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  1. Anemia - B12 deficiency

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000574.htm Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on ... tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell ...

  2. B12 Deficiency with Children

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    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: to rewieved the clinical and laboratory properties of seven cases with megaloblastic anemia. Clinical and laboratory findings of seven cases with megaloblastic anemia are described. İt is determined that all of the patients received little or no animal products by nutritional history. Clinically apatite, malasia, headeche, otism, and parestheia in the lower extremities and foods were present in patients. On physical examination; four patients had glossit, four had hyporeflexia, one had ataxia. Folat level was normal and B12 vitamin level was low in all patients. The MCV (mean corpuscular volume was normal in three patients. Hypersegmentation of neutrophil was observed in all patients, leukopenia in two, and trombocytopenia was observed in one patient.Conclusion: it is suggested B12 vitamin deficiency in the patients that received little or no animal products by nutritional history. However, hypersegmentation of neutrophil in peripheral blood sample is an important finding for diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia.

  3. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

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    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  4. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

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    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice.

  5. [Approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency].

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    Russcher, Henk; Heil, Sandra G; Slobbe, Lennert; Lindemans, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female vegetarian was referred to a specialist in internal medicine with persistent iron deficiency. Laboratory analysis revealed microcytic anaemia with low ferritin levels but normal total vitamin B12 levels. The red blood cell distribution width, however, showed a very wide variation in red blood cell sizes, indicating a coexisting vitamin B12 deficiency, which was confirmed by the low concentration of active vitamin B12. Another patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of previous gastric surgery and renal insufficiency as a complication of diabetes mellitus, was suspected to be deficient in vitamin B12, as she had low total vitamin B12 levels and an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in her blood. Testing the total concentration of vitamin B12 alone has insufficient diagnostic accuracy and no accepted gold standard is available for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the development of newer tests, such as measuring holotranscobalamin II (concentration of active vitamin B12), atypical and subclinical deficiency states can be recognized. A new approach to diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency is presented, based upon these 2 case descriptions.

  6. Vitamin B-12 deficiency%Vitamin B-12deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Hudson

    2011-01-01

    @@ An 85 year old man had a preoperative assessment for a knee replacement.His full blood count was normal apart from haemoglobin 95 g/L and mean corpuscular volume 105 fl.He drank no alcohol.Further testing showed that his vitamin B-12was low:90 pmol/L(reference range 160-800 pmol/L).Folate,ferritin,thyroid stimulating hormone,and liver function tests were normal.He had no other medical or surgical history and ate a balanced diet that includes meat.

  7. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of b12 deficiency

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    Maryam Valizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  9. Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  10. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

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    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment.

  11. Nutritional vitamin-B12 deficiency. Possible contributory role of subtle vitamin-B12 malabsorption.

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    Carmel, R

    1978-05-01

    Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-12 has been reported, yet most people ingesting vitamin-B12-deficient diets even for many years appear to achieve a balance that does not lead to overt signs and symptoms of deficiency. I present the case of a vegan of 25 years' duration who developed severe neurologic abnormalities due to vitamin-B12 deficiency. His diet provided 1.2 microgram of vitamin B12 daily at most. Despite normal Schilling test findings, he absorbed subnormal amounts of vitamin B12 given with ovalbumin. This poor absorption appeared to be related to his gastritis, achlorhydria, and subnormal intrinsic-factor secretion. Probably, vitamin-B12 deficiency in this patient resulted from both dietary restriction and the subtle malabsorption, neither of which would have sufficed alone to produce the clinical problem. Possibly such malabsorption may also be present in many of those vegans developing overt vitamin-B12 deficiency in whom Schilling test findings have been normal.

  12. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

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    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency.

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency: issues in nursing care.

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    Candela, Lori; Meiner, Sue E

    2004-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a relatively common occurrence with potentially devastating consequences. The wide range of etiologies and symptoms makes it imperative for the nurse to use a comprehensive approach to assessing and managing the patient with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  14. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

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    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  15. Brain damage in infancy and dietary vitamin B12 deficiency.

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    Wighton, M C; Manson, J I; Speed, I; Robertson, E; Chapman, E

    1979-07-14

    A case of the exclusively breast-fed infant of a vegetarian mother is reported. Neurological deterioration commenced between three and six months of age, and progressed to a comatose premoribund state by the age of nine months. Investigations revealed a mild nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in the mother, and a very severe nutritional B12 deficiency in the infant, with severe megaloblastic anaemia. Treatment of the infant with vitamin B12 resulted in a rapid clinical and haematological improvement, but neurological recovery was incomplete. Evidence is presented that dietary B12 deficiency was the sole cause of the infant's deterioration, and the literature relating to the condition is reviewed. It is recommended that all strict vegetarians (vegans), especially women in the child-bearing age group, take vitamin B12 supplements.

  16. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  17. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12.

  18. West syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

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    Serin, Hepsen Mine; Kara, Aslıhan Oruçoğlu; Oğuz, Baran

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits including macrocyticanaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor andseizures. In this article, we report the case of a six-month-old male patient diagnosed with West syndrome associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Although the patient had no evidence of macrocytic anemia in complete blood count, we measured the level of vitamin B12 because the patient had hypotonicity and found it to be low. No other problem was found in the other investigations directed to the etiology of West syndrome. He was being exclusively breast-fed and vitamin B12 deficiency was related with nutritional inadequacy of his mother. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with different neurological findings. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered as a rare cause in West syndrome which has a heterogeneous etiology.

  19. Spinal myoclonus associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

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    Dogan, Ebru Apaydin; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-11-01

    We report a 85-year-old female patient with involuntary and regular movements restricted to abdominal muscles, resembling belly dance, with additional clinical features; ataxia, impaired cognition, neuropathy and glossitis. We initially excluded the possible cortical and spinal structural abnormalities with magnetic resonance imagings and performed routine blood analysis which revealed that serum vitamin B12 (vB12) level was under normal ranges. The relation of low serum vB12 level and myoclonus is speculative and very few studies have demonstrated such patients. In this case report, serum vB12 deficiency is discussed in the context of its probable role in the generation of spinal myoclonus.

  20. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

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    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period.

  1. Different Neurologic Aspects of Nutritional B12 Deficiency in Infancy.

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    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serdaroglu, Gul; Tekgul, Hasan; Gokben, Sarenur

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate neurologic problems caused by nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Twenty-four cases between 2 and 18 months of age with neurologic symptoms and/or signs and diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency were analyzed. The most common symptoms were developmental retardation, afebrile seizures, and involuntary movements. The mean vitamin B12 levels were lower in patients with both neurologic and extraneurologic involvement when compared to those with only neurologic symptoms. All of the cases were treated with vitamin B12. In patients with severe deficiencies, involuntary movements were observed during vitamin B12 treatment using cyanocobalamin form. At the 1-year follow-up, all but 3 patients were considered neurodevelopmentally normal. The 3 patients that did not fully recover, on admission, had the lowest vitamin B12 levels. It is of great importance to prevent, diagnose, and treat vitamin B12 deficiency promptly to prevent the long-term neurologic problems.

  2. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

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    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide.

  3. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

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    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure.

  4. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

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    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development.

  5. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

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    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism.

  6. Oxidative Stress Markers in Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

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    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Rahi, Sushil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report the status of oxidative stress markers in vitamin B12 deficiency and their relation to clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological findings. Fifty-one subjects with serum vitamin B12 deficiency (B12 deficiency patients groups as well as with normal controls. In the patients, GSH, MDA and TAC were correlated with demographic, clinical, hematological, biochemical, nerve conduction study (NCS), visual evoked potential (VEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) findings. In the study group, 20 (39.2 %) patients had SACD manifesting with myeloneuropathy, cognitive or behavioral abnormalities, and 31(60.8 %) patients had non-SACD neurological manifestations. The GSH (2.46 ± 0.32 vs. 2.70 ± 0.36 mg/dl; P = 0.002) and TAC (2.13 ± 0.38 vs. 2.33 ± 0.24 nmol Trolox eq/l, P = 0.005) levels were lower, and MDA levels (4.01 ± 0.69 vs. 3.00 ± 0.45 nmol/ml, P B12 deficiency group compared with controls. Similar trend was found in SACD and non-SACD vitamin B12 deficiency groups. GSH levels correlated with abnormal VEP (r = 0.54; P B12 deficiency was associated with reduction in GSH and TAC and increase in MDA levels which were more marked in SACD compared to non-SACD group.

  7. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

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    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements.

  8. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component......, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  9. Vitamin B(12) deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis via increased homocysteine and methylmalonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Bart L T; Lute, Carolien; Blom, Henk J; Bravenboer, Nathalie; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A; Müller, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2009-05-01

    The risk of nutrient deficiencies increases with age in our modern Western society, and vitamin B(12) deficiency is especially prevalent in the elderly and causes increased homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. These three factors have been recognized as risk factors for reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, though mechanistic evidence is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the influence of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on differentiation and activity of bone cells. B(12) deficiency did not affect the onset of osteoblast differentiation, maturation, matrix mineralization, or adipocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). B(12) deficiency caused an increase in the secretion of Hcy and MMA into the culture medium by osteoblasts, but Hcy and MMA appeared to have no effect on hMSC osteoblast differentiation. We further studied the effect of B(12), Hcy, and MMA on the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow. We observed that B(12) did not show an effect on osteoclastogenesis. However, Hcy as well as MMA were found to induce osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of these results, we conclude that B(12) deficiency may lead to decreased bone mass by increased osteoclast formation due to increased MMA and Hcy levels.

  10. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

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    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  11. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Stimulates Osteoclastogenesis via Increased Homocysteine and Methylmalonic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, B.L.T.; Lute, C.; Blom, H.J.; Bravenboer, N.; Vries, de T.J.; Everts, V.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Müller, M.R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of nutrient deficiencies increases with age in our modern Western society, and vitamin B12 deficiency is especially prevalent in the elderly and causes increased homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. These three factors have been recognized as risk factors for reduced bone

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'eno, Bernadette N; Perrine, Cria G; Whitehead, Ralph D; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2017-01-17

    Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a) age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.92) or 12-17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72) compared to 18-23 months; (b) being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50) compared to not being stunted; (c) and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41) compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-03-26

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple "stylized model" that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows-somewhat counter-intuitively-that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12-GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this "cysteine-block" is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  15. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

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    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  16. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W; Blom, Henk J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders.

  17. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Tomohiro Bito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1 mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%. These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress.

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress.

  20. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    ishak abdurrahman isik; cahit baris erdur; ufuk Bozkurt Obuz; Nur Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Together with low intake, malabsorbtion is the most important factor causing vitamin B 12 (vit B 12) deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency also has been shown to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis in some studies. Aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of HP gastritis in patients with vit B 12 deficiency. Patients and methods: 24 patients (mean age: 15.6 +/- 1.3 years ) have been included the study. Serum vit B12 level has been measured by electrochemilumi...

  1. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm.

  2. Different Supplementation Regimes to Treat Perioperative Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Smulders, J F

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 dosage in multivitamin supplementation in the current literature is quite variable. There is no consensus about the optimal treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency. A systematic literature search on different supplementation regimes to treat perioperative vitamin B12 deficiencies in bariatric surgery was performed. The methodological quality of ten included studies was rated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale and ranged from moderate to good. The agreement between the reviewers was assessed with a Cohen's kappa (0.69). The current literature suggests that 350 μg oral vitamin B12 is the appropriate dose to correct low vitamin B12 levels in many patients. Further research must focus on a better diagnosis of a vitamin B12 deficiency, the optimal dose vitamin B12 supplementation, and clinical relevance next to biochemical data.

  3. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency rel

  4. Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Haye H.; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B-12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause m

  5. Holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) and Herbert's model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency: a review and alternative hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of total vitamin B12 in serum is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific indicator for the reliable diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Victor Herbert proposed a model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) is the first indicator of deficiency. Based on this model, a commercial immunoassay has been controversially promoted as a replacement for the total vitamin B12 test. HoloTC is cobalamin (vitamin B12) attached to the transport protein transcobalamin, in the serum, for delivery to cells for metabolism. Although there have been many published reports supporting the claims for HoloTC, the results of some studies were inconsistent with the claim of HoloTC as the most sensitive marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. This review examines the evidence for and against the use of HoloTC, and concludes that the HoloTC immunoassay cannot be used to measure vitamin B12 status any more reliably than total vitamin B12, or to predict the onset of a metabolic deficiency, because it is based on an erroneous hypothesis and a flawed model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency. The author proposes an alternative model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  6. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome: a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Sumant; Jha, Sneh Kumar; Pandey, Suchit; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-10-16

    We report a case of bilateral useless hand syndrome, a rare presenting manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. A 38-year-old man, a strict vegetarian and a teacher by occupation, presented with acute onset clumsiness of both hands while performing fine movements. Detailed history-taking, examination of the patient and relevant investigations (complete blood count, serum vitamin B12 and MRI of the cervical spinal cord) were carried out. Laboratory analysis was suggestive of vitamin B12 deficiency and MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the posterior columns of the cervical cord. The patient was diagnosed as a case of non-compressive cervical myelopathy predominantly involving the posterior column due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute bilateral useless hand syndrome can be a rare presenting feature of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Pregnant Women in Samsun Province of Turkey

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    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Results: Thirty-six (58.1% women had a low serum vitamin B12 level (9.99 and micro;mol/L. All of the 20 infants examined had normal neurodevelopmental findings. Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in normalization of vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in all the cases. Conclusion: The frequency of neonatal vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to maternal deficiency may be higher than thought in Samsun province of Turkey. Large-scale screening studies may reveal its prevalence more accurately, and may help in taking preventive measurements. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 840-847

  8. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.

  9. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests.

  10. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W J; de Rooij, S E J A; Huijmans, J G M; Fischer, C; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum vit

  11. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

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    ishak abdurrahman isik

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although vitamin B 12 levels of HP positive patients were lower than that of HP negative patients this differance was not statistically significant. Hereafter new studies with high number of patients will be helpful to investigate relation between HP infection and vitamin B 12 deficiency. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 221-225

  12. Neuropathy caused by B12 deficiency in a patient with ileal tuberculosis: A case report

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    Toosi Taraneh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in macrocytic anemia. Neurologic abnormalities of B12 deficiency include sensory deficits, loss of deep tendon reflexes, movement disorders, neuropsychiatric changes and seizures. Segmental involvement of the distal ileum, such as in tuberculosis, can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. To our knowledge, macrocytic anemia with unusual manifestations such as brain atrophy and seizures due to intestinal tuberculosis has not been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 14-year-old girl presented with complaints of paraplegia, ataxia, fever and fatigue that had started a few months earlier and which had been getting worse in the last three weeks. Her laboratory results were indicative of macrocytic anemia with a serum B12 level Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in patients with neurologic features such as paresthesia, sensory deficits, urinary incontinence, dysarthria, and ataxia. The underlying cause of B12 deficiency should be determined and treated to obviate the patients' need for long term vitamin B12 therapy.

  13. Charles Bonnet syndrome and vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Valérie; Desbordes, Marie; Follet, Mathieu; Haouzir, Sadeq; Guillin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a condition associated with complex visual hallucinations occurring in the elderly in patients with visual impairment and normal mental health. Here, we report the case of a 78-year-old woman who has a limited visual acuity with a CBS that we postulated to be in relationship to a vitamin B12 deficiency. This case is the first report of vitamin B12 deficiency-associated CBS.

  14. Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and its Impacts on Student's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Mohammed Mustafa; Abdulrahman A. Al Atram; Mahmoud M. Mousleh

    2014-01-01

    This study carried out to determine the impact of vitamin B12 deficiency signs and symptoms , on the academic achievement of student’s in Majmah University. well designed questionnaire by Dr Lisa Watson (Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine) vitamin B12 deficiency signs and symptoms was used and filled out for each student, which included information on demographical factors as: sex, age, work. A convenient sample consisted of (298) students (238, 60) male and female respectively, from (11) fac...

  15. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in adults with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Tekin; Alisik, Murat; Alkan, Afra; Basturk, Abdulkadir; Akinci, Sema; Hacibekiroglu, Tuba; Dilek, Imdat; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-09-12

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) enzyme activity in adults with vitamin B12 deficiency, and specific changes in the activities of these enzymes following vitamin B12 treatment. Methods A total of 46 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (aged 18-82 years) and 45 healthy volunteer controls (aged 19-64 years) participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected, and serum vitamin B12, homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid, PON1, and ARES levels were measured. Results Paired comparison showed that pre- and post-treatment values for PON and ARES were similar between patients and controls (both P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between patients' pre-/post-treatment PON or HCY levels and serum vitamin B12 levels, compared with those of the control group (P > 0.05). Discussion The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that the antioxidant enzymes PON and ARES have an underlying role in vitamin B12 deficiency and related hyperhomocysteinemia. Our findings suggest that PON and ARES do not play a role in the systemic effects of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

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    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations within reference values do not exclude functional vitamin B-12 deficiency in PKU patients of various ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugteveen, Inge; Hoeksma, Marieke; Monsen, Anne-Lise Bjorke; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and in particular methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered reliable parameters for vitamin B-12 status in healthy individuals. Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients are at risk for functional vitamin B-12 deficiency based on their diet. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate

  18. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  19. Incidence of vitamin B12 / D3 deficiency among company executives

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    Gulvady Chaitanya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional and interventional study was carried out to assess the incidence of vitamin B12 / vitamin D deficiency in male office executives in the tropical city of Mumbai, India. A total of 75 senior executives were surveyed and subjected to analysis of blood levels of vitamin D (25 Hydroxy Cholecalciferol by RIA method and vitamin B12 by CLIA method. The same was performed in a reputed analytical laboratory with NABL accreditation. History of smoking, exposure to sunlight, exercise, dietary habits, consumption of vitamin supplements, medication etc. was obtained. The results revealed 65% executives with vitamin B12 deficiency (less than 193 pg/ml and 28% executives with vitamin D deficiency (less than 7.6 ng/ml. The prevalence of low levels of vitamin B12 is lower (58% in those who give history of regular exercise than others. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is lower (25% in those who give history of regular exercise than in others (46.2%. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher (47% in those whose workday day started earlier than in those whose workday started later (12%. In the second phase of the survey, 58 executives with low B12/ D3 values, were given vitamin B12/D3 oral supplements for a period of three months along with counseling for lifestyle modification. A modified questionnaire was then circulated and the subjects analyzed for B12/D3 values. Significant improvements in serum B12 and D3 values were seen after the oral therapy, sun exposure and dietary modifications.

  20. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Rikki M Tanner; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in elderly: cross-sectional study in Eastern Croatia

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    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients and it has recently been connected with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients from Eastern Croatia and to evaluate whether there is a connection between this deficiency and the occurrence of depressive symptoms among them.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013, among 140 elderly patients from Vukovar-Srijem County (47.9%, 67/140 males and 52.1%, 73/140 females; mean age 71.0±6.7 years. The anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, data regarding socio-economic status and personal history of diseases of study participants as well as data pertaining to the existence of depressive symptoms among them. The competitive immunoassay vitamin B12 kit was used to determine serum levels of vitamin B12.Results: Among all study participants there were 7.1% (10/140 of them with B12 deficiency and 70.0% (98/140 of them with the symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms occurred in 100.0% (10/10 patients with the vitamin B12 deficiency and 67.7% (88/130 of patients without it.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the existence of depressive symptoms and vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients. This finding points to the need for frequent vitamin status evaluation in this age group and its consequent correction that could improve overall health of this population subgroup.

  2. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

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    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  3. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik; Kräutler, Bernhard; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  4. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities.

  5. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

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    Hani Almoallim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

  6. Experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in a human subject: a longitudinal investigation of the performance of the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Based on Victor Herbert's model for sequential stages in the development of vitamin B12 deficiency, the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) immunoassay has controversially been promoted as a more specific and sensitive replacement for the total vitamin B12 test, for the diagnosis of deficiency. There have been no longitudinal studies, by means of experimental cobalamin deficiency, because ethical considerations prevent such risky studies on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the response of HoloTC, compared to total vitamin B12 and metabolites, to the development of experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 54 year old male, with a vitamin B12 deficiency possibly caused by a defect in the intracellular cobalamin metabolism, ensured an initially replete condition by means of oral doses of cyanocobalamin supplements at 1000 μg/day for 12 weeks. The subject then depleted himself of vitamin B12, by withholding treatment and using a low-cobalamin diet, until significant metabolic disturbances were observed. The responses of serum total vitamin B12 and HoloTC and the two metabolites, plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, were monitored by weekly blood tests. HoloTC was not significantly more sensitive than either total serum vitamin B12 or total homocysteine, and was much less sensitive than methylmalonic acid. HoloTC decreased from an initial concentration of >128 pmol/L to a minimum of 33 pmol/L on day 742, the only day on which it fell below the lower limit of the reference interval. Total vitamin B12 decreased from an initial concentration of 606 pmol/L to a minimum of 171 pmol/L on day 728. Total homocysteine increased from an initial concentration of 8.4 μmol/L to a maximum of 14.2 μmol/L on day 609. Methylmalonic acid unexpectedly contained four distinct peaks; initially at 0.17 μmol/L, it first exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval on day 386

  7. Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, Jérôme; Chiche, Laurent; Mathis, Stéphane

    2017-03-15

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa.

  8. Sensory Neuronopathy Revealing Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa: An Often-Forgotten Reversible Cause

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    Jérôme Franques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency is known to be associated with various neurological manifestations. Although central manifestations such as dementia or subacute combined degeneration are the most classic, neurological manifestations also include sensory neuropathies. However, B12 deficiency is still rarely integrated as a potential cause of sensory neuronopathy. Moreover, as many medical conditions can falsely normalize serum B12 levels even in the context of a real B12 deficiency, some cases may easily remain underdiagnosed. We report the illustrating case of an anorexic patient with sensory neuronopathy and consistently normal serum B12 levels. After all classical causes of sensory neuronopathy were ruled out, her clinical and electrophysiological conditions first worsened after folate administration, but finally improved dramatically after B12 administration. B12 deficiency should be systematically part of the etiologic workup of sensory neuronopathy, especially in a high risk context such as anorexia nervosa.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency: An important reversible co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric manifestations

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    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition causing neurologic, cognitive, psychiatric, and mood symptoms. With varied religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity among the people in India greatly influencing their dietary habits and with the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon, but is often under recognized due to the lack of classical symptomatic presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on Vitamin B12 deficiency with neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients who attended neurology, psychiatry, and geriatric OPDs for a period of 1 year in a specialized neuropsychiatric institute in South India. Results: Out of 259 patients who had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<220 pmol/L, 60 had neuropsychiatric symptoms. Among them the Vitamin B12 levels were <150 (severe, 150-200 (moderate, and 201-220 pmol/L (mild in 19, 24, 17 patients, respectively. Twenty one were diagnosed with Posterior dementias, 20 with frontotemporal dementia, 7 with Schizophrenia, 4 each with Parkinson′s disease and alcohol-dependent syndromes (ADS, 3 with bipolar affective disorder, and 1 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Eight patients also had hypothyroidism. First symptom of presentation was behavioral disturbances in 30 (50%, memory loss in 20 (33.9%, and sensorimotor and movement disorders in 9 (15.3%, and 56.7% were vegetarians while 43.3% were nonvegetarians. In our study, Vitamin B12 deficiency was more prevalent in elderly males (56.67% and was associated with increased severity of behavioral disturbances (P = 0.043 which was the most common presentation. Memory loss was present in 16 (84.2% patients of severe Vitamin B12 deficiency. Hindi mental status examination (HMSE score was graded as <20, 20-24, 24-31 in 37 (61.7%, 10 (16.7%, and 13 (21.7% patients, respectively. Cognitive decline in Vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with increased serum cholesterol (P = 0.019 and was

  10. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  11. [Metabolic and nutritional neuropathies: update in diabetes, vitamin B12 and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Gazzola, S

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic and deficiency neuropathies retain a growing interest because of their important prevalence. The dismemberment of diabetic neuropathies is proceeded, letting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms appear. So, even if glycaemic control remains determining for preventing the neuropathy associated with type 1 diabetes, it seems to have a restricted role with type 2 diabetes in which other metabolic factors are involved. The diagnosis of neuropathy due to B12 vitamin deficiency remains a real challenge for the clinician. Indeed, positive and negative predictive values of serum B12 and metabolites assay are weak, only a good therapeutic response allows a reliable diagnostic. It is so recommended to know the clinical and contextual particularities of this etiology in order to not delay the vitamin substitution, determining for the functional outcome. Finally, copper deficiency remains an unknown cause of neuropathy which is suitable to raise in case of malabsorption but also and especially in case of abuse of dental adhesive rich in zinc.

  12. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features

  13. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

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    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin metabolic disorders can cause diverse dysfunctions of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. There is conclusive evidence that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies may lead to diminished cognitive functions even to the extent of developing dementia. Cognitive impairments may be accompanied by involvement of other regions of the central nervous system, the corticospinal tract in particular, less frequently by brainstem and cerebellar disorders. Changes in nervous system functions in the presence of cyanocobalamin deficiency may predominate in the clinical picture, ahead of the occurrence of hematological changes. The paper considers the possible mechanisms for involvement of brain neurons in deficiency of cyanocobalamin and in that of folic acid in particular in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The low serum concentration of folic acid or cyanocobalamin in the elderly raises the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in future (by almost twice and vascular dementia. The authors give the results of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the vitamins used in patients with cognitive impairments. Thus, there are data that the use of cyanocobalamin in patients with lacunar infarcts and moderate cognitive impairments may give rise to their complete recovery and reduce the risk of depressive disorders. Intramuscular cyanocobalamin used in a daily dose of 1000 μg for 5 days, then 1000 μg once monthly is demonstrated to be efficacious. This therapy may be effective in patients with different types of dementia and cognitive diminution, primarily in those with these conditions and its serum concentration of less 150 pmol/l. Among the side effects while taking folic acid, there may be higher incidence rates of convulsive attacks. A number of trials have shown the efficacy of cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine, and folic acid in preventing acute cerebral ischemic episodes; however, not all the investigations

  14. Long-term outcome in children with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently observed in developing countries. Herein we report the long-term clinical and laboratory outcomes in 45 children presented with various symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.Materials and Methods: Symptoms and physical findings, and percentiles for weight, height, and head circumference at presentation were recorded. The educational level of the patients’ mothers, vitamin B12 deficiency-related diseases and family income data were collected. Complete blood count, serum vitamin B12, folate, iron, iron binding capacity and ferritin, and plasma homocysteine levels were recorded measured at presentation. The patients were treated with vitamin B12, as follows: 1 mg/d IM for 1 week, followed by 1 mg IM QWK for 2 weeks, and then monthly 1mg injections. Patients were neurologically and hematologically re-evaluated after treatment. The visual evoked potential (VEP test was used to examine the integrity and function of the visual pathway. Brainstem evoked potential (BAEP responses were used to analyze auditory function. Neuromotor development was assessed using Denver II Development Screening Test. Results: The mean age of 20 male and 25 female patients was 5.6±5.9 years (range: 1.4 months-17 years. The most common symptoms at presentation were weakness, failure to thrive, and hematologic manifestations (pallor, petechiae, ecchymosis. Abnormal neurologic findings at presentation were observed in 20% of the patients, and were more commonly observed in those <2 years. VEP, BAEP, and Denver II Development tests were performed in 66% of the patients one year after vitamin B12 replacement was started. VEP and BAEP interval prolongation was observed in 37% and 17% of the cases, respectively. Denver II Development Test results showed developmental delay in 20% of the patients tested.Conclusion: All the patients achieved full hematologic recovery within 1 month of treatment onset. Neurological symptoms resolved

  15. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cb...

  16. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  17. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

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    Wadia R S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID. Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes and those on vitamin supplements were excluded. cases were divided into vegetarian (including those taking milk and / Or eggs, those who took non-vegetarian 4 or less times a month, and frequent non-vegetarians taking 5 or more times a month. Serum total homocysteine, serum B12 and folate levels were studied along with all other routine parameters. For comparison we examined 101 controls without HID, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, rental failure or recent vitamin intake. With the international norm for homocysteine given as 5-15 umol/litre (1we called serum homocysteine 16 umol/litre or more as raised. There were 147 cases of ischcmic stroke :119 arterial and 28 venous infarcts. In the arterial strokes 99 of 119 cases (83.19% had raised serum Homocysteine including 25 of 27 (92.5% of those with arterial stroke before age 45. Of 28 cases with venous infarct 21 (75% had raised homocysteine (HCY. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest risk factor for stroke in our populations. Out of the total 147 cases the exact dietary intake was not known for ten cases., 58 were vegetarians, 54 were occasional non vegetarians (NV and 25 were frequent NV. In the 58 vegetarians, 55 had serum HCY> 16 umol/1 (94.8% and of those vegetarians with HCY> 16, serum B12 <200pg/ml was seen in 44 (75.8% and between 200-300 pg/ml in five (8.6%. Of the 54 occasional NV, 46 had HCY>16umo/1 (85.2% Of those with HCY >16, serum B12 level of <200 pg/ ml was seen in 28 (51.85% occ. NV and

  18. Deficiência de vitamina B12 e transtorno depressivo refratário

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    Bruno Cópio Fábregas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A vitamina B12, ou cianocobalamina, desempenha importantes funções metabólicas e neurotróficas. Sua deficiência está associada a distúrbios hematológicos, neurológicos e psiquiátricos. É relatado o caso de uma paciente com depressão refratária ao tratamento com antidepressivos que melhorou somente após a detecção e o tratamento da deficiência de vitamina B12. Esse relato ilustra a importância de o psiquiatra considerar causas secundárias de depressão em casos refratários.

  19. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications.

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

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    Warkaa Al Shamkani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI. Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors.

  2. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors.

