimal formation, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the response to experimental angioplasty in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolemia in which changes in plasma lipids are not observed in response to simvastatin. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDLR-/- mice treated with low-dose (2 mg/kg) or high-dose (20 mg/kg) simvastatin or vehicle subcutaneously 72 hours before and then daily after injury. After 7 and 28 days, intimal and medial sizes were measured and the intima to media area ratio (I:M) was calculated. Total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar in simvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice. Intimal thickening and I:M were reduced significantly by low- and high-dose simvastatin compared with vehicle alone. Simvastatin treatment was associated with reduced cellular proliferation (BrdU), leukocyte accumulation (CD45), and platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation of the survival factor Akt and increased apoptosis after injury. Simvastatin modulates vascular repair after injury in the absence of lipid-lowering effects. Although the mechanisms are not yet established, additional research may lead to new understanding of the actions of statins and novel therapeutic interventions for preventing restenosis.

  17. Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Emre

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia Transient ischemic attacks are episodes of transient focal ischemia involving the brain or brainstem. They are commonly two to thirty minutes in duration and lasting less than 24 hours. Anemia of iron deficiency isn’t frequently cause for transient ischemic attack. It has been reported as a risk factor for childhood ischemic strokes. In the iron deficiency anemia, T‹A may develop as result of hypercoagulable state and increased viscosity that is caused by anemic hypoxia that is result of reduce hemoglobine level, seconder thrombosis and microcytose As iron deficiency anemia has been reported so rarely in adult patients with transient ischemic attacks as a cause, we aimed to discuss the clinical and outcome features of two cases with iron deficiency anemia and transient ischemic attacks in this study. Materials and methods: Routine neurologic examination, biochemical screen, serological tests, vasculitic markers, thyroid function tests, vitamin B 12 level, cranial imaging, vertebral carotid doppler USG examination was conducted in the two patients. Anemia of iron deficiency was found as the only risk factor for TIA and the two patients were treated with replacement of iron and antiagregan therapy. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality through the two years of follow-up. The iron deficiency anemia may be cause of many neurologic problems such a irritability, lethargy, headache, development retardation except from T‹A. In the iron deficiency anemia, early diagnosis and treatment is important

  18. Reducing inflammation and rescuing FTD-related behavioral deficits in progranulin-deficient mice with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, S Sakura; Shen, Vivian; Le, David; Krabbe, Grietje; Asgarov, Rustam; Perez-Celajes, Liberty; Lee, Chih-Hung; Li, Jinhe; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; Gan, Li

    2015-10-15

    Mutations in the progranulin gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that involves atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes and affects personality, behavior, and language. Progranulin-deficient mouse models of FTD exhibit deficits in compulsive and social behaviors reminiscent of patients with FTD, and develop excessive microgliosis and increased release of inflammatory cytokines. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine or specific α7 nAChR agonists reduces neuroinflammation. Here, we investigated whether activation of nAChRs by nicotine or α7 agonists improved the excessive inflammatory and behavioral phenotypes of a progranulin-deficient FTD mouse model. We found that treatment with selective α7 agonists, PHA-568487 or ABT-107, strongly suppressed the activation of NF-κB in progranulin-deficient cells. Treatment with ABT-107 also reduced microgliosis, decreased TNFα levels, and reduced compulsive behavior in progranulin-deficient mice. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting activation of the α7 nAChR pathway may be beneficial in decreasing neuroinflammation and reversing some of the behavioral deficits observed in progranulin-deficient FTD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Sprong, R.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment

  20. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Ankita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  1. Maternal vitamin C deficiency does not reduce hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin III intensity in prenatal Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi

    2016-01-01

    Marginal vitamin C (vitC) deficiency affects 5% to 10% of adults including subpopulations such as pregnant women and newborns. Animal studies link vitC deficiency to deleterious effects on the developing brain, but exactly how the brain adapts to vitC deficiency and the mechanisms behind...... the observed deficits remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that vitC deficiency in utero may lead to a decreased neuronal maturation and increased cellular death giving rise to alterations of the hippocampal morphology in a guinea pig model. Brains from prenatal guinea pig pups (n = 9-10 in each group......) subjected to either a sufficient (918 mg vitC/kg feed) or deficient (100 mg vitC/kg feed) maternal dietary regimen were assessed with regards to hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin isotype III staining intensity at 2 gestational time points (45 and 56). We found a distinct differential regional growth...

  2. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  3. Interaction of conjugated bile acids and detergents with a radiosorbent assay of vitamin B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, K.-J.; Romslo, I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of conjugated bile acids and detergents on the radiosorbent technique for the determination of vitamin B-12 activity is reported. It is shown that whereas the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has no effect on the vitamin B-12-radiosorbent assay, the addition of ionic detergents, e.g. glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid or sodium lauryl sulfate, results in a falsely-elevated vitamin B-12 activity presumably due to the disruption of the binding of vitamin B-12 to the intrinsic factor-Sephadex complex. This effect may be of importance not only to the radiosorbent assaying of vitamin B-12, but to the in vivo intestinal absorption of vitamin B-12 as well

  4. Gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells reduces HLH manifestations in a murine model of Munc13-4 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Tayebeh; Durand, Amandine; Sepulveda, Fernando E; Rivière, Julie; Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Sadek, Hanem; de Saint Basile, Geneviève; Martin, Samia; Mavilio, Fulvio; Cavazzana, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2017-12-26

    Patients with mutations in the UNC13D gene (coding for Munc13-4 protein) suffer from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3), a life-threatening immune and hyperinflammatory disorder. The only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, although the posttreatment survival rate is not satisfactory. Here, we demonstrate the curative potential of UNC13D gene correction of HSCs in a murine model of FHL3. We generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector, used it to complement HSCs from Unc13d -deficient (Jinx) mice, and transplanted the cells back into the irradiated Jinx recipients. This procedure led to complete reconstitution of the immune system (ie, to wild-type levels). The recipients were then challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to induce hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like manifestations. All the clinical and biological signs of HLH were significantly reduced in mice having undergone HSC UNC13D gene correction than in nontreated animals. This beneficial effect was evidenced by the correction of blood cytopenia, body weight gain, normalization of the body temperature, decreased serum interferon-γ level, recovery of liver damage, and decreased viral load. These improvements can be explained by the restoration of the CD8 + T lymphocytes' cytotoxic function (as demonstrated here in an in vitro degranulation assay). Overall, our results demonstrate the efficacy of HSC gene therapy in an FHL-like setting of immune dysregulation.

  5. Purification of rat intestinal receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shoji; Itaya, Harutaka; Nakazawa, Osamu; Fukuda, Morimichi.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) in a rat gastric mucosal extract was bound efficiently to vitamin B 12 -sepharose without significant change in its nature to produce IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose. The purification of the intestinal receptor for the IF-vitamin B 12 complex was performed by the affinity chromatography using the IF-vitamin B 12 -sepharose as the affinity adsorbent. As a result of admixing the gastric mucosal extract sample with B 12 -sepharose while stirring for 4 hours, the adsorption was performed without any break through. Further, it was recognized that the B 12 -bound protein purified by the affinity chromatography using B 12 -sepharose was not much changed as compared with that before purification. Furthermore, it was recognized that IF-B 12 -sepharose was able to be made by binding IF with B 12 -sepharose which was made by coupling B 12 with the market-available AH-sepharose. The IF-B 12 -sepharose was washed with buffer solution, and then was loaded with the small intestine mucosal extract. Thereafter, the receptor was eluted by making di-valent cation inert with the buffer solution. After the removal of EDTA in the eluted solution by dialysis, the activity of the receptor was measured. 48.5% of the receptor activity loaded was recovered by the elution with EDTA. The specific activity of the receptor represented by the final amount of B 12 (pg)/the amount of protein (mg) in the purified substance was 335 folds of the original activity. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-08-01

    Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) iron (BI) anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin 118 μmol/mol). A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P iron supplementation reduced anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  8. Vitamin B(12) Immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010: Effects of High Excess Concentration of Serum Vitamin B(12) in CKD Patients on Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Surupa; Chaudhuri, Subimal

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) being water soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. The probability of finding an abnormally excess serum concentration would be almost surreal. We report a peculiar clinical situation that may impact the vitamin B(12) immunoassay on the Roche Elecsys 2010 due to excess analyte concentration. In separate episodes (Feb and June 2010), the Biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary-care hospital, Kolkata, India, encountered two critically ill patients with background chronic kidney disease (CKD), low urine output, and on cyanocoabalamin supplementation, who had serum vitamin B(12) concentrations far exceeding expected values; even post dialysis. The B(12) assays (pmol/l) were performed using electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010, the assay validity confirmed by concomitant quality control runs. The immunoassays failed to deliver results, flagged with "signal level below limit". Biotin therapy was ruled out as a possible interferent. In the first episode, re-assay of a repeat draw yielded same outcome; outsourcing on Immulite provided concentration of >738 pmol/l. Serial dilution gave result of >29520 pmol/l on Elecsys 2010. In the second, we gained from past experience. Vitamin B(12) concentration >59040 pmol/l was conveyed to the treating nephrologist the very day. The B(12) immunoassay on the Elecsys 2010 employs sequential incubation steps for competitive binding that is compromised in the event of abnormally excess B(12) concentration in patient sera akin to the prozone effect. This knowledge may be beneficial while assaying sera of CKD patients to avoid financial loss due unnecessary repeats and delay in turnaround time.