  3. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis associated with intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal immunoglobulin G and with vitamin B12 deficiency

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    V. S. Krasnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of transverse myelitis (TM is a challenging clinical problem due to a wide range of diseases, the pattern of which may include TM. Comorbidity is also a highly relevant problem in the development of inflammatory myelopathies. The described clinical case demonstrates difficulties in the nosological diagnosis in case of monophasic TM concurrent with its several probable causes. An examination of a female patient with longitudinally extensive TM and a history of two cerebral ischemic strokes also revealed the reduced levels of vitamin B12 in serum and oligoclonal IgG in cerebrospinal fluid. A CNS lesion is regarded as a possible interaction of two typical pathological processes: inflammation and thrombogenesis. In this case vitamin B12 deficiency could predispose to the initiation and maintenance of the above mechanisms. The specific features of formulation of a diagnosis in patients with such multifactorial conditions are considered.

  4. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unrema...

  5. Oral vitamin B12 for patients suspected of subtle cobalamin deficiency: a multicentre pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Giuseppa; Burnand Bernard; Herzig Lilli; Vaucher Paul; Favrat Bernard; Boulat Olivier; Bischoff Thomas; Verdon François

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence regarding the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 in patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l is lacking. We compared the effectiveness of one-month oral vitamin B12 supplementation in patients with a subtle vitamin B12 deficiency to that of a placebo. Methods This multicentre (13 general practices, two nursing homes, and one primary care center in western Switzerland), parallel, randomised, controlled, closed-label, observer-blind trial included ...

  6. Chronic transgenerational vitamin B12 deficiency of severe and moderate magnitudes modulates adiposity-probable underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bojanapalli; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2017-02-10

    We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males. The offspring of control and severely deficient dams continued on the respective diets of their mothers. Few moderately deficient dams were rehabilitated to control diet from parturition and their pups were weaned to control diet. Also, some offspring born to moderately B12 deficient dams were weaned to control diet, while others continued on the same diet as their mothers. Various parameters were determined in the F1 offspring after 12 and 36 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that both severe and moderate maternal vitamin B12 restrictions were associated with accelerated catch-up growth, increased body fat percentage, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the F1 offspring. Inflammation, increased glucocorticoid and oxidative stress and poor antioxidant defence probably underlie these adverse effects. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning was beneficial in delaying the onset of the adverse outcomes in the offspring. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.

  7. Oral vitamin B12 for patients suspected of subtle cobalamin deficiency: a multicentre pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Giuseppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence regarding the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 in patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l is lacking. We compared the effectiveness of one-month oral vitamin B12 supplementation in patients with a subtle vitamin B12 deficiency to that of a placebo. Methods This multicentre (13 general practices, two nursing homes, and one primary care center in western Switzerland, parallel, randomised, controlled, closed-label, observer-blind trial included 50 patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l who were randomized to receive either oral vitamin B12 (1000 μg daily, N = 26 or placebo (N = 24 for four weeks. The institution's pharmacist used simple randomisation to generate a table and allocate treatments. The primary outcome was the change in serum methylmalonic acid (MMA levels after one month of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in total homocysteine and serum vitamin B12 levels. Blood samples were centralised for analysis and adherence to treatment was verified by an electronic device (MEMS; Aardex Europe, Switzerland. Trial registration: ISRCTN 22063938. Results Baseline characteristics and adherence to treatment were similar in both groups. After one month, one patient in the placebo group was lost to follow-up. Data were evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis. One month of vitamin B12 treatment (N = 26 lowered serum MMA levels by 0.13 μmol/l (95%CI 0.06-0.19 more than the change observed in the placebo group (N = 23. The number of patients needed to treat to detect a metabolic response in MMA after one month was 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-6.4. A significant change was observed for the B12 serum level, but not for the homocysteine level, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular volume. After three months without active treatment (at four months, significant differences in MMA levels were no longer detected. Conclusions Oral vitamin B12 treatment normalised the metabolic markers of vitamin B

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in vitamin B12 if I’m vegetarian or vegan?ResourcesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, Vitamin B12 Last Updated: March 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: B12, B12 deficiency, diet, nutrition, vitamin B12, vitamins Food and Nutrition, Nutrients ...

  9. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando; Gargallo, Carla J.; Muñoz, Jose Fernando; Vicente, Raquel; Lue, Alberto; Mir, Alberto; García-Alvarado, Marta; Gracia, Marta; García-López, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn’s disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn’s disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. <1 mg/24 h). Eighty-two patients had previous documented B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection. PMID:28335526

  10. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a vegan-diet mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, R

    1986-04-01

    A 7-month-old male presented with lethargy and failure to thrive. The child was exclusively breast-fed from birth by a mother who was a strict vegetarian. Laboratory data revealed macrocytic anemia and methylmalonic acid in the urine, consistent with vitamin B12 deficient anemia. The patient responded well to supplementation with B12 alone and was developmentally normal by 11 months of age. This study emphasizes the need for assuring maternal dietary adequacy during pregnancy and after birth.

  11. Nutritional megaloblastic anemia in young Turkish children is associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency and psychomotor retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katar, Selahattin; Nuri Ozbek, Mehmet; Yaramiş, Ahmet; Ecer, Sultan

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of psychomotor retardation, physical and laboratory examination in infants with megaloblastic anemia. Inclusion criteria for the study were; age 9 to 36 months, refusal of food except for breast and cow milk, loss of appetite, developmental delay, significant pallor, and hypersegmentation neutrophils in the peripheral blood smear. A total of 33 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled among 3368 patients attending Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of şirnak-Cizre State Hospital between January 25, 2004 and May 5, 2004. Mean age was 16.4 months. Thirty-two patients had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 patient had folate deficiency, and 10 patients had combined vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Statistically, a positive significant relationship was detected between serum vitamin B12 levels and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.001, r = 0.56), and between vitamin B12 levels and hemoglobin (P = 0.004, r = 0.49). We believe that preventative measures such as fortification of flour with vitamin B12, nutritional support with vitamin B12 for the mother during pregnancy and nursing, provision of adequate primary preventive health services, and starting complementary food after 6 months of age are important determinants for preventing megaloblastic anemia.

  12. Prevalence of Relative Deficiencies in Testosterone and Vitamin B12 Among Patients Referred for Chronic Orchialgia: Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Terlecki, Ryan

    2016-04-08

    Chronic testicular pain (CTP) is a complex pain syndrome that is widely variable in presentation and etiology. Many cases of CTP are thought to be associated with neuropathy and recent data suggest an inflammation-mediated process is more common among patients with CTP. Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and testosterone are common in chronic pain syndromes may play a role in CTP. A retrospective review of men treated for CTP by a single provider over a 2-year period was performed. Patients with serum screening of testosterone and B12 were selected. Patients with total testosterone below 300 ng/dl, free testosterone below 46 pg/ml, or B12 below 400 pg/ml were deemed deficient and offered repletion. Efficacy of treatment was measured based on patient report with a minimum follow-up of either 3 months or resolution of pain symptoms. One hundred and fifty-four (154) men with CTP were identified, with 125 assessed for testosterone and B12 levels. Of these, 95 patients (76%) were deemed deficient. Fifty-six (56) patients elected to receive B12/testosterone replacement. In patients with sufficient follow-up, 24 patients (65%) reported significant improvement of symptoms, 6 patients (16%) reported some improvement, and 7 patients (19%) reported no improvement. The prevalence of testosterone and B12 deficiencies in this study is much higher than that reported for the general population. In addition, when chemical deficiencies were corrected, greater than 80% of patients with sufficient follow-up reported some improvement in pain. This suggests that screening of B12 and testosterone should be incorporated into the assessment of patients with CTP.

  13. Patterns of plasma cobalamins in control subjects and in cases of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, J C; Mackenzie, H M; Wilson, J; Matthews, D M

    1969-09-01

    A method for thin-layer chromatography and bioautography of plasma cobalamins is described. It requires only 5 ml of blood. Results are reported in 35 healthy people and hospital controls, and in 14 cases of untreated pernicious anaemia. In the control group there were two major components, methylcobalamin and a component which is probably a mixture of hydroxocobalamin and deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. Many cases of untreated pernicious anaemia showed a characteristic pattern in which methylcobalamin was reduced in relation to hydroxocobalamin. This pattern was also seen in one vegan who was taking a diet without B(12) supplement. A minority of subjects showed traces of cyanocobalamin; this compound was not confined to smokers. The significance of the results and possible diagnostic utility of the technique are discussed.

  14. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  15. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    Het Ministerie van VWS overweegt om bepaalde voedselbestanddelen te verrijken met foliumzuur. Foliumzuurverrijking houdt echter een gezondheidsrisico in, omdat het vitamine B12 deficientie maskeert, waardoor het de incidentie van megaloblastische anemie en perifere neuropathie kan verhogen. Dit ra

  16. [Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with high doses od metformin in older people diabetic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hugo; Masferrer, Dominique; Lera, Lydia; Arancibia, Estrella; Angel, Barbara; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del estudio es estimar si el déficit de B12 se asocia con el uso de la metformina en adultos mayores (AM) diabéticos. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en AM diabéticos. Los casos (n = 137) se definieron como AM con B12 221 pmol/L. Se definieron 4 categorías de uso de metformina: no usuarios, ≤850 mg/día; > 850 y adultos mayores que consumían altas dosis de metformina presentaban 1,9 veces más riesgo de déficit de B12 (OR:1,9; 95%IC: 1,08-3,30). Conclusión: Estos resultados muestran una fuerte asociación entre altas dosis de metformina y niveles bajos de vitamina B12. Este proyecto fue financiado por FONIS SA11I2092.

  17. Severe neuropsychiatric symptoms due to vitamin b12 deficiency: a case of pernicious anemia or metformin use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pernicious anemia is the leading cause of vitamin B12 deficiency and requires an early diagnose and proper treatment since it is a reversible form of acute psychosis and demyelinating nervous system disease 1. Less frequently, metformin therapy, especially on high doses and for long time treatment, can also cause vitamin B12 deficit, but the coexistence of anemia and neuropsychiatric symptoms is rarely seen. We describe a case of a 49yearold adult patient with type 2 diabetes medicated with 850 mg of metformin per day, which presented a clinical scenario of severe vitamin B12 deficiency with associated pancytopenia, posterolateral demyelinization of spinal cord and acute psychosis. The investigation was initially negative for pernicious anemia, as upper endoscopy and autoantibodies against intrinsic factor and parietal cells were negative. After excluding other causes, and because serious vitamin B12 deficiency associated with metformin is less frequent in patients with short treatment duration and low daily doses, suspicion of pernicious anemia was maintained. Six months after being discharged, he repeated upper endoscopy with biopsy, which revealed atrophic gastritis and blood autoantibodies became positive. He recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric and hematological dysfunctions with parenteric vitamin B12 treatment. There are several uncommon aspects about this report, namely the severity of the clinical presentation, with serious multiorganic failure. Besides, it is also uncommon that a significant neuropsychiatric impairment coexist with profound bone marrow suppression 2. Also of note is the importance of a great level of suspicion concerning pernicious anemia, since autoantibodies and upper endoscopy can be negative, especially on early phases

  18. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency: the long-term effects in cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vlemmix, F.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Paloheimo, L.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated plasma homocysteine level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in homocysteine metabolism and could be the main factor in causing cardiovascular disease as well. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether vitamin

  19. Algorithm for the early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Sola, Ricardo; Barrios, Laura; Pietrzik, Klaus; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los mayores son una población que presenta un riesgo importante de desarrollar una deficiencia de vitamina B12, pero las concentraciones de cobalamina en suero no reflejan necesariamente un estado abnormal en el estado de B12 . Existen biomarcadores asociados a la vitamina B12: el ácido metilmalónico no está disponible en todos los laboratorios, la holotranscobalamina es poco sensible y la homocisteína presenta una baja especificidad. El objetivo del presente estudio es establecer un algoritmo de diagnóstico mediante el uso de una combinación de estos biomarcadores en lugar de la medición de uno sólo de ellos. Métodos: Se comparó la eficacia diagnóstica de estos marcadores para la detección de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en una población (n = 218) de ancianos institucionalizados (edad media 80 años). Los parámetros bioquímicos, hematológicos y morfológicos fueron utilizados para clasificar a los sujetos con o sin deficiencia de vitamina B12. Resultados: Se establecieron las curvas ROC (Receiver Operating Curves) para determinar la eficacia diagnóstica de cada parámetro, tomado individualmente. El folato sérico tenía la mayor área bajo la curva (0,87) y la homocisteína la más baja (0,67). Se observó que la mejor especificidad la presentaba el folato eritrocitario y el ácido metilmalónico (100% para ambos), pero sus sensibilidades eran muy bajas (17% y 53%, respectivamente). Y se observó que la sensibilidad más alta la presentaba la homocisteína (81%) y el folato sérico (74%), pero en contrapartida una especificidad baja. Cuando se combinaron estos marcadores, iniciando las determinaciones con el folato sérco y eritrocitario, seguido por holotranscobalamina y terminando por las mediciones de ácido metilmalónico, la sensibilidad y especificidad global del algoritmo fueron 100% y 90%, respectivamente. Conclusión: El algoritmo propuesto, que combina la determinación de folato sérico y eritrocitario

  20. Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, T; Bubl, R; Baumgartner, R

    1991-01-01

    We present a 9-month-old exclusively breast-fed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 in both patient and mother.

  1. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  2. Severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency impairs lipid profile, induces adiposity and leads to adverse gestational outcome in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa eGhosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for four weeks, (a control AIN-76A diet, (b vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption or (c vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption. After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat % significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 hours of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  3. Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with supplementation as a protective factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Sharratt, Mike T; Heckman, George G; Keller, Heather H

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, although treatable, impacts up to 43% of community-living older adults; long-term care (LTC) residents may be at greater risk. Recommendations for screening require further evidence on prevalence and incidence in LTC. Small, ungeneralizable samples provide a limited perspective on these issues. The purposes of this study were to report prevalence of B12 deficiency at admission to LTC, incidence 1 year post-admission, and identify subgroups with differential risk. This multi-site (8), retrospective prevalence study used random proportionate sampling of resident charts (n = 412). Data at admission extracted included demographics, B12 status, B12 supplementation, medications, diagnoses, functional independence, cognitive performance, and nutrition. Prevalence at admission of B12 deficiency (B12 (>300 pmol/L). One year post-admission incidence was 4%. Better B12 status was significantly associated with supplementation use prior to LTC admission. Other characteristics were not associated with status. This work provides a better estimate of B12 deficiency prevalence than previously available for LTC, upon which to base protocols and policy. Prospective studies are needed to establish treatment efficacy and effect on health related outcomes.

  4. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  5. Pseudodementia in a twenty-one-year-old with bipolar disorder and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D

    2000-12-01

    A twenty-one-year-old female known to suffer from bipolar type I disorder developed features of a pseudodementia. Following prompt initial response to treatment with antidepressants, there was an early recurrence of cognitive impairment. Blood investigations confirmed a macrocytic anaemia and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. There was dramatic resolution of cognitive impairment after vitamin replacement. This suggested the occurrence of a reversible nutritional dementia and reinforced the need to rule out secondary organic causes of psychiatric symptoms even in patients previously diagnosed with a primary psychiatric disorder.

  6. Response to Quinlivan: Post-fortification, folate intake in vitamin B12 deficiency is positively related to homocysteine and methylmalonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    With cross-sectional data, causes and effects are difficult to distinguish, and Quinlivan suggests that high circulating concentrations of homcysteine (Hcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate observed among vitamin B12-deficient survey participants all resulted from a lack of vitamin B12 (1). How...

  7. Proteinuria in cubilin-deficient patients with selective vitamin B12 malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstedt-Fröberg, Virve; Pettersson, Tom; Aminoff, Maria; Dugué, Benoît; Gräsbeck, Ralph

    2003-05-01

    Selective vitamin B(12) malabsorption or Gräsbeck-Imerslund disease (megaloblastic anemia 1) is frequently accompanied by proteinuria. The malabsorption-proteinuric syndrome of Finnish patients is caused by a defect in the multiligand receptor cubilin. We studied the urinary proteins of control subjects and 13 adult patients with three defined cubilin mutations (FM1, FM2, FM3), all diagnosed during childhood and subsequently observed. The overall kidney function was unimpaired and did not deteriorate with time. The excretion of total protein and albumin, and to lesser extent of transferrin, immunoglobulin light chains, and alpha(1)- and beta(2)-microglobulins, was clearly elevated in 3 patients, mildly elevated in 3, and hardly or not at all increased in the rest. The urinary cobalamin-intrinsic factor receptor was low in 5 patients studied and lowest in the group with clear-cut proteinuria. The proteinuria was not of the classical glomerular or tubular type, but apparently due to the lack of cubilin function needed for tubular reabsorption of some, but not all, proteins of the primary urine.

  8. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Cuesta Teresa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain, and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm. Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml, adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire, patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The results of this study should help establish

  9. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  10. Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India

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    Ashok Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9% adolescents (11 to 19 completed years were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; . Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (. Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9% form followed by moderate (29.7% anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents.

  11. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition.

  12. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  13. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  14. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain), and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm). Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml), adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire), patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The

  15. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kamphuis, D. M.; van Dijk, P. R.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study vitamin B-12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B-12 concentrations. Research design and methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients wit

  16. 血清活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值%The value of the serum active vitamin B12 in vitamin B12 deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊瑚; 张文辉; 周碧碧; 陈晓东

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中活性维生素B12检测在维生素B12缺乏中的应用价值.方法 采用酶免疫发光分析竞争法检测血清中维生素B12和叶酸的含量,及ELISA法检测血清活性维生素B12,通过ROC曲线分析活性维生素B12在诊断维生素B12缺乏中的特异度和敏感度;并且通过回归分析活性维生素B12水平与性别、年龄、总维生素B12及叶酸的相关性;统计分析各疾病组中活性维生素B12含量的累积百分比.结果 血清活性维生素B12判断维生素B12缺乏的ROC曲线下面积为0.983,敏感度为60.0%,特异性为99.2%;活性维生素B12与总维生素B12和叶酸存在良好的正相关,P<0.001,与年龄、性别不相关;各病例组中血液病组的活性维生素B12含量累计百分比最高,其次为神经系统疾病组.结论 血清活性维生素B12是用于临床维生素B12缺乏诊断较敏感、特异的指标,在血液病、神经系统疾病患者中,其临床应用价值更突出.

  17. A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty Anemia

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    Seung Min Song

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/ or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe anemia with a hemoglobin level of 3.3 g/dL. He had a history of small bowel resection from 50 cm below the Treitz ligament to 5 cm above the ileocecal valve necessitated by midgut volvulus in the neonatal period. Laboratory tests showed deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and iron. A bone marrow examination revealed dyserythropoiesis and low levels of hemosiderin particles, and a cytogenetic study disclosed a normal karyotype. After treatment with parenteral vitamin B12 and elemental iron, both anemia and growth showed gradual improvement. This is a rare case that presented with short stature and delayed puberty caused by nutritional deficiency anemia in Korea.

  18. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy

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    Guez Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. Case presentation An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and somnolence. Upon admission, his weight, length and head circumference were below the third percentile, he had an enlarged liver and spleen, and showed a significant delay in developmental milestones and communicative reactions. He had a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL with an MCV of 84.2 fL, a white blood cell count of 4,680/mm3, and a platelet count of 45,000/mm3. His serum vitamin B12 level was 57 pg/mL (normal value 180–500 pg/mL and serum folate level 12.8 ng/mL (normal value >3 ng/mL. The results of metabolic examinations excluded a cobalamin C disorder, whereas nutritional screening showed a serum iron concentration of 9 μg/dL and serum ferritin of 4 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles with diffuse delayed myelination. The child was diagnosed as having vitamin B12 and iron deficiency due to nutritional inadequacy and was immediately treated with packed red blood cells, intramuscular vitamin B12 injections, and iron supplementation. A few days after the start of therapy, his hemoglobin levels and other hematological parameters rapidly improved, and a clinical improvement was observed within few weeks. There was an increase in his achievement of developmental milestones, but his development was still retarded seven months after the start of therapy. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of adequately controlling maternal vitamin B12 intake during pregnancy by means of

  19. [Macrocytic anemia and neurological signs due to vitamin B-12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, A; Neuwirth, M; Békési, A; Bocskai, E

    2001-11-18

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a very rare disease of infants and young children in Europe. Authors report a case of a 9.5-month-old infant who was exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother and developed serious vitamin B12 deficiency in form of neurological regression, repetitive vomiting, drowsiness, dysphagia, obstipation, and tremor. A few days after intramuscular vitamin substitution his abnormal signs improved dramatically, hematological restitution was reached in six weeks. Authors describe the hematological and neurological signs, the diagnostic and differential-diagnostic pitfalls, therapy, prognosis, and prevention of this condition. Beside reviewing the literature they emphasize the importance of early recognition and intervention and the need of an appropriate doctor-parent cooperation in this disease.

  20. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief fun

  1. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  2. Evolution and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency as a risk factor for (cognitive and functional) neurodegenerative diseases in institutionalized elderly = Evolución y tratamiento de la deficiencia de vitamina B12 como factor de riesgo de enfermedades neurodegenerativas (cognitivas y funcionales) en las personas mayores institucionalizadas.

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is very common in elderly people and can reach values as high as 40.5% of the population. It can be the result of the interaction among several factors. Vitamin B12 deficiencies have been associated with neurological, cognitive deterioration, haematological abnormalities and cardiovascular diseases that have an important influence on the health of the elderly and their quality of life. It is necessary to approach the problems arisen from the lack of data r...

  3. Milde vitamine B12 deficiëntie en het cognitief functioneren van ouderen : de effectiviteit van orale supplementen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in older people and has been recognised as a possible cause for several clinical manifestations such as anaemia and cognitive impairment. Markers for cobalamin deficiency include increased concentrations of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA),

  4. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (pacid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (pfatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (pfatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (pfatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring.

  5. B12 in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, M Reese; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area. Overall, the mechanisms of B12 action in development remain unclear. Further studies in this area to elucidate the pathways of cobalamin influence on development, as well as to prevent B12 deficiency in pregnant women and children are indicated.

  6. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  7. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system: a study on mice treated for four weeks with high-dose vitamin B12 or cobinamide.

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    Dorte L Lildballe

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12 transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi (4.25 nmol/h, or B12 (1.75 nmol/h for 27 days (n = 7 in each group. B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment.

  8. Improve the knowledgement on vitamin B12 deficiency neurological diseases%提高对维生素B12缺乏性神经病变的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇卉; 邵福源

    2007-01-01

    维生素B12缺乏在临床上颇为常见,其发生率随年龄增长而增加。据统计在发达国家社区老年人维生素B12缺乏的患病率为120%,而住院老人患病率则高达300‰~400‰。维生素B12缺乏在早期常因症状轻微而被忽视,其实,维生素B12缺乏除了可引起巨幼红细胞贫血外,还可导致诸多神经精神症状,影响患者的正常生活和工作,甚或致残;

  9. Great attention should be paid to the study of neuropathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency%应重视对维生素B12缺乏性神经病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迎春

    2007-01-01

    维生素B12又称钴胺素(cobalamin),是唯一含金属元素的维生素,是神经系统生长发育及维持神经细胞正常功能所必需的重要营养素。维生素B12缺乏已是全球老年人广泛存在的疾病,在美国老年人中达15%-20%,至少这些老年人处于相对的维生素B12缺乏状态。由于维生素B12缺乏症的临床表现多样化,且症状轻微者居多,故未引起足够重视。

  10. Function of Vitamin B12 and Control Deficiency in Chicken%维生素B12对鸡的作用及缺乏症的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明明; 黄凯

    2013-01-01

    随着养殖业的不断发展壮大,维生素的应用受到越来越多的关注.维生素B12是鸡生长过程中一种不可缺少的微量营养物质.文章概述了维生素B12对鸡的作用及缺乏症的防治.

  11. Plasma folate but not vitamin B(12) or homocysteine concentrations are reduced after short-term vitamin B(6) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Holzapfel, A; Czech, N; Müller, M J

    2001-01-01

    Adverse effects of high vitamin B(6) intake include peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies focussing on the reduction of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease showed that vitamin B(6) reduces plasma folate levels. The significance of this finding is unclear. We therefore analyzed plasma folate and basal homocysteine levels as well as the response to an oral methionine loading test in 8 healthy individuals before and after a controlled supplementation with oral doses of 25 mg pyridoxine for 10 days. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate increased from 40.6 +/- 13.6 to 426.8 +/- 200.3 nmol/l (p < 0.001), whereas plasma folate decreased from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 4.6 +/-1.5 ng/ml (p < 0.01), respectively. Plasma vitamin B(12) and basal homocysteine levels remained unchanged (234.0 +/- 27.8 vs. 217.1 +/- 50.4 pg/ml and 10.9 +/- 4.8 vs. 10.1 +/- 3.6 micromol/l). There was no significant effect of vitamin B(6) supplementation on the area under methionine and homocysteine concentration versus time curve. Significant correlations were found between pre- and post-supplement levels of folate as well as PLP levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.05; r = 0.75, p < 0.05). These data suggest that a dose of 25 mg vitamin B(6) supplemented for 10 days reduces plasma folate but did not affect basal and postprandial homocysteine levels suggesting (1) a normal cellular availability of folate or (2) a compensation of impaired homocysteine remethylation by increased transsulfuration.

  12. Incidência da deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica pela técnica Fobi-Capella (Y-de-Roux Incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients submitted to Fobi-Capella Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery

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    Iara Ribeiro Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica podem desenvolver, ao longo do tempo, algumas complicações e a anemia é quadro importante decorrente da ressecção gástrica, levando à deficiência de ferro, ácido fólico ou vitamina B. OBJETIVO: Verificar a incidência da deficiência de vitamina B12 e comparar dados antropométricos e bioquímicos do pré e pós-operatório (seis meses, em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica Fobi-Capella (Y de Roux. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva e descritiva de 91 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à operação. Foram coletadas informações pessoais, data do procedimento e valores do pré e pós-operatório (seis meses, redução de peso, co-morbidades, colesterol, triglicérides, glicemia, vitamina B12, hemoglobina e hematócrito. Para análise estatística foi utilizado nível de significância de 5% (pBACKGROUND: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may develop over time, some complications and anemia is an important one due to gastric resection, leading to iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency. AIM: To determine the incidence of deficiency of vitamin B12 and other anthropometric and biochemical data comparing the preoperative and postoperative (six months period in patients who underwent bariatric surgery with Fobi-Capella (Roux-en-Y technique. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive analysis of 91 charts of patients who underwent surgery. It was collected personal information, date of surgery and pre-and postoperative (six months values, weight loss, comorbidities, serum analysis of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, vitamin B12, hemoglobin and hematocrit. For statistical analysis, it was considered significance level of 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: It was found that there was a reduction in weight of 25,0% compared with the preoperative value and the average BMI was from 41,2±4,9 kg/m² to 30,7±3,9 kg/m². The most common co-morbidities were dyspnea (93,4%, spine

  13. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Meher

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12 diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD, vitamin B12 deficient (BD and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO. Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05 levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05 in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05 levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05 SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05 PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01 in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05 by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  14. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  15. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12 reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Kemse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids. L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. RESULTS: Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01 pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05 and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.01, lower (p<0.05 placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. CONCLUSION: Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  16. Laboratory assessment of vitamin B12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    The detection and correction of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and potentially irreversible neuropathy and neuropsychiatric changes. B12 status is commonly estimated using the abundance of the vitamin in serum, with ∼148 pmol/L (200 ng/L) typically set as the threshold for diagnosing deficiency. Serum B12 assays measure the sum of haptocorrin-bound and transcobalamin-bound (known as holotranscobalamin) B12 It is only holotranscobalamin that is taken up by cells to meet metabolic demand. Although receiver operator characteristic curves show holotranscobalamin measurement to be a moderately more reliable marker of B12 status than serum B12, both assays have an indeterminate range. Biochemical evidence of metabolic abnormalities consistent with B12 insufficiency is frequently detected despite an apparently sufficient abundance of the vitamin. Laboratory B12 status markers that reflect cellular utilisation rather than abundance are available. Two forms of B12 act as coenzymes for two different reactions. Methionine synthase requires methylcobalamin for the remethylation of methionine from homocysteine. A homocysteine concentration >20 µmol/L may suggest B12 deficiency in folate-replete patients. In the second B12-dependent reaction, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses adenosylcobalamin to convert methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. In B12 deficiency excess methylmalonyl-CoA is hydrolysed to methylmalonic acid. A serum concentration >280 nmol/L may suggest suboptimal status in young patients with normal renal function. No single laboratory marker is suitable for the assessment of B12 status in all patients. Sequential assay selection algorithms or the combination of multiple markers into a single diagnostic indicator are both approaches that can be used to mitigate inherent limitations of each marker when used independently.

  17. In-situ biochemical remediation of chlorinated organic compounds present as DNAPL using vitamin B12 and reduced titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, S. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Sorel, D.; Cherry, J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of using a biochemical treatment for the cleanup of DNAPL solvents in the saturated zone was tested using an in-situ large vertical column. Laboratory column studies have shown that a mixture of vitamin B12 and titanium citrate pumped through a column containing 100 {mu}L of tetrachloroethene can completely dissolve and degrade the residual to ethene in a few days. A vertical test column, 80 cm in diameter was installed within a sheet-pile cell isolating a portion of aquifer at CFB Borden. An equimolar mixture of tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane was injected below the water table to form a residual DNAPL. The injection withdrawal system was operated in an upward flow mode over a 2 m height. In order for the reaction to be proceed, the in-situ pH must be greater than 7 and the Eh lower than -480 mV. The redox of the aquifer and the formation of reaction products was monitored on site, through 8 side pods equipped with stainless steel tubing terminated with 40 {mu}m porous cups, installed at different heights in the test column. The volatile products at the withdrawal well were monitored on-line by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography.