  9. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old. Results of the Ensanut 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Materials and methods. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Results. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05; a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusions. Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants

  10. Nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and anemia in children 1 to 11 years old: Results of the Ensanut 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Cruz, Vanessa de la; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rebollar, Rosario; Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia, iron, vitamin B12, folate, retinol and predictors of anemia among Mexican children from Ensanut 2012. Hemoglobin, ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, retinol and folate concentrations were measured in 2 678 children aged 1-4 y and 4 275 children aged 5-11 y. Adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. In preschoolers and scholars, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.4 and 9.7%, iron deficiency 14 and 9.3%, low vitamin B12 (LB12S) 1.9 and 2.6%; Folate 0.30 and 0%, and retinol depletion (VADp) 15.7 and 2.3%, respectively. ID and VADp were negatively associated with Hb (coefficient: -0.38 and -0.45, p<0.05); a higher log-CRP was associated with higher risk for anemia and VADp (OR=1.13 and OR=2.1, p<0.05, respectively). Iron deficiency, anemia and VADp are some of the main nutritional problems among Mexican infants.

  11. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  12. Androgen deficiency in male patients diagnosed with ANCA-associated vasculitis: a cause of fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life?

    OpenAIRE

    Tuin, Janneke; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Buhl, Birgit M; van Beek, André P; Stegeman, Coen A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low testosterone levels in men are associated with fatigue, limited physical performance and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, this relationship has never been assessed in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) -associated vasculitides (AAV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of androgen deficiency and to investigate the role of testosterone in fatigue, limited physical condition and reduced HRQOL in men with AAV. Meth...

  13. Identification of ABC transporters acting in vitamin B12 metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Megan K; Fritz, Julie-Anne; Jia, Dongxin; Scheuchner, Deborah; Snyder, Floyd F; Stanislaus, Avalyn; Curle, Jared; Li, Liang; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Mains, Paul E; Gravel, Roy A

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a micronutrient essential to human health. Cbl is not utilized as is but must go through complex subcellular and metabolic processing to generate two cofactor forms: methyl-Cbl for methionine synthase, a cytosolic enzyme; and adenosyl-Cbl for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme. Some 10-12 human genes have been identified responsible for the intracellular conversion of Cbl to cofactor forms, including genes that code for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters acting at the lysosomal and plasma membranes. However, the gene for mitochondrial uptake is not known. We hypothesized that ABC transporters should be candidates for other uptake and efflux functions, including mitochondrial transport, and set out to screen ABC transporter mutants for blocks in Cbl utilization using the nematode roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Thirty-seven mutant ABC transporters were screened for the excretion of methylmalonic acid (MMA), which should result from loss of Cbl transport into the mitochondria. One mutant, wht-6, showed elevated MMA excretion and reduced [ 14 C]-propionate incorporation, pointing to a functional block in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. In contrast, the wht-6 mutant appeared to have a normal cytosolic pathway based on analysis of cystathionine excretion, suggesting that cytosolic methionine synthase was functioning properly. Further, the MMA excretion in wht-6 could be partially reversed by including vitamin B 12 in the assay medium. The human ortholog of wht-6 is a member of the G family of ABC transporters. We propose wht-6 as a candidate for the transport of Cbl into mitochondria and suggest that a member of the corresponding ABCG family of ABC transporters has this role in humans. Our ABC transporter screen also revealed that mrp-1 and mrp-2 mutants excreted lower MMA than wild type, suggesting they were concentrating intracellular Cbl, consistent with the cellular efflux defect proposed for the mammalian MRP1 ABC

  14. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eChen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: AIF (apoptosis inducing factor is a flavin and NADH containing protein located within mitochondria required for optimal function of the respiratory chain. AIF may function as an antioxidant within mitochondria, yet when released from mitochondria it activates caspase-independent cell death. The Harlequin (Hq mouse has a markedly reduced content of AIF, providing an experimental model to query if the main role of AIF in the exacerbation of cell death is enhanced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or the activation of cell death programs. We asked if the ROS generation is altered in Hq heart mitochondria at baseline or following ischemia-reperfusion (IR.Methods: Buffer perfused mouse hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Mitochondrial function including oxidative phosphorylation and H2O2 generation was measured. Immunoblotting was used to determine the contents of AIF and PAR [poly(ADP-ribose] in cell fractions.Results: There were no differences in the release of H2O2 between wild type (WT and Hq heart mitochondria at baseline. IR increased H2O2 generation from WT but not from Hq mitochondria compared to corresponding time controls. The complex I activity was decreased in WT but not in Hq mice following IR. The relocation of AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was increased in WT but not in Hq mice. IR activated PARP-1 only in WT mice. Cell injury was decreased in Hq mouse heart following in vitro IR.Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  15. Exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacilli reduce serum cholesterol and modify enteric microbiota in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Lis E E; Kumar, Arun H S; Wall, Rebecca; Casey, Pat G; O'Sullivan, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Caplice, Noel M; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food Biotechnology Centre (NFBC) 338 expressing the glycosyltransferase (Gtf) gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (GTF), and naturally exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae Dairy Product Culture Collection (DPC) 6426 (DPC 6426) compared with the non-β-glucan-producing isogenic control strain Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (PNZ) and placebo (15% wt:vol trehalose). Second, we examined the effects on the gut microbiota of dietary administration of DPC 6426 compared with placebo. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains at 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/d per animal were administered to apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (60% fat)/high-cholesterol (2% wt:wt) diet for 12 wk. At the end of the study, aortic plaque development and serum, liver, and fecal variables involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and culture-independent microbial analyses of cecal content were performed. Total cholesterol was reduced in serum (P mice supplemented with GTF or DPC 6426 compared with the PNZ or placebo group, respectively. In addition, dietary intervention with GTF led to increased amounts of fecal cholesterol excretion (P mice. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Smoking Discriminately Changes the Serum Active and Non-Active Forms of Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoohi, Niloofar; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Sohrabi, Marjan; Zarei, Mahnaz; Mohammadi, Hamed; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Smoking may modify the appetite, and consequently affect nutrient intake and serum micronutrients. The effect of smoking on vitamin B12 status has been considered in several studies. The research proposed that organic nitrites, nitro oxide, cyanides, and isocyanides of cigarette smoke interfere with vitamin B12 metabolism, and convert it to inactive forms. This research was carried out to determine the serum level of active and inactive forms of vitamin B12 in male smokers in comparison with male nonsmokers. This is a case-control study, in which the participants were 85 male smokers and 85 male nonsmokers. The serum levels of total and active form of vitamin B12 were measured. Dietary intake was recorded by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and one-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Independent two sample T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the case and control groups. The serum level of total vitamin B12 was not significantly different between two groups, but serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in the smoking group was significantly lower than non-smoking group (Psmokers in the Iranian community. The results of this study identified that serum level of total vitamin B12 might be not different between smoking and non-smoking people, but the function of this vitamin is disturbed in the body of smokers through the reduction of serum level of active form of vitamin B12.

  17. Inhibition of the vitamin B12 binding capacity of proteins by the hydrolysis product of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenrych, W.; Ignatowicz, E.; Szczodrowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide hydrolysis product (CPHP) on vitamin B 12 binding ability to proteins has been established. The ester N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(3-phosphopropyl)-etheylenediamine hydrochloride is probably responsible, in vitro, for blocking the protein binding sites. Preincubation of proteins with vitamin B 12 prevents the inhibitory effect of CPHP. (au)

  18. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos F.; Vera, J.L.; Heijden, van der R.; Valdez, G.F.; Vos, de W.M.; Sesma, F.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29

  19. Vitamin B12 status and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; de Jong, Cor A. J.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Both infection with Helicobacter pylori and alcohol abuse have been associated with low vitamin B12 serum levels. The interaction between both risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with low vitamin B12 levels in alcohol

  20. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  1. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  2. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    (-4)). We found no support for a causal role of decreased serum vitamin B12 levels in obesity. However, our study suggests that FUT2, through its regulation of the cross-talk between gut microbes and the human host, might explain a part of the observational association between serum vitamin B12 and BMI....

  3. Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats

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    Aaron A. Mehus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3 sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient. Fatty acids (FA and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3 and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50% and cerebral cortex (23%. In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors.

  4. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline. Randomized trials are required to determine the relevance of vitamin B-12 supplementation for prevention of dementia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...... status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination on >/=3 occasions during 10 y and related to serum concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), tHcy, methylmalonic...

  5. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

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    Brito Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA. The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers involving 300 people (20 per cluster. Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older

  6. Vitamin B12 supplement alleviates N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Areeba; Afroz, Nishat; Gupta, Umesh D; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-01-10

    Abstract Context: Altered vitamin B 12 levels have been correlated with hepatotoxicity; however, further evidence is required to establish its protective role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of vitamin B 12 supplement in protecting N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering NDMA in doses of 10 mg/kg body weight thrice a week for 21 days. Another group received equal doses (10 mg/kg body weight) of vitamin B 12 subsequent to NDMA treatment. Animals from either group were sacrificed weekly from the start of the treatment along with their respective controls. Progression of hepatic fibrosis, in addition to the effect of vitamin B 12 , was assessed biochemically for liver function biomarkers, liver glycogen, hydroxyproline (HP) and B 12 reserves along with histopathologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) as well immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Results and discussion: Elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, SALP, total bilirubin and HP was observed in NDMA treated rats, which was concomitant with remarkable depletion in liver glycogen and B 12 reserves (p < 0.05). Liver biopsies also demonstrated disrupted lobular architecture, collagen amassing and intense fibrosis by NDMA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of activated stellate cells that was dramatically increased up to day 21 in fibrotic rats. Following vitamin B 12 treatment, liver function biomarkers, glycogen contents and hepatic vitamin B 12 reserves were restored in fibrotic rats, significantly. Vitamin B 12 administration also facilitated restoration of normal liver architecture. Conclusion: These findings provide interesting new evidence in favor of protective role for vitamin B 12 against NDMA-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

  7. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Uro

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC and of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL, as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT.Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration (mean, 71.1±4.7 years; 45.9% female from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level (i.e., deficient≤25 nmol/L or sufficient>25 nmol/L. Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders.Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8 nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29 dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (n=11 had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency (72.1±7.4 μm versus 77.5±7.5 μm, P=0.028. There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups (P=0.133. After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness (ß=-5.12, P=0.048 but not RNFL thickness (ß=-9.98, P=0.061. Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area (P=0.017 and superior temporal GCC area (P=0.010.Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss.

  9. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  10. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  11. Vitamin B12: unique metalorganic compounds and the most complex vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randaccio, Lucio; Geremia, Silvano; Demitri, Nicola; Wuerges, Jochen

    2010-04-30

    The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B(12) compounds (cobalamins, XCbl) are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B(12), reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B(12) cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B(12) transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B(12) transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B(12) enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH) and methyl-malonyl-coenzyme A mutase (MMCM), are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B(12) than that required by normal cells, the study of B(12 )conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as "Trojan horses" to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or diagnostic

  12. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  13. Smoking Discriminately Changes the Serum Active and Non-Active Forms of Vitamin B12

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    Niloofar Shekoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking may modify the appetite, and consequently affect nutrient intake and serum micronutrients. The effect of smoking on vitamin B12 status has been considered in several studies. The research proposed that organic nitrites, nitro oxide, cyanides, and isocyanides of cigarette smoke interfere with vitamin B12 metabolism, and convert it to inactive forms. This research was carried out to determine the serum level of active and inactive forms of vitamin B12 in male smokers in comparison with male nonsmokers. This is a case-control study, in which the participants were 85 male smokers and 85 male nonsmokers. The serum levels of total and active form of vitamin B12 were measured. Dietary intake was recorded by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and one-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Independent two sample T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the case and control groups. The serum level of total vitamin B12 was not significantly different between two groups, but serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in the smoking group was significantly lower than non-smoking group (P<0.001. This is one of the first studies that evaluated the serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in smokers in the Iranian community. The results of this study identified that serum level of total vitamin B12 might be not different between smoking and non-smoking people, but the function of this vitamin is disturbed in the body of smokers through the reduction of serum level of active form of vitamin B12.

  14. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...... in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations....

  15. Demencia por déficit de vitamina B12: reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Junco Bonet, Miguel Damián

    2014-01-01

    Fundamento: la deficiencia de vitamina B12 (cianocobalamina) puede producir varios desórdenes neurológicos, incluida la neuropatía periférica, degeneración subaguda combinada de la médula espinal, neuropatía óptica y alteraciones cognitivas que van desde la confusión leve hasta la demencia o la psicosis. La causa más frecuente de deficiencia de vitamina B12 es la anemia perniciosa. Objetivo: presentar un caso clínico de demencia por déficit de vitamina B12. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de...

  16. Reduced prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and of concomitant anaemia in pregnant women with heterozygous G6PD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Mandelkow, Jantina; Till, Holger; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency confers protection against malaria in children, yet its role in malaria in pregnancy is unknown. In a cross-sectional study among 529 pregnant Ghanaian women, Plasmodium falciparum infection, anaemia and G6PD genotypes were assessed. Of these,

  17. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  19. Cobalt-deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinaemia and oxidative status of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Jahn, B; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-01-01

    In ruminants, Co is required for the synthesis of vitamin B12, which in turn is needed for the resynthesis of methionine by methylation of homocysteine and thus, cobalamin deficiency may induce hyperhomocysteinaemia which is brought into context with perturbations of the antioxidative-prooxidative balance. The present study was conducted to explore whether Co deficiency in cattle is also associated with homocysteine-induced disturbances of oxidative status. Co deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals on either a basal maize-silage-based diet that was moderately low in Co (83 micrograms Co/kg DM), or the same diet supplemented with Co to a total of 200 micrograms Co/kg DM, for 43 weeks. Co deficiency was apparent from a reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver and an accumulation of homocysteine in plasma which was in excess of 4.8 times higher in Co-deprived cattle than in controls. The much increased level of circulating homocysteine did not indicate severe disturbances in antioxidant-prooxidant balance as measured by individual markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidative defence system. There were no quantitative difference in plasma thiol groups, nor were there significant changes in concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, microsomal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl groups in liver. However, there was a trend toward increased plasma carbonyl levels indicating a slight degradation of plasma proteins in the hyperhomocysteinaemic cattle. Analysis of the hepatic catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity revealed an 11% reduction in Co-deficient cattle relative to the controls. These results indicate that long-term moderate Co deficiency may induce a severe accumulation of plasma homocysteine in cattle, but considerable abnormalities in oxidative status failed to appear.

  20. Androgen deficiency in male patients diagnosed with ANCA-associated vasculitis: a cause of fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuin, Janneke; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Buhl, Birgit M; van Beek, André P; Stegeman, Coen A

    2013-01-01

    Low testosterone levels in men are associated with fatigue, limited physical performance and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, this relationship has never been assessed in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) -associated vasculitides (AAV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of androgen deficiency and to investigate the role of testosterone in fatigue, limited physical condition and reduced HRQOL in men with AAV. Male patients with AAV in remission were included in this study. Fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by the multi-dimensional fatigue inventory (MFI)-20 and RAND-36 questionnaires. Seventy male patients with a mean age of 59 years (SD 12) were included. Scores of almost all subscales of both questionnaires were significantly worse in patients compared to controls. Mean total testosterone and free testosterone levels were 13.8 nmol/L (SD 5.6) and 256 pmol/L (SD 102), respectively. Androgen deficiency (defined according to Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines) was present in 47% of patients. Scores in the subscales of general health perception, physical functioning and reduced activity were significantly worse in patients with androgen deficiency compared to patients with normal androgen levels. Testosterone and age were predictors for the RAND-36 physical component summary in multiple linear regression analysis. Testosterone, age, vasculitis damage index (VDI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with the MFI-20 subscale of general fatigue. This study showed that androgen deficiency was present in a substantial number of patients with AAV. Testosterone was one of the predictors for physical functioning and fatigue. Testosterone may play a role in fatigue, reduced physical performance and HRQOL in male patients with AAV.

  1. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell′s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-li Wang

    2015-01-01

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell′s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5, Jiache (ST6, Dicang (ST4 and Sibai (ST2. The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell′s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58-0.87; P = 0.001, this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58-0.86; P = 0.0005. In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024. There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell′s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 requires further exploration.

  2. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  3. Relationship between soil cobalt and vitamin B12 levels in the liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materlais and methods: Liver and muscle tissues of livestock grazing on the selected areas were analyzed for the content ... Keywords: Soil, vitamin B12, cobalt, cattle, uptake, transfer ..... Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Blazicek P, Babinska K,.

  4. Relation between serum vitamin B12 level and duration of treatment with carbamazepine in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 levels in the serum of 58 epileptic patients receiving only carbamazepine for at least 6 months were measured. Same number of epilepsy patients with no history of taking antiepileptic medicine were taken as control. The mean level of vitamin B12 in carbamazepine-treated epileptic patients was 265.5 pg/mL whereas it was 478.3 pg/mL in control. Increased duration of treatment of carbamazepine in epilepsy caused significantly decreased level of serum vitamin B12 (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.9, p<0.0001. In conclusion, serum vitamin B12 level significantly decreased in relation to duration of carbamazepine treatment in epileptic patients.

  5. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  6. Study of Methionine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Status in Coronary Atherosclerotic Male Patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Djalali; SR A Hoseiny; F Siassi; N Fardad; R Ghiasvand; TR Neyestani

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased level of serum homocysteine is one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Its production related in some sulfur amino acids such as methionine. Some important cofactors that are involved in metabolic pathways of this amino acid are folate and vitamin B12. We have assessed the status of methionine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in some coronary atherosclerotic male patients.Methods: In this case-control study, 46 cases of coronary atherosclerosis were selected from male pat...

  7. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  8. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  9. Validity of transcobalamin II-based radioassay for the determination of serum vitamin B12 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltridge, G.; Rudzki, Z.; Ryall, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A valid radioassay for the estimation of serum vitamin B 12 in the presence of naturally occurring vitamin B 12 (= cobalamin) analogues can be operated if serum transcobalamin II (TC II) is used as the binding protein. Serum samples that gave diagnostically discrepant results when their vitamin B 12 content was analysed (i) by a commercial radioassay known to be susceptible to interference from cobalamin analogues, and (ii) by microbiological assay, were further analysed by an alternative radioassay which uses the transcobalamins (principally TC II) of diluted normal serum as the assay binding protein. Concordance between the results from microbiological assay and the TC II-based radioassay was found in all cases. In an extended study over a three-year period, all routine serum samples sent for vitamin B 12 analysis that had a vitamin B 12 content of less than 320 ng/l by the TC II-based radioassay (reference range 200-850 ng/l) were reanalysed using an established microbiological method. Over 1000 samples were thus analysed. The data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the TC II-based radioassay results in this group of patients, serum samples from which are most likely to produce diagnostically erroneous vitamin B 12 results when analysed by a radioassay that is less specific for cobalamins. (author)

  10. Studies on the biosynthesis of vitamin B2 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Feeding experiments with Ashbya gossypii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting riboflavin showed incorporation of deuterium from D-[2- 2 H]ribose at C-2' and from D-[1- 2 H]ribose in the pro-R position at C-1' of the ribityl side chain. The results rule out an Amadori rearrangement mechanism for the reduction of the ribosylamino to the ribitylamino linkage and point to formation of a Schiff base that is reduced stereospecifically opposite to the face from which the oxygen has departed. As prerequisite for the analysis, the 1 H NMR signals for the pro-R and pro-S hydrogens at C-1' of riboflavin and its tetraacetate were assigned with the aid of synthetic stereospecifically deuteriated samples. Feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermianii followed by NMR analysis of the resulting vitamin B 12 showed: (1) 5-methylbenzimidazole (5MBI) incorporated and only one regioisomer (B6-demethylcyanocobalamin)formed. (2) 8-demethylriboflavin incorporated and the same regioisomer was obtained as 5MBI experiment. (3) [1'- 13 C, 5- 15 N]riboflavin incorporated and 13 C-NMR showed that 13 C at the B2 position of cyanocobalamin coupled to both adjacent nitrogen-15 atoms at about the same ratio

  11. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-03-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known as heat shock proteins. In this Sulfolobus species, it correlates with the preferential synthesis of primarily one major protein (55 kilodaltons) and, to a much lesser extent, two minor proteins (28 and 35 kilodaltons). Since the synthesis of all other proteins was radically reduced and these proteins were apparently not degraded or exported, their relative abundance within the cell increased during the time the cells were becoming thermotolerant. They could not yet be related to known heat shock proteins. In immunoassays, they were not cross-reactive with antibodies against heat shock proteins from Escherichia coli (DnaK and GroE), which are highly conserved between eubacteria and eucaryotes. However, it appears that if acquired thermotolerance depends on the synthesis of protective proteins, then in this extremely thermophilic archaebacterium it depends primarily on one protein.