  18. Proton-pump inhibitor therapy and vitamin B12 status in an inpatient hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda; Donnelly-VanderLoo, Mary; Watson, Tiffany; O'Connor, Colleen; Madill, Janet

    2016-06-23

    The risk for impaired vitamin B12 status increases with age, as does the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Long-term use of PPIs is associated with several nutritional deficiencies including B12. Currently, there are no recommendations for B12 screening among patients taking PPIs. Data were abstracted on B12 concentrations, B12-containing supplement use, medications, and select hematological values from a retrospective chart review of 658 adults, 391 with serum B12 concentrations, admitted to 6 different medical units at 2 regional hospitals in Southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2012. We found no difference between PPI users and nonusers and serum B12 concentrations (404 ± 224 vs 369 ± 213 pmol/L; P = 0.0690). This may be due to use of B12 containing multivitamins in 41% of PPI users. Regression modelling found that aging increases the odds of having an impaired B12 status (B12 supplements are almost 4 times more likely to have an impaired status. Mean corpuscular volume was not related to B12 status. In this population, older PPI users are more likely to be using multivitamins, which may delay nutritional deficiencies. However, the lower B12 concentrations of PPI users taking only B12 supplements is a concern and requires further research. Finally, physicians need to be aware that mean corpuscular volume is no longer recommended as an effective biomarker for B12 screening and updated screening protocols need to be used to reduce the possibility of adverse neurological effects from impaired B12 status.

  19. Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis. A series of our studies in pregnancy complications have well established the importance of omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA. DHA regulates levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, which are required for normal neurological development. We have recently described that in one carbon metabolic pathway, membrane phospholipids are major methyl group acceptors and reduced DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups toward deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. In this review, we propose that altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children.

  20. Vegetarer har høj risiko for at få B12-vitaminmangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians...... are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency....

  1. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fortified. You can get the recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of the foods including: Organ meats (beef liver) Shellfish (clams) Meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy foods Some breakfast cereals and ...

  2. Vitamin B12 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that cause malabsorption (for example, celiac disease and Crohn disease ) Lack of intrinsic factor , a protein that helps the intestine absorb vitamin B12 Above normal heat production (for example, with ...

  3. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage.

  4. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  5. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ(2) = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ(2) = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  6. A Genetic Variant in Vitamin B12 Metabolic Genes That Reduces the Risk of Congenital Heart Disease in Han Chinese Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Feng; Peng, Qian-Qian; Hou, Jia; Sun, Shu-Na; Gui, Yong-Hao; Duan, Wen-Yuan; Qiao, Bin; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies on components of the one-carbon metabolic pathway revealed that human vitamin B12 levels could be significantly influenced by variationsinthefucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2), cubilin (CUBN), and transcobalamin-I (TCN1) genes. An altered vitamin B12 level is an important factor that disturbs the homeostasis of the folate metabolism pathway, which in turn can potentially lead to the development of congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we investigated t...

  7. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    OpenAIRE

    Fumio Watanabe; Yukinori Yabuta; Tomohiro Bito; Fei Teng

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently av...

  8. Intakes of Folate and Vitamin B12 and Biomarkers of Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Mathers, John C.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Seal, Chris J.; Jagger, Carol; Hill, Tom R.

    2016-01-01

    Very old adults are at increased risk of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies due to reduced food intake and gastrointestinal absorption. The main aim was to determine the association between folate and vitamin B12 intake from total diets and food groups, and status. Folate or vitamin B12 intakes (2 × 24 h multiple pass recalls) and red blood cell (RBC) folate or plasma vitamin B12 (chemiluminescence immunoassays) concentrations were available at baseline for 731 participants aged 85 from the Newcastle 85+ Study (North-East England). Generalized additive and binary logistic models estimated the associations between folate and vitamin B12 intakes from total diets and food groups, and RBC folate and plasma B12. Folate intake from total diets and cereal and cereal products was strongly associated with RBC folate (p < 0.001). Total vitamin B12 intake was weakly associated with plasma vitamin B12 (p = 0.054) but those with higher intakes from total diets or meat and meat products were less likely to have deficient status. Women homozygous for the FUT2 G allele had higher concentrations of plasma vitamin B12. Cereals and cereal products are a very important source of folate in the very old. Higher intakes of folate and vitamin B12 lower the risk of “inadequate” status. PMID:27690091

  9. Intakes of Folate and Vitamin B12 and Biomarkers of Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Mathers, John C; Adamson, Ashley J; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Seal, Chris J; Jagger, Carol; Hill, Tom R

    2016-09-28

    Very old adults are at increased risk of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies due to reduced food intake and gastrointestinal absorption. The main aim was to determine the association between folate and vitamin B12 intake from total diets and food groups, and status. Folate or vitamin B12 intakes (2 × 24 h multiple pass recalls) and red blood cell (RBC) folate or plasma vitamin B12 (chemiluminescence immunoassays) concentrations were available at baseline for 731 participants aged 85 from the Newcastle 85+ Study (North-East England). Generalized additive and binary logistic models estimated the associations between folate and vitamin B12 intakes from total diets and food groups, and RBC folate and plasma B12. Folate intake from total diets and cereal and cereal products was strongly associated with RBC folate (p B12 intake was weakly associated with plasma vitamin B12 (p = 0.054) but those with higher intakes from total diets or meat and meat products were less likely to have deficient status. Women homozygous for the FUT2 G allele had higher concentrations of plasma vitamin B12. Cereals and cereal products are a very important source of folate in the very old. Higher intakes of folate and vitamin B12 lower the risk of "inadequate" status.

  10. A genetic variant in vitamin B12 metabolic genes that reduces the risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies on components of the one-carbon metabolic pathway revealed that human vitamin B12 levels could be significantly influenced by variations in the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, cubilin (CUBN, and transcobalamin-I (TCN1 genes. An altered vitamin B12 level is an important factor that disturbs the homeostasis of the folate metabolism pathway, which in turn can potentially lead to the development of congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, we investigated the association between the variants of vitamin B12-related genes and CHD in Han Chinese populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six variants of the vitamin B12-related genes were selected for analysis in two independent case-control studies, with a total of 868 CHD patients and 931 controls. The variant rs11254363 of the CUBN gene was associated with a decreased risk of developing CHD in both the separate and combined case-control studies. Combined samples from the two cohorts had a significant decrease in CHD risk for the G allele (OR = 0.48, P = 1.7×10⁻⁵ and AG+GG genotypes (OR = 0.49, P = 4×10⁻⁵, compared with the wild-type A allele and AA genotype, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the G allele of variant rs11254363 of the CUBN gene was associated with an increased level of circulating vitamin B12. This result suggested that the carriers of the G allele would benefit from the protection offered by the high vitamin B12 concentration during critical heart development stages. This finding shed light on the unexpected role of CUBN in CHD development and highlighted the interplay of diet, genetics, and human birth defects.

  11. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeid, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) constitutes an amazing area of research with many hidden facets. Key milestones in this area have been developed over 10 decades. This long process of trials and errors, and search and discoveries has radically changed our understanding for the role of this nutrient...... in health and diseases. The impact of vitamin B12 on human health has been shifted from ‘treatment’ of a deadly condition to ‘prevention’ of diseases. The importance of B12 has now taken global dimensions on a population level given the high prevalence of subclinical B12 deficiency that affects many...... individuals in critical life phases. This book has been written by experts who documented latest developments in the field. It is written for individuals looking for in depth knowledge of the nutritional, chemistry, biochemistry, health and medical relevance of the vitamin. The book provides insights...

  12. Proteomics of vitamin B12 processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; DiBello, Patricia M; Jacobsen, Donald W

    2013-03-01

    The causes of cobalamin (B12, Cbl) deficiency are multifactorial. Whether nutritional due to poor dietary intake, or functional due to impairments in absorption or intracellular processing and trafficking events, the major symptoms of Cbl deficiency include megaloblastic anemia, neurological deterioration and in extreme cases, failure to thrive and death. The common biomarkers of Cbl deficiency (hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic acidemia) are extremely valuable diagnostic indicators of the condition, but little is known about the changes that occur at the protein level. A mechanistic explanation bridging the physiological changes associated with functional B12 deficiency with its intracellular processers and carriers is lacking. In this article, we will cover the effects of B12 deficiency in a cblC-disrupted background (also referred to as MMACHC) as a model of functional Cbl deficiency. As will be shown, major protein changes involve the cytoskeleton, the neurological system as well as signaling and detoxification pathways. Supplementation of cultured MMACHC-mutant cells with hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) failed to restore these variants to the normal phenotype, suggesting that a defective Cbl processing pathway produces irreversible changes at the protein level.

  13. Progress on the studies of vitamin B12%维生素B12的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕颖坚; 黄俊明

    2012-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的吸收与代谢、缺乏原因及疾病、营养水平鉴定、人群维生素B12营养状况、食物强化的研究进展进行了综述,以期提高对维生素B12的认识和重视、为解决维生素B12缺乏人群的健康问题提供参考.%In order to improve the awareness and attention on the importance of vitamin Bl2and to provide reference for solving problems of vitamin B12 deficiency, this review concentrates on five aspects of studies on vitamin B12: absorption and metabolism of vitamin BI2; cause/outcome of deficiency; biomarkers and their application; vitamin B12 status; and supplementation and fortification.

  14. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  15. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in hum...

  16. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  17. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  18. A new role for glutathione: protection of vitamin B12 from depletion by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William P; Munter, Tony; Golding, Bernard T

    2004-12-01

    NADPH in microsomes reduces the hydroxocob(III)alamin form of vitamin B12 to cob(II)alamin and the supernucleophilic cob(I)alamin, which are both highly reactive toward xenobiotic epoxides formed by mammalian metabolism of dienes such as the industrially important chemicals chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene. With styrene, the metabolically formed styrene oxide is reactive toward cob(I)alamin but not cob(II)alamin. Such reactions in humans could lead to vitamin B12 deficiency, which is implicated in pernicious anemia, cancer, and degenerative diseases. However, glutathione inhibits the reduction of hydroxocob(III)alamin by formation of the 1:1 complex glutathionylcobalamin. This blocks reactions of the cobalamins with metabolically formed epoxides. The interaction between glutathione and vitamin B12 could protect against diseases related to vitamin B12 depletion.

  19. Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senga, E.L.; Harper, G.; Koshy, G.; Kazembe, P.N.; Brabin, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongl

  20. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  1. Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Willnow, Thomas E; Nielsen, Rikke;

    2002-01-01

    Megalin has previously been shown to bind and mediate endocytosis of transcobalamin (TC)-B(12). However, the physiological significance of this has not been established, and other TC-B(12) binding proteins have been suggested to mediate renal uptake of this vitamin complex. The present study...... demonstrates by the use of megalin-deficient mice that megalin is, in fact, essential for the normal renal reabsorption of TC-vitamin B(12) and for renal accumulation of this highly conserved vitamin. Megalin-deficient mice excrete increased amounts of TC and B(12) in the urine, revealing a defective renal...... tubular uptake of TC-B(12). The urinary B(12) excretion is increased approximately 4-fold, resulting in an approximately 28-fold higher renal B(12) clearance. This is associated with an approximately 4-fold decrease in B(12) content in megalin-deficient kidney cortex. Thus megalin is important to prevent...

  2. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with th

  3. Vitamine B12- en foliumzuurdeficientie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieweg, Hendrik Omgo

    1953-01-01

    Het ligt in de bedoeling in dit proefschrift een overzicht te geven van de indicaties en de resultaten van de toepassing van vitamine B12 en foliumzuur in de kliniek. Aan de hand van deze gegevens zullen enkele nieuwere inzichten in de pathogenese worden besproken en zal worden nagegaan, welke gevol

  4. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  5. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. N. Hohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO-/- mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO-/- mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate assay were prevented in 5-LO-/- mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage.

  6. Vitamin B12 deficit and development of geriatric syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible.

  7. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  8. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatassem S. Amer, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group than the diabetic group who did not receive oral B12 supplementation. Low serum vitamin B12 is commonly overlooked in the elderly, with or without diabetes. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect BMD in the elderly. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and BMD among diabetics.

  9. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  10. STAT4 deficiency reduces the development of atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavie-Moghadam, Parésa L; Gjurich, Breanne N; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Krishnamurthy, Purna; Kaplan, Mark H; Dobrian, Anca D; Nadler, Jerry L; Galkina, Elena V

    2015-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process that leads to plaque formation in large and medium sized vessels. T helper 1 (Th1) cells constitute the majority of plaque infiltrating pro-atherogenic T cells and are induced via IFNγ-dependent activation of T-box (Tbet) and/or IL-12-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4). We thus aimed to define a role for STAT4 in atherosclerosis. STAT4-deficiency resulted in a ∼71% reduction (p atherosclerosis (∼31%, p < 0.01) in western diet fed Stat4(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, reduced atherogenesis in Stat4(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice was not due to attenuated IFNγ production in vivo by Th1 cells, suggesting an at least partially IFNγ-independent pro-atherogenic role of STAT4. STAT4 is expressed in T cells, but also detected in macrophages (MΦs). Stat4(-/-)Apoe(-/-)in vitro differentiated M1 or M2 MΦs had reduced cytokine production compare to Apoe(-/-) M1 and M2 MΦs that was accompanied by reduced induction of CD69, I-A(b), and CD86 in response to LPS stimulation. Stat4(-/-)Apoe(-/-) MΦs expressed attenuated levels of CCR2 and demonstrated reduced migration toward CCL2 in a transwell assay. Importantly, the percentage of aortic CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi) MΦs was reduced in Stat4(-/-)Apoe(-/-) vs Apoe(-/-) mice. Thus, this study identifies for the first time a pro-atherogenic role of STAT4 that is at least partially independent of Th1 cell-derived IFNγ, and primarily involving the modulation of MΦ responses.

  11. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  12. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabellus Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  13. Effect of Homocysteine ,Vitamin B12 , Folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine are metabolically closely related. At the same time homocysteine is found to be offending factor for vascular pathology causing preeclampsia. On the other hand periconceptional nutritional status influences the vitamin B12 & folic acid level. Which further affect the homocysteine level thus may affect pregnancy outcome. Various contributory factors lead these vitamin deficiencies, maternal nutrition is one of them. Ahmedabad being a predominantly vegetarian city, its population is at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. But no systematic study has been done in Ahmedabad to know whether B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels influence pregnancy. To know this answer this study was planned to know total homocysteine level and its correlation in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women.Vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were measured in all the subjects using fluorescence polarized immunoassay in AxSym Immunochemistry analyzer on 60 non vitamin supplemented vegetarian women. Vitamin levels were within lower normal limit. Homocysteine level was higher among preeclampsia patient. From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that measurement of these biochemical parameter in ante natal care are useful for further management and prevention of complication of pregnancy like preeclampsia

  14. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  15. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  16. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  17. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in long-term vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sella, P; Rakover, Y; Ratner, D

    1990-06-01

    Serum vitamin B12, serum folate and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels were examined among 36 strict vegans of 5-35 years' duration. Vitamin B12 levels among the vegans were generally lower than in a control population. Most of the vegans had vitamin B12 values less than 200 pg/ml. RBC folate levels were normal but serum folate levels among the vegans were higher than among the controls. None of the vegans had any hematologic evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency, however four of them had neurologic complaints. Long-standing vegans should be monitored for vitamin B12 levels.

  18. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised.

  19. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  1. Organometallic chemistry of b(12) coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    When coenzyme B(12) was identified as organometallic derivative of vitamin B(12), metal-carbon bonds were revealed to be relevant in life processes. Vitamin B(12), the "antipernicious anaemia factor" required for human health, was isolated earlier as a crystallizable cyano-Co(III)-complex. B(12) cofactors and other cobalt corrinoids play important roles not only in humans, but in the metabolism of archaea and other microorganisms, in particular. Indeed, the microorganisms are the only natural sources of the B(12) derivatives. For other B(12)-requiring organisms the corrinoids are thus "vitamins". However, vitamin B(12) also needs to be converted into organometallic B(12)-forms, which are the typical coenzymes in metabolically important enzymes. One of these, methionine synthase, catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group and its corrinoid cofactor is methylcobalamin. Another one, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses a reversible radical process, and coenzyme B(12) (adenosylcobalamin) as its cofactor, to transform methylmalonyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA. In such enzymes, the bound B(12) derivatives engage (or are formed) in exceptional organometallic enzymatic reactions, which depend upon the organometallic reactivity of the B(12) cofactors. Clearly, organometallic B(12) derivatives hold an important position in life and have thus attracted particular interest from the medical sciences, biology, and chemistry. This chapter outlines the unique structures of B(12) derivatives and recapitulates their redox properties and their organometallic chemistry, relevant in the context of the metabolic transformation of B(12) derivatives into the relevant coenzyme forms and for their use in B(12)-dependent enzymes.

  2. Infantile tremor syndrome: Role of Vitamin B12 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of Vitamin B12 as an etiological factor in patients of infantile tremor syndrome (ITS. Methods: Twelve consecutive admissions of children diagnosed clinically as ITS were assessed. Assessment was done using a predefined pro forma to document patient demographic factors, general examination, systemic examination as well as relevant hematological and biochemical investigations. Results: Out of the 12 cases of ITS, 6 were males and 6 were females. Two cases had serum B12 levels below reference values, five had levels in low normal range, and remaining five had normal values. Conclusions: Role of Vitamin B12 deficiency as an etiological factor in the patients of ITS is inconclusive.

  3. Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorophenois by Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1978), and diffusion-controlled reactions are unaffected by mixing in batch reactors ( Levenspiel , 1972). However, the two experiments which exhibited...were developed, including a novel reactor system, for conducting these experints. Most of the experiments were conducted in either hermetically-sealed...glass ampoulem, which could maintain vitamin B12 in the fully-reduced vitamin B12, state for months, or in the novel two-chambered reactor (TCR), which

  4. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  5. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  6. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with cardiovas

  7. Relationship between vitamin B12 and sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leishear, K.; Boudreau, R.M.; Studenski, S.A.; Ferrucci, L.; Rosano, C.; Rekeneire, N. de; Houston, D.K.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Schwartz, A.V.; Vinik, A.I.; Hogervorst, E.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, T.B.; Newman, A.B.; Strotmeyer, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand two hundred and eighty-seven adult

  8. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  9. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency...

  10. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  11. Reduced metastasis of transgenic mammary cancer in urokinase-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Lund, L.R.; Rygaard, Jørgen;

    2005-01-01

    A prominent phenotype of plasmin deficiency in mice is reduced metastasis in the MMTV-PymT transgenic breast cancer model. Proteolytically active plasmin is generated from inactive plasminogen by one of 2 activators, uPA or tPA. We now find that uPA deficiency alone significantly reduces metastasis...... >7-fold in the MMTV-PymT model. We studied a cohort of 55 MMTV-PymT transgenic mice, either uPA-deficient or wild-type controls. Tumor incidence, latency, growth rate and final primary tumor burden were not significantly affected by uPA deficiency. In contrast, average lung metastasis volume...... phenotype. By comparison, spontaneous phenotypes are modest in uPA-deficient mice, probably because they still have active tPA. We show that metastasis is strongly and selectively decreased in uPA-deficient mice, suggesting that uPA-directed antimetastatic therapy would be efficacious and have limited side...

  12. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  13. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: A comparative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Güzelcan (Yener); P. van Loon (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherl

  14. Pernicious anemia presenting as catatonia: correlating vitamin B12 levels and catatonic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Damien; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Durand, Jean-Paul; Lefevre, Guillaume; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Pernicious anemia has been associated with various psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, mania and psychosis. Psychiatric symptoms can sometimes occur without hematological and neurological abnormalities and can be prodromal of vitamin B12 deficiency. We report a case of autoimmune B12 deficiency presenting as catatonia without signs of anemia or macrocytosis, in which a correlation was found between the patient's B12 blood levels and catatonic symptoms over time. This catatonic episode was successfully treated with only lorazepam and adequate doses of cyanocobalamin.

  15. Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H

    1995-12-01

    A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

  16. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  17. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  18. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  19. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  20. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  1. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  2. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyan......Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy...... with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  3. B12 Vitamin and Folat Prevelance of Children and Adolescents in Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Öncel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood are vitamin B12 and folat deficiency. Folat and vitamin B12 play a role in DNA synthessis in gastrointestinal, urogenital,nerves and hemotopoetic cells. The diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia is easy and the treatment cost is low.In this study, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folat deficiencies in 889 students were determined. Vitamin B12 and folat levels in blood samples were measured via RİAThe average age were betwen 12 and 22 years. Of this students 294(%33,1 were female and 595 (%66,9 were male. The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be 2.2%, while folat deficiency was 21.8%. The mean vitamin B12 level was 331,51±144,05 pg/mL (325,60±138,91 in pg/mL male, 343,48±153,48 pg/mL in female, the mean folat level was 5,42±2,12 ng/ml (5,23±2,11 ng/ml in male, 5,80±2,10 ng/ml in female.The prevelance of folat deficiency in our region was higher than other countries, possibly due to low socioeconomical status, improper or inadequate food intake and low educational status.

  4. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, Michael, E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 10041 Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 {mu}mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 {mu}g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 {mu}g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  5. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  6. Anchoring secreted proteins in endoplasmic reticulum by plant oleosin: the example of vitamin B12 cellular sequestration by transcobalamin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oleosin is a plant protein localized to lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. Our idea was to use it to target functional secretory proteins of interest to the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, through expressing oleosin-containing chimeras. We have designed this approach to create cellular models deficient in vitamin B12 (cobalamin because of the known problematics associated to the obtainment of effective vitamin B12 deficient cell models. This was achieved by the overexpression of transcobalamin inside cells through anchoring to oleosin. METHODOLOGY: chimera gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TC-O, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TC-O and oleosin-transcobalamin (O-TC were inserted into pAcSG2 and pCDNA3 vectors for expression in sf9 insect cells, Caco2 (colon carcinoma, NIE-115 (mouse neuroblastoma, HEK (human embryonic kidney, COS-7 (Green Monkey SV40-transfected kidney fibroblasts and CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells. The subcellular localization, the changes in vitamin B12 binding activity and the metabolic consequences were investigated in both Caco2 and NIE-115 cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: vitamin B12 binding was dramatically higher in TC-O than that in O-TC and wild type (WT. The expression of GFP-TC-O was observed in all cell lines and found to be co-localized with an ER-targeted red fluorescent protein and calreticulin of the endoplasmic reticulum in Caco2 and COS-7 cells. The overexpression of TC-O led to B12 deficiency, evidenced by impaired conversion of cyano-cobalamin to ado-cobalamin and methyl-cobalamin, decreased methionine synthase activity and reduced S-adenosyl methionine to S-adenosyl homocysteine ratio, as well as increases in homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: the heterologous expression of TC-O in mammalian cells can be used as an effective strategy for investigating the cellular

  7. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray; Lubree, Himangi; Otiv, Suhas; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (pHomocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) micromol/L) were comparable to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of >1000 microg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), phomocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.

  8. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, Jan Willem R.; Wong, Kwok H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is also believed that several epigenetic factors have an influence on the development of LHON. Methods: A case series was observed. Results: Three pa

  9. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Caspase-1 deficiency in mice reduces intestinal triglyceride absorption and hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A; Stienstra, Rinke; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Salvatori, Daniela; Hooiveld, Guido J; Kersten, Sander; Tack, Cees J; Netea, Mihai G; Smit, Johannes W A; Joosten, Leo A B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2013-02-01

    Caspase-1 is known to activate the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, it can cleave other substrates, including proteins involved in metabolism. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency in mice strongly reduces high-fat diet-induced weight gain, at least partly caused by an increased energy production. Increased feces secretion by caspase-1-deficient mice suggests that lipid malabsorption possibly further reduces adipose tissue mass. In this study we investigated whether caspase-1 plays a role in triglyceride-(TG)-rich lipoprotein metabolism using caspase-1-deficient and wild-type mice. Caspase-1 deficiency reduced the postprandial TG response to an oral lipid load, whereas TG-derived fatty acid (FA) uptake by peripheral tissues was not affected, demonstrated by unaltered kinetics of [(3)H]TG-labeled very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-like emulsion particles. An oral gavage of [(3)H]TG-containing olive oil revealed that caspase-1 deficiency reduced TG absorption and subsequent uptake of TG-derived FA in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Similarly, despite an elevated hepatic TG content, caspase-1 deficiency reduced hepatic VLDL-TG production. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that caspase-1 deficiency did not affect FA oxidation or FA uptake but rather reduced intracellular FA transport, thereby limiting lipid availability for the assembly and secretion of TG-rich lipoproteins. The current study reveals a novel function for caspase-1, or caspase-1-cleaved substrates, in controlling intestinal TG absorption and hepatic TG secretion.

  12. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M D; Yadav, M C; Foster, B L; Somerman, M J; Farquharson, C; Millán, J L

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1(-/-) mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) ). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1(-/-) mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization.

  13. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H;

    2013-01-01

    , and kidneys were collected and analyzed for B(12), unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity, and (57)[Co]-B(12). RESULTS: Three weeks of metformin treatment reduced plasma B(12) by 22% or 289 [47-383] pmol/L (median and [range]) (p = 0.001), while no effect was observed on unsaturated B(12)-binding capacity....... Compared with controls, the amount of B(12) in the liver was 36% (p = 0.007) higher in metformin-treated rats, while the B(12) content in the kidney was 34% (p = 0.013) lower. No difference in the total amount of absorbed (57)[Co]-B(12) present in the tissues and organs studied was found, suggesting...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B...

  14. Dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2005-03-01

    Riboswitches are RNA segments that serve as ligand-responsive genetic control elements. They modulate the expression of certain genes in response to changing concentrations of metabolites. In this paper, we study the dynamic behaviour of the B12 riboswitch in E. coli—perhaps the most widely studied and best known of all riboswitches—through a mathematical model of its regulatory pathway. To carry this out, we simulate dynamic experiments in which the bacterial B12 uptake capacity is measured after being depleted of this vitamin for a long time. The results of these simulations compare favourably with reported experimental data. The model also predicts that an overshoot of intracellular B12 should be observed if the replenishment experiments were to be carried out for longer times. This behaviour is discussed in terms of a possible evolutionary advantage for E. coli, together with the fact that regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels is almost equivalent dynamically.

  15. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  16. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Keith L; Wei-Min eChen; Fang eChen; Stephen Richardson Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Fang-Chi eHsu; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberley F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Hua eLing; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC) measures re...

  17. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Keith L; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Stephen R Williams; Elkhatib, Stacey D.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Ling, Hua; Cathy C Laurie; Stephanie M Gogarten; Madden, Ebony B.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sale, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Methods: Extensive quality...

  18. Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Anne-Kathrin; Obeid, Rima; Weder, Stine; Awwad, Hussain M; Sputtek, Andreas; Geisel, Juergen; Keller, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier.Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status.Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo (n = 34) or vitamin B-12 (n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects (n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention.Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P B-12 group than in the placebo group. Changes in vitamin B-12 markers were more prominent in vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements.Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02679833.

  19. The level of Vitamin B12 and hemoglobin in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Although many factors have been suggested as possible causes of RAS, its precise etiology is controversial. Vitamin B12 (vit B12 and iron deficiencies may cause RAS. Aims: We investigated the level of serum hemoglobin (Hb and vit B12 in patients with RAS and to compare them with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients who had had at least one episode of oral ulcerations per month since childhood were diagnosed as having RAS. Blood samples were drawn from the RAS group and control group for measuring blood Hb and vit B12 concentrations. Results: Exactly 195 patients (62 men and 133 women with RAS and 217 healthy controls (62 men and 155 women were enrolled in the study. The RAS group had significantly lower mean Hb levels than the control group (P < 0.001. No significant difference in the mean vit B12 level was demonstrated between the study group and controls. Around 58 (29.7% patients were diagnosed as Hb deficient in the RAS group and 21 (9.7% patients in controls. Vit B12 deficiency was diagnosed in 63 (32.3% individuals in the RAS group and 32 (14.7% individuals among controls. Conclusions: In our study, vit B12 and Hb deficiency were found higher in patients with RAS compared to the control group. Therefore, we suggested the investigation of the level of vit B12 and Hb in patients with RAS.

  20. Vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables among Thai construction site workers in urban Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Phonrat, B; Chanjanakitskul, S; Paksanont, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1995-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables were investigated in eighty-seven male and nineteen female construction site workers in Bangkok. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and MCHC were found to be higher in male than in female workers. Serum ferritin was slightly higher in males than in females. Serum B12 was found to be higher in male than in female workers and serum folic acid level were significantly higher in female than in male workers. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 2.3 per cent and folic acid deficiency in 6.9 per cent of the male workers. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were normal for female workers. The adequate serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid might be the result of the habit of the workers to consume tonic drinks which contain glucose, caffeine, and vitamins especially vitamins B6, and B12.

  1. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an in...

  2. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  3. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing a mo...

  4. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a Chinese family with distinct skin lesions refractory to vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S. H.; Sourial, N A; Lu, K. C.; Hsueh, E J

    1994-01-01

    Two brothers in a Chinese family with selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 associated with proteinuria (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome) presented with widespread mottled skin pigmentation, termed poikiloderma. In contrast to anaemia, this pigmentary disturbance remained unresponsive to vitamin B12 replacement. This is different from the reported hyperpigmentation sometimes seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is reversible following treatment. As far as is known, an irreversible and persistent...

  5. Thermal Decomposition of Anhydrous Alkali Metal Dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal dodecaborates M2/nB12H12 are regarded as the dehydrogenation intermediates of metal borohydrides M(BH4n that are expected to be high density hydrogen storage materials. In this work, thermal decomposition processes of anhydrous alkali metal dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K synthesized by sintering of MBH4 (M = Li, Na, K and B10H14 have been systematically investigated in order to understand its role in the dehydrogenation of M(BH4n. Thermal decomposition of M2B12H12 indicates multistep pathways accompanying the formation of H-deficient monomers M2B12H12−x containing the icosahedral B12 skeletons and is followed by the formation of (M2B12Hzn polymers. The decomposition behaviors are different with the in situ formed M2B12H12 during the dehydrogenation of metal borohydrides.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsharan Singh Bhatia

    Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  7. Caspase-1 deficiency in mice reduces intestinal triglyceride absorption and hepatic triglyceride secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, J.A. van; Stienstra, R.; Vroegrijk, I.O.C.M.; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Salvatori, D.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Kersten, S.; Tack, C.J.; Netea, M.G.; Smit, J.W.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-1 is known to activate the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, it can cleave other substrates, including proteins involved in metabolism. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency in mice strongly reduces high-fat diet-induced weight gain, at least partly caused by a

  8. Vitamin B12 screening in metformin-treated diabetics in primary care: were elderly patients less likely to be tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kitai, Eliezer; Blumberg, Gari; Golan-Cohen, Avivit; Rapoport, Micha; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-02-22

    Low serum B12 level is a common occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with metformin. There is lack of evidence concerning blood testing of vitamin B12 and current clinical guidelines make no recommendations on the detection or prevention of vitamin B-12 deficiency during metformin treatment. Our objective was to examine the current practice and clinical determinants of vitamin B12 testing in metformin treated T2DM patients. Data were collected from health maintenance organization patients, and consisted of T2DM patients who were newly prescribed metformin from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomly divided into two subgroups: referred for a vitamin B12 blood test, and did not receive a referral. The demographic data and medical characteristics were analyzed. 5131 patients began taking metformin during the study period. Of these 2332 (44.5 %) had vitamin B12 tested. Significant differences were found between the groups in regard to glycosylated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, chronic renal failure, and disease duration. A significant positive association (p B12 testing and insulin treatment, retinopathy, neuropathy and hypertension. Vitamin B12 in elderly (>75 years) patients was significantly lower (p B12 testing. T2DM patients 75 years and above were less likely to be tested for B12 deficiency.

  9. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater.

  10. The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Schorr, Heike; Geisel, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    Serum concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) become increased in B12-deficient subjects and are therefore, considered specific markers of B12 deficiency. Serum level of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) becomes decreased before the development of the metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the usefulness of holoTC in diagnosing B12 deficiency in some clinical settings. We measured serum concentrations of holoTC, MMA, Hcy and total B12 in omnivores, vegetarians, elderly people and haemodialysis patients. Our results indicated that the incidence of holoTC vegans (76%). Low holoTC and elevated MMA were detected in 64% of the vegans and 43% of the lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians. An elevated MMA and a low holoTC were found in subjects with total serum B12 as high as 300 pmol/L. The distribution of holoTC in elderly people was similar to that in younger adults (median holoTC 55 pmol/L in both groups). A low holoTC and an elevated MMA were found in 16% of the elderly group. An elevated MMA and a normal holoTC were found in 20% of the elderly group who had a relatively high median serum concentration of creatinine (106.1 micromol/L). Serum concentrations of holoTC in dialysis patients were considerably higher than all other groups (median 100 pmol/L). This was also associated with severely increased serum levels of MMA (median 987 nmol/L). From these results it can be concluded that serum concentration of holoTC is a much better predictor of B12 status than total B12. This was particularly evident in case of dietary B12 deficiency. Serum concentrations of holoTC as well as MMA can be affected by renal dysfunction. Elevated MMA and normal holoTC in patients with renal insufficiency may not exclude vitamin B12 deficiency. HoloTC seems not to be a promising marker in predicting B12 status in renal patients.

  11. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gräsbeck Ralph

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS or selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency commonly resulting in megaloblastic anemia, which is responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy and appears in childhood. Other manifestations include failure to thrive and grow, infections and neurological damage. Mild proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease is present in about half of the patients. Anatomical anomalies in the urinary tract were observed in some Norwegian patients. Vitamin B12 absorption tests show low absorption, not corrected by administration of intrinsic factor. The symptoms appear from 4 months (not immediately after birth as in transcobalamin deficiency up to several years after birth. The syndrome was first described in Finland and Norway where the prevalence is about 1:200,000. The cause is a defect in the receptor of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex of the ileal enterocyte. In most cases, the molecular basis of the selective malabsorption and proteinuria involves a mutation in one of two genes, cubilin (CUBN on chromosome 10 or amnionless (AMN on chromosome 14. Both proteins are components of the intestinal receptor for the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex and the receptor mediating the tubular reabsorption of protein from the primary urine. Management includes life-long vitamin B12 injections, and with this regimen, the patients stay healthy for decades. However, the proteinuria persists. In diagnosing this disease, it is important to be aware that cobalamin deficiency affects enterocyte function; therefore, all tests suggesting general and cobalamin malabsorption should be repeated after abolishment of the deficiency.

  12. Status of serum vitamin B12 and folate in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaozhong; Ma, Jiayi; Zhu, Mingming

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily involves the intestinal tract and can affect vitamin absorption. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in patients with IBD, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 195 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 62 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and selected 118 healthy subjects for the control group. Results There were more CD patients with vitamin B12 deficiency than UC patients (14.9% vs. 3.2%, P=0.014) and controls (14.9% vs. 4.2%, P=0.003). The prevalence of folate deficiency was higher in CD patients than in controls (13.3% vs. 3.4%, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the serum vitamin B12 and folate statuses of the UC and control groups. Patients with prior ileal or ileocolic resection showed a higher prevalence of abnormal vitamin B12 levels than those without prior resection (n=6/16, n=23/179; P=0.018). A disease duration within 5 years was a risk factor of abnormal folate levels in CD patients. Conclusions This study showed that vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies were more common in patients with CD than in UC patients and controls. Prior ileal or ileocolonic resection was a risk factor of serum vitamin B12 abnormalities, and a disease duration within 5 years was a risk factor of low serum folate levels in CD patients. PMID:28239320

  13. Déficit de vitamina B12 y desarrollo de síndromes geriátricos.

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Mauricio Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thr...

  14. The causal roles of vitamin B12 and transcobalamin in prostate cancer: can Mendelian randomization analysis provide definitive answers?

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon M.; Metcalfe, Chris; Palmer, Tom M; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Smith, A. David

    2011-01-01

    Circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin/B12) and total transcobalamin (tTC) have been associated with increased and reduced risk, respectively, of prostate cancer. Mendelian randomization has the potential to determine whether these are causal associations. We estimated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in B12-related genes (MTR, MTRR, FUT2, TCN2, TCN1, CUBN, and MUT) with plasma concentrations of B12, tTC, holo-transcobalamin, holo-haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine and with pros...

  15. 维生素B12对抑郁症的辅助治疗%Vitamin B12 as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春燕; 赵约翰; 徐广军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察抑郁症患者血清维生素B12水平,探讨抗抑郁剂合并维生素B12治疗维生素B12缺乏抑郁症的疗效及安全性。方法对400名抑郁症患者进行血清维生素B12浓度测查,将筛查出的维生素B12缺乏的抑郁症患者70例,随机分为两组,各35例。对照组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,治疗8周;研究组根据病情口服西酞普兰20~40 mg/次,每日1次,同时合并使用维生素B12,治疗8周。研究组及对照组治疗前后1,2,4,8周末分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD)评定;治疗后1,2,4,8周末分别评定副反应量表(TESS);治疗前及治疗后4,8周末分别查血清维生素B12浓度。结果抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平(359.7±183.2)pg/ml,维生素B12缺乏发生率为19.5%,研究组与对照组第1周末汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),治疗第2,4、8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),研究组有效率为94.3%,对照组为74.3%,两组差异有显著性(P<0.01),血清维生素B12浓度治疗后4,8周末有显著性差异(P<0.01),且研究组汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分与血清维生素B12浓度负相关。两组不良反应均较轻微,TESS评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论抑郁症患者血清维生素B12平均水平较正常明显降低,维生素B12缺乏发生率高,维生素B12辅助抗抑郁剂治疗可明显提高疗效,且不增加不良反应。%Objective To observe serum vitamin B 12 levels in patients with depression and explore the curative effects and safety of antidepressant combined with vitamine B 12 in the treatment of depression with vitamin B 12 deficiency.Methods Serum vitamin B12 lev-els in 400 patients with major depressive disorder were determined at baseline .70 depressive patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency were randomly divided into research

  16. 维生素B12与腔隙性脑梗塞后抑郁的关联研究%Association of Vitamin B12 with Depression after Lacunar Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 呙登俊; 江霞

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the association of serum vitamin B12 with depression after lacunar stroke.METHODS Between June 2009 and June 2012,829 patients with lacunar stroke,according to Hamilton depression scale score,were divided into two groups:group with depression and group without depression.The concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and the ratio of vitamin B12 deficiency were compared.The relationship between Hamilton depression scale score and the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 in the group with depression was analyzed by the curve-fitting method.RESULTS The group without depression contained 750 cases and the mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 of this group was (172.5±20.4)pmol·L-1.There were 212 cases in the group without depression which were considered as vitamin B 12 deficiency.The group with depression contained 79 cases and the mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 of this group was (139.1±18.2)pmol·L-1.There were 53 cases in the group with depression which were considered as vitamin B12 deficiency.There were significant differences in the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and the ratio of vitamin B 12 deficiency(P<0.000 1).Inverse curve reflected the relationship between Hamilton depression scale score and the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 in the group with depression.CONCLUSION Depression after lacunar stroke is related to vitamin B12 deficiency.%目的 探讨血清维生素B12与腔隙性脑梗塞后抑郁之间关系.方法 2009年6月—2012年6月腔隙性脑梗塞患者共829例,使用汉密尔顿抑郁量表将患者分为两组:无抑郁组和抑郁组,比较两组间血清维生素B12浓度和维生素B12缺乏者的比例.在抑郁组内对汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分和血清维生素B12浓度进行曲线拟合.结果 无抑郁组患者750例,血清维生素B12平均浓度为(172.5±20.4)pmol·L-1,其中维生素B12缺乏者212例.抑郁组79例,血清维生素B12平均浓度为(139.1± 18.2)pmol·L-1,其中维生素B

  17. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  18. Peptide B12: emerging trends at the interface of inorganic chemistry, chemical biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelder, Felix; Zhou, Kai; Sonnay, Marjorie

    2013-01-28

    The sophisticated and efficient delivery of vitamin B(12) ("B(12)") into cells offers promise for B(12)-bioconjugates in medicinal diagnosis and therapy. It is therefore surprising that rather little attention is presently paid to an alternative strategy in drug design: the development of structurally perfect, but catalytically inactive semi-artificial B(12) surrogates. Vitamin B(12) cofactors catalyse important biological transformations and are indispensible for humans and most other forms of life. This strong metabolic dependency exhibits enormous medicinal opportunities. Inhibitors of B(12) dependent enzymes are potential suppressors of fast proliferating cancer cells. This perspective article focuses on the design and study of backbone modified B(12) derivatives, particularly on peptide B(12) derivatives. Peptide B(12) is a recently introduced class of biomimetic cobalamins bearing an artificial peptide backbone with adjustable coordination and redox-properties. Pioneering biological studies demonstrated reduced catalytic activity, combined with inhibitory potential that is encouraging for future efforts in turning natural cofactors into new anti-proliferative agents.

  19. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  20. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status.

  1. Urinary reducing substances in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Kader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal cholestasis due to citrin deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in SLC25A13 gene. Mutations in this gene have a relatively high prevalence in East-Asian races compared to European or Afro-Caribbean races. Mutations in both sets of chromosomes often lead to self-limiting early onset cholestasis and growth retardation referred as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD. It is associated with a wide range of metabolic derangements including galactosemia and aminoacidemia, which can be detected on the newborn blood spot screening. Galactose, being a reducing sugar, can also be detected using Clinitest® (Clinitest® Reagent Tablets, Bayer Corporation, Diagnostics Division, Elkhart, IN, USA, a common screening test used in the work up of metabolic and hepatic diseases. In the western population classical galactosemia is often suspected when non glucose reducing substances are detected in the urine of infants with cholestasis. However in East-Asian races the prevalence of classical galactosemia is very low whilst galactosemia due to altered uridine diphosphate-galactose epimerase activity in NICCD is more common. We present a case of NICCD in an East-Asian infant with cholestasis and persistently positive urine reducing substance. Conclusion: NICCD deficiency should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any infant with cholestasis and persistently positive urinary reducing substances.

  2. Vitamin B12 in metformin-treated diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Brazil Vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos usando metformina: um corte transversal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nervo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency and the factors associated with serum vitamin B12 levels in a sample of metformin-treated Brazilian diabetic patients. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low (OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos brasileiros tratados com metformina e os fatores associados aos níveis séricos de vitamina B12. MÉTODO: Corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 144 pacientes foram incluídos. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram baixos (< 125 pmol/L em 10 pacientes (6,9% e possivelmente baixos (125 - 250pmol/L em 53 pacientes (36,8%. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram associados negativamente à idade (B = -3,17; β = -0,171; p = 0,037 e à duração do uso de metformina (B = -33,36; β= -0,161; p = 0,048 e positivamente com a ingestão estimada de vitamina B12 (B = 67,96; β = 0,249; p = 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos tratados com metformina. Pacientes mais velhos, em uso de metformina há muito tempo e com ingestão baixa de vitamina B12 estão provavelmente mais predispostos a essa deficiência.

  3. Gastrointestinal Transcriptomic Response of Metabolic Vitamin B12 Pathways in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Priscila; Belarmino, Giliane; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Machado, Natasha M; Fonseca, Danielle C; Ravacci, Graziela R; Ishida, Robson K; Guarda, Ismael F M S; de Moura, Eduardo G; Sakai, Paulo; Santo, Marco A; da Silva, Ismael D C G; Pereira, Claudia C A; Logullo, Angela F; Heymsfield, Steven; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency. Methods: During double-balloon enteroscopy, serial GI biopsies were collected from 20 obese women (age, 46.9±6.2 years; body mass index, 46.5±5.3 kg/m2) with adult-onset type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl; hemoglobin A1c≥6.5%) before and, at the same site, 3 months after RYGB. Gene expression levels were assessed by the Affymetrix Human GeneChip 1.0 ST microarray. Findings were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT–qPCR). Results: Gene expression levels with significant changes (P≤0.05) included: transcobalamin I (TCN1) in remnant (−1.914-fold) and excluded (−1.985-fold) gastric regions; gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) in duodenum (−0.725-fold); and cubilin (CUBN) in duodenum (+0.982-fold), jejunum (+1.311-fold), and ileum (+0.685-fold). Validation by RT–qPCR confirmed (P≤0.05) observed changes for TCN1 in the remnant gastric region (−0.132-fold) and CUBN in jejunum (+2.833-fold). Conclusions: RYGB affects multiple pathway-encoding genes that may be associated with postoperative B12 deficiency. Decreased TCN1 levels seem to be the main contributing factor. Increased CUBN levels suggest an adaptive genetic reprogramming of intestinal tissue aiming to compensate for impaired intestinal B12 delivery. PMID:28055029

  4. New insights into erythropoiesis: the roles of folate, vitamin B12, and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koury, Mark J; Ponka, Prem

    2004-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is the process in which new erythrocytes are produced. These new erythrocytes replace the oldest erythrocytes (normally about one percent) that are phagocytosed and destroyed each day. Folate, vitamin B12, and iron have crucial roles in erythropoiesis. Erythroblasts require folate and vitamin B12 for proliferation during their differentiation. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 inhibits purine and thymidylate syntheses, impairs DNA synthesis, and causes erythroblast apoptosis, resulting in anemia from ineffective erythropoiesis. Erythroblasts require large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis. Large amounts of iron are recycled daily with hemoglobin breakdown from destroyed old erythrocytes. Many recently identified proteins are involved in absorption, storage, and cellular export of nonheme iron and in erythroblast uptake and utilization of iron. Erythroblast heme levels regulate uptake of iron and globin synthesis such that iron deficiency causes anemia by retarded production rates with smaller, less hemoglobinized erythrocytes.

  5. [Acute neurological disclosure of B12 avitaminosis induced by folic acid administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, N; Martinez Almoyna, L; Husson, H; De Broucker, T

    2005-04-01

    A paradigmatic case of acute combined spinal cord degeneration and delirium due to inappropriate administration of folic acid in the context of chronic cobalamin deficiency is described. Rapid improvement was obtained with immediate cessation of folate administration and parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Folic acid and cobalamin prescription rules are recalled. Pathophysiological hypotheses tentatively explaining the neurotoxicity of folic acid in case of vitamin B12 deficiency are summarized.

  6. Associations of Maternal Vitamin B12 Concentration in Pregnancy With the Risks of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogne, Tormod; Tielemans, Myrte J; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Poston, Lucilla; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Steegers, Eric A P; Joshi, Suyog; Chong, Yap-Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Thomas, Tinku; Hay, Gry; Hogeveen, Marije; Demir, Ahmet; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Skovlund, Eva; Martinussen, Marit P; Jacobsen, Geir W; Franco, Oscar H; Bracken, Michael B; Risnes, Kari R

    2017-01-20

    Vitamin B12 (hereafter referred to as B12) deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent and has been associated with both lower birth weight (birth weight B12 concentrations in pregnancy with offspring birth weight and length of gestation. Twenty-two eligible studies were identified (11,993 observations). Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analysis (11,216 observations). No linear association was observed between maternal B12 levels in pregnancy and birth weight, but B12 deficiency (B12 and preterm birth (per each 1-standard-deviation increase in B12, adjusted risk ratio = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97). Accordingly, B12 deficiency was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49). This finding supports the need for randomized controlled trials of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy.

  7. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  8. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign.

  9. Hypervitaminosis B12 in maintenance hemodialysis patients receiving massive supplementation of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, G; Canavese, C; Salomone, M; Thea, A; Pacitti, A; Gaido, M; Calitri, V; Pelizza, D; Canavero, W; Vercellone, A

    1986-11-01

    We have administered routinely a multivitamin preparation containing a megadose of B12 to 106 hemodialysis patients after dialysis treatments. We found that these patients had very high levels of serum vitamin B12 which returned to original values only after a period of three years after stopping the vitamin. Discontinuing therapy had no effect on hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte corpuscular volume, or motor nerve conduction velocity. It is not known whether maintaining a prolonged high level of vitamin B12 is harmful. However, animal and epidemiologic studies have suggested that both cobalamin and cobalt may be potentially toxic. In view of the absence of demonstrable benefit and the possible risk of toxicity, we believe that the use of such megadose vitamin compounds in dialysis patients should be re-evaluated.

  10. Zinc deficiency with reduced mastication impairs spatial memory in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Kumiko; Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient oral microelements such as zinc and fully chewing of foods are required to maintain cognitive function despite aging. No knowledge exists about the combination of factors such as zinc deficiency and reduced mastication on learning and memory. Here we show that tooth extraction only in 8-week-old mice did not change the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus or spatial memory parameters. However, tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation strongly impaired spatial memory and led to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. The impaired spatial performance in the zinc-deficient only (ZD) mice also coincided well with the increase in the astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. After switching both zinc-deficient groups to a normal diet with sufficient zinc, spatial memory recovered, and more time was spent in the quadrant with the goal in the probe test in the mice with tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation (EZD) compared to the ZD mice. Interestingly, we found no differences in astrocytic density in the CA1 region among all groups at 22 weeks of age. Furthermore, the escape latency in a visible probe test at all times was longer in zinc-deficient groups than the others and demonstrated a negative correlation with body weight. No significant differences in escape latency were observed in the visible probe test among the ZD, EZD, and normal-fed control at 4 weeks (CT4w) groups in which body weight was standardized to that of the EZD group, or in the daily reduction in latency between the normal-fed control and CT4w groups. Our data showed that zinc-deficient feeding during a young age impairs spatial memory performance and leads to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region and that zinc-sufficient feeding is followed by recovery of the impaired spatial memory along with changes in astrocytic density. The combination of the two factors, zinc deficiency

  11. Study of Methionine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Status in Coronary Atherosclerotic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Djalali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased level of serum homocysteine is one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Its production related in some sulfur amino acids such as methionine. Some important cofactors that are involved in metabolic pathways of this amino acid are folate and vitamin B12. We have assessed the status of methionine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in some coronary atherosclerotic male patients.Methods: In this case-control study, 46 cases of coronary atherosclerosis were selected from male patients aged 37 to 66 years undergoing coronary angiography. Of these, 21 had history of acute myocardial infarction (MI in previous 3 to 36 months and 25 had angina pectoris. The controls were selected from male healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria for all study participants required that they had no history of diabetes, hypertension, renal, hepatic, or gastrointestinal dis­ease, endocrinal disorders, or psychiatric illness. Nutritional status was assessed using biochemistry methods and estima­tion of nutrient intake. Serum methionine was determined by HPLC methods.Results: Mean serum levels of vitamin B12, and folate, also erythrocyte folate concentration are significantly lower in these patients than in control subjects, but not for methionine. The ratios of serum methionine to vitamin B12 and folate were higher in patients than controls. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, both, were higher in patients than controls.Conclusion: In summary, it is concluded that, despite normal level of serum methionine, coenzymes deficiencies may be one of the factors accounting for atherosclerosis.

  12. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-08-05

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  13. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  14. Aerenchyma Formed Under Phosphorus Deficiency Contributes to the Reduced Root Hydraulic Conductivity in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshou Fan; Ruiqin Bai; Xuefeng Zhao; Jianhua Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Root hydraulic conductivity has been shown to decrease under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This study investigated how the formation of aerenchyma is related to this change. Root anatomy, as well as root hydraulic conductivity was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) roots under different phosphorus nutrition conditions. Plant roots under P stress showed enhanced degradation of cortical cells and the aerenchyma formation was associated with their reduced root hydraulic conductivity, supporting our hypothesis that air spaces that form in the cortex of phosphorusstressed roots impede the radial transport of water in a root cylinder. Further evidence came from the variation in aerenchyma formation due to genotypic differences. Five maize inbred lines with different porosity in their root cortex showed a significant negative correlation with their root hydraulic conductivity. Shoot relative water content was also found lower in P-deficient maize plants than that in P-sufficient ones when such treatment was prolonged enough, suggesting a limitation of water transport due to lowered root hydraulic conductivity of P-deficient piants.

  15. 你缺少维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺佩祥

    2007-01-01

    @@ 身体如何获得维生素B12 机体需要靠以下几个环节来获得足够的维生素B12: 1.食物在胃酸的作用下释放出维生素B12 2.维生素B12与一种称为"内因子"的物质结合

  16. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  17. Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon reduces atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Okamoto

    Full Text Available The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs are transcription factors involved in hematopoietic cell development and induction of several inflammatory mediators. C/EBPε is expressed only in myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the vascular wall and circulating immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages. Mice deficient in the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- fed on a high cholesterol diet (HCD show elevated blood cholesterol levels and are widely used as models to study human atherosclerosis. In this study, we generated Ldlr and Cebpe double-knockout (llee mice and compared their atherogenic phenotypes to Ldlr single deficient (llEE mice after HCD. Macrophages from llee mice have reduced lipid uptake by foam cells and impaired phagokinetic motility in vitro compared to macrophages from llEE mice. Also, compared to llEE mice, llee mice have alterations of lipid metabolism, and reduced atheroma and obesity, particularly the males. Peritoneal macrophages of llee male mice have reduced mRNA expression of FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein implicated in atherosclerosis. Overall, our study suggests that the myeloid specific factor C/EBPε is involved in systemic lipid metabolism and that silencing of C/EBPε could decrease the development of atherosclerosis.

  18. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  19. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 维生素B12与腔隙性梗死后抑郁的相关性分析%Study on the association of Vitamin B12 and depression secondary to lacunar cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐劭年; 任兰振; 胡宗继; 刘立雄

    2014-01-01

    目的:对维生素B12与腔隙性梗死后抑郁存在的相关性进行探讨。方法将我院2011-01-2013-01收治的腔隙性梗死患者798例分为对照组708例与观察组90例,对照组无抑郁症,观察组存在抑郁症(根据汉密尔顿抑郁量表判定),对比并分析2组患者的维生素B12水平。结果对照组血清维生素B12平均浓度为(178.6±20.7)pmol/L ,维生素B12缺乏197例(27.9%),观察组,血清维生素 B12平均浓度(141.7±19.7)pmol/L ,维生素 B12缺乏60例(66.7%),2组比较差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论维生素B12缺乏与腔隙性梗死后抑郁存在着相关性,腔隙性梗死并抑郁患者的维生素B12水平较普通腔隙性梗死患者更低,维生素B12缺乏情况较为明显,在治疗过程中适当补充维生素B12可以让患者的抑郁症状得到缓解,并可提升腔隙性梗死的治疗效果,促进患者恢复。%Objective To investigate the relevance between vitamin B12 and depression after lacunar cerebral infarc-tion.Methods Seventy hundred and ninety-eight patients with lacunar cerebral infarction admitted to our hospital from January 2011 to January 2011 were divided into control group(708 cases) and observation group (90 cases) ,no depression in control group patients ,the observation group patients had depression (judged according to the Hamilton depression rating scale ) ,vita-min B12 levels of patients in the two groups were analyzed and compared.Results The mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 of the control group was(178.6 ± 20.7)pmol/L ,the number of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency was 197 ,the ratio of which was 27.9% ;In the observation group ,the mean concentration of serum vitamin B12 was(141.7 ± 19.7)pmol/L ,the number of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency was 60 ,the ratio of which was 66.7%.The difference between the two groups had statisti-cal significance (P<0.05). Conclusion There is

  1. Organometallic B12-DNA conjugate: synthesis, structure analysis, and studies of binding to human B12-transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Miriam; Mutti, Elena; Rieder, Alexander; Enders, Barbara; Nexo, Ebba; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2014-10-06

    Design, synthesis, and structural characterization of a B12-octadecanucleotide are presented herein, a new organometallic B12-DNA conjugate. In such covalent conjugates, the natural B12 moiety may be a versatile vector for controlled in vivo delivery of oligonucleotides to cellular targets in humans and animals, through the endogenous B12 transport systems. Binding of the organometallic B12 octadecanucleotide to the three important human proteins of B12 transport was studied, to examine its structural suitability for the task of eventual in vivo oligonucleotide delivery. Binding was efficient with transcobalamin (TC), but not so efficient with the homologous glycoproteins intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. Binding of the B12 octadecanucleotide to TC suggests the capacity of the B12 moiety to serve as a natural vector for specific transport of single stranded, organometallic oligonucleotide loads from the blood stream into cells.

  2. Vitamin B12 and folate status in acute geropsychiatric inpatients: affective and cognitive characteristics of a vitamin nondeficient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, I R; Edman, J S; Marby, D W; Satlin, A; Dreier, T; Liptzin, B; Cole, J O

    1990-01-15

    This chart review study examined the serum vitamin B12 and folate status of 102 geriatric patients newly admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. Only 3.7% were B12 deficient and 1.3% were folate deficient; 4% were anemic. Nevertheless, those with below-median values of both vitamins had significantly lower Mini-Mental State scores than patients higher in one or both vitamins. Patients with "organic psychosis" with a negative family history for psychiatric disorder had significantly lower B12 levels than those with a positive family history. In major depression, folate levels correlated negatively with age at onset of psychiatric illness and length of hospitalization. These data suggest that (1) biochemically interrelated vitamins such as B12 and folate may exert both a separate and a concomitant influence on affect and cognition; (2) poorer vitamin status may contribute to certain geropsychiatric disorders that begin at a later age and lack a familial predisposition.

  3. Moderate zinc deficiency reduces testicular Zip6 and Zip10 abundance and impairs spermatogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Thomas P; McCormick, Nicholas H; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2011-03-01

    Male infertility accounts for ~40% of cases of failure to conceive. Testes have a strict zinc (Zn) requirement and severe Zn deficiency compromises spermatogenesis, sperm viability, and motility, compromising fertility in men. Despite the high prevalence of marginal Zn deficiency in humans, less emphasis has been placed on understanding the consequences on male reproduction. Swiss Webster mice were used to visualize Zip protein expression during spermatogenesis using immunohistochemistry. Data suggest Zip5 imports Zn into Sertoli cells and spermatocytes, augmented by Zip10 (primary spermatocytes) and Zip8 (secondary spermatocytes). Zip6, 8, and 10 expression was retained in round spermatids, although Zip8 and Zip10 expression disappears during spermatid maturation. Zip1 and Zip6 expression was detected in mature, elongated spermatids. Zip14 was detected in undifferentiated spermatogonia and Leydig cells. Mice fed diets (n = 10/group) reduced in Zn concentration [marginal-Zn diet (MZD), 10 mg Zn/kg; low-Zn diet (ZD), 7 mg Zn/kg] for 30 d had >35% lower liver Zn concentrations than mice fed the control diet (C; 30 mg Zn/kg) (P 50%; P < 0.5) compared with mice fed C. Our data provide compelling evidence that reduced Zn intake may be associated with infertility in men, perhaps independent of decreased levels of circulating Zn or testosterone, which warrants further investigation in human populations.

  4. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Partearroyo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations.

  5. Leukocyte TLR5 deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis by reduced macrophage recruitment and defective T-cell responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Guilielmus H.J.M.; van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Anas, Adam A.; Bot, Martine; Asbach, Miriam; Schoneveld, Arjan; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Foks, Amanda C.; Timmers, Leo; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E.; van der Poll, Tom; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity, both important players in atherosclerosis. Since evidence for the role of TLR5 is lacking, we aimed to establish this in the immune axis of atherosclerosis. We assessed the effect of the TLR5-specific ligand Flagellin on macrophage maturation and T-cell polarisation. Next, we generated TLR5−/−LDLr−/− chimeras to study the effect of hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency on atherosclerosis formation. Flagellin stimulation did not influence wildtype or TLR5−/− macrophage maturation. Only in wildtype macrophages, Flagellin exposure increased MCP-1 and IL6 expression. Flagellin alone reduced T-helper 1 proliferation, which was completely overruled in the presence of T-cell receptor activation. In vivo, hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation by ≈25% (1030*103 ± 63*103 vs. 792*103 ± 61*103 μm2; p = 0.013) and decreased macrophage area (81.3 ± 12.0 vs. 44.2 ± 6.6 μm2; p = 0.011). In TLR5−/− chimeric mice, we observed lower IL6 plasma levels (36.4 ± 5.6 vs. 15.1 ± 2.2 pg/mL; p = 0.003), lower (activated) splenic CD4+ T-cell content (32.3 ± 2.1 vs. 21.0 ± 1.2%; p = 0.0018), accompanied by impaired T-cell proliferative responses. In conclusion, hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency inhibits atherosclerotic lesion formation by attenuated macrophage accumulation and defective T-cell responsiveness. PMID:28202909

  6. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic and a blue-yellow (tritanopic. We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u’, 0.4689 v’ in the CIE 1976 consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD= 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD= 3.7 years normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F2,100= 18.80; p< 0.0001 and white-yellow (F2,100= 22.10; p< 0.0001 thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  7. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo F.; Goulart, Paulo R. K.; Barboni, Mirella T. S.; Ventura, Dora F.