  12. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  13. Reduced repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in glutathione synthetase-deficient human fibroblasts after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.; Revesz, L.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Debieu, D.; Malaise, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a human fibroblast strain deficient in glutathione synthetase and a related proficient control strain, the role of glutathione (GSH) in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) has been investigated in determining survival by plating cells immediately or 24 h after irradiation. After oxic or hypoxic irradiation, both cell strains repair radiation-induced damage. However, under hypoxic conditions, the proficient cells repair PLD as well as under oxic conditions while the deficient cells repair less PLD after irradiation under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. Therefore, the oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for proficient cells is similar whether the cells are plated immediately or 24 h later (2.0 and 2.13, respectively). In contrast, the o.e.r. for deficient cells is lower when the cells are plated 24 h after irradiation than when they are plated immediately thereafter (1.16 as compared to 1.55). The results indicate that GSH is involved in PLD repair and, in particular, in the repair of damage induced by radiation delivered under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  14. Proposed Model of Predicting the Reduced Yield Axial Load of Reinforced Concrete Columns Due to Casting Deficiency Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the investigation of the effect of casting deficiencies- both experimentally and analytically on axial yield load or reinforced concrete columns. It includes 6 specimens of square section (150x150x500 mm of 24.37 MPa nominal concrete strength with 4 longitudinal steel bars of 8 mm (500 MPa nominal strength with confinement ratio ωc=0.15. Through casting procedure the necessary provisions defined by International Standards were not applied strictly in order to create construction deficiencies. These deficiencies are quantified geometrically without the use of expensive and expertise non-destructive methods and their effect on the axial load capacity of the concrete columns is calibrated trough a novel and simplified prediction model extracted by an experimental and analytical investigation that included 6 specimens. It is concluded that: a even with suitable repair, load reduction up to 22% is the outcome of the initial construction damage presence, b the lower dispersion is noted for the section damage index proposed, c extended damage alters the failure mode to brittle accompanied with longitudinal bars buckling, d the proposed model presents more than satisfying results to the load capacity prediction of repaired columns.

  15. Vitamin B12 Phosphate Conjugation and Its Effect on Binding to the Human B12 -Binding Proteins Intrinsic Factor and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Proinsias, Keith; Ociepa, Michał; Pluta, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The binding of vitamin B12 derivatives to human B12 transporter proteins is strongly influenced by the type and site of modification of the cobalamin original structure. We have prepared the first cobalamin derivative modified at the phosphate moiety. The reaction conditions were fully optimized...... and its limitations examined. The resulting derivatives, particularly those bearing terminal alkyne and azide groups, were isolated and used in copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC). Their sensitivity towards light revealed their potential as photocleavable molecules. The binding...... abilities of selected derivatives were examined and compared with cyanocobalamin. The interaction of the alkylated derivatives with haptocorrin was less affected than the interaction with intrinsic factor. Furthermore, the configuration of the phosphate moiety was irrelevant to the binding process....

  16. Absorção da vitamina B12 nas mieloses funiculares: Estudo da absorção da radiocianocobalamina em 16 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam a absorção intestinal da vitamina B12 (teste de Schilling em 16 casos com sintomatologia neurológica característica de mielose funicular, com deficiência da secreção cloridropéptica de origem constitucional ou adquirida (pós-gastrectomia. Não foi verificada correlação entre a absorção de vitamina B12, de um lado, e a intensidade da sintomatologia neurológica global ou dos distúrbios da sensibilidade vibratória. Entretanto, nos pacientes com deficiente absorção predominou a síndrome piramidal; no grupo com absorção normal prevaleceu a síndrome periférica, relativamente aos sinais de lesão dos tratos corticospinais.

  17. Iron deficiency anemia and megaloblastic anemia in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mahmoud; Jaberian, Sara; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Riazi, Sajedeh; Rangraz, Maryam Aghababa; Mokhber, Somayyeh

    2017-03-01

    The association between obesity and different types of anemia remained uncertain. The present study aimed to assess the relation between obesity parameters and the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia and also megaloblastic anemia among Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was performed on 1252 patients with morbid obesity that randomly selected from all patients referred to Clinic of obesity at Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in 2014. The morbid obesity was defined according to the guideline as body mass index (BMI) equal to or higher than 40 kg/m2. Various laboratory parameters including serum levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were assessed using the standard laboratory techniques. BMI was adversely associated with serum vitamin B12, but not associated with other hematologic parameters. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 9.8%. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was independent to patients' age and also to body mass index. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was totally 20.9%. According to the multivariable logistic regression model, no association was revealed between BMI and the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia adjusting gender and age. A similar regression model showed that higher BMI could predict occurrence of vitamin B12 deficiency in morbid obese patients. Although iron deficiency is a common finding among obese patients, vitamin B12 deficiency is more frequent so about one-fifth of these patients suffer vitamin B12 deficiency. In fact, the exacerbation of obesity can result in exacerbation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  18. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  19. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C

    2015-12-01

    The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  2. Dual isotope Schilling test for measuring absorption of food-bound and free vitamin B12 simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doscherholmen, A.; Silvis, S.; McMahon, J.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype food-bound vitamin B12 (food-B12) absorption test has been developed in which 57 Co-B12 was incorporated in vitro into egg yolk (yolk-B12) and served to volunteers in 50-g cooked portions together with toast and coffee for breakfast. Six hours later, 1 mg nonlabeled B12 was given intramuscularly and 24-hour urine was collected for radioactivity measurement. In separate tests, the absorption of yolk-B12 and crystalline 57 Co-B12 was equally poor in patients with pernicious anemia. However, in patients with simple gastric achlorhydria and those who had undergone gastric surgery, the assimilation of yolk-B12 was impaired greatly, whereas the absorption of crystalline radio-B12 was normal. Egg yolk labeled with 58 Co-B12 was administered together with crystalline 57 Co-B12 in a dual isotope test with results similar to those obtained when the tests were prepared separately. This yolk- 58 Co-B12 test with its ability to detect malabsorption of food-B12 may be considered as an addition to the first part of the Schilling test

  3. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  4. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  5. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Chhillar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer′s disease (AD. With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001. Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05. The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels.

  6. Analytical electrochemistry of vitamin B12 on a bismuth-film electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, Gabriel L.; Braga, Otoniel C. de; Spinelli, Almir

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) were used to investigate the performance of an ex situ plated bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) employed to study the electrochemical behavior and the electroanalytical determination of vitamin B 12 . Two pH-dependent reversible peaks were observed for the B 12r –B 12s (Co(II)–Co(I)) couple after pre-concentration of vitamin B 12 at −1.2 V for 30 s. An adsorption-controlled reaction rate with one electron involved in the electrochemical step was observed for the mechanism implicated. The calibration curve obtained in a Britton–Robinson solution at pH 12.0 was linear in the concentration range of 0.100–1.000 μmol L −1 (r = 0.9980). The detection limit was found to be 33.1 nmol L −1 . The electrode was successfully employed for the determination of vitamin B 12 in two pharmaceutical products. The electrode performance was compared with those of modified and unmodified electrodes as well as with the UV–vis spectrophotometric method.

  7. Determination of vitamin B12 (cobalamine) absorption by means of a simple double-isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippe, E.; Brynskov, J.; Gimsing, P.; Hjelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    The background, practical instruction and clinical results of a simplified method of determining the absorption of cobalamine (vitamin B 12 ) are presented. The simultaneous administration of 57 CO-CN-cobalamine, a non-absorbable marker ( 51 CrCl 3 ), and red carmine tablets enable quantitative assessments of the cobalamine absorption by collection of a small red feaces sample. In contrast to the classical Schilling-test, this vitamin B 12 absorption test (B 12 -ABS-test) or faeces-spot-test is, independent of fasting, flushing dose, renal function and diurnal urinary collection. This is documented in a series of clinical studies. The B 12 -ABS-test provides accurate and precise results compared to the reference method (whole-body-counting). The Schilling test, on the contrary, gives approximately 50% false low values in a reference group of elderly hospitalized patients. A modification of the B 12 -ABS-test, has been used to determine the cobalamine absorption in children, and a set of age-related reference intervals have been established, together with quantitative measurements of the cobalamine absorption in children with small bowel diseases. Based on several years of practical experience, we recommend replacement of the Schilling test by this simple double-isotope technique. (author)

  8. Treatment of radiation skin lesions in various stages with different preparations of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hui; Chen Qiang; Yang Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    Since the aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 was firstly used to treat efficaciously the acute radiation injury of skin and superficial second-degree skin burn, we have successfully treated radiation skin lesions in acute, chronic and recovering stages with the cream or oil preparation of Vit. B 12 . In the period of ten years (1979-1988), altogether 418 cases of radiation or non-radiation skin injury were observed and 48 out of 49 cases with acute radiation skin ulcer treated with aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 were healed with an effective rate of 97.95% and average healing time of 12.6 days. All of 37 cases with chronic radiation skin injury treated with oil preparation of Vit. B 12 were healed or improved with an effective rate of 100% and average healing time of 21.49 days. However, in the control group, of 18 cases treated with conventional drugs only 13 were healed, the effective rate being 72.22% and healing time 63.5 days, and both of these indices were of significant difference, as compared with those treated with Vit. B 12

  9. Use of vitamin B12 radioassay in the analysis of biological materials, mainly of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, B.; Rauch, P.; Cerna, J.