    2016-01-01

    In congenital color blindness the red–green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red–green (protanopic and deuteranopic) and a blue–yellow (tritanopic). We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u′, 0.4689 v′ in the CIE 1976) consisting of a blue–white and white–yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD = 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous) and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD = 3.7 years) normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue–white (F2,100 = 18.80; p < 0.0001) and white–yellow (F2,100 = 22.10; p < 0.0001) thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue–yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue–white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms. PMID:27065909

  8. Enhanced hydrogen adsorption on Li-coated B12C6N6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xueling; Qi, Pengtang; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jinyun; Chen, Hongshan

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen storage property of Li-coated B12C6N6 is investigated by density functional theory calculations. B12C6N6 is an electron deficient fullerene. Li atoms can be strongly bound to this cage by donating their valance electrons to the virtual 2p orbitals of carbon in the cluster. The binding energy (-2.90 eV) is much larger than the cohesive energy (1.63 eV) of bulk Li, and it prevents the Li atoms from aggregation. The coated Li atoms have large positive charges and the adsorbed hydrogen molecules can be moderately polarized by the Li+ ions. The computation shows that each Li atom coated on B12C6N6 can hold 2-3 H2 molecules with adsorption energies in the range of 0.21-0.24 eV/H2. The B12C6N6Li8 can adsorb 16 H2 and achieve a gravimetric hydrogen density of 8.63 wt. %. The present results indicate that alkali-metal atoms coated on electron deficient fullerenes can serve as hydrogen storage materials that can operate at ambient temperatures with high recycling storage capacity.

  9. MEC-17 deficiency leads to reduced α-tubulin acetylation and impaired migration of cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wei, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Pan, Jing; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2012-09-12

    Neuronal migration is a fundamental process during the development of the cerebral cortex and is regulated by cytoskeletal components. Microtubule dynamics can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to tubulin subunits. Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 is important in regulating microtubule properties, and this process is controlled by acetyltransferase and deacetylase. MEC-17 is a newly discovered α-tubulin acetyltransferase that has been found to play a major role in the acetylation of α-tubulin in different species in vivo. However, the physiological function of MEC-17 during neural development is largely unknown. Here, we report that MEC-17 is critical for the migration of cortical neurons in the rat. MEC-17 was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development. MEC-17 deficiency caused migratory defects in the cortical projection neurons and interneurons, and perturbed the transition of projection neurons from the multipolar stage to the unipolar/bipolar stage in the intermediate zone of the cortex. Furthermore, knockdown of α-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 or overexpression of tubulin(K40Q) to mimic acetylated α-tubulin could reduce the migratory and morphological defects caused by MEC-17 deficiency in cortical projection neurons. Thus, MEC-17, which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, appears to control the migration and morphological transition of cortical neurons. This finding reveals the importance of MEC-17 and α-tubulin acetylation in cortical development.

  10. Metabolism of Mycotoxins, Intracellular Functions of Vitamin B12, and Neurological Manifestations in Patients with Chronic Toxigenic Mold Exposures. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible reasons for consistent vitamin B12 deficiency in chronic toxigenic mold exposures and the synergistic relationships with the possible mycotoxic effects on one-carbon metabolism that lead to the manifestations of clinical neuropathological symptomology. Vitamins are first defined in general and the nutritional sources of vitamin B12 are evaluated in particular. Since patients with chronic exposures to toxigenic molds manifest vitamin B12 deficiencies, the role of mycotoxins in vitamin B12 metabolism is assessed, and since vitamin B12 plays important biochemical roles in one-carbon metabolism, the synergistic effects with mycotoxins on humans are reviewed. An outline of the proposed mechanism by which mycotoxins disrupt or interfere with the normal functions of vitamin B12 on one-carbon metabolism is proposed. The overall functions of vitamin B12 as a source of coenzymes, in intracellular recycling of methionine, in methionine synthase reaction, in the prevention of chromosome breakage, in methylation, and in maintaining a one-carbon metabolic balance are reviewed. Signs, symptoms, and clinical neurological indications of vitamin B12 deficiency are also cited. By implication and derivation, it is likely that the interruption of the structure and function of vitamin B12 would in turn interfere with the one-carbon metabolism leading to the neurological manifestations. This review is an attempt to formulate a basis for an ongoing research investigation on the subject.

  11. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  12. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  13. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türksoy N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation, which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  14. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub

  15. Déficit de vitamina B12 y desarrollo de síndromes geriátricos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauricio Ocampo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible.

  16. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  17. Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Zeder, C.; Muthayya, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Chaouki, N.; Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Overweight is increasing in transition countries, while iron deficiency remains common. In industrialized countries, greater adiposity increases risk of iron deficiency. Higher hepcidin levels in obesity may reduce dietary iron absorption. Therefore, we investigated the association betwe

  18. Estrogen deficiency leads to telomerase inhibition,telomere shortening and reduced cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharyn Bayne; Margaret EE Jones; He Li; Alex R Pinto; Evan R Simpson; Jun-Ping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency mediates aging, but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully determined. We report here that estrogen deficiency caused by targeted disruption of aromatase in mice results in significant inhibition oftelomerase activity in the adrenal gland in vivo. Gene expression analysis showed that, in the absence of estrogen, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression is reduced in association with compromised cell proliferation in the adrenal gland cortex and adrenal atrophy. Stem cells positive in c-kit are identified to populate in the parenchyma of adrenal cortex. Analysis of telomeres revealed that estrogen deficiency results in significantly shorter telomeres in the adrenal cortex than that in wild-type (WT) control mice. To further establish the causal effects of estrogen, we conducted an estrogen replacement therapy in these estrogen-deficient animals. Administration of estrogen for 3 weeks restores TERT gene expression, telomerase activity and cell proliferation in estrogen-deficient mice. Thus, our data show for the first time that estrogen deficiency causes inhibitions of TERT gene expression, telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice in vivo, suggesting that telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening may mediate cell proliferation arrest in the adrenal gland, thus contributing to estrogen deficiency-induced aging under physiological conditions.

  19. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Deficiency Reduces Melanoma Metastasis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Sun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High circulating cholesterol is associated with hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and stroke. However, the relation between cholesterol and tumorigenesis/metastasis is controversial. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 regulates low-density lipoprotein cholesterol homeostasis by targeting the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR for degradation. PCSK9 is mostly expressed in liver, which is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. To reveal the function of PCSK9 and also evaluate the impact of cholesterol in liver metastasis development, B16F1 melanoma cells were injected into wild-type (WT and Pcsk9-/- mice to induce liver metastasis. On chow diet, Pcsk9-/- mice harbored two-fold less liver metastases than WT mice. This decrease is related to low cholesterol levels in Pcsk9-/- mice, as the protection was lost after normalizing Pcsk9-/- cholesterol levels by a 2-week high cholesterol diet. Furthermore, a prolongation of this diet strongly increased metastasis in both genotypes, suggesting that high cholesterol levels promote metastatic progression. The protective effect of the PCSK9 deficiency is also associated with increased apoptosis in liver stroma and metastases. Tumor necrosis factor.α (TNFα mRNA and protein were, respectively, higher in liver stroma and plasma of injected mice, likely increasing the apoptotic TNFα signaling. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma 2 was downregulated. TNFα regulation is LDLR-independent, as its mRNA level was similarly upregulated in mice lacking both PCSK9 and LDLR. Our findings show that PCSK9 deficiency reduces liver metastasis by its ability to lower cholesterol levels and by possibly enhancing TNFα-mediated apoptosis.

  20. Food fortification to reduce vitamin A deficiency: International Vitamin A Consultative Group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary, Omar; Mora, Jose O

    2002-09-01

    In developed countries, food fortification has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil products as well as cereal flours and meals with vitamin A has been shown. Sugar has been fortified with vitamin A in Central American countries for years, and biological efficacy and program effectiveness are well established. Efficacy of fortifying monosodium glutamate with vitamin A was demonstrated but a program has not been established. Fortification with vitamin A in the developing world should satisfy certain elements for success. a) A potential food matrix (a food regularly consumed, produced by a few centralized factories, without sensorial changes compared with the nonfortified equivalent, and nutrient remains bioavailable and in a sufficient amount) is required. b) Fortified foods should provide at least 15% of the recommended daily intakes for the target group (e.g., individuals consuming the lowest amount of the fortified food). c) Voluntary fortification of processed foods should be regulated to prevent excessive consumption of vitamin A. d) Neighboring countries should harmonize technical standards, facilitate compliance and minimize conflicts over global trade laws. e) A practical monitoring system should be instituted. f) Social marketing activities should be permanent and aimed at industry, government and consumers. g) Food fortification should be combined with other strategies (e.g., supplementation) to reach those not adequately covered by fortification alone. Infants and small children, whose dietary habits differ from those of adults, require special attention. Fortification of food commodities is a very attractive and economic way to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Effective food

  1. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Nader

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD. Methods We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran. Results After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females. Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01. However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 ± 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87. Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01. Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Conclusion We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (bellow 45 years old – especially in men -and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  2. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account.

  3. Connexin26 (GJB2) deficiency reduces active cochlear amplification leading to late-onset hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Chen, J; Liang, C; Zong, L; Chen, J; Jones, R O; Zhao, H-B

    2015-01-22

    Connexin26 (Cx26, GJB2) mutations account for >50% of nonsyndromic hearing loss. The deafness is not always congenital. A large group of these patients (∼30%) demonstrate a late-onset hearing loss, starting in childhood. They have normal hearing early in life and are therefore good candidates for applying protective and therapeutic interventions. However, the underlying deafness mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used a time-controlled, inducible gene knockout technique to knockout Cx26 expression in the cochlea after birth. We found that deletion of Cx26 after postnatal day 5 (P5) in mice could lead to late-onset hearing loss. Similar to clinical observations, the mice demonstrated progressive, mild to moderate hearing loss. The hearing loss initiated at high frequencies and then extended to the middle- and low-frequency range. The cochlea showed normal development and had no apparent hair cell loss. However, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was reduced. The reduction was also progressive and large at high-frequencies. Consistent with DPOAE reduction, we found that outer hair cell electromotility-associated nonlinear capacitance was shifted to the right and the slope of voltage dependence was reduced. The endocochlear potential was reduced in Cx26 conditional knockout (cKO) mice but the reduction was not associated with progressive hearing loss. These data suggest that Cx26 deficiency may impair active cochlear amplification leading to late-onset hearing loss. Our study also helps develop newer protective and therapeutic interventions to this common nonsyndromic hearing loss.

  4. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwu Liu

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/- mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+, we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p0.82, p<0.01. Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord.

  5. Atrx deficiency induces telomere dysfunction, endocrine defects, and reduced life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, L Ashley; Solomon, Lauren A; Li, Jennifer Ruizhe; Jiang, Yan; Edwards, Matthew; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Beier, Frank; Bérubé, Nathalie G

    2013-05-01

    Human ATRX mutations are associated with cognitive deficits, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. We show that the Atrx-null embryonic mouse brain accumulates replicative damage at telomeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin, which is exacerbated by loss of p53 and linked to ATM activation. ATRX-deficient neuroprogenitors exhibited higher incidence of telomere fusions and increased sensitivity to replication stress-inducing drugs. Treatment of Atrx-null neuroprogenitors with the G-quadruplex (G4) ligand telomestatin increased DNA damage, indicating that ATRX likely aids in the replication of telomeric G4-DNA structures. Unexpectedly, mutant mice displayed reduced growth, shortened life span, lordokyphosis, cataracts, heart enlargement, and hypoglycemia, as well as reduction of mineral bone density, trabecular bone content, and subcutaneous fat. We show that a subset of these defects can be attributed to loss of ATRX in the embryonic anterior pituitary that resulted in low circulating levels of thyroxine and IGF-1. Our findings suggest that loss of ATRX increases DNA damage locally in the forebrain and anterior pituitary and causes tissue attrition and other systemic defects similar to those seen in aging.

  6. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with vitamin B12 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hisaeda, Takahiro Masuko, Erika Hanashima and Takashi Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by human serum albumin (HSA and vitamin B12 derivatives. The incorporation of hydrophobic vitamin B12 derivatives, which have ester groups in place of the peripheral amide moieties of the natural cobalamin, into HSA is primarily controlled by the hydrophobicity of the peripheral ester groups. Microenvironmental property around the hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was examined by fluorescence and fluorescence polarization measurements. The hydrophobic vitamin B12 itself in HSA is in a microenvironment equivalent in medium polarity to dichloromethane. The molecular motion of hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was markedly suppressed under such microenvironmental conditions. Carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction of an alkyl radical derived from an alkyl ligand bound to the hydrophobic vitamin B12 was markedly favored in HSA aqueous solution, relative to the reactions in methanol and benzene. The 1,2-migration of the electron-withdrawing group arises from both the suppression of molecular motion and desolvation effects on the alkylated hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA.

  7. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Vitamin B12 Compound Ointment- Ⅰ by HPLC%复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谊; 李兵; 史学慧

    2004-01-01

    建立了HPLC法测定复方维生素B12软膏Ⅰ号中维生素B12的含量.采用Hypersll BDS C18柱,流动相为乙腈-0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(15:85),检测波长360nm.维生素B12在0.16~0.8μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率为98.4%,RSD为0.9%.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with serum level of vitamin B12 in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoling; Lu, Daru; Gao, Yong; Tao, Sha; Yang, Xiaobo; Feng, Junjie; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Haiying; Hu, Yanling; Qin, Xue; Kim, Seong-Tae; Peng, Tao; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Zhang, Shijun; Trent, Jeffrey M; Mo, Zengnan; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (VitB12 or cobalamin) is an essential cofactor in several metabolic pathways. Clinically, VitB12 deficiency is associated with pernicious anemia, neurodegenerative disorder, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease. Although previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several genes, including FUT2, CUBN, TCN1 and MUT, that may influence VitB12 levels in European populations, common genetic determinants of VitB12 remain largely unknown, especially in Asian populations. Here we performed a GWAS in 1999 healthy Chinese men and replicated the top findings in an independent Chinese sample with 1496 subjects. We identified four novel genomic loci that were significantly associated with serum level of VitB12 at a genome-wide significance level of 5.00 × 10(-8). These four loci were MS4A3 (11q12.1; rs2298585; P= 2.64 × 10(-15)), CLYBL (13q32; rs41281112; P= 9.23 × 10(-10)), FUT6 (19p13.3; rs3760776; P= 3.68 × 10(-13)) and 5q32 region (rs10515552; P= 3.94 × 10(-8)). In addition, we also confirmed the association with the serum level of VitB12 for the previously reported FUT2 gene and identified one novel non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in FUT2 gene in this Chinese population (19q13.33; rs1047781; P= 3.62 × 10(-36)). The new loci identified offer new insights into the biochemical pathways involved in determining the serum level of VitB12 and provide opportunities to better delineate the role of VitB12 in health and disease.

  9. La Vitamine B12 et la Santé

    OpenAIRE

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Objectifs: Révision sur le rôle de la vitamine B12 et sur les évidences qui suggèrent que la vitamine B12 peut réduire le risque de certaines maladies chroniques. Evidences: recherche dans Medline depuis 1999 jusqu'en 2013 en utilisant le mot clé vitamin B12. Les articles les plus conséquents (150) étaient associés avec le cancer, la maladie cardiovasculaire, la santé mentale et les altérations du tube neural. Résultats: Le déficit avéré de la vitamine B12 est classiquement associé à...

  10. Vitamine B12, D, foliumzuur en leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dat vitaminen en mineralen een positieve invloed uit kunnen oefenen op specifieke lichaamsprocessen is bekend. Twee promovendi van Wageningen Universiteit richten zich op het mogelijke verband tussen vitamine B12, foliumzuur en vitamine D en verschillende leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen. De associ

  11. Analysis of the Market of Vitamin B12%维生素B12市场透析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伦

    2004-01-01

    目的:掌握维生素 B12的市场现状及发展趋势.方法:对维生素 B12国内、外生产和销售情况进行分析.结果与结论:我国维生素 B12市场潜力巨大,制药企业应密切关注市场变化,完善自身条件,以求进一步发展.

  12. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  13. Competitive immunoassay for analysis of vitamin B(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, L Sagaya; Thakur, M S

    2011-11-15

    In the current work, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for derivatized vitamin B(12) by generating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against derivatized vitamin B(12) and purified using affinity chromatography. Checkerboard assay was performed with vitamin B(12) antibody and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate followed by its conjugate characterization using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml with a linear working range of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml. The affinity constant (K(a)) of the vitamin B(12) antibody was found to be 4.23×10(8) L/mol. Cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins was found to be less than 0.01% except for analogs of vitamin B(12) that showed 12% to 35%. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were found to be in the ranges from 0.0005% to 1.2% and 0.009% to 1.03%, respectively. The assay was validated with the HPLC method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recovery of vitamin B(12) with spiked multivitamin injections, tablets, capsules, and chocolates. The HPLC method had a detection limit of 500 ng/ml with a linear working range of 1000 to 10,000 ng/ml. After extraction of vitamin B(12) using Amberlite XAD, the developed ELISA method correlated well with the established HPLC method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90.

  14. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-03

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians.

  15. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  16. Quantification of vitamin B12 in infant formula by dimensional liquid chromatography with solid phase extraction%固相萃取-二维液相色谱法测定婴幼儿配方食品中的维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储小军; 陶保华; 赖世云; 张京顺; 宋亿文; 任一平

    2013-01-01

      采用固相萃取( solid phase extraction , SPE)与二维液相色谱联用技术测定婴幼儿配方食品中的维生素B12;试样经淀粉酶酶解、HLB SPE净化,以双三元液相色谱仪用双柱切换法经ZORBAX GF‐250柱进一步净化和浓缩样品,用ZORBAX Bonus‐RP柱分析,在550 nm波长处进行检测,外标法定量.结果表明,维生素B12在2~40 ng/mL范围内线性良好,其线性决定系数大于0.999,方法检出限为1.0μg/kg ,定量下限为2.5μg/kg ,在加标量为5.0、10.0和50.0μg/kg时的回收率为88.0%~94.8%.本方法定量准确、重现性好、灵敏度高、实验成本小,为婴幼儿配方食品中维生素B12的定量测定提供了较为灵敏、实用的方法.%Summary Only a small amount of vitamin B12 is absorbed and utilized by human body . The suitable vitamin B 12 levels can improve the utilization efficiency of folic acid . Excessive intake of vitamin B 12 may cause allergic reactions , while vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy can lead to anemia . At present , most of the infants are not breastfeeding . Formula food supplemented with a suitable level of vitamin B 12 is an important nutrient guarantee for healthy growth and development of infants . Thus , it is very necessary and important to develop a sensitive , efficient and accurate method for determination of vitamin B 12 . Currently , the commonly used methods for the determination of vitamin B12 in infant formula foods are microbial analysis methods . But they usually lead to get higher results than the real amounts because they do not distinguish vitamin B 12 from its analogues . In addition , liquid chromatography technologies are also applied to analyze vitamin B 12 in infant formulas . However , they have some disadvantages including long sample preparation time and high analysis costs . In the present study , a new method using solid phase extraction ( SPE) coupled to two‐dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector was

  17. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (pacid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning.

  18. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results.

  19. Discovery of novel sources of vitamin b(12) in traditional korean foods from nutritional surveys of centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B(12) status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B(12) in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B(12) contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B(12). Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B(12), resulting in maintenance of health status.

  20. Vitamin B12 status in metformin treated patients: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have yielded inconsistent results on the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 reduction. We therefore performed a systematic review to analyze the effects of metformin on vitamin B12 concentration. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central registry of controlled trials were searched to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies exploring the association between metformin and vitamin B12 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or polycystic ovary syndrome. The main outcome measure was changes in serum vitamin B12 concentration after 6-208 weeks of treatment with metformin, as compared with placebo or other anti-hyperglycemic therapy. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in those who received placebo or rosiglitazone (mean difference [MD], -53.93 pmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -81.44 to -26.42 pmol/L, P = 0.0001. Subgroup analysis identified four trials in which patients received a lower dose of metformin (<2000 mg/d and two in which they received a higher dose (≥2000 mg/d, with MDs in vitamin B12 concentration after metformin treatment of -37.99 pmol/L (95% CI, -57.44 to -18.54 pmol/L, P = 0.0001 and -78.62 pmol/L (95% CI, -106.37 to -50.86 pmol/L, P<0.00001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of vitamin B12 may be induced by metformin in a dose dependent manner.

  1. Vitamin B12 Status among Pregnant Women in the UK and Its Association with Obesity and Gestational Diabetes

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    Nithya Sukumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM attending a district general hospital and that had B12 and folate levels measured in the early 3rd trimester was performed. Maternal history including early pregnancy body mass index (BMI and neonatal data (birthweight, sex, and gestational age was recorded for all subjects. Results: 26% of the cohort had B12 levels <150 pmol/L (32% vs. 22% in the two groups respectively, p < 0.05 while 1.5% were folate deficient. After adjusting for confounders, 1st trimester BMI was negatively associated with 3rd trimester B12 levels. Women with B12 insufficiency had higher odds of obesity and GDM (aOR (95% CI 2.40 (1.31, 4.40, p = 0.004, and 2.59 (1.35, 4.98, p = 0.004, respectively, although the latter was partly mediated by BMI. In women without GDM, the lowest quartile of B12 and highest quartile of folate had significantly higher adjusted risk of fetal macrosomia (RR 5.3 (1.26, 21.91, p = 0.02 and 4.99 (1.15, 21.62, p = 0.03 respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study from the UK to show that maternal B12 levels are associated with BMI, risk of GDM, and additionally may have an independent effect on macrosomia. Due to the increasing burden of maternal obesity and GDM, longitudinal studies with B12 measurements in early pregnancy are needed to explore this link.

  2. Effects of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on early infant neurocognitive outcomes: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kapanee, Aruna Rose Mary; Ramthal, Asha; Bellinger, David C; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-06-29

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. However, findings from studies on the association between maternal B12 status and child cognitive functions have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral B12 supplementation (50 µg) beginning at B12 supplementation on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age on Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III). One hundred eighty-three pregnant women received vitamin B12, and 183 received placebo. Nine-month BSID-III development score was available in 178 infants. There were no significant differences in maternal sociodemographic characteristics and baseline biochemical measures between infants who underwent BSID-III evaluation and infants who were not evaluated. There were no significant differences in any of the subscales of BSID-III between infants born to mothers who received B12 supplementation (n = 78) vs. placebo (n = 100). On multiple regression analysis, elevated maternal total homocysteine (tHcy) levels adjusted for treatment group, birthweight, parity, income and home environment at second trimester of pregnancy were significantly negatively associated with expressive language (β = 3.13 points, P B12 supplementation were seen on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age, elevated maternal tHcy levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance in some of the subdomains of BSID-III. In pregnant women with elevated tHcy levels and or B12 deficiencies, it may be worthwhile to study the impact of longer term maternal supplementation on infant cognitive outcomes.

  3. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother-Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D; March, Kaitlin M; Chen, Nancy N; Stamm, Rosemary A; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Tim J; Whitfield, Kyly C

    2017-03-12

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother-infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3-27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001).

  4. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight).

  5. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves García-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.

  6. Biotin deficiency in the rat as a model for reduced pyruvate carboxylase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Jacobus

    1978-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis are a contribution to the study of Leigh's disease (Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy, SNE). SNE resembles in neuropathology Wernicke's encephalopathy, which is caused by thiamine deficiency. The scope and the purpose of the present study is given i

  7. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Poll, van der T.; Florquin, S; Akira, S; Takeda, K; Roord, J.J.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  8. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  9. Serum vitamin B12 and blood cell values in vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, A; Scott, S C

    1982-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and complete blood count values were determined for 83 volunteer subjects from an American vegetarian society conference (USA). Among subjects who did not supplement their diets with vitamin B12 or multiple vitamin tablets, 92% of the vegans (total vegetarians), 64% of the lactovegetarians, 47% of the lacto-ovovegetarians and 20% of the semivegetarians had serum vitamin B12 levels less than 200 pg/ml (normal = 200-900 pg/ml). However, their complete blood count values did not deviate greatly from those found for nonvegetarians, even though some had been vegans or lactovegetarians for over 10 years. Macrocytosis among the vegetarians was minimal; none had mean corpuscular volume greater than 103 fl.

  10. Possible Involvement of Hydrosulfide in B12-Dependent Methyl Group Transfer

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    John I. Toohey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several fields of investigation lead to the hypothesis that the sulfur atom is involved in vitamin B12-dependent methyl group transfer. To compile the evidence, it is necessary to briefly review the following fields: methylation, the new field of sulfane sulfur/hydrogen sulfide (S°/H2S, hydrosulfide derivatives of cobalamins, autoxidation of hydrosulfide radical, radical S-adenosylmethionine methyl transfer (RSMT, and methionine synthase (MS. Then, new reaction mechanisms for B12-dependent methyl group transfer are proposed; the mechanisms are facile and overcome difficulties that existed in previously-accepted mechanisms. Finally, the theory is applied to the effect of S°/H2S in nerve tissue involving the “hypomethylation theory” that was proposed 50 years ago to explain the neuropathology resulting from deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid. The conclusions are consistent with emerging evidence that sulfane sulfur/hydrogen sulfide may be beneficial in treating Alzheimer’s disease.

  11. Influence of maternal vitamin B12 and folate on growth and insulin resistance in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Urmila; Katre, Prachi; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is shifting rapidly to low- and middle-income countries. It calls for a review of the classic 'dogma' of genetic predisposition, precipitated by adult lifestyle. The paradigm of early life origins of chronic disease has focused attention on maternal health and nutrition as major determinants of the health of the offspring. India has high burden of maternal ill health and also of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, offering unique opportunities to study the links between the two. Pune studies showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal micronutrient status during pregnancy was a determinant of offspring size and body composition. Two thirds of the mothers had low vitamin B12 concentrations, while folate deficiency was rare. Higher circulating concentrations of homocysteine predicted smaller baby size. Follow-up studies revealed that higher maternal folate in pregnancy predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance in the child at 6 years of age, and that low maternal vitamin B12 exaggerated the risk of insulin resistance. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is also associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and poor offspring cognitive functions. Our results suggest an important role for maternal one-carbon metabolism in offspring growth and programming of NCD risk. These ideas are supported by animal studies. Improvement of adolescent nutrition could effect intergenerational prevention of chronic diseases.

  12. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  13. Thrombospondin1 deficiency reduces obesity-associated inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obese mouse model.

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    Yanzhang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance. Advanced studies suggest that obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in inflamed adipose tissue. A recent study suggests a positive correlation of TSP1 with obesity, adipose inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of TSP1 on obesity and insulin resistance is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role of TSP1 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance by using TSP1 knockout mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male TSP1-/- mice and wild type littermate controls were fed a low-fat (LF or a high-fat (HF diet for 16 weeks. Throughout the study, body weight and fat mass increased similarly between the TSP1-/- mice and WT mice under HF feeding conditions, suggesting that TSP1 deficiency does not affect the development of obesity. However, obese TSP1-/- mice had improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity compared to the obese wild type mice. Macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue were reduced in obese TSP1-/- mice. Consistent with the local decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, systemic inflammation was also decreased in the obese TSP1-/- mice. Furthermore, in vitro data demonstrated that TSP1 deficient macrophages had decreased mobility and a reduced inflammatory phenotype. CONCLUSION: TSP1 deficiency did not affect the development of high-fat diet induced obesity. However, TSP1 deficiency reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and protected against obesity related inflammation and insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that TSP1 may play an important role in regulating macrophage function and mediating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin

  14. A Program of Nutritional Education in Schools Reduced the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in Students

    OpenAIRE

    María Nieves García-Casal; Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez; Rafael Puche; Irene Leets; Zoila Carvajal; Elijú Patiño; Carlos Ibarra

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...

  15. Efficacy of vitamin B12 combined with metformin in treating type 2 diabetes and its effect on homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Geng; Hui Qi; Hu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and analyze Vitamin B12 combined with metformin treat for the type 2 diabetes, which affect the homocysteine.Methods:92 cases of type 2 diabetes were selected in our hospital for treatment and study from October 2014 to April 2014. All patients were randomly divided into control group (46 cases) and observation group (46 cases). Treatment of patients in the control group: patients were treated by metformin; observation group patients: Take vitamin B12 to patients treated with metformin. Finally, patient outcomes, as well as vitamin B12 and homocysteine in patients before and after treatment were analyzed.Results:Before treatment, all patients vitamin B12 content difference comparisons were no significant differences (P>0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the vitamin B12 content of the observation group were significantly higher in patients with vitamin B12 levels of data compared to each other there was a significant difference (P0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the homocysteine content of the observation group were not significantly reduced, the control group of patients with homocysteine increased significantly (P<0.000 1).Conclusions:Vitamin B12 combined with metformin in type 2 diabetes treatment, can significantly increase a patient's body to control homocysteine, while the treatment effect is obvious, clinical recommendations widely implemented.

  16. Silicon supplementation improves the bone mineral density of calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats by reducing bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism parameters relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels in ovariectomized rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats (6 weeks) were ovariectomized (OVX) and divided into six groups, and Si (500 mg of Si per kilogram of feed) was or was not administered with diets containing various levels of Ca (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.5%) for 10 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) Ca-deficient group (0.1% Ca), (2) Ca-deficient with Si supplementation group, (3) adequate Ca group (0.5% Ca), (4) adequate Ca with Si supplementation group, (5) high Ca group (1.5% Ca), and (6) high Ca with Si supplementation group. Si supplementation significantly increased the BMD of the femur and tibia in Ca-deficient OVX rats, while no change was observed with Si supplementation in the BMD of the spine, femur, and tibia in the adequate and high Ca groups. Serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were not affected by Si supplementation or Ca intake levels. C-telopeptide type I collagen levels were significantly decreased as a result of Si supplementation in Ca-deficient OVX rats. In summary, Si supplementation produced positive effects on bone mineral density in Ca-deficient OVX rats by reducing bone resorption. Therefore, Si supplementation may also prove to be helpful in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women whose calcium intake is insufficient.

  17. MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis without Reducing Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis.

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    Timea Csak

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis.Wild type (WT and miR-155-deficient (KO mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD or -supplemented (MCS control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed.MCD diet resulted in steatohepatitis and increased miR-155 expression in total liver, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Steatosis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were attenuated in miR-155 KO mice after MCD feeding. In contrast, miR-155 deficiency failed to attenuate inflammatory cell infiltration, nuclear factor κ beta (NF-κB activation and enhanced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1 in MCD diet-fed mice. We found a significant attenuation of apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and reduction in collagen and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA levels in miR-155 KO mice compared to WTs on MCD diet. In addition, we found attenuation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, a pro-fibrotic cytokine; SMAD family member 3 (Smad3, a protein involved in transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ signal transduction and vimentin, a mesenchymal marker and indirect indicator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in miR-155 KO mice. Nuclear binding of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ a miR-155 target involved in EMT was significantly increased in miR-155 KO compared to WT mice.Our novel data demonstrate that miR-155 deficiency can reduce steatosis and fibrosis without decreasing inflammation in steatohepatitis.

  18. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

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    Yiting Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age, primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY. Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Deletion of UCP2 in iNOS deficient mice reduces the severity of the disease during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Caroline Aheng

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier family that is widely expressed in neurons and the immune cells of humans. Deletion of Ucp2 gene in mice pre-activates the immune system leading to higher resistance toward infection and to an increased susceptibility to develop chronic inflammatory diseases as previously exemplified with the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Given that oxidative stress is enhanced in Ucp2-/- mice and that nitric oxide (NO also plays a critical function in redox balance and in chronic inflammation, we generated mice deficient for both Ucp2 and iNos genes and submitted them to EAE. Mice lacking iNos gene exhibited the highest clinical score (3.4+/-0.5 p<0.05. Surprisingly, mice deficient for both genes developed milder disease with reduced immune cell infiltration, cytokines and ROS production as compared to iNos-/- mice.

  1. Vitamin B-12 and Depression: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 143. Lang UE, et al. Nutritional aspects of depression. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2015;37:1029. Vitamin B12. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Oct. 18, 2016. Mikkelsen K, ... in depression. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2016;23:1. Nov. 23, ...

  2. The Technological Progress of Vitamin B12%维生素B12的技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽华

    2011-01-01

    维生素B12是人和动物体内重要的水溶性维生素之一.综述了维生素B12的性质、合成及生产情况.工业生产中,脱氮假单胞杆菌和费氏丙酸杆菌是主要的生产菌种,有厌氧和好氧2种生产工艺.今后应培养高产菌株,改进发酵工艺.

  3. Detection of Chlorobenzene in Vitamin B12%维生素B12中氯苯检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永源; 王媛

    2011-01-01

    随着欧美各国对药品中残留溶剂控制要求的提高,维生素B12在欧洲申请市场准入时需提交氯苯检测结果.实验参照"EP6.0版中2.4.24残留溶剂的鉴别和控制"内容而制定,专门用于维生素B12中氯苯含量的检测.

  4. Post-operative bariatric surgery complications: Deficiency of nutrients

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    Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.

  5. Decreased vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: A controlled study

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    Hilal Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B 12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002, but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566. A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 /folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  6. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion.

  7. Deficiency of the Sialyltransferase St3Gal4 Reduces Ccl5-Mediated Myeloid Cell Recruitment and Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi; Mandl, Manuela; Kramp, Birgit; Neideck, Carlos; Lievens, Dirk; Drechsler, Maik; Megens, Remco T.A.; Tilstam, Pathricia V.; Langer, Marcella; Hartwig, Helene; Theelen, Wendy; Marth, Jamey D.; Sperandio, Markus; Soehnlein, Oliver; Weber, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Sialylation by α2,3-sialyltransferases has been shown to be a crucial glycosylation step in the generation of functional selectin ligands. Recent evidence suggests that sialylation also affects the binding of chemokines to their corresponding receptor. Objective Because the chemokine receptors for Ccl5 and Ccl2 are important in atherogenic recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes, we here investigated the role of α2,3-sialyltransferase IV (ST3Gal-IV) in Ccl5- and Ccl2-mediated myeloid cell arrest and further studied its relevance in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results St3Gal4-deficient myeloid cells showed a reduced binding of Ccl5 and an impaired Ccl5-triggered integrin activation. Correspondingly, Ccl5-induced arrest on tumor necrosis factor-α–stimulated endothelium was almost completely abrogated, as observed in flow chamber adhesion assays and during ex vivo perfusion or intravital microscopy of carotid arteries. Moreover, Ccl5-triggered neutrophil and monocyte extravasation into the peritoneal cavity was severely reduced in St3Gal4−/− mice. In contrast, St3Gal4 deficiency did not significantly affect Ccl2 binding and only marginally decreased Ccl2-induced flow arrest of myeloid cells. In agreement with the crucial role of leukocyte accumulation in atherogenesis, and the importance of Ccl5 chemokine receptors mediating myeloid cell recruitment to atherosclerotic vessels, St3Gal4 deficiency drastically reduced the size, stage, and inflammatory cell content of atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe−/− mice on high-fat diet. Conclusions In summary, these findings identify ST3Gal-IV as a promising target to reduce inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and arrest. PMID:24425712

  8. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

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    Keith L Keene

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  9. Importância da vitamina B12 na avaliação clínica do paciente idoso = Importance of vitamin B12 screening in clinical evaluation of elderly patient

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    Futterleib, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Conclusão: A investigação da deficiência de vitamina B12 é um procedimento importante na avaliação clínica do paciente idoso, já que o diagnóstico precoce pode evitar distúrbios neurológicos e hematológicos, bem como proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida ao paciente

  10. Adaptive immune response in JAM-C-deficient mice: normal initiation but reduced IgG memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Claudia; Lee, Boris P L; Palmer, Gaby; Gabay, Cem; Adams, Ralf; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A

    2009-04-15

    We have recently shown that junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C-deficient mice have leukocytic pulmonary infiltrates, disturbed neutrophil homeostasis, and increased postnatal mortality. This phenotype was partially rescued when mice were housed in ventilated isolators, suggesting an inability to cope with opportunistic infections. In the present study, we further examined the adaptive immune responses in JAM-C(-/-) mice. We found that murine conventional dendritic cells express in addition to Mac-1 and CD11c also JAM-B as ligand for JAM-C. By in vitro adhesion assay, we show that murine DCs can interact with recombinant JAM-C via Mac-1. However, this interaction does not seem to be necessary for dendritic cell migration and function in vivo, even though JAM-C is highly expressed by lymphatic sinuses of lymph nodes. Nevertheless, upon immunization and boosting with a protein Ag, JAM-C-deficient mice showed decreased persistence of specific circulating Abs although the initial response was normal. Such a phenotype has also been observed in a model of Ag-induced arthritis, showing that specific IgG2a Ab titers are reduced in the serum of JAM-C(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that JAM-C deficiency affects the adaptive humoral immune response against pathogens, in addition to the innate immune system.

  11. Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztug, Heidrun; Karitnig-Weiß, Cäcilia; Ausserer, Bernd; Renner, Ellen D; Albert, Michael H; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Mann, Georg; Horcher, Ernst; Rümmele-Waibel, Alexandra; Geyeregger, Rene; Lakatos, Karoly; Peters, Christina; Lawitschka, Anita; Matthes-Martin, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality.

  12. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

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    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  13. Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother's and the developing fetus's health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or ant...

  14. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  15. Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Gombart, Adrian F.; Wang, Xuping; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Akagi, Tadayuki; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Ho, Quoc; Lusis, Aldons J.; Li, Quanlin; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors involved in hematopoietic cell development and induction of several inflammatory mediators. C/EBPε is expressed only in myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the vascular wall and circulating immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages. Mice deficient in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr−/−) fed on a high cholesterol diet (HCD) show elevated blood cholesterol levels and are widely used as models to study human atherosclerosis. In this study, we generated Ldlr and Cebpe double-knockout (llee) mice and compared their atherogenic phenotypes to Ldlr single deficient (llEE) mice after HCD. Macrophages from llee mice have reduced lipid uptake by foam cells and impaired phagokinetic motility in vitro compared to macrophages from llEE mice. Also, compared to llEE mice, llee mice have alterations of lipid metabolism, and reduced atheroma and obesity, particularly the males. Peritoneal macrophages of llee male mice have reduced mRNA expression of FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein implicated in atherosclerosis. Overall, our study suggests that the myeloid specific factor C/EBPε is involved in systemic lipid metabolism and that silencing of C/EBPε could decrease the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:24489659

  16. The high-pressure compressibility of B12P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Mi; Wang, Haiyan; Ji, Cheng; Whiteley, C. E.; Edgar, J. H.; Liu, Haozhe; Ma, Yanzhang

    2017-03-01

    In situ high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on icosahedral boron phosphide (B12P2) to 43.2 GPa. No structural phase transition occurs over this pressure range. The bulk modulus of B12P2 is KOT = 207 ± 7 GPa with pressure derivative of K'OT = 6.6 ± 0.8 . The structure is most compressible along the chain formed by phosphorus and boron atoms in the crystal structure. It is believed that the compressibility of boron-rich compounds at close to ambient pressure is determined by the boron icosahedral structure, while the inclusive atoms (both boron and non-boron) between the icosahedra determine the high-pressure compressibility and structure stability.

  17. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

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    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  18. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  19. Folatos y vitamina B12 en la salud humana

    OpenAIRE

    Brito,Alex; HERTRAMPF,EVA; Olivares,Manuel; Gaitán,Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H.; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Ch...

  20. A simple technique to reduce epistaxis and nasopharyngeal trauma during nasotracheal intubation in a child with factor IX deficiency having dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anita V; Sanders, John C

    2004-10-01

    Epistaxis and airway trauma are often associated with nasotracheal intubation. We describe a patient with Factor IX deficiency who required nasotracheal intubation. An inexpensive, nonproprietary, rapid technique was used to reduce the trauma of intubation.

  1. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  2. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  3. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  4. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  5. Impairment of adenylyl cyclase signal transduction in mecobalamin-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, S; Watanabe, M; Ikeda, H; Kamada, H; Saito, T; Ohshika, H

    1995-11-30

    This study examined alterations in the beta-adrenoceptor-G5-adenylyl cyclase system in cerebral cortex membranes from vitamin B12-deficient rats fed a diet lacking vitamin B12 (mecobalamin) for 15 weeks. Basal, 5(7)-guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp)-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were significantly reduced in mecobalamin-deficient rats compared with those in control rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the amount and function of G5- estimated by immunoblotting and guanine nucleotide photoaffinity labeling, respectively, or in the densities and the dissociation constants of beta-adrenoceptors, estimated by [125I] pindolol binding, between control and the deficient rats. These results indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency results in the impairment of the coupling among the beta-adrenoceptor, G5- and the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase, and in dysfunction of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme, suggesting that vitamin B12 participates in the regulation of neuronal adenylyl cyclase signal transduction.

  6. Association between vitamin B12 intake and EURRECA’s prioritized biomarkers of vitamin B12 in young populations: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesia, I.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Bel-Serrat, S.; Doets, E.L.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Nissenshohn, M.; Benetou, V.; Hermoso, M.; Berti, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Moreno, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes. Design A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, until January

  7. Systematic review on daily vitamin B12 losses and bioavailability for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake with the factorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Szczecinska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the literature on daily losses and bioavailability of vitamin B12. These estimates could be used for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake for adults and elderly. Methods: We identified publications on daily vitamin B12 losses (July 2011) and publications on t

  8. Reduced glutathione biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster causes neuronal defects linked to copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Stephen W; La Fontaine, Sharon; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide often considered to be the master antioxidant in cells. GSH plays an integral role in cellular redox regulation and is also known to have a role in mammalian copper homeostasis. In vitro evidence suggests that GSH is involved in copper uptake, sequestration and efflux. This study was undertaken to further investigate the roles that GSH plays in neuronal copper homeostasis in vivo, using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene (Gclc) that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis was utilised to genetically deplete GSH levels. When Gclc was knocked down in all neurons, this caused lethality, which was partially rescued by copper supplementation and was exacerbated by additional knockdown of the copper uptake transporter Ctr1A, or over-expression of the copper efflux transporter ATP7. Furthermore, when Gclc was knocked down in a subset of neuropeptide-producing cells, this resulted in adult progeny with unexpanded wings, a phenotype previously associated with copper dyshomeostasis. In these cells, Gclc suppression caused a decrease in axon branching, a phenotype further enhanced by ATP7 over-expression. Therefore, we conclude that GSH may play an important role in regulating neuronal copper levels and that reduction in GSH may lead to functional copper deficiency in neurons in vivo. We provide genetic evidence that glutathione (GSH) levels influence Cu content or distribution in vivo, in Drosophila neurons. GSH could be required for binding Cu imported by Ctr1A and distributing it to chaperones, such as Mtn, CCS and Atox1. Alternatively, GSH could modify the copper-binding and transport activities of Atox1 and the ATP7 efflux protein via glutathionylation of copper-binding cysteines.

  9. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  10. Reduced brain edema and infarct volume in aquaporin-4 deficient mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoming; Derugin, Nikita; Manley, Geoffrey T; Verkman, A S

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel expressed in astrocyte end-feet lining the blood-brain barrier. AQP4 deletion in mice is associated with improved outcomes in global cerebral ischemia produced by transient carotid artery occlusion, and focal cerebral ischemia produced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we investigated the consequences of 1-h transient MCAO produced by intraluminal suture blockade followed by 23 h of reperfusion. In nine AQP4(+/+) and nine AQP4(-/-) mice, infarct volume was significantly reduced by an average of 39 ± 4% at 24h in AQP4(-/-) mice, cerebral hemispheric edema was reduced by 23 ± 3%, and Evans Blue extravasation was reduced by 31 ± 2% (mean ± SEM). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed greatest reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient around the occlusion site after reperfusion, with remarkably lesser reduction in AQP4(-/-) mice. The reduced infarct volume in AQP4(-/-) mice following transient MCAO supports the potential utility of therapeutic AQP4 inhibition in stroke.

  11. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infant formula is based on cow’s milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow’s milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Methods Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-bindin...

  12. Maternal thyroid hormone deficiency affects the fetal neocorticogenesis by reducing the proliferating pool, rate of neurogenesis and indirect neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit A; Pathak, Amrita; Rastogi, Leena; Kumar, Praveen; Pal, Amit; Godbole, Madan M

    2012-10-01

    Neuronal progenitor cell proliferation and their optimum number are indispensable for neurogenesis, which is determined by cell cycle length and cell cycle quitting rate of the dividing progenitors. These processes are tightly orchestrated by transcription factors like Tbr2, Pax6, and E2f-1. Radial glia and intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) through direct and indirect neurogenesis maintain surface area and neocortical thickness during development. Here we show that fetal neurogenesis is maternal thyroid hormone (MTH) dependent with differential effect on direct and indirect neurogenesis. MTH deficiency (MTHD) impairs direct neurogenesis through initial down-regulation of Pax6 and diminished progenitor pool with recovery even before the onset of fetal thyroid function (FTF). However, persistent decrease in Tbr2 positive IPCs, diminished NeuN positivity in layers I-III of neocortex, and reduced cortical thickness indicate a non-compensatory impairment in indirect neurogenesis. TH deficiency causes disrupted cell cycle kinetics and deranged neurogenesis. It specifically affects indirect neurogenesis governed by intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). TH replacement in hypothyroid dams partially restored the rate of neurogenesis in the fetal neocortex. Taken together we describe a novel role of maternal TH in promoting IPCs derived neuronal differentiation in developing neo-cortex. We have also shown for the first time that ventricular zone progenitors are TH responsive as they express its receptor, TR alpha-1, transporters (MCT8) and deiodinases. This study highlights the importance of maternal thyroid hormone (TH) even before the start of the fetal thyroid function.

  13. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-03-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing.

  14. Vitamin B12 Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I.; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Study Design Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 yrs) and categorized as elevated (Hi-B12) or within reference range (RR-B12) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index Z scores, pulmonary function, energy, dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. Results 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years participated. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/ml, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intake were both high representing 376% and 667% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the RR-B12 group (1000 vs. 583% RDA, p12 years increased risk for Hi-B12, while higher FEV1 decreased risk (Pseudo-R2=0.18, P<0.001). Conclusions Serum B12 was elevated in the majority of children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and FEV1. PMID:24445504

  15. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  16. Collagen VI deficiency reduces muscle pathology, but does not improve muscle function, in the γ-sarcoglycan-null mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Jessica C; Hamlyn, Rebecca; Jensen, Braden S; O'Campo Landa, Raul; Levy, Jennifer R; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Campbell, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Muscular dystrophy is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and dystrophic muscle exhibits degeneration and regeneration of muscle cells, inflammation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle fibrosis is an excessive deposition of components of the extracellular matrix including an accumulation of Collagen VI. We hypothesized that a reduction of Collagen VI in a muscular dystrophy model that presents with fibrosis would result in reduced muscle pathology and improved muscle function. To test this hypothesis, we crossed γ-sarcoglycan-null mice, a model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C, with a Col6a2-deficient mouse model. We found that the resulting γ-sarcoglycan-null/Col6a2Δex5 mice indeed exhibit reduced muscle pathology compared with γ-sarcoglycan-null mice. Specifically, fewer muscle fibers are degenerating, fiber size varies less, Evans blue dye uptake is reduced and serum creatine kinase levels are lower. Surprisingly, in spite of this reduction in muscle pathology, muscle function is not significantly improved. In fact, grip strength and maximum isometric tetanic force are even lower in γ-sarcoglycan-null/Col6a2Δex5 mice than in γ-sarcoglycan-null mice. In conclusion, our results reveal that Collagen VI-mediated fibrosis contributes to skeletal muscle pathology in γ-sarcoglycan-null mice. Importantly, however, our data also demonstrate that a reduction in skeletal muscle pathology does not necessarily lead to an improvement of skeletal muscle function, and this should be considered in future translational studies.

  17. Reduced inflammatory response in cigarette smoke exposed Mrp1/Mdr1a/1b deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postma Dirkje S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke is the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, though the mechanisms of its toxicity are still unclear. The ABC transporters multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1 extrude a wide variety of toxic substances across cellular membranes and are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. Their impaired function may contribute to COPD development by diminished detoxification of noxious compounds in cigarette smoke. Methods We examined whether triple knock-out (TKO mice lacking the genes for Mrp1 and Mdr1a/1b are more susceptible to develop COPD features than their wild-type (WT littermates. TKO and WT mice (six per group were exposed to 2 cigarettes twice daily by nose-only exposure or room air for 6 months. Inflammatory infiltrates were analyzed in lung sections, cytokines and chemokines in whole lung homogenates, emphysema by mean linear intercept. Multiple linear regression analysis with an interaction term was used to establish the statistical significances of differences. Results TKO mice had lower levels of interleukin (IL-7, KC (mouse IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17, TNF-alpha, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MIP-1-alpha than WT mice independent of smoke exposure (P P P Conclusion Mrp1/Mdr1a/1b knock-out mice have a reduced inflammatory response to cigarette smoke. In addition, the expression levels of several cytokines and chemokines were also lower in lungs of Mrp1/Mdr1a/1b knock-out mice independent of smoke exposure. Further studies are required to determine whether dysfunction of MRP1 and/or P-gp contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD.

  18. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  19. HIF1α deficiency reduces inflammation in a mouse model of proximal colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava N. Mladenova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptation of cells to hypoxic microenvironments, for example inside solid tumours. Stabilisation of HIF1α can also occur in normoxic conditions in inflamed tissue or as a result of inactivating mutations in negative regulators of HIF1α. Aberrant overexpression of HIF1α in many different cancers has led to intensive efforts to develop HIF1α-targeted therapies. However, the role of HIF1α is still poorly understood in chronic inflammation that predisposes the colon to carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that the transcription of HIF1α is upregulated and that the protein is stabilised in inflammatory lesions that are caused by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac in the mouse proximal colon. Here, we exploited this side effect of long-term sulindac administration to analyse the role of HIF1α in colon inflammation using mice with a Villin-Cre-induced deletion of Hif1α exon 2 in the intestinal epithelium (Hif1αΔIEC. We also analysed the effect of sulindac sulfide on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR pathway in vitro in colon cancer cells. Most sulindac-treated mice developed visible lesions, resembling the appearance of flat adenomas in the human colon, surrounded by macroscopically normal mucosa. Hif1αΔIEC mice still developed lesions but they were smaller than in the Hif1α-floxed siblings (Hif1αF/F. Microscopically, Hif1αΔIEC mice had significantly less severe colon inflammation than Hif1αF/F mice. Molecular analysis showed reduced MIF expression and increased E-cadherin mRNA expression in the colon of sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. However, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a defect of E-cadherin protein expression in sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. Sulindac sulfide treatment in vitro upregulated Hif1α, c-JUN and IL8 expression through the AHR pathway. Taken together, HIF1α expression augments inflammation

  20. Laughing Gas in a Pediatric Emergency Department-Fun for All Participants: Vitamin B12 Status Among Medical Staff Working With Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Georg; Baumgartner, Matthias; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Hersberger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of nitrous oxide in an equimolar mixture with oxygen or in concentrations up to 70% is approved for short painful procedures. Evaluation of the vitamin B12 levels in anesthetic staff applying nitrous oxide showed reduced vitamin B12 plasma levels. This study examines the vitamin B12 status of medical staff working with nitrous oxide in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Medical staff of the ED at the University Children's Hospital Zurich participated. The vitamin B12 status was evaluated by measuring homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, blood count, and the MTHFR C677T genotype. As a control group, medical personnel working in the "nitrous oxide-free" pediatric intensive care unit were recruited.

  1. Improvement of the sample processing method for vitamin B12 tablets content determination%维生素B12片含量测定样品处理方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯鹏高; 吕长淮

    2013-01-01

    目的:改进维生素B12片含量测定样品处理方法.方法:取维生素B12片55片,制成1 ml中含其约12.5 μg溶液,采用紫外分光光度法测定吸光度A,检测波长为361 nm.结果:维生素B12在1.25 ~ 25.00 μg/ml,具有良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9);最低检测浓度为1.25 μg/ml;溶液稳定性良好,相对标准偏差为0.5%;标准方法测得含量结果分别为102.06%、102.35% 和102.00%,改进方法测得含量结果分别为101.59%、101.86% 和101.42%.结论:改进方法较标准方法减少了剥片量,降低了样品浓度,提高了检测准确性,缩短了分析时间,可用于维生素B12片含量测定.%Objective: To improve the sample processing method of vitamin B12 tablets content determination. Methods: Take vitamin B12 55 pieces, make 1 ml solution contain about 12. 5μg vitamin B12. Detect the absorbance by UV spectrophotometry with the wavelength of 361 nm. Results:When vitamin B12 content was in the range of 1. 25 -25. 00μg/ml,it had a good linear relationship(r = 0.999 9) ,the minimum detectable concentration was 1. 25 μg/ml,a good solution stability and the relative standard deviation of 0.5%. Using the standard method,the sample concentration was 102. 06% ,102. 35% and 102. 00% ,but the result was 101. 59% , 101.86% and 101.42% with the improved method. Conclusions: Comparing with the standard method, the improved method can reduce the amount of splitting, decrease the sample concentration, improve the detection accuracy, shorten the analysis time. It can be used for content determination of vitamin B12 tablet.

  2. Detection of vitamin B12 levels with the aid of some hematological and biochemical parameters that are more sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyl Asma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a health problem, which is usually seen in elderly patients and results in hematological and neurological disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of vitamin B12 could represent the real tissue levels with con-sidering some hematological and biochemical parameters. 128 patients whose vitamin B12 levels have been detected to be low and their ages are ranged from 16 to 90, have been investigated. Fifty three of them were females. Complete blood counts, antiparietal antibody(APA, homocysteine levels, peripheral blood smear evaluations and findings of gastroduodenoscopy were assessed. Mean volume of erythrocytes has been found as 107 fl in patient group (group 1, in which vitamin B12 level has been detected lower than 60 pg/mL. Thehigher homocysteine values in 85% cases, neutrophil hyper-segmentation in 82%, atrophic gastritis in 53 % and APA positivity in 47 % of cases have been detected. The average of agehas been detected as 65 in this group. High level of homocysteine has been present in 44 % of cases and MCV has been 91 fl in group 2, in which the vitamin B12 levels are between 61–100 pg/ mL. In group ( group 3, in which vitamin levels are between 101 – 140 pg /mL,elevated homocysteine levels in 27 % cases and MCV as 89 fl have been detected. In group 4, in which vitamin levels are between 141–178 pg/mL, homocysteine elevation in 16 % of cases and MCV as

  3. Correlations of Alzheimer disease with vitamin B12 and homocysteine%阿尔茨海默病与维生素 B12及同型半胱氨酸的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方明; 彭海

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The deficiency of vitamin B12 will lead to neurological disorder and affect the metabolism of central nervous system(CNS) and the whole body.The mechanism of filling up vitamin B12 in preventing and retarding the development of Alzheimer disease(AD) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To explore the correlations of AD with serum vitamin B12,folate and plasma homocysteine(Hcy)and its mechanism of inducing AD. DESIGN:A non randomized control study based on diagnosis. SETTINGS and PARTICIPANTS:Thirty AD inpatients(AD group),admitted from October 2002 to May 2003 to the Affiliated Xiehe Hospital,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology,conformed to the probable AD standard of NINCDS- ADRDA.Thirty healthy normal persons who took the health examinaltion at the same time period were recruited to control group. INTERVENTIONS:Patients of the two groups were scored with mini mental state examination(MMSE).The concentration of serum vitamin B12 and folate were examined with the radioimmunoassay. Plasma Hcy was measured with fluorescence polarization immunoassay(FPIA).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①differences of vitamin B12 level in the AD group and the control group.②differences of Hcy level in the AD group and the control group.③ the correlations of MMSE score with vitamin B12 and Hcy. RESULTS:The level of serum vitamin B12 in the AD group[(217.3 ± 134.2) pmol/L] was significantly lower than that of the control group[(313.6± 184.7) pmol/L].There was extremely significant difference between them(t=3.93,P 0.05).There was positive correlation between serum vitamin B12 and MMSE scores. CONCLUSION:The level of serum vitamin B12 of AD patients is related to the disorder of intelligence.%背景:维生素 B12缺乏会产生神经功能障碍,影响中枢神经系统及全身的代谢,补充维生素 B12对预防及延缓阿尔茨海默病( Alzheimer disease, AD)的发展作用机制尚不清楚. 目的 : 研究 AD与血清维生素 B12,叶酸及血

  4. Expeditious Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Using Vitamin B12 under Microwave Irradiation

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    Changseok Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized Ag, Au, and Pd samples were thoroughly characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission microscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometry, confirming that metallic Ag, Au, and Pd were synthesized by the green chemistry method.

  5. The investigation of the serum levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in pregnant women%孕妇血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白水平的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣贵; 刘爱胜; 文艳; 施俊柱; 刘仁志

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究深圳宝安地区健康早中期妊娠妇女血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白的含量水平,了解孕妇是否存在营养缺乏及缺乏严重程度,为尽早采取干预性治疗提供科学依据,减少缺陷新生儿出生率,提高优生优育.方法 随机抽取2011~2012年来院体检的健康非妊娠妇女280例和来该院产科进行产检的1 560例正常的早、中期孕妇,同时采用化学发光免疫法测定其空腹血清中的叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白的含量,并对各数据进行统计分析.结果 非妊娠健康妇女血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白含量分别为(9.1±33.7)ng/mL、(619.2±37.6) pg/mL和(88.7±45.2)ng/mL,早期健康孕妇分别为(8.2±36.2)ng/mL、(563.4±53.2)pg/mL和(77.4±81.2)ng/mL,中期健康孕妇分别为(7.5±38.9) ng/mL、(372.7±56.3)pg/mL和(56.5±87.2)ng/mL,孕妇早期血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白含量同中期孕妇比较差异有性统计学意义(t=32.92,P<0.05),孕妇中期血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白含量明显低于早期孕妇;而早期孕妇同健康非妊娠妇女血清中叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白含量比较差异无统计学意义(t=1.832,P>0.05).结论 中期孕妇血清中的叶酸、维生素B12和铁蛋白的含量明显降低,孕妇应在12周之后要及时多次地进行普查,及早发现,及早采取补充或干预性治疗,对减少或杜绝缺陷新生儿的出生率,提高优生优育有极其重要意义.%Objective To investigate Shenzhen Baoan District healthy early to mid-pregnancy women serum folic acid, vitamin B12 ,and the levels of ferritin to understand the presence of pregnant women nutritional deficiencies and lack of severity,to provide a scientific basis to take early intervention therapy to reduce the birth rate of defects in newborns,improveprenatal and postnatal care. Methods Selected 2011 to 2012 to hospital examination of the health of non-pregnancy women in 280 cases,and to the

  6. Development on Fermentation Process of Vitamin B12%维生素B12发酵工艺进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑶

    2012-01-01

    综述了维生素B12(VB12)发酵工艺路线、菌种选育、工艺优化等方面的研究进展,展望了VB12发酵工艺发展前景。%To Summary the fermentation process route,process optimization and strain transformation of vitamin B12. To prospect the development of vitamin B12.