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 was determined in biological materials by three basically different methods: microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii, microbiological assay with Escherichia coli and radioassay. The method with E. coli has a relatively low sensitivity to vitamin B 12 and in some cases of vitamin B 12 determination in microbial materials it can be used only after a separation of the interfering substances by gel chromatography. The procedure is suitable for orientational determinations of vitamin B 12 because it is very little affected by external factors. The assay with L. leichmannii is universal owing to its high specifity and sensitivity to vitamin B 12 . The main disadvantage of the latter procedure depends on the high requirements for a clean atmosphere which can be maintained in laboratories in industrial areas only with difficulties. These limitations do not apply to the quick and sensitive radioassay. The radioassay can be used after a suitable adjustment of the working procedure for large series of analyses of biological materials without any preliminary separational techniques. (author)

  10. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-02-26

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p vegetarian diet.

  12. Purification and characterization of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto B-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Du, Ming; Zheng, Dongmei; Kong, Fandong; Zu, Guoren; Feng, Yibing

    2009-10-28

    Bacillus subtilis natto B-12 was isolated from natto, a traditional fermented soybean food in Japan. A fibrinolytic enzyme (B-12 nattokinase) was purified from the supernatant of B. subtilis natto B-12 culture broth and showed strong fibrinolytic activity. The enzyme was homogenously purified to 56.1-fold, with a recovery of 43.2% of the initial activity. B-12 nattokinase was demonstrated to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and was identified as a monomer of 29000 +/- 300 Da in its native state by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion methods. The optimal pH value and temperature were 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Purified nattokinase showed high thermostability at temperatures from 30 to 50 degrees C and alkaline stability within the range of pH 6.0-9.0. The enzyme activity was activated by Zn(2+) and obviously inhibited by Fe(3+) and Al(3+). This study provides some important information for the effect factors of fibrinolytic activity, the purification methods, and characterization of nattokinase from B. subtilis natto B-12, which enriches the theoretical information of nattokinase for the research and development of nattokinase as a functional additive of food.

  13. Clinical Significances of Serum Vitamin B12, Folate and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monn, Youn Sung; Soung, In Whan; Kim, Sam Yong; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Bok Hee

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical significances of the serum vitamin B 12 , folate and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors, the levels were measured in 10 normal control subjects, 70 patients with malignant tumors, 7 patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 patients with other benign diseases. The results are as follows: 1) In normal control subjects, mean serum values for vitamin B 12 , folate and ferritin level were 588.80±131.58 pg/ml, 5.59±1.52 ng/ml and 89.22±42.78 ng/ml retrospectively. 2) There was no significant difference in serum levels between patients with benign diseases and normal control subjects. 3) The serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than in normal control, and the serum folate levels in these patients were lower than in normal control subjects. 4) The serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors were significantly higher than in normal control subjects, and the serum folate levels in these patients were significantly lower than in normal control subjects. The above results suggest that the serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin may be useful as tumor markers in patients with malignant tumors.

  14. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  15. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  16. Laminin-111 protein therapy reduces muscle pathology and improves viability of a mouse model of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Jachinta E; Knapp, Jolie R; Hodges, Bradley L; Wuebbles, Ryan D; Burkin, Dean J

    2012-04-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a lethal muscle-wasting disease that is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, resulting in the loss of laminin-α2 protein. MDC1A patients exhibit severe muscle weakness from birth, are confined to a wheelchair, require ventilator assistance, and have reduced life expectancy. There are currently no effective treatments or cures for MDC1A. Laminin-α2 is required for the formation of heterotrimeric laminin-211 (ie, α2, β1, and γ1) and laminin-221 (ie, α2, β2, and γ1), which are major constituents of skeletal muscle basal lamina. Laminin-111 (ie, α1, β1, and γ1) is the predominant laminin isoform in embryonic skeletal muscle and supports normal skeletal muscle development in laminin-α2-deficient muscle but is absent from adult skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined whether treatment with Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm-derived mouse laminin-111 protein could rescue MDC1A in the dy(W-/-) mouse model. We demonstrate that laminin-111 protein systemically delivered to the muscles of laminin-α2-deficient mice prevents muscle pathology, improves muscle strength, and dramatically increases life expectancy. Laminin-111 also prevented apoptosis in laminin-α2-deficient mouse muscle and primary human MDC1A myogenic cells, which indicates a conserved mechanism of action and cross-reactivity between species. Our results demonstrate that laminin-111 can serve as an effective protein substitution therapy for the treatment of muscular dystrophy in the dy(W-/-) mouse model and establish the potential for its use in the treatment of MDC1A. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor 1 reduces vulnerability to chronic alcohol intake-induced cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction: role of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Li, Qun; Turdi, Subat; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels are closely associated with cardiac performance although the role of IGF-1 in alcoholic cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of severe liver IGF-1 deficiency (LID) on chronic alcohol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) dysfunction. Adult male C57 and LID mice were placed on a 4% alcohol diet for 15 weeks. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-relengthening (TR(90) ), change in fura-fluorescence intensity (ΔFFI) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Levels of apoptotic regulators caspase-3, Bcl-2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), the ethanol metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), as well as the cellular fuel gauge AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated. Chronic alcohol intake enlarged myocyte cross-sectional area, reduced PS, ± dL/dt and ΔFFI as well as prolonged TR(90) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay, the effect of which was greatly attenuated by IGF-1 deficiency. The beneficial effect of LID against alcoholic cardiac mechanical defect was ablated by IGF-1 replenishment. Alcohol intake increased caspase-3 activity/expression although it down-regulated Bcl-2, ALDH2 and pAMPK without affecting JNK and AMPK. IGF-1 deficiency attenuated alcoholism-induced responses in all these proteins with the exception of Bcl-2. In addition, the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside abrogated short-term ethanol incubation-elicited cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Taken together, these data suggested that IGF-1 deficiency may reduce the sensitivity to ethanol-induced myocardial mechanical dysfunction. Our data further depicted a likely role of Caspase-3, ALDH2 and AMPK activation in IGF-1 deficiency induced 'desensitization' of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. © 2011 The

  18. The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yang Chen; Shi Yizhen; Liu Zengli

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular disease and the serum levels of homocysteine(Hcy), folate and vitamin B 12 , the serum levels of Hcy, folate and vitamin B 12 in 148 patients with cerebrovascular disease were measured by fluorescence polarization immuno- assay and chemiluminescence and were compared with those in healthy controls. The result showed that the serum Hcy levels in patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and vertebrobasilar ischemiay were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P 12 levels were signifieantly lower (P 0.05). No significantly higher ratio of increased Hcy levels was observed in patient with complications (P> 0.05). Our conclusion is that hyperhomocysteinemia may be a new and an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The serum Hcy level is correlated with decreased levels of folate and vitamin B 12 but not obviously correlated with hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. (authors)

  19. Clinical observation of vitamin B12 eye drops for vision fatigue caused by visual display terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of vitamin B12 eye drops for vision fatigue caused by visual display terminals(VDT. METHODS: Totally 50 patients(100 eyeswith vision fatigue caused by VDT were averagely divided into two groups. The control group were treated with normal saline,the treatment group were treated with vitamin B12 eye drops,3 times per day, one drop each time, continuous for 60d. Accommodative parameters and Schirmer Ⅰtest were measured and analyzed before and after treatment. RESULTS:After treatment, the results of Schirmer Ⅰtest, accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility of the treatment group were higher than those of the control group(all PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 eye drops can lessen symptoms of dry eye, improve accommodative function and treat vision fatigue caused by VDT.

  20. Vitamin B12-catalyzed synthesis of some peracetylated alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA STEVANOVIC

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin B12-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of brominated b-D-xylose peracetate with alkanols ROH (C1-C8 has been studied. The catalytically active species in this reaction was cob(Ialamin, obtained by chemical reduction of Vitamin B12 with NaBH4 (Co(III to Co(I. The reaction was carried out with 2 mol% of vitamin B12, with respect to xylosyl bromide 1, under argon at room temperature. Under these conditions, peracetylated C1-C8-alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides (3a–3f were obtained in moderate yield (55–70 %. In all cases 3,4-di-O-acetyl-D-xylal (4 was obtained, as the product of reductive elimination of peracetylated xylosyl bromide (15–25 %.