  7. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Mottram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif, a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl, have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Giftm1a/tm1a mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1 mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2 equivalents. Low Cbl levels correlated with susceptibility to an infectious challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium, and this susceptibility phenotype was moderated by Cbl administration. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling revealed that Cbl deficient mice exhibited a bioenergetic shift similar to a metabolic phenomenon commonly found in cancerous cells under hypoxic conditions known as the Warburg effect, with this metabolic effect being exacerbated further by infection. Our findings demonstrate a role for Cbl in bacterial infection, with potential general relevance to dietary deficiency and infection susceptibility.

  8. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  9. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexø, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B......12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. METHODS: Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. RESULTS: All infant...... formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows...

  10. Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Müller, Paulo de Tarso

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential in the homocysteine, mitochondrial, muscle and hematopoietic metabolisms, and its effects on exercise tolerance and kinetics adjustments of oxygen consumption (V'O2p) in rest-to-exercise transition in COPD patients are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, controlled study aimed to verify a possible interaction between vitamin B12 supplementation and these outcomes. After recruiting 69 patients, 35 subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD were eligible and 32 patients concluded the study, divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): 1. rehabilitation group; 2. rehabilitation plus B12 group; 3. B12 group; and 4. placebo group. The primary endpoint was cycle ergometry endurance before and after 8 weeks and the secondary endpoints were oxygen uptake kinetics parameters (time constant). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was high (34.4%) and there was a statistically significant interaction (p  0.05 for both). Supplementation with vitamin B12 appears to lead to discrete positive effects on exercise tolerance in groups of subjects with more advanced COPD and further studies are needed to establish indications for long-term supplementation.

  11. Cognitive and psychiatric effects of vitamin B12 replacement in dementia with low serum B12 levels: a nursing home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Christopher H.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Rohrbaugh, Robert M.; Siegal, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to determine whether B12 replacement would ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in elderly subjects with dementia and low serum B12 levels. Methods A test group (n=28) of nursing home residents with low serum B12 levels (B12 levels (>300 pg/mL) were evaluated by blinded raters while the test group received intramuscular (IM) B12 replacement therapy. All subjects were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks with the Dementia Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Although B12 replacement produced significant improvement in hematologic and metabolic parameters, it yielded no significant effect on cognitive or psychiatric variables. A few subjects evidenced notable individual treatment responses; however, these were not statistically more frequent than in the normal B12 group. Conclusions These results suggest that B12 replacement is unlikely to benefit cognitive or psychiatric symptoms in the vast majority of elderly dementia patients with low serum B12 levels. PMID:18925978

  12. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Sandiago, Chile: A cluster randomized controlled trial. A study protocol(ISRCTN 02694183)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older peo...

  13. Orp8 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerotic lesion progression in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Kampen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oxysterol binding protein Related Proteins (ORPs mediate intracellular lipid transport and homeostatic regulation. ORP8 downregulates ABCA1 expression in macrophages and cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. In line, ORP8 knockout mice display increased amounts of HDL cholesterol in blood. However, the role of macrophage ORP8 in atherosclerotic lesion development is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDL receptor knockout (KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM from ORP8 KO mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice. Subsequently, the animals were challenged with a high fat/high cholesterol Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. After 9 weeks of Western-Type diet feeding, serum levels of VLDL cholesterol were increased by 50% in ORP8 KO BM recipients compared to the wild-type recipients. However, no differences were observed in HDL cholesterol. Despite the increase in VLDL cholesterol, lesions in mice transplanted with ORP8 KO bone marrow were 20% smaller compared to WT transplanted controls. In addition, ORP8 KO transplanted mice displayed a modest increase in the percentage of macrophages in the lesion as compared to the wild-type transplanted group. ORP8 deficient macrophages displayed decreased production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNFα, decreased expression of differentiation markers and showed a reduced capacity to form foam cells in the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of ORP8 in bone marrow-derived cells, including macrophages, reduces lesion progression after 9 weeks of WTD challenge, despite increased amounts of circulating pro-atherogenic VLDL. Reduced macrophage foam cell formation and lower macrophage inflammatory potential are plausible mechanisms contributing to the observed reduction in atherosclerosis.

  14. Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran: A Case Control Study

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    Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the serum level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in neural tube defects pregnancies (NTD and healthy controls in Northern Iran.Methods: This case-control study was performed on women with neural tube defects pregnancies and controls with unaffected pregnancies in Northern Iran during 2006. Twenty three pregnant women whose pregnancies were diagnosed as NTD by a second-trimester ultrasonographic examination were recruited as cases. The control group (n=23 consisted of women who were selected among socio-economic status (SES matched women who had a normal targeted ultrasound during the second trimester with documented normal fet al outcome. Fetal NTD was suspected with targeted second-trimester ultrasound during the 16th week of gestation and confirmed with high maternal serum α-fetoprotein levels. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and alpha fetoprotein were evaluated after target ultrasonography.Findings: Serum alpha fetoprotein level (mean ± SD in cases and controls was 120.2±64.1 and 50±33.5 iu/ml, respectively (P<0.05. The mean ± SD folate in cases and controls was 8.4±4.2 versus 9.3±4.2 ng/ml, respectively. This difference was not significant. Folate deficiency was found in 30.4% of the cases and 13% of the controls (OR = 2.9, 95%: 0.54-19.8. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 13 % of cases and 17.7% of the controls (OR=0.7, 95%: 0.1-4.9.Conclusion: This study showed that the probability of having a newborn with NTDs in maternal folate deficiency is three times higher than with normal folate in Northern Iran.

  15. Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Elahm; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Golalipour, Mohammad-Jafar

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the serum level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in neural tube defects pregnancies (NTD) and healthy controls in Northern Iran. Methods This case-control study was performed on women with neural tube defects pregnancies and controls with unaffected pregnancies in Northern Iran during 2006. Twenty three pregnant women whose pregnancies were diagnosed as NTD by a second-trimester ultrasonographic examination were recruited as cases. The control group (n=23) consisted of women who were selected among socio-economic status (SES) matched women who had a normal targeted ultrasound during the second trimester with documented normal fet al outcome. Fetal NTD was suspected with targeted second-trimester ultrasound during the 16th week of gestation and confirmed with high maternal serum α-fetoprotein levels. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and alpha fetoprotein were evaluated after target ultrasonography. Findings Serum alpha fetoprotein level (mean±SD) in cases and controls was 120.2±64.1 and 50±33.5 iu/ml, respectively (P<0.05). The mean±SD folate in cases and controls was 8.4±4.2 versus 9.3±4.2 ng/ml, respectively. This difference was not significant. Folate deficiency was found in 30.4% of the cases and 13% of the controls (OR=2.9, 95%: 0.54–19.8). Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 13% of cases and 17.7% of the controls (OR=0.7, 95%: 0.1-4.9). Conclusion This study showed that the probability of having a newborn with NTDs in maternal folate deficiency is three times higher than with normal folate in Northern Iran. PMID:23056699

  16. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2016-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P genetic risk score based on eight vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P ... was associated with a 0.09 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05; 0.13) increase in BMI (P = 3 × 10(-5)), whereas a genetically induced 20% decrease in serum vitamin B12 had no effect on BMI [-0.03 (95% CI -0.22; 0.16) kg/m(2)] (P = 0.74). Nevertheless, the strongest serum vitamin B12 variant, FUT2 rs602662, which was excluded...

  17. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-01-26

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides.

  18. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  19. Changes of vitamin B12 and methylmalonic acid levels in diabetic patients treated with metformin%维生素B12与甲基丙二酸水平在糖尿病二甲双胍治疗中的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱丽; 刘元涛; 倪一虹; 孙福敦; 庄向华; 李晓博; 姜冬青; 潘喆; 娄能俊

    2013-01-01

    为观察在二甲双胍治疗糖尿病时对维生素B12的影响,探讨甲基丙二酸对诊断维生素B12缺乏的价值,本研究选取126例2型糖尿病患者进行研究,发现应用二甲双胍可导致糖尿病患者血清维生素B12水平降低[(501.62±219.98对762.86±360.92)ng/L,P<0.01];尿甲基丙二酸对维生素B12早期缺乏的诊断价值较高,其敏感性、特异性为81.25%、83.75%.%The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of metformin on serum vitamin B12 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,and to determine the value of methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.126 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited.The results showed that metformin lowered serum vitamin B12 level in these patients [(501.62 ± 219.98 vs 762.86 ± 360.92) ng/L,P<0.01].Urinary methylmalonic acid may be a candidate biochemical indicator for early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in the diabetic patients,with high sensitivity (81.25%) and specificity (83.75%).

  20. Metformin and Vitamin B12 Effect on the Nervous System in Diabetic Patients%二甲双胍和维生素B12对糖尿病患者神经系统影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫锋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of metformin and vitamin B12 of the nervous system in diabetic patients.Methods 52 cases of diabetic patients were selected as research subjects, which were 30 cases of long-term use of metformin (study group), no long-term use of metformin in 22 patients (control group), vitamin B12 levels and EMG changes in two groups were compared.Results Vitamin B12 and HDL-C levels in the observation group were signiifcantly lower than the control group (P 0.05). EMG normal observation group was 23.33%, signiifcantly lower than the 50.00% in the control group, normal vibration threshold detection was 36.67%, signiifcantly lower than the 59.09% in the control group, P0.05). Conclusion Metformin treatment of diabetes, may lead to reduced levels of vitamin B12, causing iatrogenic nervous system damage, metformin treatment in the application of clinical diabetes, vitamin B12 levels should be regularly monitored and replenish vitamin B12.%目的:探讨二甲双胍和维生素B12对糖尿病患者神经系统的影响。方法选取52例糖尿病患者作为研究对象,其中长期应用二甲双胍者30例(观察组),未长期应用二甲双胍者22例(对照组),比较两组患者的维生素B12水平及神经肌电图变化。结果观察组的维生素B12和HDL-C水平都明显低于对照组(P0.05)。观察组的神经肌电图正常率为23.33%,明显低于对照组的50.00%,震动阈值检测正常率为36.67%,明显低于对照组的59.09%,P0.05)。结论二甲双胍治疗糖尿病,可能引起维生素B12水平降低,引发医源性神经系统损伤,临床在应用二甲双胍治疗糖尿病时,应定期进行维生素B12水平监测,并及时补充维生素B12

  1. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment.

  2. Reduced cathepsins B and D cause impaired autophagic degradation that can be almost completely restored by overexpression of these two proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Massimo; Motta, Marialetizia; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Scarpa, Susanna; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Cecconi, Francesco; Salvioli, Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Saposin (Sap) C deficiency, a rare variant form of Gaucher disease, is due to mutations in the Sap C coding region of the prosaposin (PSAP) gene. Sap C is required as an activator of the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase), which catalyzes glucosylceramide (GC) degradation. Deficit of either GCase or Sap C leads to the accumulation of undegraded GC and other lipids in lysosomes of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, we reported that Sap C mutations affecting a cysteine residue result in increased autophagy. Here, we characterized the basis for the autophagic dysfunction. We analyzed Sap C-deficient and GCase-deficient fibroblasts and observed that autophagic disturbance was only associated with lack of Sap C. By a combined fluorescence microscopy and biochemical studies, we demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts is not due to enhanced autophagosome formation but to delayed degradation of autolysosomes caused, in part, to decreased amount and reduced enzymatic activity of cathepsins B and D. On the contrary, in GCase-deficient fibroblasts, the protein level and enzymatic activity of cathepsin D were comparable with control fibroblasts, whereas those of cathepsin B were almost doubled. Moreover, the enhanced expression of both these lysosomal proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts resulted in close to functional autophagic degradation. Our data provide a novel example of altered autophagy as secondary event resulting from insufficient lysosomal function.

  3. Fgf8-deficient mice compensate for reduced GnRH neuronal population and exhibit normal testicular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is critical for the onset and maintenance of reproduction in vertebrates. The development of GnRH neurons is highly dependent on fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling. Mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele (Fgf8 Het exhibited a ~50% reduction in GnRH neuron number at birth. Female Fgf8 Het mice were fertile but showed significantly delayed puberty. However, it was unclear if these mice suffered additional loss of GnRH neurons after birth, and if male Fgf8 Het mice had normal pubertal transition and testicular function. In this study, we examined postnatal GnRH neuron number and hypothalamic GnRH content in Fgf8 Het mice from birth to 120 days of age. Further, we examined seminal vesicle and testicular growth, testicular histology, and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH around and after pubertal transition. Our results showed that GnRH neuron numbers were significantly and consistently reduced in Fgf8 Het mice of both sexes in all ages examined, suggesting these animals were born with an inherently defective GnRH system, and no further postnatal loss of GnRH neurons had occurred. Despite an innately compromised GnRH system, male and female Fgf8 mice exhibited normal levels of immunoassayable hypothalamic GnRH peptide at all ages examined except on 60 days of age, suggesting increased GnRH synthesis or reduced turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Fgf8 Het males also had normal seminal vesicle and testicular mass/body mass ratios, testicular histology, and circulating LH. Overall, our data speak to the extraordinary ability of a GnRH system permanently compromised by developmental defect to overcome pre-existing deficiencies to ensure pubertal progression and reproduction.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  5. Vitamin B12 Phosphate Conjugation and Its Effect on Binding to the Human B12 -Binding Proteins Intrinsic Factor and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Proinsias, Keith; Ociepa, Michał; Pluta, Katarzyna;

    2016-01-01

    The binding of vitamin B12 derivatives to human B12 transporter proteins is strongly influenced by the type and site of modification of the cobalamin original structure. We have prepared the first cobalamin derivative modified at the phosphate moiety. The reaction conditions were fully optimized...

  6. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  7. Cobalamin deficiency in children: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Synne Helland

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to present cobalamin deficiency in children with a specific focus on infants. Background: Cobalamin deficiency is caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption or inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism. Cobalamin deficiency in infants is usually caused by deficiency in the mother. There is often a diagnostic delay among infants because the most frequent symptoms are unspecific, e.g., developmental delay, apathy, hypotonia, anorexia and failure to thrive. Chi...

  8. Application of Vitamin B12 to Oral Ulcer%维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓田; 杨为民; 胡伊乐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨维生素B12在治疗口腔溃疡中的实际效果。方法将口腔溃疡患者随机分成4组,分别外敷维生素B12、维生素B2、冰硼散、氯已定含片,对比各组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面差别。结果外敷维生素 B12组在愈合时间与疼痛抑制方面明显优于其他组。结论维生素 B12在治疗口腔溃疡时不但愈合时间短于其他药物,而且能有效地抑制疼痛,可以作为一种治疗方法在临床应用。%Objective To explore the actual result of vitamin B12 in curing oral ulcer. Methods The groups in which the patients were divided in to four at random were external by applied Vitamin B12,Vitamin B2 ,Bingpeng powder,Chlorhexidine mouth lozenge differently to compare the differences of every group in healing time and pain suppression. Results The group externally applied by Vitamin B12 was better than the other groups in healing time and pain suppression. Conclusion When curing the oral ulcer,the healing time of Vitamin B12 is shorter than other drugs and Vitamin B12 and can suppress pain effectively.So the method of applying Vitamin B12 may become a new therapeutic method in clinical application in future.

  9. Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Johansen, Louise Kruse; Raida, Zindy

    2009-01-01

    C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs. DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory...... in spatial memory in guinea pigs. We speculate that this unrecognized effect of vitamin C deficiency may have clinical implications for high-risk individuals, such as in children born from vitamin C-deficient mothers....

  10. The causal roles of vitamin B12 and transcobalamin in prostate cancer: can Mendelian randomization analysis provide definitive answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Metcalfe, Chris; Palmer, Tom M; Refsum, Helga; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Marsden, Gemma; Johnston, Carole; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Smith, A David; Martin, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Circulating vitamin B12 (cobalamin/B12) and total transcobalamin (tTC) have been associated with increased and reduced risk, respectively, of prostate cancer. Mendelian randomization has the potential to determine whether these are causal associations. We estimated associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in B12-related genes (MTR, MTRR, FUT2, TCN2, TCN1, CUBN, and MUT) with plasma concentrations of B12, tTC, holo-transcobalamin, holo-haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine and with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study (913 cases, 895 controls) nested within the UK-wide population-based ProtecT study of prostate cancer in men age 45-69 years. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for effects of B12 and tTC on prostate cancer. We observed that B12 was lower in men with FUT2 204G>A (rs492602), CUBN 758C>T (rs1801222) and MUT 1595G>A (rs1141321) alleles (PtrendG (rs1801198) allele (PtrendA and CUBN 758C>T were selected as instruments for B12; TCN2 776C>G for tTC. Conventional and IV estimates for the association of loge(B12) with prostate cancer were: OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.90-1.51), P=0.2 and OR=0.60 (0.16-2.15), P=0.4, respectively. Conventional and IV estimates for the association of loge(tTC) with prostate cancer were: OR=0.81 (0.54-1.20), P=0.3 and OR=0.41 (0.13-1.32), P=0.1, respectively. Confidence intervals around the IV estimates in our study were too wide to allow robust inference. Sample size estimates based on our data indicated that Mendelian randomization in this context requires much larger studies or multiple genetic variants that explain all of the variance in the intermediate phenotype. PMID:22199995

  11. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12 Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from B12-containing Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B12 for growth despite vitamin B12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B12-generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B12-synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  12. Coenzyme B12 can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Chun, Ah Yeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (Vitamin B12 ) is one of the most complex biomolecules and an essential cofactor required for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Pseudomonas denitrificans synthesizes coenzyme B12 in an oxygen-dependent manner using a pathway encoded by more than 25 genes that are located in six different operons. Escherichia coli, a robust and suitable host for metabolic engineering was used to produce coenzyme B12 . These genes were cloned into three compatible plasmids and expressed heterologously in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE analysis and bioassay showed that the recombinant E. coli expressed the coenzyme B12 synthetic genes and successfully produced coenzyme B12 . However, according to the quantitative determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the amount of coenzyme B12 produced by the recombinant E. coli (0.21 ± 0.02 μg/g cdw) was approximately 13-fold lower than that by P. denitrificans (2.75 ± 0.22 μg/g cdw). Optimization of the culture conditions to improve the production of coenzyme B12 by the recombinant E. coli was successful, and the highest titer (0.65 ± 0.03 μg/g cdw) of coenzyme B12 was obtained. Interestingly, although the synthesis of coenzyme B12 in P. denitrificans is strictly oxygen-dependent, the recombinant E. coli could produce coenzyme B12 under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Iron fortification and iron supplementation are cost-effective interventions to reduce iron deficiency in four subregions of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Knai; M. Sharan; R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, affecting millions of people in both nonindustrialized and industrialized countries. We estimated the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and iron fortificati

  14. A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eChen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: AIF (apoptosis inducing factor is a flavin and NADH containing protein located within mitochondria required for optimal function of the respiratory chain. AIF may function as an antioxidant within mitochondria, yet when released from mitochondria it activates caspase-independent cell death. The Harlequin (Hq mouse has a markedly reduced content of AIF, providing an experimental model to query if the main role of AIF in the exacerbation of cell death is enhanced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or the activation of cell death programs. We asked if the ROS generation is altered in Hq heart mitochondria at baseline or following ischemia-reperfusion (IR.Methods: Buffer perfused mouse hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Mitochondrial function including oxidative phosphorylation and H2O2 generation was measured. Immunoblotting was used to determine the contents of AIF and PAR [poly(ADP-ribose] in cell fractions.Results: There were no differences in the release of H2O2 between wild type (WT and Hq heart mitochondria at baseline. IR increased H2O2 generation from WT but not from Hq mitochondria compared to corresponding time controls. The complex I activity was decreased in WT but not in Hq mice following IR. The relocation of AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was increased in WT but not in Hq mice. IR activated PARP-1 only in WT mice. Cell injury was decreased in Hq mouse heart following in vitro IR.Conclusion: A deficiency of AIF within mitochondria does not increase ROS production during IR, indicating that AIF functions less as an antioxidant within mitochondria. The decreased cardiac injury in Hq mouse heart accompanied by less AIF translocation to the nucleus suggests that AIF relocation, rather than the AIF content within mitochondria, contributes to cardiac injury during IR.

  15. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  16. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Ankita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  17. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy:no high-quality evidence exists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li Wang; Ling Guan; Peng-liang Hao; Jin-long Du; Meng-xue Zhang

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efifcacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL:A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION:All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the me-ta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the deifnition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% conifdence interval (CI) using the ifxed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the ifnal analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang(EX-HN5),Jiache (ST6),Dicang (ST4) andSibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87;P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86;P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no signiifcant dif-ference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup

  18. Maternal dietary folate and/or vitamin B12 restrictions alter body composition (adiposity) and lipid metabolism in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Pavithra, Dhandapani; Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Ganeshan, Manisha; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Balakrishna, Nagala; Shanker, Nemani Hari; Reddy, Singi Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin deficiencies are associated with low birth weight and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that maternal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restrictions alter body composition and fat metabolism in the offspring. Female weaning Wistar rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks a control diet (American Institute of Nutrition-76A) or the same with restriction of folate, vitamin B(12) or both (dual deficient) and, after confirming vitamin deficiency, were mated with control males. The pregnant/lactating mothers and their offspring received their respective diets throughout. Biochemical and body composition parameters were determined in mothers before mating and in offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Vitamin restriction increased body weight and fat and altered lipid profile in female Wistar rats, albeit differences were significant with only B(12) restriction. Offspring born to vitamin-B(12)-restricted dams had lower birth weight, while offspring of all vitamin-restricted dams weighed higher at/from weaning. They had higher body fat (specially visceral fat) from 3 months and were dyslipidemic at 12 months, when they had high circulating and adipose tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor α, leptin and interleukin 6 and low levels of adiponectin and interleukin 1β. Vitamin-restricted offspring had higher activities of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and higher plasma cortisol levels. In conclusion, maternal and peri-/postnatal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restriction increased visceral adiposity (due to increased corticosteroid stress), altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring perhaps by modulating adipocyte function and may thus predispose them to high morbidity later.

  19. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. Objective: The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Methods: Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) 118 μmol/mol). Results: A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P 45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. PMID:26063068

  20. 维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立维生素B12滴眼液中维生素B12有关物质的检测方法.方法:高效液相色谱法,乙腈-0.05mol/l磷酸二氢钾溶液(17:83),用磷酸调节PH值至3.0.检测波长361nm.结果:本方法能有效检测出维生素B12的有关物质.

  1. 根据血清维生素B12水平测定值诊断维生素B12缺乏症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod; Devalia; 颜淑敏(译)

    2006-01-01

    当患者出现血液系统、神经系统及神经精神系统异常时,血清维生素B12水平被用价是否存在维生素B12的缺乏。及早给予维生素B12补充治疗可阻止不可逆性神经系统病变和认知功能障碍的发生。

  2. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R W; Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O; Wright, Aaron T

    2017-02-14

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12 Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism.

  3. Elucidation of roles for vitamin B12 in regulation of folate, ubiquinone, and methionine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Margaret F.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Maezato, Yukari; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Rodionova, Irina A.; Carre, Alexandre; Li, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengdong; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2017-01-01

    Only a small fraction of vitamin B12-requiring organisms are able to synthesize B12 de novo, making it a common commodity in microbial communities. Initially recognized as an enzyme cofactor of a few enzymes, recent studies have revealed additional B12-binding enzymes and regulatory roles for B12. Here we report the development and use of a B12-based chemical probe to identify B12-binding proteins in a nonphototrophic B12-producing bacterium. Two unexpected discoveries resulted from this study. First, we identified a light-sensing B12-binding transcriptional regulator and demonstrated that it controls folate and ubiquinone biosynthesis. Second, our probe captured proteins involved in folate, methionine, and ubiquinone metabolism, suggesting that it may play a role as an allosteric effector of these processes. These metabolic processes produce precursors for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Thereby, B12 likely modulates growth, and by limiting its availability to auxotrophs, B12-producing organisms may facilitate coordination of community metabolism. PMID:28137868

  4. Relation of Vitamin B12 Levels to Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kesiktaş

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although vitamin B12 (vit-B12 is known to influence the hemopoeitic and nervous systems, little is known about the skeletal effects of vit-B12. Researchs that demonstrated an association between serum vitamin B-12 concentration and osteoblastic function and its’ role in DNA synthesis, which suggesting a relationship between osteoporosis, this randomized controlled trial were planned. Material and Methods: Vit-B12 levels of 740 patients aged between 50-65 years, who were applied to our outpatient clinic because of chronic low back pain were examined and divided with vitamin B-12 levels over or below 400 pg/ml. 26 participant who met all inclusion criteria with vit-B12 level below 400pg/ml were assigned to case group. Among the patients that vit-B12 levels were over 400pg/ml, 20 participants were randomly selected to control group. Bone mineral density (BMD, biochemical measurements, causes of osteoporosis and vit-B12 defiencies were investigated. A computer program was used for statistic evaluation. Results: There was not statistically significant difference between BMD’s of case and control groups (p>0.05. When the vit-B12 levels were grouped with over 400 pg/ml, below 200 pg/ml and between 200-400 pg/ml, osteodensimetric examinations of femur neck BMD (p<0.05 were achieved statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this trial highlight an association of vitamin B-12 status with osteoporosis. Vit-B12 defiency is an easy and cheap treatable condition so that reason we suggest that levels of vit-B12 should be investigated. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:1-6

  5. Effect of Vitamin B12 supplementation on serum homocysteine in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Ali; Biniaz, Vajihe; Savari, Samira; Ebadi, Abbas; Shermeh, Mahdi Sadeghi; Einollahi, Behzad; Rahimi, Abolfazl

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyper-homocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and many different methods have been investigated for lowering it in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our study investigated the effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine levels in these patients. This randomized trial was conducted on 140 HD patients. They were randomly distributed by lottery method into two groups: intervention and control. In the intervention group, 100 μg/mL of Vitamin B 12 was intravenously injected two times a week, for eight weeks. No intervention was performed in the control group. Serum levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at the beginning and again after eight weeks (2 months) of treatment. About 91% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (serum homocysteine >15 μmol/L). The median baseline levels of serum homocysteine in the intervention and control groups were 31.9 and 26.9 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.1). After eight weeks, the median homocysteine level reduced significantly in the Vitamin B 12 group to 22.2 versus 28.4 μmol/L in control group (P = 0.006). The mean Hb and Hct also changed significantly during our study (12.3 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.003 and 37.9 vs. 35.3%; P = 0.02, respectively). Our results demonstrated the existence of a statistical negative relationship between Vitamin B 12 and serum levels of homocysteine. Detailed investigations with larger sample sizes and longer-term use of Vitamin B 12 are recommended.

  6. Effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tayebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies have shown that hyper-homocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and many different methods have been investigated for lowering it in hemodialysis (HD patients. Our study investigated the effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine levels in these patients. This randomized trial was conducted on 140 HD patients. They were randomly distributed by lottery method into two groups: intervention and control. In the intervention group, 100 μg/mL of Vitamin B 12 was intravenously injected two times a week, for eight weeks. No intervention was performed in the control group. Serum levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were measured at the beginning and again after eight weeks (2 months of treatment. About 91% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (serum homocysteine >15 μmol/L. The median baseline levels of serum homocysteine in the intervention and control groups were 31.9 and 26.9 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.1. After eight weeks, the median homocysteine level reduced significantly in the Vitamin B 12 group to 22.2 versus 28.4 μmol/L in control group (P = 0.006. The mean Hb and Hct also changed significantly during our study (12.3 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.003 and 37.9 vs. 35.3%; P = 0.02, respectively. Our results demonstrated the existence of a statistical negative relationship between Vitamin B 12 and serum levels of homocysteine. Detailed investigations with larger sample sizes and longer-term use of Vitamin B 12 are recommended.

  7. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  8. 维生素B12的研究及其进展%Research Advance in Vitamin B12 and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎; 郝常明

    2002-01-01

    本文对维生素B12的生理特性、产生菌、生物合成途径,以及发酵生产和测定方法进行了详尽的阐述,并对目前维生素B12发酵生产面临的问题及前景作了分析和预测.

  9. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  10. Vitamin D Receptor Ablation and Vitamin D Deficiency Result in Reduced Grip Strength, Altered Muscle Fibers, and Increased Myostatin in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Christian M; Cha, Kuan Minn; Houweling, Peter J; Rao, Renuka; Mokbel, Nancy; Lin, Mike; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Gunton, Jenny E

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness, pain, and atrophy. Serum vitamin D predicts muscle strength and age-related muscle changes. However, precise mechanisms by which vitamin D affects skeletal muscle are unclear. To address this question, this study characterizes the muscle phenotype and gene expression of mice with deletion of vitamin D receptor (VDRKO) or diet-induced vitamin D deficiency. VDRKO and vitamin D-deficient mice had significantly weaker grip strength than their controls. Weakness progressed with age and duration of vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Histological assessment showed that VDRKO mice had muscle fibers that were significantly smaller in size and displayed hyper-nuclearity. Real-time PCR also indicated muscle developmental changes in VDRKO mice with dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and increased myostatin in quadriceps muscle (>2-fold). Vitamin D-deficient mice also showed increases in myostatin and the atrophy marker E3-ubiqutin ligase MuRF1. As a potential explanation for grip strength weakness, both groups of mice had down-regulation of genes encoding calcium-handling and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (Serca) channels. This is the first report of reduced strength, morphological, and gene expression changes in VDRKO and vitamin D-deficient mice where confounding by calcium, magnesium, and phosphate have been excluded by direct testing. Although suggested in earlier in vitro work, this study is the first to report an in vivo association between vitamin D, myostatin, and the regulation of muscle mass. These findings support a direct role for vitamin D in muscle function and corroborate earlier work on the presence of VDR in this tissue.

  11. Prevalence of pernicious anemia in patients with macrocytic anemia and low serum B12

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current research evaluated the prevalence of pernicious anemia (PA) in patients with macrocytic anemia (high MCV) and low serum B12 in Riyadh. Methods: Blood testing was done in 77 patients (males: 45.5%, females: 54.5%) with macrocytic anemia; 84 patients; (males: 23.8%, females: 76.2%) with low serum B12 and 30 healthy subjects. Complete blood count, differential count, folic acid, vitamin B12, intrinsic factor, gastric parietal cell antibodies and holotranscobalamin II were ...

  12. 可改善维生素B12吸收的Eligen技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽珠(摘)

    2008-01-01

    Emisphere Technologies报告,采用其Eligen配方技术能改善口服维生素B12的生物利用度。Eligen B12产品(I)可使需要补充维生素B12的患者避免多次注射或口服大剂量。

  13. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Adipose tissue produces pro-inflammatory adipokines that contribute obesity-related malignant progression. This study investigated the effects of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) deficiency on pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57...

  14. Mice deficient for all PIM kinases display reduced body size and impaired responses to hematopoietic growth factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkers, H; Nawijn, M; Allen, J; Brouwers, C; Verhoeven, E; Jonkers, J; Berns, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pim family of proto-oncogenes encodes a distinct class of serine/threonine kinases consisting of PIM1, PIM2, and PIM3. Although the Pim genes are evolutionarily highly conserved, the contribution of PIM proteins to mammalian development is unclear. PIM1-deficient mice were previously described b

  15. Research on relationship of the occurrence of ischemic stroke with serum folic acid, platelet aggregation rate, homocysteine and vitamin B12%缺血性脑卒中的发生与血清叶酸、血小板聚集率、同型半胱氨酸和维生素B12的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀梅; 郝钦芳; 陈烨

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨缺血性脑卒中患者血清叶酸( Folic Acid,FA)、血小板聚集率(Platelet Aggregation Rate,PAR)、同型半胱氨酸( Homocysteine,Hcy)和维生素B12(vitamin B12,VitB12)变化的原因及其关系.方法:选择缺血性脑卒中患者和健康对照组各60例,利用免疫法测其FA、PAR、Hcy和vitamin B12水平.结果:缺血性脑卒中患者体内FA水平偏低,PAR、VitB12和Hcy水平偏高,P<0.05;与缺血性脑卒中关系依次为FA>VitB12>PAR>Hcy,FA与PAR的相关关系r=0.006,P<0.01;HCY与PAR的相关关系r=0.03,P<0.05,FA与HCY的相关关系r=0.07.结论:缺血性脑卒中患者FA水平偏低,补充叶酸能降低PAR、改善HCY的氧化和VitB12的吸收,降低缺血性脑卒中的发生.%Objective: To explore the reason of changes and the interrelationships of serum Folic Acid (FA) , Homocysteine (Hcy) ,Platelet Aggregation Rate (PAR) and vitamin B12(VitB12) in ischaemic stroke patients. Methods: 60 ischemic stroke patients and 60 healthy controls were selected for concentration detection of FA, PAR, VitB12 and Hey by immune method. Results: FA level is low in ischemic stroke patients, while PAR, VitB12 and Hey level were high (P VitB12 > PAR > Hcy. The correlation between FA and PAR is r = 0.006, P < 0.01. The correlation between Hey and PAR is r = 0.03, P<0.05. The correlation between FA and Hey is r=0.07. Conclusion; FA level in ischemic stroke patients is low. Supplement of FA can reduce PAR, avoid Hcy oxidation, improve VitB12 absorption and reduce the occurrence of ischemic stroke.

  16. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  17. 孕妇血清中转铁蛋白、铁蛋白、叶酸和维生素B12测定与优生的相关性研究%The relation of serum levels of transferring,ferritin,folic acid and vitamin B12 in pregnant women to the eugenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽兴; 林锦喜; 范应祥; 王孔专

    2011-01-01

    was positively correlated with the levels of folic acid and B12 · Ferritin level was significantly lower. Conclusion Serum levels of transferring, ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 are related to eugenics. Detection oferum transferring, ferritin, folic acid and vitamin B12 may help to determine whether alimentary deficiency exists in pregnant women, understand fetal nutrition and growth status, and provide the basis for corresponding early intervention therapy.

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  19. Progranulin Deficiency Reduces CDK4/6/pRb Activation and Survival of Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Encarnación, Ana; Alquézar, Carolina; Esteras, Noemí; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    Null mutations in GRN are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). However, the influence of progranulin (PGRN) deficiency in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. In neuroblastoma cells, silencing of GRN gene causes significantly reduced cell survival after serum withdrawal. The following observations suggest that alterations of the CDK4/6/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway, secondary to changes in PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation induced by PGRN deficiency, are involved in the control of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis: (i) inhibiting CDK4/6 levels or their associated kinase activity by sodium butyrate or PD332991 sensitized control SH-SY5Y cells to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis without affecting survival of PGRN-deficient cells; (ii) CDK4/6/pRb seems to be downstream of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways since their specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, were able to decrease CDK6-associated kinase activity and induce death of control SH-SY5Y cells; (iii) PGRN-deficient cells show reduced stimulation of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and CDK4/6 activities compared with control cells in the absence of serum; and (iv) supplementation of recombinant human PGRN was able to rescue survival of PGRN-deficient cells. These observations highlight the important role of PGRN-mediated stimulation of the PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2/CDK4/6/pRb pathway in determining the cell fate survival/death under serum deprivation.

  20. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficiency has little effect on seizure susceptibility and acquired epilepsy phenotype but reduces spontaneous exploration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, J; Kemppainen, S; Ndode-Ekane, X E; Lahtinen, L; Bolkvadze, Tamuna; Gurevicius, K; Tanila, H; Pitkänen, A

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a serine protease, converts plasminogen to plasmin. Activation of plasmin leads to degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is critical for tissue recovery, angiogenesis, cell migration, and axonal and synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that uPA deficiency would cause an abnormal neurophenotype and would lead to exacerbated epileptogenesis after brain injury. Wild-type (Wt) and uPA-/- mice underwent a battery of neurologic behavioral tests evaluating general reactivity, spontaneous exploratory activity, motor coordination, pain threshold, fear and anxiety, and memory. We placed particular emphasis on the effect of uPA deficiency on seizure susceptibility, including the response to convulsants (pentylenetetrazol, kainate, or pilocarpine) and kainate-induced epileptogenesis and epilepsy. The uPA-/- mice showed no motor or sensory impairment compared with the Wt mice. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory also remained intact. The uPA-/- mice, however, exhibited reduced exploratory activity and an enhanced response to a tone stimulus (p<0.05 compared with the Wt mice). The urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficient mice showed no increase in spontaneous or evoked epileptiform electrographic activity. Rather, the response to pilocarpine administration was reduced compared with the Wt mice (p<0.05). Also, the epileptogenesis and the epilepsy phenotype after intrahippocampal kainate injection were similar to those in the Wt mice. Taken together, uPA deficiency led to diminished interest in the environmental surroundings and enhanced emotional reactivity to unexpected aversive stimuli. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficiency was not associated with enhanced seizure susceptibility or worsened poststatus epilepticus epilepsy phenotype.

  1. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA. The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers involving 300 people (20 per cluster. Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older

  2. Prenatal folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and child brain volumes, cognitive development and psychological functioning: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Charlotte L; Nijs, Ilse M; Marroun, Hanan E; Muetzel, Ryan; Schmidt, Marcus; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2016-01-22

    Previous studies have suggested that prenatal maternal folate deficiency is associated with reduced prenatal brain growth and psychological problems in offspring. However, little is known about the longer-term impact. The aims of this study were to investigate whether prenatal maternal folate insufficiency, high total homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 levels are associated with altered brain morphology, cognitive and/or psychological problems in school-aged children. This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study. The study sample consisted of 256 Dutch children aged between 6 and 8 years from whom structural brain scans were collected using MRI. The mothers of sixty-two children had insufficient (9·1 µmol/l) predicted poorer performance on the language (B -0·31; 95 % CI -0·56, -0·06; P=0·014) and visuo-spatial domains (B -0·36; 95 % CI -0·60, -0·11; P=0·004). No associations with psychological problems were found. Our findings suggest that folate insufficiency in early pregnancy has a long-lasting, global effect on brain development and is, together with homocysteine levels, associated with poorer cognitive performance.

  3. Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with bipolar disorder and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Zeynep; Kucukali, Cem Ismail; Ozkok, Elif; Orhan, Nurcan; Aydin, Makbule; Kilic, Gamze; Sazci, Ali; Kara, Ihsan

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the effect of polymorphic variants of c.1298A>C (Glu429Ala) and c.677C>T (Ala222Val) in methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene on the total homocysteine (tHcy), folate and B12 levels in patients with bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives of patients, and controls. The c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms in MTHFR were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 197 bipolar patients, 278 relatives and 238 controls. tHcy and folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay and Electrochemiluminescence, respectively. The tHcy was significantly increased in patients and relatives. In contrast, folate and B12 were significantly lower in patients and relatives. Gender was not considered as a significant determinant in the multivariate analysis. Genotypes of c.1298A>C and c.677C>T were correlated with tHcy, folate and B12. Patients and relatives carrying TT and/or AA and AC genotypes had elevated tHcy and reduced folate and B12 levels. High tHcy but low folate and vitamin B12 levels may be a risk factor for development of bipolar disorder.

  4. Maternal vitamin C deficiency does not reduce hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin III intensity in prenatal Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi

    2016-01-01

    the observed deficits remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that vitC deficiency in utero may lead to a decreased neuronal maturation and increased cellular death giving rise to alterations of the hippocampal morphology in a guinea pig model. Brains from prenatal guinea pig pups (n = 9-10 in each group...... study found that hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin isotype III intensity in the prenatal guinea pig were influenced by gestational day but not by maternal vitC intake...

  5. Proposed Model of Predicting the Reduced Yield Axial Load of Reinforced Concrete Columns Due to Casting Deficiency Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the investigation of the effect of casting deficiencies- both experimentally and analytically on axial yield load or reinforced concrete columns. It includes 6 specimens of square section (150x150x500 mm of 24.37 MPa nominal concrete strength with 4 longitudinal steel bars of 8 mm (500 MPa nominal strength with confinement ratio ωc=0.15. Through casting procedure the necessary provisions defined by International Standards were not applied strictly in order to create construction deficiencies. These deficiencies are quantified geometrically without the use of expensive and expertise non-destructive methods and their effect on the axial load capacity of the concrete columns is calibrated trough a novel and simplified prediction model extracted by an experimental and analytical investigation that included 6 specimens. It is concluded that: a even with suitable repair, load reduction up to 22% is the outcome of the initial construction damage presence, b the lower dispersion is noted for the section damage index proposed, c extended damage alters the failure mode to brittle accompanied with longitudinal bars buckling, d the proposed model presents more than satisfying results to the load capacity prediction of repaired columns.

  6. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  7. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  8. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  9. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  10. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  11. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  12. 17 CFR 240.12b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 240.12b-12 Section 240.12b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... paper, printing and language. (a) Statements and reports shall be filed on good quality, unglazed white... as to be clearly distinguishable as such on photocopies. (c) The body of all printed statements...

  13. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good.... (d) The body of all printed registration statements and reports and all notes to financial...

  14. Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Nexø, Ebba; Greibe, Eva

    2015-01-01

    metformin. Methods: Male Wistar rats aged 16 weeks at sacrifice was treated for 6 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (n = 10) or metformin (n = 10). We collected plasma and organs for analyses of B12, and we explored the fraction of protein-bound B12 in selected organs. In addition we...... examined the effect of four weeks administration of metformin (n = 10= or sline (n = 10) by intra-peritoneal osmotic pumps on levels of B12 in plasma, liver, and kidneys of rats aged 14 weeks at sacrifice. Results: Median concentration of B12 in the 16 weeks old control rats was highest in the kidney (1350......Aim: Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering...

  15. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos F.; Teusink, B.; Molenaar, D.; Heck, van M.; Wels, M.W.W.; Sieuwerts, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by medium optimization. Here we show that a series of systematic single amino acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B12 from nearly undetec

  16. Oral vitamin B12 replacement for the treatment of pernicious anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Qiu Hua Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with pernicious anaemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anaemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anaemia, the recommended dosage and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from 1 January 1980 to 31 March 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomised controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000mcg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anaemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 intramuscular injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  17. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd A Al-Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml, 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml, and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml. Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 (P < 0.005. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.

  18. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  19. 60岁后要补维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    据统计,美国60岁以上的老年人当中,1/5缺乏维生素B12。因此,医学家建议:素食者和老年人尤其要注意多吃富含维生素B12的食物,以弥补膳食中维生素B12不足的缺陷。维生素B12对于维持缝康的神经经胞和红细胞非常关键。缺乏维生素B12轻则导致疲劳、眩晕.重则会引起神经损伤、贫血和痴呆。

  20. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed.

  1. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12.

  2. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  4. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J

    2001-01-01

    , and caused a significant mortality (62%) only in the latter mice, indicating that interleukin-6 deficiency increased the susceptibility to kainic acid-induced brain damage. To compare the histopathological damage caused to the brain, control and interleukin-6 null mice were administered 8.75mg/kg kainic acid...... morphological hippocampal damage, oxidative stress and apoptotic neuronal death were increased. Since metallothionein-I+II levels were lower, and those of inducible nitric oxide synthase higher, these concomitant changes are likely to contribute to the observed increased oxidative stress and neuronal death...

  5. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik; Grarup, Niels; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-12-19

    Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P B12 was associated with a 0.09 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05; 0.13) increase in BMI (P = 3 × 10(-5)), whereas a genetically induced 20% decrease in serum vitamin B12 had no effect on BMI [-0.03 (95% CI -0.22; 0.16) kg/m(2)] (P = 0.74). Nevertheless, the strongest serum vitamin B12 variant, FUT2 rs602662, which was excluded from the B12 genetic risk score due to potential pleiotropic effects, showed a per allele effect of 0.15 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.01; 0.32) on BMI (P = 0.03). This association was accentuated including two German cohorts (ntotal = 5050), with a combined effect of 0.19 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.08; 0.30) (P = 4 × 10(-4)). We found no support for a causal role of decreased serum vitamin B12 levels in obesity. However, our study suggests that FUT2, through its regulation of the cross-talk between gut microbes and the human host, might explain a part of the observational association between serum vitamin B12 and BMI.

  6. La polimedicación en mayores institucionalizados: su efecto sobre los niveles de vitamina B12, folato y homocisteína Polymedication in institutionalized elderly and its effect on vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Albers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar qué tipo de medicamentos consume una población de ancianos institucionalizados en la Comunidad de Madrid y valorar la influencia de estos fármacos sobre las concentraciones de vitamina B12 (B12 y holotranscobalamina, folato sérico (FS y homocisteína (Hcy. Metodología: 167 individuos (32% varones, edad media 83 ± 7 años, fueron categorizados dependiendo de si la variable bioquímica estaba dentro o fuera del intervalo de normalidad. Los medicamentos fueron agrupados según la clasificación ATC. Mediante una prueba exacta de Fisher se estudió la relación entre el consumo de un determinado grupo de fármacos y la alteración de los niveles de las variables bioquímicas. Resultados: El consumo medio diario fue de 5 fármacos diferentes. Los mas consumidos fueron psicolépticos y antiácidos (ambos 53%. Se observaron deficiencias de B12 (mediana 158,2 pg/mL; 10,7%, FS (5,3 ng/mL; 52,1%, holotranscobalamina (11,76 pmoL/L; 7,8% y un 65,9% de hiperhomocisteinemia (19,4 μmoL/L. La toma de antianémicos normalizaba los valores de B12, los preparados urológicos y los corticosteroides los niveles de folato y los psicoanalépticos los de holotranscobalamina. La medicación contra obstrucciones pulmonares aumentaba los niveles de Hcy (todos p Aim: To determine drug consumption in institutionalized elderly living in the Region of Madrid (Spain and to assess the relationship between drug intake and biochemical parameters for vitamin B12 (Cobalamin and Holotranscobalamin, serum folate (SF and homocysteine (Hcy. Methods: 167 subjects (32% men, mean age 83±7 years, were classified according to biochemical parameter levels (in or out of reference range and drugs were classified according to ATC system. The relationship between drug intake and biochemical levels was studied by means of the Fisher exact test. Results: The daily mean drug intake was 5. Psicoleptic and antiacid drugs were the most consumed (both 53%. Cobalamin (median

  7. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell′s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-li Wang

    2015-01-01

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell′s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5, Jiache (ST6, Dicang (ST4 and Sibai (ST2. The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell′s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58-0.87; P = 0.001, this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58-0.86; P = 0.0005. In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024. There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell′s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B 12 requires further exploration.

  8. Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.

  9. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, F; Suleymanoglu, S; Ersen, A; Aydinoz, S; Gultepe, M; Meral, C; Ozkaya, H; Gocmen, I

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folate, and their functional markers, plasma homocysteine and urinary methylmalonate (uMMA) were measured in 204 healthy, term infants at birth, and at 2 and 6 months. Compared with infants receiving formula food, those fed mother's milk had lower vitamin B12 and folate at 2 and 6 months. In infants receiving mother's milk, vitamin B12 levels were similar at birth (238 pg/ml) and 2 months (243 pg/ml), whereas with formula milk the level was significantly higher at 2 months (558 pg/ml) than at birth (257 pg/ml). Vitamin B12 was negatively correlated with homocysteine at birth and 6 months. The level of uMMA (mmol/mol creatinine) was higher at 2 (mother's milk, 25.5; formula, 23.97) and 6 months (19.77; 15) than at birth (11.97; 10.88), and was not correlated with vitamin B12 levels. Homocysteine may be a reliable marker of vitamin B12 status in neonates and infants; however, uMMA is not suitable as a marker of vitamin B12 status.

  10. Child's homocysteine concentration at 2 years is influenced by pregnancy vitamin B12 and folate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubree, H G; Katre, P A; Joshi, S M; Bhat, D S; Deshmukh, U S; Memane, N S; Otiv, S R; Rush, E C; Yajnik, C S

    2012-02-01

    Longitudinal studies investigating vitamin B12 and folate status of mothers and their offspring will provide a better understanding of intergenerational nutrition. During pregnancy and 2 years (2y) after delivery, we measured plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in 118 women [aged (mean ± s.d.) 22.9 ± 3.9y] who attended a rural (n = 68) or an urban (n = 50) antenatal clinic in Pune, India. Cord blood vitamin B12 and folate were measured, and when the child was 2y total homocysteine (tHcy) was also measured. Demographic and diet measurements were recorded using standard methods. Pregnancy plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 34 weeks was low [median (25th, 75th), 115 (95, 147) pm]; 75% had low status (vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were higher than and positively associated with maternal concentrations. In stepwise regression, higher child vitamin B12 at 2y was predicted (total R 2 15.7%) by pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β 0.201, R 2 7.7%), current consumption of cow's milk (std β 0.194, R 2 3.3%) and whether breast feeding was stopped before 2y (std β -0.234 R 2 7.2%). Child's 2y tHcy concentration was high (11.4 ± 3.6 μm) and predicted by lower pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β -0.206, R 2 4.1%), lack of vitamin supplementation (std β -0.256, R 2 5.6%) in pregnancy and whether currently breastfed (std β 0.268, R 2 8.4%). Low maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and prolonged breast-feeding results in disturbed one-carbon metabolism in offspring at 2y. Supplementation of women of child-bearing age, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, may improve the homocysteine status of these children.

  11. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  12. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  13. Comparison of reactors for oxygen-sensitive reactions: reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin b(12s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M H; Woods, S L

    1994-11-01

    Serum bottles are frequently used for studies of reductive dechlorination by vitamin B(12), but reducing conditions can be maintained only for several days. This time period is inadequate for evaluating the reductive dechlorination of some slow-reacting aromatic compounds. Sealed glass ampoules maintain reducing conditions for many months, but this method has the disadvantage of disallowing subsampling of the reaction mixture. A glass serum tube was modified for these experiments which not only maintained anoxic conditions for several days but also allowed subsamples to be removed during experiments. The modification was a restriction placed in the middle of the tube by heating in a flame, creating two chambers separated by a narrow neck. The lower chamber contained the oxygen-sensitive reaction mixture. The upper chamber, sealed with a septum and screw cap, was purged with purified nitrogen or argon introduced and vented through fused silica capillaries. Reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols by vitamin B(12) reduced with Ti(III) citrate was monitored in all three reactor types. Sealed ampoules maintained reducing conditions for up to 12 months. The two-chambered reactor maintained reducing conditions longer than the serum vials when frequent samples were taken.

  14. Laminin-111 protein therapy reduces muscle pathology and improves viability of a mouse model of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Jachinta E; Knapp, Jolie R; Hodges, Bradley L; Wuebbles, Ryan D; Burkin, Dean J

    2012-04-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a lethal muscle-wasting disease that is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, resulting in the loss of laminin-α2 protein. MDC1A patients exhibit severe muscle weakness from birth, are confined to a wheelchair, require ventilator assistance, and have reduced life expectancy. There are currently no effective treatments or cures for MDC1A. Laminin-α2 is required for the formation of heterotrimeric laminin-211 (ie, α2, β1, and γ1) and laminin-221 (ie, α2, β2, and γ1), which are major constituents of skeletal muscle basal lamina. Laminin-111 (ie, α1, β1, and γ1) is the predominant laminin isoform in embryonic skeletal muscle and supports normal skeletal muscle development in laminin-α2-deficient muscle but is absent from adult skeletal muscle. In this study, we determined whether treatment with Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm-derived mouse laminin-111 protein could rescue MDC1A in the dy(W-/-) mouse model. We demonstrate that laminin-111 protein systemically delivered to the muscles of laminin-α2-deficient mice prevents muscle pathology, improves muscle strength, and dramatically increases life expectancy. Laminin-111 also prevented apoptosis in laminin-α2-deficient mouse muscle and primary human MDC1A myogenic cells, which indicates a conserved mechanism of action and cross-reactivity between species. Our results demonstrate that laminin-111 can serve as an effective protein substitution therapy for the treatment of muscular dystrophy in the dy(W-/-) mouse model and establish the potential for its use in the treatment of MDC1A.

  15. Protein deficiency in pregnant rats causes decreased levels of plasma somatomedin and its carrier protein associated with reduced plasma levels of placental lactogen and hepatic lactogenic receptor number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilistine, S J; Munro, H N

    1984-03-01

    Rats were fed either a 20% lactalbumin (control) or a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, rat serum placental lactogen levels, measured by radioreceptor assay, were significantly decreased by the low protein diet, thus confirming our earlier findings. The number of microsomal membrane lactogenic receptors, measured on the maternal livers at the end of pregnancy, was severely reduced in the livers of the low protein group, whereas protein deficiency did not affect binding affinity. Serum concentrations of somatomedin, measured by a competitive binding assay after acid treatment of the serum to remove endogenous carrier protein, were extensively reduced in the low protein group. The amounts of the somatomedin carrier proteins in the serum were assayed by separation on Sephacryl-S300 columns into higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions peak 2 and peak 3, respectively. For the low protein diet group, both fractions showed a reduction in binding capacity, more marked in the case of peak 2. Since placental lactogen is known to influence output of somatomedin by the liver, we hypothesize that protein deficiency during pregnancy causes a fall in serum somatomedin level by reducing secretion of placental lactogen, which regulates its production by the liver.

  16. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H;

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...... in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations....

  17. High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study on Icosahedral Boron Arsenide (B12As2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Wu; H Zhu; D Hou; C Ji; C Whiteley; J Edgar; Y Ma

    2011-12-31

    The high pressure properties of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2) were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements at pressures up to 25.5 GPa at room temperature. B12As2 retains its rhombohedral structure; no phase transition was observed in the pressure range. The bulk modulus was determined to be 216 GPa with the pressure derivative 2.2. Anisotropy was observed in the compressibility of B12As2-c-axis was 16.2% more compressible than a-axis. The boron icosahedron plays a dominant role in the compressibility of boron-rich compounds.

  18. 食品中维生素B12的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑云; 徐兰

    2004-01-01

    维生素B12——氰钴胺,是人体必需的微量营养成分之一,可助人体对铁的代谢及对血红蛋白的合成具有重要的生理功能和临床意义。还有些专业人士认为维生素B12可以防止心血管疾病和白癜风疾病的发生。研究维生素B12检测方法,可用于检

  19. Intrinsic factor van castle en resorptie van vitamine B12 : een klinisch en experimenteel onderzoek met behulp van radioaktieve vitamine B12.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, Johannes

    1959-01-01

    Hoofdstuk I bevat enkele opmerkingen over de werking van vit.B12 met radioactieve kobalt isolopen. Bij toediening aan de mens geven wij voorkeur aan Co56 en Co58 op grond van hun relatief korte haveringstijden t.o.v. Co60. De vier gangbare metoden voor het meten van de resorptie van radioaktieve vit

  20. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  1. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  2. Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari

    2009-04-27

    A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine.

  3. New derivatives of vitamin B12 show preferential targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Robert; Treichler, Hansjörg; Schaefer, Niklaus G; van Staveren, Dave R; Mundwiler, Stefan; Kunze, Susanne; Küenzi, Martin; Alberto, Roger; Nüesch, Jakob; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger; Schibli, Roger; Schubiger, Pius August

    2008-04-15

    Rapidly growing cells show an increased demand for nutrients and vitamins. The objective of our work is to exploit the supply route of vitamin B12 to deliver new derivatives of this vital vitamin to hyperproliferative cells. To date, radiolabeled ((57)Co and (111)In) vitamin B12 derivatives showed labeling of tumor tissue but also undesired high accumulation of radioactivity in normal tissue. By abolishing the interaction of a tailored vitamin B12 derivative to its transport protein transcobalamin II and therefore interrupting transcobalamin II receptor and megalin mediated uptake in normal tissue, preferential accumulation of a radiolabeled vitamin in cancer tissue could be accomplished. We identified transcobalamin I on tumors as a possible new receptor for this preferential accumulation of vitamin-mediated targeting. The low systemic distribution of radioactivity and the high tumor to blood ratio opens the possibility of a more successful clinical application of vitamin B12 for imaging or therapy.

  4. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  5. 维生素B12的保健作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    一、维生素B12的生理功能1提高叶酸利用率维生素B12与叶酸一起合成甲硫氨酸(由高半胱氨酸合成)和胆碱,在产生嘌呤和嘧啶的过程中合成甲基钴胺和辅酶B12,参与许多重要化合物的甲基化过程.维生素B12缺乏时,使叶酸变成不能利用的形式,导致叶酸缺乏症.

  6. 辅酶B12及其模型化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧兰

    1989-01-01

    辅酶B12,即5’-脱氧腺苷钴胺素,是一个天然存在的有机金属化合物。它与维生素B12,即氰钴胺素组成和结构相似,但生理功能不同,维生素B12是一种抗恶性贫血的药物,而辅酶B12在生物体内多种代谢过程中起着重要作用,其中研究得最多的是与分子内重排有关的酶反

  7. 维生素B12与老年痴呆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严段梅(译)

    2006-01-01

    美国营养学掌调查了马萨诸塞州一家族的后裔,从26岁到83岁的男女共5000人的难生素B12血浆冰平。结果表明,39%的人体内B12水平居于正常偏低,近25%的人维生素B12水平处于不足状态。研究者认为,在一般人中还有很多维生素B12缺乏的患者未被发现。

  8. 维生素B12与二甲双胍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪经平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 二甲双胍是治疗2型糖尿病最常用的一线药物.根据新英格兰杂志的最新研究:2型糖尿病患者长期使用二甲双胍会增加维生素B12缺乏的风险,换句话说,维生素B12随着用药时间较长而流失.众所周知,二甲双胍能引起维生素B12缺乏,这与叶酸浓度降低有关,最终导致同型半胱氨酸的水平升高,这是维生素B12和叶酸缺乏的标记.

  9. 素食者及老人应补充维生素B12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马因

    2005-01-01

    维生素B12对维持健康的神经细胞和血红细胞至关重要,缺乏维生素B12会导致很多疾病,轻者出现疲劳和轻微头晕,重则神经受损、贫血和痴呆。目前维生素B12缺乏现象比医生认为的更普遍,而那些最容易缺乏维生素B12的人群是素食者及老人们。

  10. 肝癌病人血浆叶酸和维生素B12水平变化及其意义%CHANGES OF BLOOD FOLIC ACID AND VITAMIN B12 LEVELS AND THEIR CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬芬; 陈晓光; 张娟; 张超英; 宋扬; 崔莲花

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肝癌病人血浆叶酸、维生素B12水平及其与临床特征的关系.方法 采用电化学发光免疫法检测312例肝癌病人和325例健康对照者血浆叶酸和维生素B12水平.结果 肝癌组叶酸水平显著低于对照组(F=77.56,q=8.87,P<0.05),且肝癌组叶酸缺乏者显著多于对照组(χ2=74.55,P<0.05);两组维生素B12水平比较差异无显著性(P>0.05),但肝癌组维生素B12缺乏者明显多于对照组(χ2=5.82,P<0.05).Ⅰ+Ⅱ期肝癌病人叶酸水平显著高于Ⅲ+Ⅳ期病人(F=4.09,q=2.08,P<0.05),而维生素B12水平显著低于Ⅲ+Ⅳ期病人(F=5.60,q=2.39,P<0.05).结论 血浆叶酸和维生素B12水平可能与肝癌进展有一定的关系.%Objective To study the correlation between the levels of plasma folic acid (FA), vitamin B12 and clinical features of liver cancer. Methods The levels of FA and vitamin B12 in plasma of 312 patients and 325 controls were measured by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLI). Results The levels of FA in cancer were significantly lower than the controls (F=77.56,q=8.87,P<0.05), and the number of cancer patients with deficiency of FA was more than the controls. The difference of vitamin B12 levels between the two groups was not significant (P>0.05), but the number with deficiency of vitamin B12 was greater in the cancer patients (x2 =5.82,P<0.05) ; the FA levels in stage Ⅰ + Ⅱ patients were dramatically higher than that in stage Ⅲ + Ⅳ patients (F=4.09,q=2.08,P<0.05), but the levels of vitamin B12 were lower (F= 5.60,q= 2.39,P<0.05).Conclusion The levels of plasma FA and vitamin B12 are likely to be associated with the progress of liver cancer.

  11. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development.

  12. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Regland; Sara Forsmark; Lena Halaouate; Michael Matousek; Birgitta Peilot; Olof Zachrisson; Carl-Gerhard Gottfries

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six m...

  13. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  14. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    S