  1. A Computational Tale of Two Enzymes: Glycerol Dehydration With or Without B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Borislav; Barić, Danijela; Babic, Darko; Bilić, Luka; Hanževački, Marko; Sandala, Gregory M; Radom, Leo; Smith, David M

    2018-06-12

    We present a series of QM/MM calculations aimed at understanding the mechanism of the biological dehydration of glycerol. Strikingly and unusually, this process is catalyzed by two different radical enzymes, one of which is a coenzyme-B 12 - dependent enzyme and the other which is a coenzyme-B 12 - independent enzyme. We show that glycerol dehydration in the presence of the coenzyme-B 12 -dependent enzyme proceeds via a 1,2-OH shift, which benefits from a significant catalytic reduction in the barrier. In contrast, the same reaction in the presence of the coenzyme-B 12 -independent enzyme is unlikely to involve the 1,2-OH shift; instead, a strong preference for direct loss of water from a radical intermediate is indicated. We show that this preference and, ultimately the evolution of such enzymes, is strongly linked with the reactivities of the species responsible for abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. It appears that the hydrogen re-abstraction step involving the product-related radical is fundamental to the mechanistic preference. The unconventional 1,2-OH shift seems to be required to generate a product-related radical of sufficient reactivity to cleave the relatively inactive C-H bond arising from the B 12 cofactor. In the absence of B 12 , it is the relatively weak S-H bond of a cysteine residue that must be homolyzed. Such a transformation is much less demanding and its inclusion apparently enables a simpler overall dehydration mechanism.

  2. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  3. Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Johansen, Louise Kruse; Raida, Zindy

    2009-01-01

    C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs. DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory...... was assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and hippocampal neuron numbers were quantified by stereologic techniques. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in spatial memory (P ... a lower total number of neurons in hippocampal subdivisions (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 1, and cornu ammonis 2-3) than did the normal controls (P impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease...

  4. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus......The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mice......, and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...

  5. Fibromodulin deficiency reduces collagen structural network but not glycosaminoglycan content in a syngeneic model of colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, P Olof; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Maccarana, Marco; Oldberg, Åke; Rubin, Kristofer

    2017-01-01

    Tumor barrier function in carcinoma represents a major challenge to treatment and is therefore an attractive target for increasing drug delivery. Variables related to tumor barrier include aberrant blood vessels, high interstitial fluid pressure, and the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. One of the proteins associated with dense extracellular matrices is fibromodulin, a collagen fibrillogenesis modulator expressed in tumor stroma but scarce in normal loose connective tissues. Here, we investigated the effects of fibromodulin on stroma ECM in a syngeneic murine colon carcinoma model. We show that fibromodulin deficiency decreased collagen fibril thickness but glycosaminoglycan content and composition were unchanged. Furthermore, vascular density, pericyte coverage and macrophage amount were unaffected. Fibromodulin can therefore be a unique effector of dense collagen matrix assembly in tumor stroma and, without affecting other major matrix components or the cellular composition, can function as a main agent in tumor barrier function.

  6. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A common polymorphism, C776G, in the plasma B12 transport protein transcobalamin (TC), encodes for either proline or arginine at codon 259. This polymorphism may affect the affinity of TC for B12 and subsequent delivery of B12 to tissues. Methods: TC genotype and its associations with i...

  7. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% 2 H 2 O and 13 C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin

  8. Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and e status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Veller, Mette; Kjoelbaek, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39...... in folate, 13% in vitamin B12, 2% in retinol, 28% in vitamin D (72% were insufficient in vitamin D), and none were deficient in vitamin E. At baseline, BMI was inversely associated with retinol (P ... were positively associated with CRP (P associated with all vitamins but retinol (P

  9. Homocisteína, folato e vitamina B12 em pacientes colombianos portadores de coronariopatia Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in colombian patients with coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Garcia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a existência de associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína, folato ou vitamina B12 e síndrome coronariana aguda em pacientes colombianos. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle: foram 50 pacientes portadores de síndrome coronariana aguda e 50 pacientes ambulatoriais sem síndrome coronariana. Foram medidos os níveis de homocisteína, folato e vitamina B12 por meio de imunoensaio por quimioluminescência. Foram também medidos os níveis de colesterol e frações, triglicérides, uréia, creatinina, hemoglobina e hematócrito. RESULTADOS: As concentrações plasmáticas médias de homocisteína foram significativamente diferentes entre os casos (12,4 µmol/l ± 6,0 e os controles (9,7 µmol/l ± 2,4, p=0,01. Os níveis de ácido fólico dos casos foram menores que os dos controles (respectivamente 10,5 ng/ml ± 3,5 x 12,6 ng/ml ± 3,6; p=0,01. Foi observada relação inversa entre os níveis de folato e os de homocisteína. Não houve relação entre os níveis de vitamina B12 e os de homocisteína. Houve diferença significativa nos níveis de triglicérides entre os grupos caso e controle (respectivamente 136,91 ± 67,27 x 174,3 ± 77,6; p=0,01. A razão das chances para hiper-homocisteinemia na síndrome coronariana aguda foi de 4,45 (intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,5 - 13,3. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou associação significativa entre os níveis de homocisteína e síndrome coronariana aguda em pacientes colombianos semelhante à encontrada em populações européias e norte-americanas. Houve correlação negativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína e os de folato. Não houve associação entre os níveis plasmáticos de homocisteína e os de vitamina B12.OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of association between homocysteine, folate, or vitamin B12 plasma levels and acute coronary syndrome in Colombian patients. METHODS: Case control study: cases were 50 patients with acute

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, I?aki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation...

  11. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (

  12. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Men and women aged 45-69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006-2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n=4166) and follow-up (n=2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (pcognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); H.R. van Tuijl (Ruud); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The associations of vitamin B(12), folate, and homocysteine with depression were examined in a population-based study. METHOD: The authors screened 3,884 elderly people for depressive symptoms. Subjects with positive screening results had psychiatric workups.

  14. Effects of divalent cations on vitamin B12 adsorption to brush borders of rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Satoru; Inada, Masami

    1976-01-01

    A brush border preparation from rat intestine was incubated with rat intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex in 0.01M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.4. The 57 Co-B 12 uptake to brush borders was proportional to the amount of protein or to alkaline phosphatase activity in the preparations. The uptake increased with time of incubation. At 37 0 C, the uptake after incubation for 15 min. was 80-85% of that for one hr. The uptake at 4 0 C was approximately 70% of that at 37 0 C. There was no difference as a result of adding glucose to the incubation medium. The uptake was observed in the alkaline environment above pH 6.3. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 8.0. Brush borders washed with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) exhibited no difference in B 12 uptake, whether in the presence of absence of calcium ion. But brush borders washed with ethylenediaminetetraacetate exhibited no uptake when incubated in calcium-free medium. The uptake reached a maximum by addition of calcium ion at a concentration of 0.3 mM, and was not alter up to 10 mM. Addition of magnesium ion exhibited no uptake. Calcium-dependent B 12 uptake was markedly inhibited by manganese ion. Magnesium ion seemed to slightly inhibit the calcium-dependent uptake. (auth.)

  15. Low-temperature heat capacity and thermodynamic functions of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, A.V.; Smirnova, N.N.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Shushunov, A.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 12 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 12 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 343 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 12 , namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry

  16. A triple isotope technique for estimation of fat and vitamin B12 malabsorption in Chrohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.T.; Rannem, T.

    1991-01-01

    A test for simultaneous estimation of vitamin B 12 and fat absorption from stool samples was investigated in 25 patients with severe diarrhoea after operation for Chrohn's disease. 51 CrCl 3 was ingested as a non-absorbable marker, 58 Co-cyanocobalamin as vitamin B 12 tracer, and 14 C-triolein as lipid tracer. Faeces were collected separately for three days. Some stool-to-stool variation in the 58 Co/ 51 Cr and 14 C/ 51 Cr ratios was seen. When the 58 Co-B 12 and 14 C-triolein excretion was estimated in samples of the two stools with the highest activities of 51 Cr, the variations of the estimates were less than ±10% and ±15% of the doses ingested, respectively. 12 of the 25 patients were not able to collect faeces and urine quantitatively and separately. However, in all patients faeces with sufficient radioactivity for simultaneous estimation of faecal 58 Co-B 12 and 14 C-triolein excretion from stool samples were obtained. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Coenzyme B12 model studies: Equilibrium constants for the pH ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 1. Coenzyme B12 model studies: Equilibrium constants for the H-dependent axial ligation of benzyl(aquo)cobaloxime by various N- and S-donor ligands. D Sudarshan Reddy N Ravi Kumar Reddy V Sridhar S Satyanarayana. Inorganic and Analytical ...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC...

  19. IL-6 deficiency leads to reduced metallothionein-I+II expression and increased oxidative stress in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2000-01-01

    -AN-injected IL-6KO mice reactive astrocytosis and recruitment of macrophages and T-lymphocytes were clearly reduced, as were BM leukopoiesis and spleen immune reaction. Expression of MT-I+II was significantly reduced while MT-III was increased. Oxidative stress, as determined by measuring nitrated...... in brain stem gray matter areas and BM toxicity. In both normal and genetically IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6 knockout (IL-6KO) mice), the extent of astroglial degeneration/cell death in the brain stem was similar as determined from disappearance of GFAP immunoreactivity. In 6-AN-injected normal mice reactive...... tyrosine and malondialdehyde, was increased by 6-AN to a greater extent in IL-6KO mice. The blood-brain barrier to albumin was only disrupted in 6-AN-injected normal mice, which likely is due to the substantial migration of blood-derived inflammatory cells into the CNS. The present results demonstrate...

  20. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. Results We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i transport systems, and (ii metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Conclusion Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three

  1. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  2. Effects of Chemical and Physical Enhancement Techniques on Transdermal Delivery of Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Banga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC. In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol, iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles, which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%, oleic acid (10% and propylene glycol (40% showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens.

  3. A blue corrinoid from partial degradation of vitamin B12 in aqueous bicarbonate: spectra, structure, and interaction with proteins of B12 transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Ruetz, Markus; Gruber, Karl; Fedosova, Natalya U; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2011-09-20

    Cobalamin (Cbl) is a complex cofactor produced only by bacteria but used by all animals and humans. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12), CNCbl) is one commonly isolated form of cobalamin. B(12) belongs to a large group of corrinoids, which are characterized by a distinct red color conferred by the system of conjugated double bonds of the corrin ring retaining a Co(III) ion. A unique blue Cbl derivative was produced by hydrolysis of CNCbl in a weakly alkaline aqueous solution of bicarbonate. This corrinoid was purified and isolated as dark blue crystals. Its spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallography revealed B-ring opening with formation of 7,8-seco-cyanocobalamin (7,8-sCNCbl). The unprecedented structural change was caused by cleavage of the peripheral C-C bond between saturated carbons 7 and 8 of the corrin macrocycle accompanied by formation of a C═C bond at C7 and a carbonyl group at C8. Additionally, the C-amide was hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid. The extended conjugation of the π-system caused a considerable red shift of the absorbance spectrum. Formation and degradation of 7,8-sCNCbl were analyzed qualitatively. Its interaction with the proteins of mammalian Cbl transport revealed both a slow binding kinetics and a low overall affinity. The binding data were compared to those of other monocarboxylic derivatives and agreed with the earlier proposed scheme for two-step ligand recognition. The obtained results are consistent with the structural models of 7,8-sCNCbl and the transport proteins intrinsic factor and transcobalamin. Potential applications of the novel derivative for drug conjugation are discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-09-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  5. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  7. Structural basis of nanobody-mediated blocking of BtuF, the cognate substrate-binding protein of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, S A; Sauer, M M; Glockshuber, R; Locher, K P

    2017-10-30

    Bacterial ABC importers catalyze the uptake of essential nutrients including transition metals and metal-containing co-factors. Recently, an IgG antibody targeting the external binding protein of the Staphylococcus aureus Mn(II) ABC importer was reported to inhibit transport activity and reduce bacterial cell growth. We here explored the possibility of using alpaca-derived nanobodies to inhibit the vitamin B12 transporter of Escherichia coli, BtuCD-F, as a model system by generating nanobodies against the periplasmic binding protein BtuF. We isolated six nanobodies that competed with B12 for binding to BtuF, with inhibition constants between 10 -6 and 10 -9  M. Kinetic characterization of the nanobody-BtuF interactions revealed dissociation half-lives between 1.6 and 6 minutes and fast association rates between 10 4 and 10 6  M -1 s -1 . For the tightest-binding nanobody, we observed a reduction of in vitro transport activity of BtuCD-F when an excess of nanobody over B12 was used. The structure of BtuF in complex with the most effective nanobody Nb9 revealed the molecular basis of its inhibitory function. The CDR3 loop of Nb9 reached into the substrate-binding pocket of BtuF, preventing both B12 binding and BtuCD-F complex formation. Our results suggest that nanobodies can mediate ABC importer inhibition, providing an opportunity for novel antibiotic strategies.

  8. Vitamina B12, Acido Fólico y Función Mental en Adultos Mayores

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens-R, Lesbia; Solano-R, Liseti

    2005-01-01

    Los adultos mayores constituyen un grupo de población vulnerable a cuadros de deficiencias de nutrientes específicos como la vitamina B12 y el ácido fólico, íntimamente ligados al deterioro de las funciones mentales, en especial, del área cognitiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar indicadores del estado de vitamina B12 y ácido fólico y asociarlos a la evaluación de la función mental de 53 adultos mayores de 60 años de edad, residenciados en un hogar geriátrico. Se evaluó consumo di...

  9. Radioisotope dilution technique for determination of vitamin B12 in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, P.J.; Speckman, K.R.; Ebert, F.J.; Hobbs, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope dilution (RID) method for the determination of vitamin B 12 is presented. The method combines a standard extraction procedure (AOAC 43.108, 12th ed.) with a commercially available RID assay kit. The method was evaluated on a wide range of fortified and unfortified food products. Recovery studies on both groups yielded average recoveries of 98.1 and 95.8%, respectively. Reproducibility data generated from replicate analysis on both groups gave a relative standard deviation of 6.9% for the fortified group and 9.2% for the unfortified group. For the samples studied, the mean vitamin B 12 content determined by the RID method was 8.01 μ/100 g vs a mean of 7.54 μg/100 g by the AOAC microbiological method; the correlation coefficient was r = 0.983

  10. An evaluation of commercial radioisotope methods for the determination of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five commercial kits for the determination of folate and six kits for the determination of vitamin B 12 were investigated. Their performance has been compared with microbiological methods for the two vitamins and with a non-commercial radioisotopic method for B 12 . The results show the importance of the determination of the reference range for an individual laboratory for each method. The precision of the kits varied appreciably, as did their performance using specimens from patients with different haematological disorders. In particular, certain kits failed to detect all patients with pernicious anaemia. The relative accuracy of the kits was assessed. Various factors which should be taken into account in the final selection of a satisfactory kit are discussed. (author)

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B. Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention.

  12. Synthesis and crystal structure of Pb(Bipy)(DMFA)B12H12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagun, V.L.; Solntsev, K.A.; Katser, S.B.; Orlova, A.M.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    1994-01-01

    Lead complex with B 12 H 12 2- anion and neutral ligands -2,2' -bipyridine (Bipy) and dimethylformamide (DMFA) has been prepared by Pb(Bipy) B 12 H 12 recrystallization from mixed solvent DMFA - benzene (1:1). The complex prepared has been studied by the methods of IR spectroscopy, element and X-ray diffraction analyses. Parameters of monoclinic cell are as follows: 1 = 9.583(2), b = 16.958 (4), c = 18.685 (3) A; β = 105.65 (2), V = 2924 (1) A 3 , Z =4; sp.gr. P2 1 /c. The structure consists of dimer units. Pb-B distance is within 3.23-3.71 (3) A. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of Pb(Bipy)2B12H12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagun, V.L.; Orlova, A.M.; Katser, S.B.; Solntsev, K.A.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    1994-01-01

    Lead complex with B 12 H 12 2- anion and 2,2' bipyridine-lead(2) dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborate di(2,2' bipyridine) is synthesized and characterized by IF, UV and NMR spectrography methods. According to roentgen-structural analysis the crystals belong to monoclinic syngony, sp.gr. C2/m,a=17.872(4), b=18.672(5), c=9.228(7)A, β=109.11(4), V=2910(2)A 3 , Z=4. The structure consists of Pb 2 (Bipy) 4 (B 12 H 12 ) 2 dimeric units. The Pb-B distances are within the limits of 3.313-3.514A. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Diffusion of Vitamin B12 Across a Mesoporous Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Valencia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the rate of uptake and the rate of release of a Vitamin B12 solution (dissolved in water at 2 different temperatures (room temperature and 37°C by the mesoporous metal organic framework TbMOF-100 at 1-hour intervals using a spectrophotometer. Using the Beer-Lambert law, we calculate the concentration of the stock solution based on the absorbance values obtained with the spectrophotometer. These values allow for the quantification of the initial rate of uptake and the rate of uptake at a random incubation time of the Vitamin B12 by the TbMOF-100. We also calculate the value of the coefficient of diffusion for this 2-phase system using Fick’s laws of diffusion.

  15. Ultrafast electronic relaxation of excited state vitamin B12 in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Poisson, Lionel; Soep, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    The time evolution of electronically excited vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) has been observed for the first time in the gas phase. It reveals an ultrafast decay to a state corresponding to metal excitation. This decay is interpreted as resulting from a ring to metal electron transfer. This opens the observation of the excited state of other complex biomimetic systems in the gas phase, the key to the characterisation of their complex evolution through excited electronic states

  16. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...... that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...

  17. Coenzyme B12 synthesis as a baseline to study metabolite contribution of animal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Antoine; Braham, Sherazade

    2017-07-01

    Microbial communities thrive in a number of environments. Exploration of their microbiomes - their global genome - may reveal metabolic features that contribute to the development and welfare of their hosts, or chemical cleansing of environments. Yet we often lack final demonstration of their causal role in features of interest. The reason is that we do not have proper baselines that we could use to monitor how microbiota cope with key metabolites in the hosting environment. Here, focusing on animal gut microbiota, we describe the fate of cobalamins - metabolites of the B12 coenzyme family - that are essential for animals but synthesized only by prokaryotes. Microbiota produce the vitamin used in a variety of animals (and in algae). Coprophagy plays a role in its management. For coprophobic man, preliminary observations suggest that the gut microbial production of vitamin B12 plays only a limited role. By contrast, the vitamin is key for structuring microbiota. This implies that it is freely available in the environment. This can only result from lysis of the microbes that make it. A consequence for biotechnology applications is that, if valuable for their host, B12-producing microbes should be sensitive to bacteriophages and colicins, or make spores. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy. PMID:28167849

  19. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B 12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B 12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B 12 in real samples.

  20. Expression of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in the One Carbon Cycle in Rat Placenta is Determined by Maternal Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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    Vinita Khot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylcholine (PC, in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  1. Vitamin B12: a novel indicator of bone health in vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of modifiable predictors for osteoporosis and fractures have been identified, including nutritional factors, such as vitamin D deficiency and low calcium intake. Cobalamin deficiency has been suggested to affect bone metabolism. Pernicious anaemia, which can result in cobalamin

  2. Techno-functional differentiation of two vitamin B12 producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains: an elucidation for diverse future use.

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    Bhushan, Bharat; Tomar, S K; Chauhan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B 12 (B 12 , cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B 12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B 12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B 12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3.4-, 4.4-, and 3.86-folds, respectively. Three important B 12 structural genes were detected in L. plantarum species (strains BHM10 and BCF20) by PCR for the first time. The gene sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank and found phylogenetically closer to respective sequences in B 12 producing Lactobacillus reuteri strains. During comparative probiotic testing, BCF20 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) gastrointestinal tolerance and cell surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.05) than BHM10. Moreover, only BCF20 was found positive for BSH activity and also exhibited comparatively better antagonistic potential against potent pathogens. Conversely, high acid and bile susceptible strain BHM10 displayed significantly higher soy milk fermentation and resultant B 12 bio-fortification abilities during technological testing. Two B 12 quantification techniques, UFLC and competitive immunoassay, confirmed the in vitro and in situ bio-production of bio-available form of B 12 after BHM10 fermentation. Conclusively, techno-functional differentiation of two B 12 producing strains elucidates their diverse future use; BCF20 either for B 12 over-production (in vitro) or as a probiotic candidate, while BHM10 for cobalamin bio-fortification (in situ) in soy milk.

  3. Stability and aromaticity of nH2@B12N12 (n=1–12 clusters

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    Pratim K. Chattaraj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard ab initio and density functional calculations are carried out to determine the structure, stability, and reactivity of B12N12 clusters with hydrogen doping. To lend additional support, conceptual DFT-based reactivity descriptors and the associated electronic structure principles are also used. Related cage aromaticity of this B12N12 and nH2@B12N12 are analyzed through the nucleus independent chemical shift values.

  4. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with serum vitamin B12 level in women of gestational age in Khorram Abad

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    fatemeh Yari

    2006-02-01

    Findings: There was no significant difference between mean age of HP positive and HP negative participants. 76 out of 110 (72.2% samples were HP positive. The rate of HP seropositivity was significantly higher in patients with serum vitamin B12 level less than 12 pg/ml. who had lower and moderate vitamin B12 levels (145-180 pg/ml, that is 94% vs 64.5%, P<0.013. Conclusion: High HP seropositivity rate among patients with low-normal less serum vitamin B12 levels than normal indicates that there may be an association between HP infection and serum vitamin B12 levels.

  5. Ceruloplasmin deficiency reduces levels of iron and BDNF in the cortex and striatum of young mice and increases their vulnerability to stroke.

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    Sarah J Texel

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin (Cp is an essential ferroxidase that plays important roles in cellular iron trafficking. Previous findings suggest that the proper regulation and subcellular localization of iron are very important in brain cell function and viability. Brain iron dyshomeostasis is observed during normal aging, as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, coincident with areas more susceptible to insults. Because of their high metabolic demand and electrical excitability, neurons are particularly vulnerable to ischemic injury and death. We therefore set out to look for abnormalities in the brain of young adult mice that lack Cp. We found that iron levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex of these young animals are significantly lower than wild-type (WT controls. Also mRNA levels of the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known for its role in maintenance of cell viability, were decreased in these brain areas. Chelator-mediated depletion of iron in cultured neural cells resulted in reduced BDNF expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism, suggesting a causal link between low brain iron levels and reduced BDNF expression. When the mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of focal ischemic stroke, we found increased brain damage in Cp-deficient mice compared to WT controls. Our data indicate that lack of Cp increases neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury by a mechanism that may involve reduced levels of iron and BDNF.

  6. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of biotin and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C L; Desrochers, A

    2010-04-01

    Biotin and vitamin B(12) are coenzymes in reactions that are essential to propionate metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether an increased dietary supply of these vitamins would change the net flux of nutrients through the rumen, the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the total splanchnic tissues (TSP), and the liver. Four lactating cows equipped with ultrasonic flow probes around the right ruminal artery and the portal vein and catheters in the right ruminal vein, the portal vein, one hepatic vein, and one mesenteric artery were fed 12 times per day a mixed ration at 95% of ad libitum dry matter intake. Daily supplements of 500 mg of vitamin B(12)+20mg of biotin or no vitamin supplement (study 1) or 500 mg of vitamin B(12) alone or with 20mg of biotin (study 2) were fed according to a crossover design with two 4-wk periods in each study. On the last day of each period, blood flow was recorded and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 4h. In study 1, biotin and vitamin B(12) given together increased milk production and milk protein yields compared with the control diet. The supplement increased appearance of the 2 vitamins across the PDV and TSP. It also reduced the net portal appearance of ammonia and total volatile fatty acids across the PDV. In study 2, compared with the 2 vitamins together, vitamin B(12) alone increased glucose flux across PDV and TSP as well as its arterial concentration and PDV flux of ammonia. With the diet used in the present experiment, the major effects of the vitamin supplements seem to be mediated through changes in ruminal fermentation and gastrointestinal tract metabolism rather than by effects on hepatic metabolism. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is deficient in ataxia telangiectasia and reduced in aged normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinbo Cheng; Nge Cheong; Ya Wang; Iliakis, George

    1996-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA, also called human single stranded DNA binding protein, hSSB) is a trimeric, multifunctional protein complex involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination. Phosphorylation of RPA p34 subunit is observed after exposure of cells to radiation and other DNA damaging agents, which implicates the protein not only in repair but also in the regulation of replication on damaged DNA template. Here, we show that the phosphorylation observed in RPA p34 after exposure to ionizing radiation, X- or γ-rays, is reduced and occurs later in primary fibroblasts from patients suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), as compared to normal fibroblasts. We also show that in primary normal human fibroblasts, radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is 'age'-dependent and decreases significantly as cultures senesce. Radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is nearly absent in non-cycling cells, while the expression of p21 cip1/waf1/sdi1 remains inducible. The results demonstrate a growth-stage and culture-age dependency in radiation-induced RPA p34 phosphorylation, and suggest the operation of a signal transduction pathway that is inactivated in senescing or quiescent fibroblasts and defective in AT cells

  8. Red Wine administration to Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice reduces their Macrophage-derived Extracellular Matrix Atherogenic Properties

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    MARIELLE KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs from the arterial extracellular matrix (ECM contribute to the trapping of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL in the arterial wall, a phenomenon called "lipoprotein retention". Moreover, we have shown that subsequent to their binding to the matrix, LDL and Ox-LDL are taken up by macrophages. Oxidative stress significantly increases macrophage secretion of ECM-PGs, lipoprotein binding to the ECM and the uptake of ECM-retained lipoproteins by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to determine whether red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice would affect their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix properties, such as the glycosaminoglycan content and the ability to bind LDL. In addition, we questioned the ability of LDL bound to the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM to be taken up by macrophages. Red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice did not affect the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM glycosaminoglycan content but it significantly reduced the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM ability to bind LDL and the subsequent uptake of ECM-retained LDL by the macrophages. The present study thus clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effect of red wine consumption by E0 mice on their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix atherogenic properties.

  9. GPR84 deficiency reduces microgliosis, but accelerates dendritic degeneration and cognitive decline in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoy-Rémus, Julie; Bozoyan, Lusine; Dumas, Aline; Filali, Mohammed; Lecours, Cynthia; Lacroix, Steve; Rivest, Serge; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Vallières, Luc

    2015-05-01

    Microglia surrounds the amyloid plaques that form in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role is controversial. Under inflammatory conditions, these cells can express GPR84, an orphan receptor whose pathophysiological role is unknown. Here, we report that GPR84 is upregulated in microglia of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a model of AD. Without GPR84, these mice display both accelerated cognitive decline and a reduced number of microglia, especially in areas surrounding plaques. The lack of GPR84 affects neither plaque formation nor hippocampal neurogenesis, but promotes dendritic degeneration. Furthermore, GPR84 does not influence the clinical progression of other diseases in which its expression has been reported, i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and endotoxic shock. We conclude that GPR84 plays a beneficial role in amyloid pathology by acting as a sensor for a yet unknown ligand that promotes microglia recruitment, a response affecting dendritic degeneration and required to prevent further cognitive decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. miR-451 deficiency is associated with altered endometrial fibrinogen alpha chain expression and reduced endometriotic implant establishment in an experimental mouse model.

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    Warren B Nothnick

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glandular and stromal components in ectopic locations and affects as many as 10% of all women of reproductive age. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are mis-expressed in endometriosis but a functional role in the disease pathogenesis remains uncertain. To examine the role of microRNA-451 (miR-451 in the initial development of endometriosis, we utilized a novel mouse model in which eutopic endometrial fragments used to induce endometriosis were deficient for miR-451. After induction of the disease, we evaluated the impact of this deficiency on implant development and survival. Loss of miR-451 expression resulted in a lower number of ectopic lesions established in vivo. Analysis of differential protein profiles between miR-451 deficient and wild-type endometrial fragments revealed that fibrinogen alpha polypeptide isoform 2 precursor was approximately 2-fold higher in the miR-451 null donor endometrial tissue and this elevated expression of the protein was associated with altered expression of the parent fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein. As this polypeptide contains RGD amino acid "cell adhesion" motifs which could impact early establishment of lesion development, we examined and confirmed using a cyclic RGD peptide antagonist, that endometrial cell adhesion and endometriosis establishment could be respectively inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduced miR-451 eutopic endometrial expression does not enhance initial establishment of these fragments when displaced into the peritoneal cavity, that loss of eutopic endometrial miR-451 expression is associated with altered expression of fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein, and that RGD cyclic peptide antagonists inhibit establishment of endometriosis

  11. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency reduced growth performance and impaired intestinal immune function associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune function and the potential regulation mechanisms in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg) for 70 days. After that, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency: (1) reduced the production of innate immune components such as lysozyme (LZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), complements and antimicrobial peptides and adaptive immune components such as immunoglobulins in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P TOR) signalling [TOR/ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 (S6K1) and eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp; (3) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [not in the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI)], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D [(rather than interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2)] partly relating to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling [IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IKKγ/inhibitor of κBα (IκBα)/NF-κB (p65 and c-Rel)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp. These results suggest that PN deficiency could impair the intestinal immune function, and the potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. In addition, based on percent weight gain (PWG), the ability against enteritis and LZ activity, the dietary PN requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 4.43, 4.75 and 5.07 mg/kg diet, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformational cycle of the vitamin B12 ABC importer in liposomes detected by double electron-electron resonance (DEER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-02-07

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82-82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached.